You are on page 1of 42

1

G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
A. SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
7.1 DISTANCE FORMULA
7
1. In the rectangular coordinate system, two
number lines are drawn at right angles to each
other.
The point of intersection of these two
number lines is called the origin whose
coordinates are taken as (0, 0). The horizontal
number line is known as the x-axis and the
vertical one as the y-axis.
2. In the ordered pair (p, q), p is called the
x-coordinate or abscissa and q is known as
y-coordinate or ordinate of the point.
3. The coordinate plane is divided into four
quadrants.
4. For a given point, the abscissa and
ordinate are the distances of the given point from
y-axis and x-axis respectively.
The abscissa of a point is its perpendicular
distance from y-axis.
The ordinate of a point is its perpendicular
distance from x-axis.
5. The abscissa of every point situated on the
right side of y-axis is positive and the abscissa of
every point situated on the left side of y-axis is
negative.
6. The ordinate of every point situated above
x-axis is positive and that of every point below
x-axis is negative.
7. The abscissa of every point on y-axis is zero.
8. The ordinate of every point on x-axis is zero.
9. The distance between any two points
P(x
1
, y
1
) and Q (x
2
, y
2
) is given by
PQ =
( ) ( )
2 2
2 1 2 1
– + – x x y y
or PQ =
( ) ( )
2 2
1 2 1 2
– + – x x y y
 PQ =
( )
( )
2
2
Difference of abscissae
+ Difference of ordinates
10. If O(0, 0) is the origin and P(x, y) is any
point, then from the above formula, we have :
OP =
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
– 0 + – 0 = + x y x y
11. Three points are said to be collinear if
they are on the same straight line.
12. For three points to be collinear, the sum of
the distances between two pairs of points is equal
to the distance between the third pair of points.
TEXTBOOK’S EXERCISE 7.1
Q.1. Find the distance between the following
pairs of points :
(i) (2, 3), (4, 1) (ii) (–5, 7), (–1, 3)
(iii) (a, b), (–a, –b)
Sol. We know that distance between two points
(x
1
, y
1
) and (x
2
, y
2
)
= ( ) ( )
2 2
2 1 2 1
– + – x x y y
(i) Distance between the points (2, 3) and (4, 1)
Question Bank In Mathematics Class X (Term–II)
2
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
= ( ) ( )
2 2
4 – 2 + 1– 3 = 4 + 4 = 8 = 2 2
(ii) Distance between the points (–5, 7) and
(–1, 3)
= ( ) { } ( ) { }
2 2
–1 – –5 + 3 – 7
=
16 +16 = 32 = 4 2
(iii) Distance between the points (a, b) and
(–a, –b)
= ( ) ( )
2 2
– – + – – a a b b =
( ) ( )
2 2
–2 + –2 a b
=
2 2
4 + 4 a b
= ( )
2 2 2 2
4 + = 2 + a b a b
Q.2. Find the distance between the points
(0, 0) and (36, 15). [Imp.]
Sol. The given points are (0, 0) and (36, 15)
Distance =
( ) ( )
2 2
36 – 0 + 15 – 0
[Using distance formula]
=
( ) ( )
2 2
36 + 15
=
1296 + 225
=
1521 = 3 × 3 × 13 × 13
= 39
Q.3. Determine if the points (1, 5), (2, 3) and
(–2, –11) are collinear. [Imp.]
Sol. The given points are A(1, 5), B(2, 3),
C(–2, –11)
We know that, distance between two points
d = ( ) ( )
2 2
2 1 2 1
– + – x x y y
AB =
( ) ( )
2 2
2 –1 + 3 – 5
=
1+ 4 = 5
… (i)
BC =
( ) ( )
2 2
–2 – 2 + –11– 3
=
( ) ( )
2 2
– 4 + –14
=
16 +196
=
212
… (ii)
CA =
{ } { }
2 2
1– (–2) + 5 – (–11)
=
2 2
(3) + (16)
=
9 + 256
=
265
… (iii)
From equation (i), equation (ii) and equation (iii),
We have
AB + BC = CA
BC + CA = AB
CA + AB = BC
Hence, the given points are not collinear.
Q.4. Check whether (5, –2), (6, 4) and
(7, –2) are the vertices of an isosceles triangle.
Sol. The given points are A(5, –2), B(6, 4) and
C(7, –2)
We know that, distance between two points
d =
( ) ( )
2 2
2 1 2 1
– + – x x y y
AB =
( ) ( ) { }
2 2
6 – 5 + 4 – –2
=
( ) ( )
2 2
1 + 6 = 1 + 36
=
37
... (i)
BC =
( ) ( )
2 2
7 – 6 + –2 – 4
=
( ) ( )
2 2
1 + –6
=
1 + 36
=
37
… (ii)
From equation (i) and equation (ii), AB = BC
Hence, given points are the vertices of an
isosceles triangle.
Q.5. In a classroom, 4 friends are seated at
the points A, B, C and D as shown in figure.
Champa and Chameli walk into the class and
after observing for a few minutes Champa asks
Chameli,
‘Don't you think ABCD is a square?’’
Chameli disagrees. Using distance formula, find
which of them is correct.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
A
Rows
Columns
B
C
D
Sol. From the figure, the coordinates of
points are A(3, 4), B(6, 7), C(9, 4) and D(6, 1)
respectively.
We know that distance between two points (x
1
, y
1
)
and (x
2
, y
2
)
=
( ) ( )
2 2
2 1 2 1
– + – x x y y
AB =
( ) ( )
2 2
6 – 3 + 7 – 4
=
( ) ( )
2 2
3 + 3
=
9 + 9 = 18 = 3 2
… (i)
3
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
BC =
( ) ( )
2 2
9 – 6 + 4 – 7
=
( ) ( )
2 2
3 + –3
=
9 +9 = 18 = 3 2
… (ii)
CD =
( ) ( )
2 2
6 – 9 + 1– 4
=
( ) ( )
2 2
–3 + –3
=
9 +9 = 18 = 3 2
… (iii)
DA =
( ) ( )
2 2
3 – 6 + 4 –1
=
( ) ( )
2 2
–3 + 3
=
9 +9 = 18 = 3 2
… (iv)
AC =
( ) ( )
2 2
9 – 3 + 4 – 4 = 6
… (v)
BD =
( ) ( )
2 2
6 – 6 + 1– 7 = 6
… (vi)
From equations (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv), we have
AB = BC = CD = DA i.e., all the four sides are
equal
Also, from (v) and (vi), we have AC = BD
i.e., the diagonals are equal
ABCD is a square.
Hence, Champa is correct
Q.6. Name the type of quadrilateral formed,
if any, by the following points, and give reasons
for your answer :
(i) (–1, –2), (1, 0), (–1, 2), (–3, 0)
(ii) (–3, 5), (3, 1), (0, 3), (–1, – 4)
(iii) (4, 5), (7, 6), (4, 3), (1, 2)
Sol. We know that distance between two points
(x
1
, y
1
) and (x
2
, y
2
)
=
( ) ( )
2 2
2 1 2 1
– + – x x y y
(i) The given points are A(–1, –2), B(1, 0),
C(–1, 2), D(–3, 0)
AB =
( ) { } ( ) { }
2 2
1– –1 + 0 – –2
=
( ) ( )
2 2
2 + 2
=
4 + 4 = 8 = 2 2
… (1)
BC =
( ) ( )
2 2
–1–1 + 2 – 0
=
( ) ( )
2 2
–2 + 2
=
4 + 4
=
8 = 2 2
… (2)
CD =
( ) { } { }
2 2
–1– – 3 + 2 – 0
=
{ } { }
2 2
–1+3 + 2
=
( ) ( )
2 2
2 + 2
=
