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Robert Brackley

1
Supervisors: Colin Bean
2
and Rhian Thomas
1
1 University of Glasgow, 2 Scottish Natural Heritage
Introduction
! In response to a growing need for renewable energy, the prevalence of small scale hydro-electric
generating schemes is burgeoning in the UK and Ireland.
! Small scale schemes are perceived as environmentally benign, but their impact on the natural
aquatic fauna is poorly understood.
! Migratory fish species may be at risk from loss of longitudinal connectivity because of the physical
and behavioural barriers introduced by hydropower abstractions. There is also a risk of direct damage
to animals during passage through hydropower infrastructure.
! Current work is focussed on understanding the impacts of small-scale schemes upon the migratory
behaviour of salmonids: the spawning migration of adult fish and the seaward migration of juveniles.
A project supported by the European Union's INTERREG IVA Programme managed by the Special EU Programmes Body
Aims and methods
! The broad aims of the project are:
• to examine the implications of flow regulation and hydropower site layout on fish passage, and
• to assess the risk posed to fish by a novel turbine type: the Archimedean screw turbine
! The movements of naturally migrating fish through hydropower systems are being monitored
using radio and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. Passage behaviour may then be related to
site layout and flow management.
! Potential damage to fish by Archimedean screw turbines will be assessed using surrogates and
naturally moving fish.
CralgpoL hydropower scheme, rlver uon, Aberdeenshlre
Lxample of Lwo conLrasung ñsh passage experlences
A1
A2
A3
A4
Specles Sex LengLh
(cm)
Mass
(kg)
1lme beLween ñrsL
and lasL deLecuon
(hh:mm:ss)
number of
vlslLs
Crossed Lhreshold lnLo
ouulow
sea LrouL unknown 433 0.98 01:46:34 4 unknown
sea LrouL unknown 310 1.34 00:02:04 1 no, buL moved ln and ouL
wlLhln Lhreshold Lwlce
salmon male 780 4.68 00:02:43 2 (wlLhln 20s) yes, Lwlce
salmon male 643 2.3 00:04:39 1 yes
salmon male 398 3.43 00:00:46 1 yes
salmon male 637 2.61 only one deLecuon 1 unknown
Summary of findings, and future plans
! Naturally migrating juvenile Atlantic salmon and sea trout have been recorded moving through an
Archimedean screw turbine using passive integrated transponder tags and pass-through antennas.
! Adult Atlantic salmon and sea trout have been shown to visit the outflow of the turbine during their
migration upstream: 6 fish spent between 46 seconds and 1 hour 46minutes between first and last
detection at the outflow.
! Further work will focus on relating the movements of fish to hydrodynamic conditions at the
hydropower scheme.
! Future efforts will attempt to establish whether passage through Archimedes screw turbines may
result in damage to downstream migrating juvenile and adult salmonids. Controlled passage trials will
be used to measure acute visible damage as well as less readily detectable indicators of sub-lethal
damage.
Þl1 deLecuons of adulL ñsh aL CralgpoL Lurblne ouulow
Þl1 Lags
8adlo Lags
The effects of small scale hydropower schemes upon
riverine fish
A1
!"#$%%&'( *+$ $,-%. %&/$ 0*,($0 "/ 1*%,'23 0,%4"' *" &45-"6$
3"'0$-6,2"' %&4&* $024,2"'0
Hannele Honkanen
University of Glasgow
Introduction
! Atlantic salmon has a long history of being the target of commercial and recreational fisheries and while Atlantic salmon as a species is far from
extinction due to the numbers of farmed salmon, the wild Atlantic salmon stocks throughout their range are declining with many populations now
extirpated (Parrish et al. 1998).

! Conservation limit (CL) defines “the level of spawning stock under which recruitment would begin to decline significantly” (Anon, 2011).

! Knowledge of the species biology and habitat requirements can be linked with habitat data to create a model that predicts the distribution of that
species. As salmonids have fairly strict habitat requirements, this can be used to estimate the relationship between the streamhabitat and salmonid
abundance (Armstrong et al. 2003).

