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Practical Guide to Pressure Vessel Manufacturing

Sunil Pullarcot
FACT Engineering and Design Organisation Kerala, India

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MARCEL
D E K K E R

MARCEL DEKKER, INC.

NEW YORK • BASEL

Copyright © 2002 Marcel Dekker, Inc.

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ISBN: 0-8247-0740-0 This book is printed on acid-free paper. Headquarters Marcel Dekker, Inc. 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 tel: 212-696-9000; fax: 212-685-4540 Eastern Hemisphere Distribution Marcel Dekker AG Hutgasse 4, Postfach 812, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerland tel: 41-61-261-8482; fax: 41-61-261-8896 World Wide Web http:/ /www.dekker.com The publisher offers discounts on this book when ordered in bulk quantities. For more information, write to Special Sales/Professional Marketing at the headquarters address above. Copyright © 2002 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Current printing (last digit): 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

Copyright © 2002 Marcel Dekker, Inc.

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Preface

Twenty years ago, after completing my degree in mechanical engineering, I began my career in a pressure vessel fabrication company. Because I was a newcomer to the industry, I sought a reliable reference explaining fabrication and the corresponding procedures of quality assurance and control (QAC). I came across books such as Pressure Vessel Design Manual, by Dennis R. Moss, and Pressure Vessel Handbook, by Eugene F. Megyesy, but these were confined to aspects of design. The ASME code and the other national codes were the only documents available for reference. The ASME code provided all the expected specifications but failed to suggest the means of achieving compliance with such specifications—perhaps because it was intended for engi-

Copyright © 2002 Marcel Dekker, Inc.

neers with an insight into the underlying logic of the code. Thus, my efforts to understand the code led only to further confusion. This book summarizes my efforts, over 20 years, to bridge the gap between code specifications and the procedures necessary to comply with them. It can be considered a guide to and clarification of the ASME code—encompassing fabrication, inspection, testing, and documentation. Because the book offers wide coverage of fabrication (from organization setup to final testing and documentation), it also promotes uniformity in manufacturing, inspection, testing, and documentation. Chapters 1 through 10, which are based on my experience in QAC and heavy fabrication, are dedicated to practical aspects of fabrication, beginning with organizational requirements and leading up to the final documentation of the vessel. Chapters 11 to 16 describe procedures that are essential for conducting various inspections and tests. Chapter 17 addresses welding procedure specifications, the procedure qualification record, and welder qualification tests. Chapters 18 and 19 detail a typical quality plan and an inspection and test plan, which is also included in QAC documentation. Chapter 20 provides recommended tolerances for vessels; such tolerances, which vary only slightly between most consultants, are usually not given in the code. Chapter 21 consists of excerpts from ASME Section VIII Div(1) (1998 edition), which is frequently referred to during manufacture. Because the code is continually updated to incorporate the latest available data, users of this book are encouraged to refer to these sections from the latest editions of the code as they become available. The book is written based on the requirements of ASME Section VIII Div(1). Other sections of the ASME code, such as V and IX, are also referred to for the full coverage. Even though the book is based only on ASME codes, it could be extended to other codes for pressure vessels, because the relationship between fabrication and nondestructive testing (NDT) is the same regardless of the code used. I would like to acknowledge the assistance and cooperaCopyright © 2002 Marcel Dekker, Inc.

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tion I have received from the learned surveyors of Lloyd’s Register, ABS Industrial Verification, Det Norske Veritas, and Hartford Steam Boiler. The continued interaction I have had with these third-party inspection agencies has been a tremendous help in giving this book its present shape. Similarly, the technical and moral support extended to me by my colleagues at FACT Engineering and Design Organisation (FEDO) has played a vital role in my completion of this work.
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Sunil Pullarcot

Copyright © 2002 Marcel Dekker, Inc.

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Contents

Preface Part I Fabrication 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Introduction Organization Manufacture of Components Manufacture of Vessel Nondestructive Testing Pad Air and Preliminary Hydrostatic Testing

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Contents

7. Postweld Heat Treatment 8. Hydrostatic Testing 9. Post–Hydrostatic Test Cleaning 10. Documentation Part II Procedures
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153 159 169 173

11. Radiographic Testing Procedure for Pressure Vessels 12. Ultrasonic Testing for Pressure Vessels 13. Magnetic Particle Testing for Pressure Vessels 14. Liquid Penetrant Testing for Pressure Vessels 15. Furnace Postweld Heat Treatment for Pressure Vessels 16. Hydrostatic Testing of Pressure Vessels 17. Quality Assurance and Control in Welding 18. Quality Plan 19. Inspection and Test Plan 20. Standard Tolerances for Pressure Vessels 21. ASME Exhibits Index

187 209 237 249 257 265 271 291 297 301 305 343

Copyright © 2002 Marcel Dekker, Inc.