4 + 4 = 8 = 2 2
… (3)
AD =
( ) { } ( ) { }
2 2
–3 – –1 + 0 – –2
=
( ) ( )
2 2
–3 +1 + 2
=
( ) ( )
2 2
–2 + 2
=
4 + 4 = 8 = 2 2
… (4)
AC =
( ) { } ( ) { }
2 2
–1– –1 + 2 – –2
=
( ) ( )
2 2
–1+1 + 4 = 16 = 4
… (5)
BD =
( ) { } ( )
2 2
1 – –3 + 0 – 0
=
( )
2
4 = 16 = 4
… (6)
From equation (1), (2), (3), (4), (5) and (6), all
sides of the quadrilateral ABCD are equal and
diagonals AC and BD are equal. Hence, quadrilateral
ABCD is a square.
(ii) The given points are A(–3, 5), B(3, 1),
C(0, 3), D(–1, – 4)
AB =
( ) ( )
2 2
3 +3 + 1– 5 = 36 + 16
=
52 = 2 13
… (1)
BC =
( ) ( )
2 2
0 – 3 + 3 –1
=
9 +4 = 13
… (2)
CD =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
0 +1 + 3 + 4 = 1 + 7
=
1+ 49 = 50 = 5 2
… (3)
DA =
( ) { } ( )
2 2
–1– –3 + – 4 – 5
=
( ) ( )
2 2
–1+3 + –9
=
( ) ( )
2 2
2 + –9
=
4 + 81 = 85
… (4)
AC =
( ) { } { }
2 2
0 – –3 + 3 – 5
=
( ) ( )
2 2
3 + –2 = 9 + 4 = 13
… (5)
DB
( ) ( )
2 2
3 1 1 4 = + + +
16 25 41 = + =
…(6)
From equation (1), (2), (3), (4), (5) and (6) we see
that BC + AC = AB
¬ A, B, C are collinear.
4
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
So, it is not possible to draw AABC.
Hence, ABCD does not form any quadrilateral.
(iii) Given points are A(4, 5), B(7, 6), C(4, 3),
D(1, 2)
AB =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
7 – 4 + 6 – 5 = 3 + 1
=
9 + 1 = 10
… (1)
BC =
( ) ( )
2 2
4 – 7 + 3 – 6
=
( ) ( )
2 2
–3 + –3
=
9 + 9
=
18 = 3 2
… (2)
CD =
( ) ( )
2 2
1– 4 + 2 – 3
=
( ) ( )
2 2
–3 + –1
=
9 + 1 = 10
… (3)
DA =
( ) ( )
2 2
1– 4 + 2 – 5 = 9 + 9
=
18 = 3 2
… (4)
Thus from equation (1), (2), (3) and (4). It is clear
that opposite sides are equal.
Hence, ABCD is a parallelogram.
Q.7. Find the point on the x-axis which is
equidistant from (2, –5) and (–2, 9).
Sol. We know that a point on the x-axis is of the
form (x, 0), where y coordinate is always zero. Let
point P(x, 0) be equidistant fromA(2, –5) and B(–2, 9).
Thus PA = PB
We know, d
2
= (x
2
– x
1
)
2
+ (y
2
– y
1
)
2
¬ PA
2
= PB
2
¬ (2 – x)
2
+ (–5 – 0)
2
= (–2 – x)
2
+ (9 – 0)
2
¬ 4 + x
2
– 4x + 25 = 4 + x
2
+ 4x + 81
¬ –8x = 81 – 25, ¬ –8x = 56
¬ x =
56
–8
= –7
Hence, the required point is (–7, 0).
Q.8. Find the values of y for which the
distance between the points P(2, –3) and Q(10, y)
is 10 units. [Imp.]
Sol. We have, PQ = 10 [Given]
PQ
2
= 10
2
= 100 [Squaring both sides]
¬ (10 – 2)
2
+ {y – (–3)}
2
= 100
[Distance, d = ( ) ( )
2 2
2 1 2 1
– + – x x y y
]
¬ (8)
2
+ (y + 3)
2
= 100
¬ 64 + y
2
+ 6y + 9 = 100
¬ y
2
+ 6y – 27 = 0
¬ y
2
+ 9y – 3y – 27 = 0
¬ y(y + 9) – 3(y + 9) = 0
¬ (y + 9) (y – 3) = 0 ¬ y = – 9 or y = 3
Hence, the required value of y is –9 or 3.
Q.9. If Q(0, 1) is equidistant from P(5, –3)
and R(x, 6), find the value of x. Also find the
distances QR and PR. [V. Imp.]
Sol. Given points are Q(0, 1), P(5, –3) and R(x, 6).
PQ = QR
¬
( ) ( )
2 2
5 – 0 + –3 –1
=
( ) ( )
2 2
– 0 + 6 –1 x
¬
( ) ( )
2 2
2
25+ – 4 = + 5 x
¬ 25 + 16 = x
2
+ 25
¬ x
2
= 16 ¬ x = ± 4
Thus, coordinates of point R are (±4, 6)
QR =
( ) ( )
2 2
0 ± 4 + 1– 6
=
16 + 25 = 41
If x = – 4,
PR =
( ) ( ) { }
2 2
– 4 – 5 + 6 – –3
=
81+81 = 9 2
If x = 4,
PR =
( ) ( ) { }
2 2
4 – 5 + 6 – –3 = 1+81 = 82
Q.10. Find a relation between x and y such
that the point (x, y) is equidistant from the points
(3, 6) and (–3, 4). [HOTS]
Sol. Let the point P(x, y) is equidistant from the
points A(3, 6) and B(–3, 4)
As per condition, PA = PB
¬ PA
2
= PB
2
¬ (3 – x)
2
+ (6 – y)
2
= (–3 – x)
2
+ (4 – y)
2
¬ 9 + x
2
– 6x + 36 + y
2
– 12y = 9 + x
2
+ 6x
+ 16 + y
2
– 8y
¬ x
2
+ y
2
– 6x – 12y + 45 = x
2
+ y
2
+ 6x
– 8y + 25
¬ –12x – 4y + 20 = 0 ¬ 12x + 4y – 20 = 0
¬ 3x + y – 5 = 0
Hence, relation between x and y is 3x + y – 5 = 0.
5
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS
Q.1. If the distance between the points
(2, –2) and (–1, x) is 5, one of the values of x is :
(a) (9, –2) (b) 2 (c) –1 (d) 1
Sol. (b) We have 5 = ( ) ( )
2 2
2 +1 + –2 – x
¬ 25 = 9 + 4 + x
2
+ 4x ¬ x
2
+ 4x – 12 = 0
¬ x
2
+ 6x – 2x – 12 = 0
¬ x(x + 6) – 2(x + 6) = 0
¬ (x + 6) (x – 2) = 0 ¬ x = 2, or x = – 6
Q.2. The distance of the point P(2, 3) from
the x-axis is :
(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 1 (d) 5
Sol. (b) The distance of P(2, 3) from x-axis is its
y-coordinate i.e., 3.
Q.3. The distance of the point P(– 6, 8) from
the origin is :
(a) 8 (b) 2 7 (c) 10 (d) 6
Sol. (c) Required distance
=
( ) ( )
2 2
0 + 6 + 0 – 8
=
36 + 64
units = 10 units.
Q.4. The points A(0, –2), B(3, 1), C(0, 4) and
D(–3, 1) are the vertices of a :
(a) parallelogram (b) rectangle
(c) square (d) rhombus
Sol. (c) AB =
( ) ( )
2 2
0 – 3 + –2 –1
=
18 = 3 2
units
BC =
( ) ( )
2 2
3 – 0 + 1– 4
=
18 = 3 2
units
CD =
( ) ( )
2 2
0 +3 + 4 –1
=
18 = 3 2
units
DA =
( ) ( )
2 2
0 +3 + –2 –1
=
18 = 3 2
units
Diagonal AC =
( ) ( )
2 2
0 – 0 + –2 – 4
36 6 = = units
Diagonal BD =
( ) ( )
2 2
3+3 + 1–1
=
36 = 6
units
Hence, the given points are verticles of a square.
Q.5. The distance between the points P(0, y)
and Q(x, 0) is given by :
(a) x
2
+ y
2
(b)
2 2
x y ÷
(c)
2 2
x y + (d) xy
Sol. (c) Required distance
= ( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
0 – + – 0 = + x y x y
Q.6. AOBC is a rectangle whose three
vertices are A(0, 3), O(0, 0), B(5, 0). The length
of its diagonal is :
(a) 5 (b) 3 (c)
34
(d) 4
Sol. (c) Diagonal AB =
( ) ( )
2 2
0 – 5 + 3 – 0
=
25 + 9 = 34
Q.7. The distance between the points (cos u,
sin u) and (sin u, – cos u) is :
(a) 3 (b) 2 (c) 2 (d) 1
Sol. (b) Required distance
= ( ) ( )
2 2
cos – sin + sin + cos θ θ θ θ
= ( )
2 2
2 sin + cos = 2×1 = 2 θ θ
Q.8. The distance between the points (a cos u
+ b sin u, 0) and (0, a sin u – b cos u) is :
(a) a
2
+ b
2
(b) a + b
(c) a
2
– b
2
(d) a b
2 2
+
Sol. (d) Required distance
=
( )
( )
2
2
cos + sin – 0
+ 0 – sin + cos
a b
a b
θ θ
θ θ
=
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
cos + sin
+ 2 sin cos
+ sin + cos
– 2 sin cos
a b
ab
a b
ab
¸ _
θ θ