!Loughs Agency monitors salmonid populations in the Foyle and Carlingford catchments in the border region of Ireland and Northern Ireland and uses
a model to estimate the sizes of salmon populations in the rivers. The model includes collected information on redd counts, electrofishing data on
juveniles, fish counters and habitat surveys, and is used to estimate river-specific conservation limits and management targets which formthe basis of the
fishery management in the area.
745-"6$# 8'#$-0*,'#&'( "/ *+$ +,9&*,* -$:8&-$4$'*0 "/ ;86$'&%$ 1*%,'23 0,%4"'
%$,#&'( *" , -$6&0$# +,9&*,* (-,#&'( 0.0*$4<
A project supported by the European Union's INTERREG IVA Programme managed by the Special EU Programmes Body
Summary
! In addition to the high fishing pressure at sea, additional reasons explaining the
declining Atlantic salmon numbers could be found in the freshwater habitat.

!Knowledge of the species biology and habitat requirements can be linked with
habitat data to create a model that predicts the distribution of that species.

!Electrofishing and habitat surveys were done on 72 sites in Northern Ireland with
the aimto study the relationship between habitat and juvenile salmon abundance.
Methods
!The sampling sites are chosen using the Lough Agency GIS
database. Sites are chosen based on the grade and
accessibility. Three catchments (Roe, Faughan and Camowen)
are sampled.

!At each site, an electrofishing survey is conducted. After
fishing, the fish are anaesthetised and then identified (salmon
or trout) and measured. After recovery, fish are returned back
to the river.

!After the electrofishing survey a habitat survey, which
measures the area fished, the flow conditions, depth,
substrate, cover (instream, bankside and canopy), vegetation
and bankside use, is done.
Aims
!Study if there is a relationship between habitat and juvenile
salmon abundance, and if so, establish which particular
habitat variables (and their potential interactions) are
important in creating optimal juvenile habitat.

!Create a revised habitat grading systemfor the Loughs
Agency, leading to improved conservation limits for their
salmon management program.

!Study the accuracy of the current Loughs Agency habitat
grading system.

!Study the role of suboptimal habitat for salmon productivity.
Results so far and future work
!Atotal of 72 sites were surveyed; 27 on Roe, 22 on Faughan and 23 on Camowen.
Overall 1983 fish (1605 salmon and 378 brown trout) were caught.

!Analysis of this data is still ongoing.

!In the coming months the model will be expanded with additional, long termdata sets
on Atlantic salmon life history and catch records. The overall aimof the project is to
build a comprehensive understanding of the ecology of the Foyle catchment salmon
and the factors that drive the population structure.

References: Parrish, D. L., Behnke, R. J., Gephard, S. R., McCormick, S. D., Reeves, G. H. 1998. Why aren’t there more Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 55: 281-287. || Anonymous. 2011. Loughs Agency Salmon Management
Strategy || Crozier, W. W., Potter, E. C. E., Prévost, E., Schön, P-J., Ó Maoiléidigh, N. (Editors). 2003. Acoordinated approach towards the development of a scientific basis for management of wild Atlantic salmon in the North-East Atlantic (SALMODEL). Queen’s University of
Belfast, Belfast. pp. 431. || Armstrong, J.D., Kemp, P.S., Kennedy, G.J.A., Ladle, M., Milner, N.J. 2003. Habitat requirements of Atlantic salmon and brown trout in rivers and streams. Fisheries Research, 62: 143-170.
Interactions between fisheries and wildfowl on Lough Foyle
Luke Murphy
Queen’s University Belfast
Introduction
! Lough Foyle is an important fishery for aquaculture, wild fisheries and recreational angling. It is also an important wildfowl
reserve for both migrating and native waterfowl.
! Lough Foyle is experiencing an increase in shore based aquaculture particularly on the southern shoreline.
! The Interactions between the fisheries and the wildfowl on Lough Foyle has not been assessed.
! Salmon fisheries on Lough Foyle are experiencing increasing levels of predation from cormorants.
! There has been a massive decline in the number of salmon returning to Lough Foyle and its tributaries.
! Assessment of the impact of cormorant predation could lead to improved cormorant management.
To critically assess the intertidal wildfowl populations on Lough Foyle and determine whether
shellfish fisheries and aquaculture operations are affecting these populations.

