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# BE./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY/JUNE 2007.

Eighth Semester
Electronics and Communication Engineering
EC 047 — CELLULAR MOBILE COMMUNICATION
Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 marks
Answer ALL questions.

PART A — (10 >< 2 = 20 marks)

1. Why the cells are assumed to be hexagonal in shapes?

2. Why low data rates are used in paging systems?

3. What are soft and hard hand off?

4. A FDD cellular system has a total bandwidth of 50 MHZ. Assuming the forward
and reverse channel bandwidth of each equal to 50 kHz, determine the number of
available channels per cell if the system uses N = 4 (four cell runs).

5. What are the three basic propagation mechanisms? When do they occur?

6. Name the propagation models used for outdoor and also indicate the specific
situation foreach model.

7. What are the advantages of Diversity techniques?

8. What are Trellis code and Turbo codes?

What is near/far effect in wireless networks? PART B — (5 >< 16 = 80 marks) 11.03 Erlangs. (8) 12. (1) How many users per square kilometer this system will support? . Why do you use Walsh codes for modulation in CDMA? 10. (6) Or (b) (i) What is the need for frequency reuse? Explain the frequency reuse concept and show that N = i2 +ij + j2 where N is the number of cells per cluster. (16) Or (b) (i) What is Grade of Service? How are Erlang B formula and Erlang C formula used in cellular systems? (6) (ii) A hexagonal cell with four cell system has a radius of 2 km and a total of 50 channels are used in the system. (a) (i) Draw the block diagram of a cellular system and explain how a cellular telephone call is made between the landline and the mobile user and when the call is initiated by the landline customer. and lamda = 2 call/hour compute the following for Erlang C system by assuming 5% probability of delay with C = 15 and traffic intensity = 9.0 Erlangs. (8) (ii) Derive an expression for signal to interference ratio (S/I) for 7 cell cluster system.9. lf the load per user is 0. Draw suitable timing diagrams. (10) (ii) Explain briefly about 3 G CDMA techniques. (a) What are the different techniques used for increasing the capacity and improving the coverage in cellular system? Explain them.

Pr = PtGtGr (ht2 hr2/dt) . (16) Or (b) For a Two-Ray model derive the expression for the received power at a distance ‘d’ from a transmitter and show that. (a) Derive and explain the Free space propagation model to determine the received power at a distance ‘d’ and relate this power to Electric field.(2) What is the probability that a call will be delayed for more than 10 secs.? (10) 13.

four cell reuse ii. If blocking probability is 40% and assuming each subscriber generates 0.IV B. 20 v. 5 iii. (b) In a total 33MHz of BW allocated to a particular FDD system which uses two 25kHZ simplex channels to provide full duplex voice & control channels. of. . 10 iv. find the no.1 Erlangs traffic load. (a) Explain the terms GSM & GPRS. 1 ii. Use Erlang B model charts.Compute the no. [8+8] 2.channels are i. of. 12 cell reuse. Apr/May 2009 CELLULAR AND MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) For a cellular system. (b) Write notes on Digital cellular systems. seven cell reuse iii.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations. of channels available per cell if a system uses: i. subscribers if no. 100.

Determine a equitable distribution of control & Voice channels in each cell for each of three systems. Explain the designing of the directional antenna. (b) What are the antennas used at cellsite? Explain them. k=12 and k=7 with all suitable values explaining each of them. (b) What is the function of transcoder rate adoption unit in BSS? (c) What are the different kinds of downlink common channels? [6+4+6] . (a) Explain the significance of SIM in Mobile station. [16] 4. for k=4. [8+8] 6. (a) What type of messages are received to the set up channels when the mobile unit monitors strongest signal strength? (b) What are the advantages of Reuse-partition scheme? (c) What is channel sharing and channel borrowing? 7. (a) From the free space propagation model derive the equation for received power. consider a noise margin of 6dB. (b) Discuss Lee model of point to point propagation.1 MHz of allocated spectrum is dedicated to control channels. [8+8] 3. (a) What are the different types of handoffs? Explain how to implement them? (b) Define a dropped call rate and explain how it differ from blocked call? [10+6] 8. (a) What are the different synthesis of sum pattern? Explain them briefly. [6+10] 5.

(b) If the maximum no of calls per hour Qi in one cell be 5000 and an average calling time T be 1. (a) Explain the synthesis of difference patterns. If Qi is 30000. Apr/May 2009 CELLULAR AND MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (b) Explain different methods to reduce the cochannel interferences. Find the offered load. (b) Write the general formula of Lee Model and Explain the remarks. (a) Discuss in detail about small scale multipath propagation. Find the offered load compare this with no. The blocking probability is 2%.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations. of channels by using Erlang B model charts. [10+6] 5. [10+6] 3. (a) What is the difference between frequency selective fading & flat fadings. .B. (b) What are the major problems in AMPS system & how these are overcome in GSM system? [8+8] 2. (a) Explain how co-channel interference is measured in real time mobile radio transceivers. (a) Explain about the co-channel interference reduction factor and derive the general formula for C/I.76 min. [8+8] 4.