θ θ


θ θ

θ θ ¸ ,
=
2 2
+ a b
6
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
Q.9. Find the distance between the points :
(a) P(– 6, 7) and Q(–1, –5)
(b) R(a + b, a – b) and S(a – b, – a – b)
[Imp.]
(c) A(
2
1
at , 2at
1
) and B(
2
2
at , 2at
2
) [Imp.]
(d) P(– 4, 7) and Q(2, – 5)
(e) A(7, 13) and B(10, 9)
Sol. (a) Here, x
1
= –6, y
1
= 7 and x
2
= –1,
y
2
= –5
PQ =
( ) ( )
2 2
2 1 2 1
– + – x x y y
¬ PQ =
( ) ( )
2 2
–1+ 6 + – 5 – 7
=
25 + 144 = 169
= 13
(b) Here, x
1
= a + b, y
1
= a – b, x
2
= a – b,
y
2
= – a – b
RS =
( ) ( )
2 2
– – – + – – + a b a b – a b a b
RS =
2 2 2 2
4 + 4 = 2 + b a a b
(c) Here x
1
=
2
1
at , y
1
= 2at
1
, x
2
=
2
2
at , y
2
= 2at
2
AB =
( ) ( )
2
2
2 2
2 1 2 1
– + 2 – 2 at at at at
¬ AB =
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2
2 1 2 1 2 1
– + + 4 – a t t t t a t t
¬ AB =
( ) ( )
2
2 1 2 1
– + + 4 a t t t t
(d) Here x
1
= – 4, y
1
= 7, x
2
= 2, y
2
= –5
PQ =
( ) { } ( ) }
2 2
2 – –4 + – 5 – 7
=
( )
2
2
6 + – 12 = 36 + 144
=
180 = 36×5 = 6 5
(e) Here x
1
= 7, y
1
= 13, x
2
= 10, y
2
= 9
AB =
( ) ( )
2 2
10 – 7 + 9 –13
=
( )
2
2
3 + –4 = 9 + 16 = 25
Q.10. Find the distance between the points
(a cos 35°,0) and (0, a cos 55°) [2011 (T-II)]
Sol. The given points are A(a cos 35°, 0) and
B(0, a cos 55°)
AB =
2 2
(0 cos 35 ) ( cos 55 0) a a − ° + ° −
=
° + °
2 2 2
(cos 35 cos 55 ) a
¬
° + °
2 2 2
(cos 35 sin 35 ) a
[ cos 55° = cos(90 – 35)° = sin 35°]
=
=
2 2
.1 a a
= a
Q.11. Find the value of k for which distance
between (9, 2) and (3, k) is 10 units. [2011 (T-II)]
Sol. The given points are A(9, 2) and B(3, k)
 AB = ÷ + ÷
2 2
2 1 2 1
( ) ( ) x x y y
 10 =
2 2
(3 9) ( 2) k − + −
 10 =
+ + ÷
2 2
36 2 4 k k
 100 = 40 + k
2
– 4k  k
2
– 4k – 60 = 0
 k
2
– 10k + 6k – 60 = 0
 k(k – 10) + 6(k – 10) = 0
 k – 10 = 0 or k + 6 = 0  k = 10 or k = –6
Hence, values of k are 10 or –6.
Q.12. Find the points on the y axis, each of
which is at a distance of 13 units from the point
(–5, 7).
Sol. Let A(–5, 7) be the given point and let
P(0, y) be the required point on the y-axis.
Then, PA = 13 units ¬ PA
2
= 169
¬ (0 + 5)
2
+ (y – 7)
2
= 169
¬ y
2
– 14y + 74 = 169
¬ y
2
– 14y – 95 = 0 ¬ (y – 19) (y + 5) = 0
¬ y – 19 = 0 or y + 5 = 0
¬ y = 19 or y = –5
Hence, the required points are (0, 19) and (0, – 5)
Q.13. If A(6, – 1), B(1, 3) and C(k, 8) are
three points such that AB = BC, find the value of
k. [2005]
Sol. AB = BC
¬
( ) ( )
2 2
1– 6 + 3 +1
=
( ) ( )
2 2
–1 + 8 – 3 k
¬
( ) ( )
2 2
–5 + 4
= ( )
( )
2
2
– 2 +1 + 5 k k
7
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
¬ ( )
2
25 + 16 = – 2 +1 + 25 k k
¬ 41 = k
2
– 2k + 26 ¬ k
2
– 2k – 15 = 0
¬ (k – 5) (k + 3) = 0 ¬ k = 5 or k = – 3.
Q.14. Show that the points (a, a), (– a, – a)
and
( )
– 3 , 3 a a are the vertices of an
equilateral triangle. Also find its area.
[2011 (T-II)]
Sol. Let A(a, a), B(–a, –a) and C
( )
– 3 , 3 a a
be the given points. Then, we have
AB =
( ) ( )
2 2
– – + – – a a a a
=
2 2
4 + 4 = 2 2 a a a
BC =
( ) ( )
2 2
– 3 + + 3 + a a a a
=
( ) ( )
2 2
1– 3 + 1 + 3 a
=
1+3 – 2 3 +1+ 3+ 2 3 a
=
8 = 2 2 a a
and AC =
( ) ( )
2 2
– 3 – + 3 – a a a a
=
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
3 +1 + 3 –1 a a
=
( ) ( )
2 2
3 +1 + 3 –1 a
=
3 +1+ 2 3 + 3 + 1 – 2 3 a
=
8 = 2 2 a a
Clearly, we have AB = BC = AC. Hence, the
triangle ABC is an equilateral triangle. Proved.
Now, area of triangle ABC =
3
4
(side)
2
2
3
area of an equilateral triangle = (side)
4
1
1
¸ ]