To study the effects of cormorant predation on Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts on Lough
Foyle and its tributaries.
A project supported by the European Union's INTERREG IVA Programme managed by the Special EU Programmes Body
Summary
! At the moment regulation and licencing of shellfish aquaculture
on Lough Foyle is a contentious subject and there are many
unlicensed aquaculture operations on the Foyle.
! The findings from this study will help with the regulation and
management practices of aquaculture for the Loughs Agency (The
aquaculture licencing authority on the Foyle).
! The study will produce a baseline population survey for the
wildfowl population of Lough Foyle
! The study will highlight an improved method for cormorant
management on salmon fisheries

Objectives
!To complete a habitat assessment for the intertidal zone of Lough
Foyle and establish a catalogue of various habitats found on Lough
Foyle and their locations.
!To survey the wildfowl population’s species, behaviours and numbers
on a selection of these habitats throughout the year.
!To assess whether the shellfish fisheries and aquaculture operations
are having an effect on the wildfowl population’s numbers, behaviours
and habitat.
!To link the data gathered on this project with similar IBIS studies being
conducted on Carlingford Lough and determine if any fisheries/
aquaculture interactions if any, are unique to Lough Foyle.
!To assess whether the findings will have implications for the regulation
and management practices of the shellfish fisheries and aquaculture
industries on Lough Foyle.
!To assess the impact of cormorant predation on Atlantic salmon
smolts.
!To track the movement of cormorants during the smolt run.
Assessing the Impact of Riverine barriers on the
Freshwater Migration of Atlantic Salmon
Matthew Newton
University of Glasgow
Introduction

! Salmon are a migratory fish and occupy different parts of a river during their life cycle
! As part of the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) all member states have to ensure that migratory fish can move within
rivers unimpeded by man-made barriers
! Barriers in rivers such as dams, weirs and culverts under roads can create barriers to fish migration by preventing free movement along
rivers and can have a considerable effect on fish populations
! While the effects of very large barriers are now well understood, the effects of relatively small-scale barriers on fish migration is very poorly
understood
! The number of these small-scale barriers in our rivers is considerable and understanding their impact on fish stocks is essential to meet
WFD targets
Summary

! European Union WFD targets require member states to
ensure rivers are free of barriers to fish migration
! The effects of small-scale barriers on fish riverine migration
is not well understood
! It is essential for fishery managers and policy makers to
understand the impacts of these barriers to effectively conserve
salmon stocks
! Ground breaking work undertaken in this project will unearth
previously unknown behaviour of adult salmon in response to
migration barriers
! Results from this project will provide insight into how adult
salmon negotiate small scale barriers and the effects these
barriers pose to populations
! Information gained through this study will develop
management strategies and inform policy to protect this rapidly
declining resource
Investigate how salmon use fish pass channels in large weir systems and the
effects of small-scale barriers in river systems to develop management options
for WFD targets.



























Project Outline

! Radio tag 132 Atlantic salmon
and use telemetry to monitor
individual behaviour
! Physical details (e.g. length &
weight) of individual fish will be
recorded to investigate if specific
characteristics are related with
barrier passage success.
!‘Listening zones’ will detect
fish at specific locations
enabling route selection
identification
!Flow modelling will identify
channel use and effect of
Attraction Channels














Extent of the problem

!Environment Agency estimates 25,000 obstructions present in England
and Wales.
!3,000 of the above cause a significant impact to migration and would
require mediation under WFD and Eel directives.
!Cost of £532 million to improve passage at these sites
Is it possible to provide true remediation despite not knowing the actual
behaviour of salmonids in response to small riverine barriers?