[4+6+6] 7. (b) What is the function of transcoder rate adoption unit in BSS? (c) What are the different kinds of downlink common channels? [6+4+6] .(b) Draw the setup for space diversity antennas used at cell site and explain how to design it. (a) Explain the significance of SIM in Mobile station. Explain the following terms: (a) Mobile Assisted Handoff (b) Soft Handoff (c) Delaying Handoff (d) Cellsite Handoff [4×4=16] 8. [8+8] 6. (a) What is the function of frequency management? (b) Explain how the 666 channels are divided into groups? (c) Write notes on setup channels.

(a) What is Near-end-far-end interference ratio and explain its effect. [8+8] . [8+8] 4. elevation angle. (b) Explain the relation between the received power & the range of subsystem in detail.IV B. (b) Write notes on channel combiners.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations. [10+6] 3. Assume that 60% of the car phones will be used during this period and that one call is made per car phone. (a) Differentiate the analog & digital cellular systems with their operating capacities.1500. [8+8] 2. of calls per hour Qi for each 10 cells is 2000. 1200. ground reflection and reflection point with respect to signal coverage. (a) Mention the two frequency reuse schemes and explain N-Cell reuse pattern in detail for four & seven cell reuse with illustrative diagrams. (b) Briefly explain about multiple knife edge diffraction. (a) Explain ground incident angle. Find the no. 800. 1800. 3000. 3200. 500. (b) During a busy hour the no. 2600. 1000. Apr/May 2009 CELLULAR AND MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. of customers in the system.

Explain the following terms of CDMA Digital Cellular Systems: (a) Active set (b) Long code (c) Multiple sub-layer (d) Paging channel. [8+8] 6. (a) Explain how the handoffs implemented based on signal strength? (b) How the dropped call rate is related to the capacity and voice quality. [4×4=16] . BCA and FBCA. (c) What are the different factors that limit the size of splitting cells? [6+4+6] 8. [8+8] 7. (a) Draw the symmetrical difference pattern and compare it with symmetrical sum pattern. (a) What are the different techniques for increasing frequency spectrum? (b) Compare the average blocking in spatially uniform and nonuniform traffic distribution for FCA. (b) Draw the cell site antenna for omni cells for 45 and 90 channels and explain them.5.

(b) In a total 33MHz of BW allocated to a particular FDD system which uses two 25kHZ simplex channels to provide full duplex voice & control channels. 1 ii. 10 iv. If blocking probability is 40% and assuming each subscriber generates 0. 5 iii. Use Erlang B model charts. (a) For a cellular system. (a) Discuss analog cellular system (AMPS) in detail.1 Erlangs traffic load. (b) Discuss the special features in AMPS and compare them with Digital cellular systems.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations. of. subscribers if no. of channels available per cell if a system uses: i. 20 v. [8+8] 2.IV B. find the no. of.Compute the no. Apr/May 2009 CELLULAR AND MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. 100.channels are i. four cell reuse .

(a) Write the equation of general pattern for a 2N elements array equi-spaced by a separation ‘d’. RECC. (a) Explain the various logical GSM channels. (b) Explain mobile propagation through obstructive path. seven cell reuse iii. (b) Explain the different types of Noncochannel interference. (b) Differentiate between Roof-mounted and glass-mounted antennas. 12 cell reuse. (a) Determine the phase difference between direct path and reflected path. [8+8] 3.ii. [8+8] 5. . [8+8] 7. (a) Write notes on power control and diversity receiver. (a) Explain the following operational functions of access channels: i. (c) What are the advantage of using umbrella pattern antennas at cell site?[4+6+6] 6. (a) Explain how to calculate the number of handoffs per call? (b) What are the circumstances where handoffs are necessary but cannot be made? (c) Explain how a handoff is initiated? [6+6+4] 8. Determine a equitable distribution of control & Voice channels in each cell for each of three systems. (b) Write the channel sharing algorithm. 1 MHz of allocated spectrum is dedicated to control channels. FOCC ii. [10+6] 4.

i) Define rayleigh fading. e) Define cluster. b) What factors limit the maximum and minimum size of cells? c) What is the function of duplexer in a cell phone? d) What is meant by the term air interface in a cellular system .(b) Explain the SSD update message flow from Base Station to Mobile Station and vice versa. f) State the different types of handoff.Tech. Section – A Q1) a) Explain why FM is better than AM for cellular radio inspite of its wider bandwidth. g) What is sectoring. 2) Attempt any Four questions from Section – B. 3) Attempt any Two questions from Section –C.(Sem-6th ) CELLULAR & MOBILE COMMUNICATION (DE-1. [8+8] Paper ID[DE011] B.1) Time:03 Hours Maximum Marks:60 Instructuions to Candidates: 1) Section-A is Compulsory. h) What is meant by coherence bandwidth? Give the expression. . j) State the operations performed by control channel.

(b) Describe the polarization diversity. . Q3) Explain the different techniques of improving coverage and capacity in cellular system. Q8) (a) Derive the improvement offered by selection diversity combining. Section-C Q7) Describe the impulse response for the multipath radio channel. Q4) Explain in detail about trunking and grade of service. Q5) What is multipath propagation and what are its effects? List the factors that influence small scale fading. Q9) Write a detailed technical note on 3G systems.Section –B Q2) Discuss the history of 800 MHz spectrum allocation to cellular systems. Q6) Discuss the characteristics of cell site antennas.