¬ Area of triangle ABC =
3
4
× AB
2
=
3
4
×
( )
2
2
2 2 = 2 3 a a sq. units.
Q.15. Determine if the points (1, 5), (2, 3)
and (–2, –11) are collinear. [2006]
Sol. Let A(1, 5), B(2, 3) and C(–2, –11) be the
three given points. Then, we have
AB =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 –1 + 3 – 5 = 1 + –2
=
1 + 4 = 5
BC =
( ) ( )
2 2
–2 – 2 + –11– 3
=
( ) ( )
2 2
–4 + –14
=
16 +196 = 212
AC =
( ) ( )
2 2
–2 –1 + –11– 5
=
( ) ( )
2 2
–3 + –16 = 265
AB + BC = 5 + 212
As AB + BC = AC, hence, these points are not
collinear.
Q.16. Which point on x-axis is equidistant
from (7, 6) and (–3, 4)? [2011 (T-II)]
Sol. We know that a point on x-axis is of the form
(x, 0). So, let P(x, 0) be the point equidistant from
A(7, 6) and B(–3, 4). Then,
PA = PB

÷ + ÷
2 2
( 7) (0 6) x
=
2 2
( 3) (0 4) x + + −
 (x – 7)
2
+ 36 = (x + 3)
2
+ 16
 x
2
+ 49 – 14x + 36 = x
2
+ 9 + 6x + 16
 x
2
– 14x + 85 = x
2
+ 6x + 25
 –20x = – 60  x = 3
Hence, the required point is (3, 0).
Q.17. Find a relation between x and y such
that the point P(x, y) is equidistant from the
points A(7, 1) and B(3, 5). [2011 (T-II)]
Sol. Let P(x, y) be equidistant from the points
A(7, 1) and B(3, 5).
i.e., PA = PB
Squaring both sides PA
2
= PB
2
 (x – 7)
2
+ (y – 1)
2
= (x – 3)
2
+ (y – 5)
2
 x
2
+ 49 – 14x + y
2
+ 1 – 2y
= x
2
+ 9 – 6x + y
2
+ 25 – 10y
 –8x + 8y + 16 = 0  –x + y + 2 = 0
Q.18. If the point p(x, y) is equidistant from
the points A(5, 1) and B(–1, 5) then prove that
3x = 2y. [2011 (T-II)]
Sol. Let the point P(x, y) be equidistant from the
points A(5, 1) and B(–1, 5). Then,
PA = PB  PA
2
= PB
2
8
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
 (x – 5)
2
+ (y – 1)
2
= (x + 1)
2
+ (y – 5)
2
 x
2
+ y
2
– 10x – 2y + 26
= x
2
+ y
2
+ 2x – 10y + 26
 12x – 8y = 0  12x = 8y  3x = 2y
Q.19. Find the value of x, if the distance
between the points (x, – 1) and (3, –2) is x + 5.
[2011 (T-II)]
Sol. The given points are A(x, – 1) and B(3, –2)
Then, x
1
= x, y
1
= –1 and x
2
= 3, y
2
= –2
 AB =
÷ + ÷
2 2
2 1 2 1
( ) ( ) x x y y
 x + 5 =
÷ + ÷ +
2 2
(3 ) ( 2 1) x
 x + 5 =
+ ÷ +
2
9 6 1 x x
 x
2
+ 25 + 10x = x
2
– 6x + 10
 16x = –15  x =
÷15
16
Q.20. Show that the points A(5, 6), B(1, 5),
C(2, 1) and D(6, 2) are the vertices of a square.
[2004]
Sol. AB =
( ) ( )
2 2
1– 5 + 5 – 6
=
16 + 1 = 17
BC =
( ) ( )
2 2
2 –1 + 1– 5
=
1 + 16 = 17
CD =
( ) ( )
2 2
6 – 2 + 2 –1
=
16 + 1 = 17
DA =
( ) ( )
2 2
5 – 6 + 6 – 2
=
1 + 16 = 17
AB = BC = CD = AD
Now, diagonal
AC =
( ) ( )
2 2
2 – 5 + 1– 6
=
9 + 25 = 34
and diagonal
BD =
( ) ( )
2 2
6 –1 + 2 – 5
=
25 + 9 = 34
So, diagonal AC = diagonal BD.
Since ABCD is a quadrilateral whose all the sides
are equal and both the diagonals are equal. Thus,
quadrilateral ABCD is a square. Proved.
Q.21. Prove that the points (0, 0), (5, 5) and
(–5, 5) are the vertices of a right isosceles
triangle. [2005, 2011 (T-II)]
Sol. AB =
( ) ( )
2 2
5 – 0 + 5 – 0
=
25 + 25 = 50 = 5 2
BC =
( ) ( )
2 2
– 5 – 5 + 5 – 5
=
( )
2
–10 + 0 = 100 = 10
AC =
( ) ( )
2 2
– 5 – 0 + 5 – 0 = 25 + 25
=
50 = 5 2
AB
2
+ AC
2
=
( ) ( )
2 2
5 2 + 5 2
= 50 + 50 = 100 = BC
2
By converse of Pythagoras theorem, we conclude
that AABC is a right isosceles triangle, right angled at
A. Proved.
Q.22. A circle has its centre at the origin and
a point P(5, 0) lies on it. The point Q(6, 8) lies
outside the circle. Is it true? Justify your answer.
[HOTS]
Sol. Radius OP =
( ) ( )
2 2
0 – 5 + 0 – 0
=
25
= 5 units
Also OQ =
( ) ( )
2 2
0 – 6 + 0 – 8
=
36 + 64
= 10 units
OQ > OP, hence, Q lies outside the circle.
Hence, the statement is true.
Q.23. Find a point which is equidistant from
the points A(–5, 4) and B(–1, 6). How many such
points are there? [HOTS]
Sol. Let the required point be P(x, y).
Then, PA = PB ¬ PA
2
= PB
2
¬ (x + 5)
2
+ (y – 4)
2
= (x + 1)
2
+ (y – 6)
2
9
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
¬ x
2
+ 25 + 10x + y
2
+ 16 – 8y
= x
2
+ 1 + 2x + y
2
+ 36 – 12y
¬ 10x – 8y + 41 = 2x – 12y + 37
¬ 8x + 4y + 4 = 0 ¬ 2x + y + 1 = 0 … (i)
By hit and trial method, one solution of (i) is
x = –1, y = 1.
Hence, (–1, 1) is the required point. Aslo, infinite
number of points are there which are equidistant from
the given points. In fact, all points which are solutions
of the equation 2x + y + 1 = 0 are equidistant from the
given points.
Q.24. The points A(2, 9), B(a, 5) and C(5, 5)
are the vertices of a triangle ABC right angled at
B. Find the value of a and hence the area of
AABC.
Sol. We have AC
2
= AB
2
+ BC
2
[Pythagoras theorem]
¬ (2 – 5)
2
+ (9 – 5)
2
= (a – 2)
2
+ (5 – 9)
2
+ (a – 5)
2
+ (5 – 5)
2
¬ 25 = a
2
+ 4 – 4a + 16 + a
2
+ 25 – 10a
¬ 2a
2
– 14a + 20 = 0 ¬ a
2
– 7a + 10 = 0
¬ a
2
– 5a – 2a + 10 = 0
¬ a(a – 5) – 2 (a – 5) = 0
¬ (a – 5) (a – 2) = 0 ¬ a = 5 or 2
¬ a = 2 [Rejecting a = 5, because in this case B
coincides with C]
Area of the triangle =
1
2
× AB × BC
= ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
1
× 2 – 2 + 9 – 5
2
× 5 – 2 + 5 – 5
=
1
2
× 4 × 3 = 6 sq. units.
Q.25. Find the circumcentre of the triangle,
whose vertices are (–2, –3), (–1, 0) and (7, –6).
[HOTS]
Sol. Let the coordinates of the circumcentre of
the triangle be P(x, y). Then, we know that
circumcentre of a triangle is equidistant from each of
its vertices.
PA =
( ) ( )
2 2
+ 2 + + 3 x y
¬ PA
2
= x
2
+ y
2
+ 4x + 6y + 13 …(i)
¬ PB =
( ) ( )
2 2
+ 1 + – 0 x y
¬ PB
2
= x
2
+ y
2
+ 2x + 1 …(ii)
¬ PC =
( ) ( )
2 2
– 7 + + 6 x y
¬ PC
2
= x
2
+ y
2
– 14x + 12y + 85 …(iii)
Now, PA = PB
¬ PA
2
= PB
2
¬ x
2
+ y
2
+ 4x + 6y + 13 = x
2
+ y
2
+ 2x + 1
¬ 2x + 6y = – 12 ¬ x + 3y = – 6 …(iv)
And PB = PC ¬ PB
2
= PC
2
¬ x
2
+ y
2
+ 2x + 1 = x
2
+ y
2
– 14x + 12y + 85
¬ 16x – 12y = 84 ¬ 4x – 3y = 21 …(v)
Solving (iv) and (v), we get x = 3, y = – 3.
Hence, circumcentre of the triangle is (3, –3).
Q.26. If the point (x, y) is equidistant from
the points (a + b, b – a) and (a – b, a + b), prove
that bx = ay. [V. Imp.]
Sol. Let P(x, y), Q(a + b, b – a) and R(a – b,
a + b) be given points.
Then, PQ = PR
¬
( ) { } ( ) { }
2 2
– + + – – x a b y b a
¬ {x – (a + b)}
2
+ {y – (b – a)}
2
= {x – (a – b)}
2
+ {y – (a + b)}
2
¬ x
2
– 2x (a + b) + (a + b)
2
+ y
2
– 2y
(b – a) + (b – a)
2
= x
2
+ (a – b)
2
– 2x (a – b) + y
2
– 2y (a + b) + (a + b)
2
¬ – 2x (a + b) – 2y (b – a)
= – 2x (a – b) – 2y (a + b)
10
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
¬ ax + bx + by – ay = ax – bx + ay + by
¬ 2bx = 2ay ¬ bx = ay. Proved.
Q.27. The two opposite vertices of a square
are (1, –6) and (5, 4). Find the coordinates of the
other two vertices. [HOTS]
Sol. Let ABCD be the given square whose two
opposite vertices are A(1, –6) and C(5, 4). Let B(x, y)
be its third vertex.
Then, AB = BC ¬ AB
2
= BC
2
¬ (x – 1)
2
+ (y + 6)
2
= (x – 5)
2
+ (y – 4)
2
¬ x
2
+ y
2
– 2x + 12y + 37 = x
2
+ y
2
– 10x
– 8y + 41
¬ 8x + 20y – 4 = 0 ¬ 2x + 5y = 1
¬ y =
1– 2
5
x ¸ _