Radio Telemetry
Radio tags emit a coded
frequency which can be
detected through receiver
equipment on land
Tags are inserted oesophgally
into the fish. Salmon do not feed
in freshwater and so tag is
secure and does not effect fish
behaviour
Receiving equipment
allows fish to be
pinpointed within the
aquatic environment
!"#$%&'()* ,")-, )$ ./0#$)1#
2&13$4* ,315%$ 6%11%7)$8 ,&%*9)$8
8ebecca SLrlngwell 1*, Alexandra Lock 1, Charles SLuLchbury 1, !ohn 1aylor 2, ÞeLer Cough2 & Carlos Carcla de Leanlz 1

1 Swansea unlverslLy, 8loSclences (uk), 2 naLural 8esources Wales (uk) *393631[swansea.ac.uk
• SLocklng haLchery-reared ñsh
lnLo Lhe wlld ls a common
pracuce.
• ÞhenoLypes of haLchery
reared salmon can dlverge
greaLly ln capuvlLy añecung
posL-release survlval.
• 8ecapLures were examlned for a
number of LralLs ln comparlson Lo a
conLrol group reLalned ln haLchery
condluons LhroughouL.
















































































• 60,000 haLchery reared ALlanuc
salmon (!"#$% '"#"() fry were
sLocked equally lnLo four slLes
on Lhe 8lver 1añ, SouLh Wales.
• SlLes elecLroñshed 3 weeks and
8 weeks aûer sLocklng.
Landmarks used for morphologlcal measuremenLs
ln comparlson wlLh fry kepL ln
haLchery condluons, fry
recapLured ln Lhe wlld dlsplayed:

• SlgnlñcanLly lower growLh raLes
and slgnlñcanL dlñerences ln
body shape.
:)8; <; ÞhenoLyplc Lra[ecLorles of mean ô13C vs. ô13n of
conLrol ñsh and recapLured ñsh fromall slLes over ume.
:)8; =; ÞhenoLyplc Lra[ecLorles of mean ÞC1 versus mean
ÞC2 obLalned froma prlnclple componenL analysls
morphomeLrlc LralLs of conLrol ñsh and Lhe recapLured
ñsh fromall slLes.
:)8; >; 8elauve morLallLy of asymmeLrlcal ñsh overume ln
comparlson wlLh symmeLrlcal ñsh.
Cur resulLs lndlcaLe LhaL
haLchery-reared ALlanuc salmon
undergo slgnlñcanL phenoLyplc
shlûs ln Lhe wlld as early as
Lhree weeks followlng sLocklng,
mosL llkely as a resulL of
phenoLyplc plasuclLy and non-
random, selecuve morLallLy of
maladapLed phenoLypes.
?$&@%A/*4%$
B#&"%A,
leaLures examlned for ßucLuaung asymmeLry
(lA)
C#,/1&, D),*/,,)%$
?5(1)*34%$,
















• Cur ñndlng should be of
beneñL Lo salmon sLocklng
programmes.

• naLurallsed rearlng sysLems
LhaL produce ñsh wlLh more
naLural-looklng phenoLypes
should lncrease survlval.