¸ ,
… (i)
From right triangle ABC, we have,
AB
2
+ BC
2
= AC
2
¬ (x – 1)
2
+ (y + 6)
2
+ (x – 5)
2
+ (y – 4)
2
= (5 – 1)
2
+ (4 + 6)
2
¬ (x
2
+ y
2
– 2x + 12y) + (x
2
+ y
2
– 10x – 8y)
+ 78 = 116
¬ 2(x
2
+ y
2
– 6x + 2y) = 38
¬ x
2
+ y
2
– 6x + 2y = 19
¬ x
2
+
( )
2
2 1– 2 1– 2
– 6 +
5 5
x x
x
¸ _

¸ ,
= 19
[Using (i)]
¬ 25x
2
+ (1 + 4x
2
– 4x) – 150x + 10 – 20x = 475
¬ 29x
2
– 174x – 464 = 0
¬ x
2
– 6x – 16 = 0 ¬ (x – 8) (x + 2) = 0
¬ x = – 2 or x = 8
Now, x = – 2 ¬ y = 1 and x = 8
¬ y = – 3
Hence, the remaining vertices are B(–2, 1) and
D(8, – 3) or B(8, – 3) and D(–2, 1).
Q.28. Find the coordinates of the point
equidistant from three given points A(5, 3),
B(5, –5) and C(1, –5). [2006]
Sol. Let P(x, y) be the required point. As P(x, y)
is equidistant from A(5, 3), B(5, –5) and C(1, –5), so,
AP = BP = CP.
Case I. AP = BP
¬
( ) ( )
2 2
– 5 + – 3 x y
=
( ) ( )
2 2
– 5 + +5 x y
¬
2 2
–10 + 25 + – 6 + 9 x x y y
=
2 2
–10 + 25 + + 10 + 25 x x y y
¬ x
2
+ y
2
– 10x – 6y + 34
= x
2
+ y
2
– 10x + 10y + 50
¬ – 6y – 10y + 34 – 50 = 0
¬ – 16y = 16 ¬ y = – 1. ….. (i)
Case II. BP = CP
¬
( ) ( )
2 2
– 5 + +5 x y
=
( ) ( )
2 2
–1 + +5 x y
¬
2 2
–10 + 25 + + 10 + 25 x x y y
=
2 2
– 2 + 1 + + 10 + 25 x x y y
¬ x
2
+ y
2
– 10x + 10y + 50
= x
2
+ y
2
– 2x + 10y + 26
¬ – 8x = 26 – 50 = – 24
¬ x = 3. …(ii)
The coordinates of the point equidistant fromA,
B and C are P(3, – 1).
Q.29. Find the coordinates of the centre of a
circle passing through the points A(2, 1),
B(5, –8) and C(2, – 9). Also, find the radius of
this circle.
11
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
Sol. Let P(x, y) be the centre of the circle passing
through the points A(2, 1), B(5, – 8) and C(2, –9).
Then PA = PB = PC
¬ PA
2
= PB
2
= PC
2
Now, PA
2
= PB
2
¬ (x – 2)
2
+ (y – 1)
2
= (x – 5)
2
+ (y + 8)
2
¬ x
2
+ y
2
– 4x – 2y + 5 = x
2
+ y
2
– 10x
+ 16y + 89
¬ 6x – 18y – 84 = 0
¬ x – 3y = 14 …(i)
And, PB
2
= PC
2
¬ (x – 5)
2
+ (y + 8)
2
= (x – 2)
2
+ (y + 9)
2
¬ x
2
+ y
2
– 10x + 16y + 89
= x
2
+ y
2
– 4x + 18y + 85
¬ 6x + 2y – 4 = 0 · 3x + y = 2 … (ii)
On solving (i) and (ii), we get x = 2 and y = – 4
Hence, the coordinates of the centre of the circle
are P (2, – 4).
Radius of the circle = PA (PA = PB = PC)
=
( ) ( )
2 2
2 – 2 + 1 + 4
=
2 2
0 + 5
=
25
= 5 units.
Q.30. Find the coordinates of the
circumcentre of a triangle whose vertices are
A(4, 6), B(0, 4) and C(6, 2). Also, find its
circumradius. [HOTS]
Sol. Let A(4, 6), B(0, 4) and C(6, 2) be the
vertices of the given triangle ABC.
Let P(x, y) be the circumcentre of AABC.
Then, PA = PB = PC
¬ PA
2
= PB
2
= PC
2
Now, PA
2
= PB
2
¬ (x – 4)
2
+ (y – 6)
2
= (x – 0)
2
+ (y – 4)
2
¬ x
2
+ y
2
– 8x – 12y + 52
= x
2
+ y
2
– 8y + 16
¬ 8x + 4y = 36 · 2x + y = 9 …(i)
Again, PB
2
= PC
2
¬ (x – 0)
2
+ (y – 4)
2
= (x – 6)
2
+ (y – 2)
2
¬ x
2
+ y
2
– 8y + 16 = x
2
+ y
2
– 12x – 4y + 40
¬ 12x – 4y = 24 ¬ 3x – y = 6 … (ii)
On solving (i) and (ii), we have x = 3 and y = 3.
Coordinates of the circumcentre of AABC are
P(3, 3)
Circumradius = PA =
( ) ( )
2 2
4 – 3 + 6 – 3
=
2 2
1 + 3 = 10
units.
Q.31. If P(2, –1), Q(3, 4), R(–2, 3) and
S(–3, –2) be four points in a plane, show that
PQRS is a rhombus but not a square. Find the
area of the rhombus. [2006, 2011 (T-II)]
Sol. Let, P(2, –1), Q(3, 4), R(–2, 3) and
S(–3, –2) be the vertices of a quadrilateral. Join PR
and QS.
Now, PQ =
( ) ( )
2 2
3 – 2 + 4 + 1
=
2 2
1 + 5 = 26
units
QR =
( ) ( )
2 2
–2 – 3 + 3 – 4
=
( ) ( )
2 2
–5 + –1
=
26
units
RS =
( ) ( )
2 2
–3 + 2 + –2 – 3
=
( ) ( )
2 2
–1 + –5 = 26
units
and SP =
( ) ( )
2 2
2 + 3 + –1 + 2
=
2 2
5 +1 = 26
units
PQ =QR = RS = SP =
26
units.
12
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
Diagonal PR =
( ) ( )
2 2
–2 – 2 + 3 +1
=
( ) ( )
2 2
– 4 + 4
=
32 = 4 2
units.
Diagonal QS =
( ) ( )
2 2
–3 – 3 + –2 – 4
=
( ) ( )
2 2
– 6 + – 6
=
72 = 6 2
units.
diagonal PR = diagonal QS.
Thus, PQRS is a quadrilateral having all sides
equal but diagonals unequal.
Hence, PQRS is a rhombus, but not a square.
Proved.
Area of the rhombus PQRS
=
1
2
× product of diagonals
=
1
× PR × QS
2
¸ _

¸ ,
= ( )
1
× 4 2 × 6 2
2
sq. units = 24 sq. units.
Q.32. If two vertices of an equilateral
triangle be (0, 0),
( )
3, 3 , find the third vertex.
[V. Imp.]
Sol. O(0, 0) and A
( )
3, 3 be the given points
and let B(x, y) be the third vertex of equilateral
AOAB.
Then, OA = OB = AB
¬ OA
2
= OB
2
= AB
2
We have, OA
2
= (3 – 0)
2
+
( )
2
3 – 0 = 12
OB
2
= x
2
+ y
2
and AB
2
= (x – 3)
2
+
( )
2
– 3 y
¬ AB
2
= x
2
+ y
2
– 6x – 2
3
y + 12
Now, OA
2
= OB
2
and OB
2
= AB
2
¬ x
2
+ y
2
= 12 and, x
2
+ y
2
= x
2
+ y
2
– 6x – 2 3 y + 12
¬ x
2
+ y
2
= 12 and 6x + 2 3 y = 12
¬ x
2
+ y
2
= 12 and 3x + 3 y = 6
¬ x
2
+
2
6 – 3
3
x ¸ _

¸ ,
= 12
3 + 3 = 6
6 – 3
=
3
(
(
(

(
¸ ¸
 x y
x
y
¬ 3x
2
+ (6 – 3x)
2
= 36
¬ 12x
2
– 36x = 0
¬ x = 0 or x = 3
x = 0
6
3 = 6 = = 2 3
3
¬ ¬ y y
and x = 3 ¬ 9 + 3 = 6 y
¬
6 – 9
= = – 3
3
y
Hence, the coordinates of the third vertex B are
( ) ( )
0, 2 3 or 3, – 3
.
Q.33. If P and Q are two points whose
coordinates are (at
2
, 2at) and
2
2
,
a a
t
t
¸ _

¸ ,
respectively and S is the points (a, 0), show that
1 1
+
SP SQ
is independent of t. [V. Imp.]
Sol. We have,
SP =
( )
( )
2
2
2
– + 2 – 0 at a at
13
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
=
( )
2
2 2
–1 + 4 a t t = a(t
2
+ 1)
and SQ =
2 2
2
2
– + – 0
a a
a
t t
¸ _ ¸ _

¸ , ¸ ,
=
( )
2
2 2
2
4 2
1 –
4
+
a t
a
t t
¬ SQ = ( )
2
2 2
2
1 – + 4
a
t t
t
= ( )
2
2
2
1 +
a
t
t
= ( )
2
2
1 +
a
t
t