• lA ls an eñecuve proxy for
developmenLal lnsLablllLy and lLs
use ln sLock assessmenL of
salmonlds ls recommended.
2*9$%71#A8#5#$&, E :/$A)$8
• Pow long does lL Lake for
haLchery ñsh Lo adapL Lo Lhe
naLural envlronmenL?
• lor how long do haLchery LralLs
perslsL ln Lhe wlld?
2)5,
• uepleLed SLable lsoLoplc
slgnaLure (SlS) & lower C:n
rauos.
• Lower lncldence of asymmeLrlc
lndlvlduals.
1hls work ls parL funded by Lhe
Luropean Soclal lund (LSl)
Lhrough Lhe Luropean unlon's
Convergence programme
admlnlsLered by Lhe Welsh
CovernmenL.
We are graLeful Lo Lhe naLural
8esources Wales Leamand ñeld
volunLeers for all Lhelr help wlLh Lhe
pro[ecL.
Scroll left < > right
to view
in full size
Robert Brackley
1
Supervisors: Colin Bean
2
and Rhian Thomas
1
1
University of Glasgow,
2
Scottish Natural Heritage
Introduction
! In response to a growing need for renewable energy, the prevalence of small scale hydro-electric
generating schemes is burgeoning in the UK and Ireland.
! Small scale schemes are perceived as environmentally benign, but their impact on the natural
aquatic fauna is poorly understood.
! Migratory fish species may be at risk from loss of longitudinal connectivity because of the physical
and behavioural barriers introduced by hydropower abstractions. There is also a risk of direct damage
to animals during passage through hydropower infrastructure.
! Current work is focussed on understanding the impacts of small-scale schemes upon the migratory
behaviour of salmonids: the spawning migration of adult fish and the seaward migration of juveniles.
A project supported by the European Union's INTERREG IVA Programme managed by the Special EU Programmes Body
Aims and methods
! The broad aims of the project are:
• to examine the implications of flow regulation and hydropower site layout on fish passage, and
• to assess the risk posed to fish by a novel turbine type: the Archimedean screw turbine
! The movements of naturally migrating fish through hydropower systems are being monitored
using radio and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. Passage behaviour may then be related to
site layout and flow management.
! Potential damage to fish by Archimedean screw turbines will be assessed using surrogates and
naturally moving fish.
CralgpoL hydropower scheme, rlver uon, Aberdeenshlre
Lxample of Lwo conLrasung ñsh passage experlences
A1
A2
A3
A4
Specles Sex
LengLh
(cm)
Mass
(kg)
1lme beLween ñrsL
and lasL deLecuon
(hh:mm:ss)
number of
vlslLs
Crossed Lhreshold lnLo
ouulow
sea LrouL unknown 433 0.98 01:46:34 4 unknown
sea LrouL unknown 310 1.34 00:02:04 1
no, buL moved ln and ouL
wlLhln Lhreshold Lwlce
salmon male 780 4.68 00:02:43 2 (wlLhln 20s) yes, Lwlce
salmon male 643 2.3 00:04:39 1 yes
salmon male 398 3.43 00:00:46 1 yes
salmon male 637 2.61 only one deLecuon 1 unknown
Summary of findings, and future plans
! Naturally migrating juvenile Atlantic salmon and sea trout have been recorded moving through an
Archimedean screw turbine using passive integrated transponder tags and pass-through antennas.
! Adult Atlantic salmon and sea trout have been shown to visit the outflow of the turbine during their
migration upstream: 6 fish spent between 46 seconds and 1 hour 46minutes between first and last
detection at the outflow.
! Further work will focus on relating the movements of fish to hydrodynamic conditions at the
hydropower scheme.
! Future efforts will attempt to establish whether passage through Archimedes screw turbines may
result in damage to downstream migrating juvenile and adult salmonids. Controlled passage trials will
be used to measure acute visible damage as well as less readily detectable indicators of sub-lethal
damage.
Þl1 deLecuons of adulL ñsh aL CralgpoL Lurblne ouulow
Þl1 Lags
8adlo Lags
The effects of small scale hydropower schemes upon
riverine fish
A1
!"#$%%&'( *+$ $,-%. %&/$ 0*,($0 "/ 1*%,'23 0,%4"' *" &45-"6$
3"'0$-6,2"' %&4&* $024,2"'0
Hannele Honkanen

University of Glasgow
Introduction
! Atlantic salmon has a long history of being the target of commercial and recreational fisheries and while Atlantic salmon as a species is far from
extinction due to the numbers of farmed salmon, the wild Atlantic salmon stocks throughout their range are declining with many populations now
extirpated (Parrish et al. 1998).

! Conservation limit (CL) defines “the level of spawning stock under which recruitment would begin to decline significantly” (Anon, 2011).

! Knowledge of the species biology and habitat requirements can be linked with habitat data to create a model that predicts the distribution of that
species. As salmonids have fairly strict habitat requirements, this can be used to estimate the relationship between the stream habitat and salmonid
abundance (Armstrong et al. 2003).