1 1
+
SP SQ
=
( ) ( )
2
2 2
1
+
+ 1 1 +
t
a t a t
=
( )
2
2
1 + 1
=
+ 1
t
a
a t
,
which is independent of t. Proved.
Q.34. Two vertices of an isosceles triangle
are (2, 0) and (2, 5). Find the third vertex if the
length of the equal sides is 3.
Sol. Let the coordinates of A be (x, y).
Then AB
2
= (3)
2
= (2 – x)
2
+ (0 – y)
2
¬ 4 – 4x + x
2
+ y
2
= 9
¬ x
2
+ y
2
= 5 + 4x ….. (i)
Again AC
2
= (3)
2
=
( ) ( )
2 2
2 – + 5 – x y
¬ 4 – 4x + x
2
+ 25 – 10y + y
2
= 9
¬ 29 – 4x – 10y + y
2
+ x
2
= 9
¬ x
2
+ y
2
– 10y – 4x = 9 – 29
¬ x
2
+ y
2
– 4x – 10y = – 20 ….. (ii)
Putting the value of x
2
+ y
2
from (i) in (ii),
we have
5 + 4 – 10 – 4 x y x = – 20
¬ – 10y = – 20 – 5 = – 25
¬ y = 2.5 =
5
2
….. (iii)
Substituting, y = 2.5 in (i), we have
x
2
+ y
2
= 5 + 4x
¬ x
2
+
25
4
= 5 + 4x
¬ 4x
2
+ 25 = 20 + 16x
¬ 4x
2
– 16x + 5 = 0 …... (iv)
¬ x =
( )
2
16 ± 16 – 4 × 4 × 5
2×4
[Using quadratic formula]
=
16 ± 256 – 80
8
=
16 ± 176 16 ± 4 11
=
8 8
¬ x =
4 ± 11
2
= 2 ±
11
2
coordinates of the third vertex are
11 5 11 5
A 2 – , , 2 + ,
2 2 2 2
( | | | |
( | |
| |
( \ . \ . ¸ ¸
Q.35. Prove that the points (2a, 4a), (2a, 6a),
and ( )
2 + 3 , 5 a a a
are the vertices of an
equilateral triangle. [2011 (T-II)]
Sol. Let A(2a, 4a), B(2a, 6a) and C(2a +
3
a,
5a) be the vertices of a triangle.
AB =
( ) ( )
2 2
2 – 2 + 6 – 4 a a a a
=
( )
2
2
2 = 4 a a
= 2a
AC =
( )
( )
2
2
2 + 3 – 2 + 5 – 4 a a a a a
14
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
=
2 2
3 + a a
=
2
4a
= 2a.
BC
2 2
(2 3 2 ) (5 6 ) a a a a a = + ÷ + ÷
= + = =
2 2 2
3 4 2 a a a a
Thus, AB = AC = BC
¬ AABC is an equilateral triangle. Proved.
Q.36. If (– 4, 3) and (4, 3) are two vertices of
an equilateral triangle, find the coordinates of
the third vertex, given that the origin lies in the
interior of the triangle. [HOTS]
Sol. AB =
( ) ( )
2 2
– 4 – 4 – 3 – 3 = 8 units.
Clearly, the x-axis cuts AB at its mid-point.
Also, O is in the interior of AABC.
So, the third vertex will lie on the y-axis.
[ y-axis the perpendicular bisector of AB so
any point on the y-axis is equidistant from A and B]
Let the coordinates of vertex C be (0, –y).
AC = AB ¬ AC
2
= AB
2
Then,
¬ (4 – 0)
2
+ (3 + y)
2
= 64
¬ 16 + 9 + y
2
+ 6y = 64 ¬y
2
+ 6y – 39 = 0
PRACTICE EXERCISE 7.1A
Choose the correct option (Q.1 – 8) :
1. The distance between the points A(0, 6)
and B(0, –2) is :
(a) 6 (b) 8 (c) 4 (d) 2
2. The distance between the points (0, 5) and
(–5, 0) is :
(a) 5 (b)
5 2
(c)
2 5
(d) 10
3. Three points A, B, C are said be collinear,
if :
(a) they lie on the same straight line
(b) they do not lie on the same straight line
(c) they lie on three different straight lines
(d) none of these
4. The distance between the points P(2, –3)
and Q(2, 2) is :
(a) 2 units (b) 3 units
(c) 4 units (d) 5 units
5. The points M(0, 6), N(–5, 3) and P(3, 1)
are the vertices of a triangle, which is :
(a) isosceles (b) equilateral
(c) scalene (d) right angled
6. The coordinates of the vertices of an
equilateral triangle are A(3, y), B(3, 3 ) and
C(0, 0). The value of y is :
(a) 4 (b) 5 (c) –1 (d) none of these
7. If the distance between the points (4, c),
and (1, 0) is 5, then c is :
(a) ± 4 (b) 4 (c) – 4 (d) 0
8. The distance between the points P(a cos
35°, 0) and Q(0, a cos 65°) is :
(a) a (b) 2a
(c) 3a (d) none of these
9. Points A(3, 1), B(12, –2) and C(0, 2)
cannot be the vertices of a triangle. Is it true?
[Imp.]
¬ y =
– 6 ± 36 + 4×1 × 39
2
=
– 6 ± 192 – 6 ±8 3
=
2 2
= –3 ± 4 3
¬ y = –3 – 4 3 or
–3+ 4 3
¬ y =
–3+ 4 3
[Rejecting y = –3 – 4 3 ,
as it will give the coordinates of C above x-axis]
Hence, coordinates of the third vertex are (0, –y)
or (0, 3 – 4 3 )
15
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
10. Name the type of triangle formed by the
points A(–5, 6), B(– 4 –2) and C(7, 5).
11. Find the value of x if the distance
between the points A(–3, –14) and B(x, –5) is 9
units. [Imp.]
12. If the point P(2, – 4) is equidistant from
X(3, 8) and Y(–10, y), find the values of y. Aslo,
find the distance XY. [Imp.]
13. Find the distance between the following
pair of points :
(i) (a sin o, – b cos o) and
(– a cos o, b sin o)
(ii) (a + b, b + c) and (a – b), (c – b)
(iii) (a, 0) and (0, b)
14. Show that the points A(a, b + c),
B(b, c + a), and C(c, a + b) are collinear. [Imp.]
15. Find all possible values of a for which
the distance between the points A(a, –1) and
B(5, 3) is 5 units. [Imp.]
16. Find the point on x-axis which is
equidistant from (–2, 5) and (2, –3).
17. Show that the points P(–3, 2) Q(–5, 5)
R(2, 3) and S(4, 4) are the vertices of a rhombus.
Find the area of the rhombus. [Imp.]
18. Prove that the points A(3, 4), B(– 4, 3),
C(5, 0) lie on the circle with centre O(0, 0).
19. Show that the following points are the
vertices of isosceles triangles :
(i) (0, 6), (–5, 3), (3, 1)
(ii) (0, 0), (a, b), (–a, b).
20. The length of a line segment is 10. If one
end is at (2, –3), and the abscissa of the second
end is 10, find its ordinate.
21. Find the circumcentre of the triangle
whose vertices are (0, –3), (7, 0) and (4, 7).
22. Find the coordinates of the circumcentre
of the triangle whose vertices are (8, 6), (8, –2)
and (2, –2). Also, find its circumradius. [V. Imp.]
23. If the points (x, y) is equidistant from the
points A(5, 1) and B(–1, 5), prove that
3x = 2y. [2005]
24. If the distance P(x, y) from the points
A(3, 6) and B(–3, 4) are equal, prove that 3x +
y = 5. [2008]
25. Show that A(–3, 2), B(–5, –5), C(2, –3)
and D(4, 4) are the vertices of a rhombus. [2008]
26. The centre of a circle is (2o – 1, 7) and
it passes through the point (–3, –1). If the
diameter of the circle is 20 units, then find the
value of o. [2009]
27. Find the points on the x-axis which are at
a distance of 2 5 from the point (7, – 4). How
many such points are there? [2011 (T-II)]
28. Find those points on the x-axis which are
at a distance of 5 units from the point (5, –3).
[2011 (T-II)]
29. Find the value of 's' if the point P(0, 2)
is equidistant from Q(3, s) and R(s, 5).
[2011 (T-II)]
30. A point P is at a distance of 10 from
the point (2, 3). Find the coordinates of the point
P if its y coordinate is twice its x coordinate.
[2011 (T-II)]
7.2 SECTION FORMULA
1. The coordinates of the point P(x, y) which
divides the line segment joining A(x
1
, y
1
) and
B(x
2
, y
2
) internally in the ratio m : n, are given by :
2 2 2 2
+ +
= , =
+ +
mx nx my ny
x y
m n m n
¸ _

¸ ,
2. The coordinates of the mid-point M of a
line segment AB with end points A(x
1
, y
1
) and
B(x
2
, y
2
) are :
1 2 1 2
+ +
,
2 2
x x y y ¸ _

¸ ,
3. The point of intersection of the medians of
triangle is called its centroid.
4. The coordinates of the centroid of the
triangle whose vertices are (x
1
, y
1
), (x
2
, y
2
) and
(x
3
, y
3
) are given by
1 2 3 1 2 3
+ + + +
,
3 3
x x x y y y 1
1
¸ ]
16
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
Q.1. Find the coordinates of the point which
divides the join of (–1, 7) and (4, –3) in the ratio
2 : 3. [Imp.]
Sol. Let the coordinates of the point which divide
the join of points A(–1, 7) and B(4, –3) in the ratio
2 : 3 be (x, y).
Using the section formula, we get
x =
2 1
+
+
mx nx
m n
=
( )( ) ( )( ) 2 4 + 3 –1
2 + 3
=
8 – 3 5
=
5 5
= 1
And, y =
2 1
+
+
my ny
m n
=
( )( ) ( )( ) 2 –3 + 3 7
2 +3
=
– 6 + 21 15
=
5 5
= 3
Hence, the co-ordinates of required point are (1, 3).
Q.2. Find the coordinates of the points of
trisection of the line segment joining (4, –1) and
(–2, –3). [Imp.]
Sol. The given points are A(4, –1) and B(–2, –3).
Let the points of trisection of the line segment AB
be P(x
1
, y
1
) and Q(x
2
, y
2
) respectively.
Then AP = PQ = QB
Thus, P divides AB in the ratio 1 : 2 internally and
Q divides AB in the ratio 2 : 1 internally.
Using section formula, we get
x
1
=
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 –2 + 2 4
1+ 2
=
–2 +8 6
=
3 3
= 2
And, y
1
=
( ) ( ) ( )( ) 1 –3 + 2 –1
1+ 2
=
– 3 – 2 5
= –
3 3
Hence, the coordinates of point P are
–5
2,
3
¸ _

¸ ,
.
Again, x
2
=
( )( ) ( )( ) 2 –2 + 1 4
2 +1
=
– 4 + 4
3
= 0
And, y
2
=
( )( ) ( )( ) 2 –3 + 1 –1
2 +1
=
– 6 – 1 7
= –
3 3
Hence, the coordinates of point Q are
7
0, –
3
¸ _