! Loughs Agency monitors salmonid populations in the Foyle and Carlingford catchments in the border region of Ireland and Northern Ireland and uses
a model to estimate the sizes of salmon populations in the rivers. The model includes collected information on redd counts, electrofishing data on
juveniles, fish counters and habitat surveys, and is used to estimate river-specific conservation limits and management targets which form the basis of the
fishery management in the area.
745-"6$# 8'#$-0*,'#&'( "/ *+$ +,9&*,* -$:8&-$4$'*0 "/ ;86$'&%$ 1*%,'23 0,%4"'
%$,#&'( *" , -$6&0$# +,9&*,* (-,#&'( 0.0*$4<
A project supported by the European Union's INTERREG IVA Programme managed by the Special EU Programmes Body
Summary
! In addition to the high fishing pressure at sea, additional reasons explaining the
declining Atlantic salmon numbers could be found in the freshwater habitat.

! Knowledge of the species biology and habitat requirements can be linked with
habitat data to create a model that predicts the distribution of that species.

! Electrofishing and habitat surveys were done on 72 sites in Northern Ireland with
the aim to study the relationship between habitat and juvenile salmon abundance.
Methods
! The sampling sites are chosen using the Lough Agency GIS
database. Sites are chosen based on the grade and
accessibility. Three catchments (Roe, Faughan and Camowen)
are sampled.

! At each site, an electrofishing survey is conducted. After
fishing, the fish are anaesthetised and then identified (salmon
or trout) and measured. After recovery, fish are returned back
to the river.

! After the electrofishing survey a habitat survey, which
measures the area fished, the flow conditions, depth,
substrate, cover (instream, bankside and canopy), vegetation
and bankside use, is done.
Aims
! Study if there is a relationship between habitat and juvenile
salmon abundance, and if so, establish which particular
habitat variables (and their potential interactions) are
important in creating optimal juvenile habitat.

! Create a revised habitat grading system for the Loughs
Agency, leading to improved conservation limits for their
salmon management program.

! Study the accuracy of the current Loughs Agency habitat
grading system.

! Study the role of suboptimal habitat for salmon productivity.
Results so far and future work
! A total of 72 sites were surveyed; 27 on Roe, 22 on Faughan and 23 on Camowen.
Overall 1983 fish (1605 salmon and 378 brown trout) were caught.

! Analysis of this data is still ongoing.

! In the coming months the model will be expanded with additional, long term data sets
on Atlantic salmon life history and catch records. The overall aim of the project is to
build a comprehensive understanding of the ecology of the Foyle catchment salmon
and the factors that drive the population structure.

References: Parrish, D. L., Behnke, R. J., Gephard, S. R., McCormick, S. D., Reeves, G. H. 1998. Why aren’t there more Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 55: 281-287. || Anonymous. 2011. Loughs Agency Salmon Management
Strategy || Crozier, W. W., Potter, E. C. E., Prévost, E., Schön, P-J., Ó Maoiléidigh, N. (Editors). 2003. Acoordinated approach towards the development of a scientific basis for management of wild Atlantic salmon in the North-East Atlantic (SALMODEL). Queen’s University of
Belfast, Belfast. pp. 431. || Armstrong, J.D., Kemp, P.S., Kennedy, G.J.A., Ladle, M., Milner, N.J. 2003. Habitat requirements of Atlantic salmon and brown trout in rivers and streams. Fisheries Research, 62: 143-170.
Interactions between fisheries and wildfowl on Lough Foyle
Luke Murphy
Queen’s University Belfast
Introduction
! Lough Foyle is an important fishery for aquaculture, wild fisheries and recreational angling. It is also an important wildfowl
reserve for both migrating and native waterfowl.
! Lough Foyle is experiencing an increase in shore based aquaculture particularly on the southern shoreline.
! The Interactions between the fisheries and the wildfowl on Lough Foyle has not been assessed.
! Salmon fisheries on Lough Foyle are experiencing increasing levels of predation from cormorants.
! There has been a massive decline in the number of salmon returning to Lough Foyle and its tributaries.
! Assessment of the impact of cormorant predation could lead to improved cormorant management.
To critically assess the intertidal wildfowl populations on Lough Foyle and determine whether
shellfish fisheries and aquaculture operations are affecting these populations.

To study the effects of cormorant predation on Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts on Lough
Foyle and its tributaries.
A project supported by the European Union's INTERREG IVA Programme managed by the Special EU Programmes Body
Summary
! At the moment regulation and licencing of shellfish aquaculture
on Lough Foyle is a contentious subject and there are many
unlicensed aquaculture operations on the Foyle.
! The findings from this study will help with the regulation and
management practices of aquaculture for the Loughs Agency (The
aquaculture licencing authority on the Foyle).
! The study will produce a baseline population survey for the
wildfowl population of Lough Foyle
! The study will highlight an improved method for cormorant
management on salmon fisheries

Objectives
! To complete a habitat assessment for the intertidal zone of Lough
Foyle and establish a catalogue of various habitats found on Lough
Foyle and their locations.
! To survey the wildfowl population’s species, behaviours and numbers
on a selection of these habitats throughout the year.
! To assess whether the shellfish fisheries and aquaculture operations
are having an effect on the wildfowl population’s numbers, behaviours
and habitat.
! To link the data gathered on this project with similar IBIS studies being
conducted on Carlingford Lough and determine if any fisheries/
aquaculture interactions if any, are unique to Lough Foyle.
! To assess whether the findings will have implications for the regulation
and management practices of the shellfish fisheries and aquaculture
industries on Lough Foyle.
! To assess the impact of cormorant predation on Atlantic salmon
smolts.
! To track the movement of cormorants during the smolt run.
Assessing the Impact of Riverine barriers on the
Freshwater Migration of Atlantic Salmon
Matthew Newton

University of Glasgow
Introduction

! Salmon are a migratory fish and occupy different parts of a river during their life cycle
! As part of the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) all member states have to ensure that migratory fish can move within
rivers unimpeded by man-made barriers
! Barriers in rivers such as dams, weirs and culverts under roads can create barriers to fish migration by preventing free movement along
rivers and can have a considerable effect on fish populations
! While the effects of very large barriers are now well understood, the effects of relatively small-scale barriers on fish migration is very poorly
understood
! The number of these small-scale barriers in our rivers is considerable and understanding their impact on fish stocks is essential to meet
WFD targets
Summary

! European Union WFD targets require member states to
ensure rivers are free of barriers to fish migration
! The effects of small-scale barriers on fish riverine migration
is not well understood
! It is essential for fishery managers and policy makers to
understand the impacts of these barriers to effectively conserve
salmon stocks
! Ground breaking work undertaken in this project will unearth
previously unknown behaviour of adult salmon in response to
migration barriers
! Results from this project will provide insight into how adult
salmon negotiate small scale barriers and the effects these
barriers pose to populations
! Information gained through this study will develop
management strategies and inform policy to protect this rapidly
declining resource
Investigate how salmon use fish pass channels in large weir systems and the
effects of small-scale barriers in river systems to develop management options
for WFD targets.



























Project Outline

! Radio tag 132 Atlantic salmon
and use telemetry to monitor
individual behaviour
! Physical details (e.g. length &
weight) of individual fish will be
recorded to investigate if specific
characteristics are related with
barrier passage success.
!‘Listening zones’ will detect
fish at specific locations
enabling route selection
identification
!Flow modelling will identify
channel use and effect of
Attraction Channels














Extent of the problem

!Environment Agency estimates 25,000 obstructions present in England
and Wales.
!3,000 of the above cause a significant impact to migration and would
require mediation under WFD and Eel directives.
!Cost of £532 million to improve passage at these sites
Is it possible to provide true remediation despite not knowing the actual
behaviour of salmonids in response to small riverine barriers?














Radio Telemetry
Radio tags emit a coded
frequency which can be
detected through receiver
equipment on land
Tags are inserted oesophgally
into the fish. Salmon do not feed
in freshwater and so tag is
secure and does not effect fish
behaviour
Receiving equipment
allows fish to be
pinpointed within the
aquatic environment
!"#$%&'()* ,")-, )$ ./0#$)1#
2&13$4* ,315%$ 6%11%7)$8 ,&%*9)$8
8ebecca SLrlngwell
1*
, Alexandra Lock
1
, Charles SLuLchbury
1
, !ohn 1aylor
2
, ÞeLer Cough
2
& Carlos Carcla de Leanlz
1


1
Swansea unlverslLy, 8loSclences (uk),
2
naLural 8esources Wales (uk)
*
393631[swansea.ac.uk
• SLocklng haLchery-reared ñsh
lnLo Lhe wlld ls a common
pracuce.
• ÞhenoLypes of haLchery
reared salmon can dlverge
greaLly ln capuvlLy añecung
posL-release survlval.
• 8ecapLures were examlned for a
number of LralLs ln comparlson Lo a
conLrol group reLalned ln haLchery
condluons LhroughouL.
















































































• 60,000 haLchery reared ALlanuc
salmon (!"#$% '"#"() fry were
sLocked equally lnLo four slLes
on Lhe 8lver 1añ, SouLh Wales.
• SlLes elecLroñshed 3 weeks and
8 weeks aûer sLocklng.
Landmarks used for morphologlcal measuremenLs
ln comparlson wlLh fry kepL ln
haLchery condluons, fry
recapLured ln Lhe wlld dlsplayed:

• SlgnlñcanLly lower growLh raLes
and slgnlñcanL dlñerences ln
body shape.
:)8; <; ÞhenoLyplc Lra[ecLorles of mean ô13C vs. ô13n of
conLrol ñsh and recapLured ñsh from all slLes over ume.
:)8; =; ÞhenoLyplc Lra[ecLorles of mean ÞC1 versus mean
ÞC2 obLalned from a prlnclple componenL analysls
morphomeLrlc LralLs of conLrol ñsh and Lhe recapLured
ñsh from all slLes.
:)8; >; 8elauve morLallLy of asymmeLrlcal ñsh overume ln
comparlson wlLh symmeLrlcal ñsh.
Cur resulLs lndlcaLe LhaL
haLchery-reared ALlanuc salmon
undergo slgnlñcanL phenoLyplc
shlûs ln Lhe wlld as early as
Lhree weeks followlng sLocklng,
mosL llkely as a resulL of
phenoLyplc plasuclLy and non-
random, selecuve morLallLy of
maladapLed phenoLypes.
?$&@%A/*4%$
B#&"%A,
leaLures examlned for ßucLuaung asymmeLry
(lA)
C#,/1&, D),*/,,)%$
?5(1)*34%$,
















• Cur ñndlng should be of
beneñL Lo salmon sLocklng
programmes.

• naLurallsed rearlng sysLems
LhaL produce ñsh wlLh more
naLural-looklng phenoLypes
should lncrease survlval.

• lA ls an eñecuve proxy for
developmenLal lnsLablllLy and lLs
use ln sLock assessmenL of
salmonlds ls recommended.
2*9$%71#A8#5#$&, E :/$A)$8
• Pow long does lL Lake for
haLchery ñsh Lo adapL Lo Lhe
naLural envlronmenL?
• lor how long do haLchery LralLs
perslsL ln Lhe wlld?
2)5,
• uepleLed SLable lsoLoplc
slgnaLure (SlS) & lower C:n
rauos.
• Lower lncldence of asymmeLrlc
lndlvlduals.
1hls work ls parL funded by Lhe
Luropean Soclal lund (LSl)
Lhrough Lhe Luropean unlon's
Convergence programme
admlnlsLered by Lhe Welsh
CovernmenL.
We are graLeful Lo Lhe naLural
8esources Wales Leam and ñeld
volunLeers for all Lhelr help wlLh Lhe
pro[ecL.