¸ ,
.
Q.3. To conduct Sports Day activities, in
your rectangular shaped school ground ABCD,
lines have be drawn with chalk powder at a
distance of 1 m each. 100 flower pots have been
placed at a distance of 1 m from each other
along AD, as shown in figure. Niharika runs
1
4
th
the distance AD on the 2nd line and posts a green
flag. Preet runs
1
5
th the distance AD on the
eighth line and posts a red flag. What is the
distance between both the flags? If Rashmi has to
post a blue flag exactly halfway between the line
segment joining the two flags, where should she
post her flag?
Sol. Taking A as origin, AB as x-axis and AD as
y-axis. The distance covered by Niharika.
=
1
4
distance of AD on the 2nd line
=
1
4
× 100 = 25 m
Thus, coordinates of green flag are (2, 25)
Similarly, the position of red flag
= Distance covered by Preet on the eighth line
=
1
5
distance AD on 8th line
=
1
5
× 100 = 20 m
TEXTBOOK’S EXERCISE 7.2
17
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
Thus, coordinates of red flag are (8, 20).
Using distance formula the distance between
green and red flag is
=
( ) ( )
2 2
8 – 2 + 20 – 25
=
36 + 25 = 61
m
Position of blue flag = Mid-point of green flag
and red flag
By section formula co-ordinates of blue flag
=
2 +8 25 + 20
,
2 2
¸ _

¸ ,
= (5, 22.5)
Hence, blue flag is in 5th line at a distance of
22.5 m along AD.
Q.4. Find the ratio in which the line segment
joining the points (–3, 10) and (6, –8) is divided
by (–1, 6). [V. Imp.]
Sol. Let A(–3, 10), B(6, –8) and P(–1, 6)
Let P divide AB in the ratio K : 1.
¬ –1 =
( ) ( ) ( )( ) K 6 + 1 –3
K +1
¬
6K – 3
K +1
= –1 ¬ 6K – 3 = – K – 1 ¬ 7K = 2
¬ K =
2
7
and 6 =
( )( ) ( )( ) K –8 + 1 10
K +1
¬
–8K + 10
K +1
= 6 ¬ –8K + 10 = 6K + 6
¬ 14K = 4 ¬ K =
4 2
=
14 7
Hence, the required ratio is 2 : 7.
Q.5. Find the ratio in which the line segment
joining A(1, –5) and B(– 4, 5) is divided by the
x-axis. Also find the coordinates of the point of
division.
Sol. Given A(1, –5) and B(– 4, 5)
Let the point of division be P. Let the ratio be K : 1.
The co-ordinates of P are
( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( ) K – 4 + 1 1 K 5 + 1 –5
,
K +1 K +1
¸ _

¸ ,
– 4K +1 5K – 5
,
K +1 K +1
¸ _

¸ ,
P lies on the x-axis and we know that on the
x-axis the y coordinate is 0.

5K – 5
K +1
= 0 ¬ 5K – 5 = 0
¬ 5K = 5 ¬ K =
5
5
= 1
Hence, the required ratio is 1 : 1.
Putting K = 1, we get the coordinates of P as
3
– , 0
2
¸ _

¸ ,
.
Q.6. If (1, 2), (4, y), (x, 6) and (3, 5) are the
vertices of a parallelogram taken in order, find x
and y. [2011 (T-II)]
Sol . Let ABCD be a parallelogram. Given
vertices of a parallelogramABCD are A(1, 2), B(4, y),
C(x, 6) and D(3, 5). We know that diagonals of a
parallelogram bisect each other. Let E is the mid-point
of diagonal AC.
Coordinates of E are
+1 6 + 2
,
2 2
x ¸ _

¸ ,
or
+1
, 4
2
x ¸ _

¸ ,
… (i)
Also, E is the mid-point of diagonal BD.
Coordinates of E are
3+ 4 5 +
,
2 2
y ¸ _

¸ ,
or
7 5 +
,
2 2
y ¸ _

¸ ,
…. (ii)
From equation (i) and equation (ii), we have
+1
, 4
2
x ¸ _

¸ ,
=
7 5 +
,
2 2
y ¸ _

¸ ,
Comparing both sides, we have,
+1
2
x
=
7
2
¬ x + 1 = 7 ¬ x = 6 And
5 +
2
y
= 4
¬ 5 + y = 8 ¬ y = 3
Hence, the values of x and y are 6 and 3
respectively.
Q.7. Find the coordinates of a point A, where
AB is the diameter of a circle whose centre is
(2, –3) and B is (1, 4). [2011 (T-II)]
18
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
Sol. Let O (2, –3) be the centre of the circle.
Let the coordinates of the point A be (x, y)
 AB is a diameter of a circle whose centre is O.
O is the mid-point of AB.
So, by section formula
+1 + 4
,
2 2
x y ¸ _

¸ ,
= (2, –3)
¬
+1
2
x
= 2 ¬ x + 1 = 4 ¬ x = 3
And
+ 4
2
y
= –3 y + 4 = –6 ¬ y = –10
Hence, the coordinates of the point A are
(3, –10).
Q.8. If A and B are (–2, –2) and (2, – 4)
respectively, find the coordinates of P such that
AP =
3
7
AB and P lies on the line segment AB.
[2011 (T-II)]
Sol. We have AP =
3
7
AB
¬ 7AP = 3AB ¬ 7AP = 3(AP + PB)
[ P lies on the line segment AB]
¬ 7AP = 3AP + 3PB
¬ 7AP – 3AP = 3PB ¬ 4AP = 3PB

AP
PB
=
3
4
Let the coordinate of P be (x, y).
Then, x =
( )( ) ( )( ) 3 2 + 4 –2
3 + 4
=
6 – 8 2
= –
7 7
y =
( )( ) ( )( ) 3 –4 + 4 –2
3 + 4
=
–12 – 8 20
= –
7 7
Hence, the coordinates of the point P are
2 20
– , –
7 7
¸ _

¸ ,
.
Q.9. Find the coordinates of the points which
divide the line segment joining A(–2, 2) and
B(2, 8) into four equal parts. [2011 (T-II)]
Sol . Let P(x
1
, y
1
), Q(x
2
, y
2
) and R(x
3
, y
3
) be the
points which divide the line segment AB into four
equal parts i.e. AP = PQ = QR = RB
So, P divides AB in the ratio 1 : 3 internally.
x
1
=
( )( ) ( )( ) 1 2 + 3 –2
1+3
=
2 – 6 4
= –
4 4
= –1
And y
1
=
( )( ) ( )( ) 1 8 + 3 2
1+3
=
8 + 6 14 7
= =
4 4 2
Thus, coordinates of P are
7
–1,
2
¸ _

¸ ,
.
Also, Q divides AB in the ratio 1 : 1, i.e., Q is the
mid-point of AB.
x
2
=
–2 + 2
2
= 0 and y
2
=
2 +8 10
=
2 2
= 5
Thus, coordinates of Q are (0, 5), R divides AB in
the ratio 3 : 1.
x
3
=
( )( ) ( )( ) 3 2 + 1 –2 6 – 2 4
= =
3+1 4 4
= 1
And y
3
=
( )( ) ( )( ) 3 8 + 1 2 24 + 2 26 13
= = =
3 +1 4 4 2
Thus, coordinates of R are
13
1,
2
| |
|
\ .
.
Q.10. Find the area of a rhombus if its
vertices are (3, 0), (4, 5), (–1, 4) and (–2, –1)
taken in order. [2011 (T-II)]
Sol. Let ABCD be a rhombus whose vertices are
A(3, 0), B(4, 5), C(–1, 4) and D(–2, –1). AC and BD
are diagonals.
We know that the area of a rhombus
=
1
2
(Product of its diagonals)
Area of the rhombus ABCD =
1
2
(AC × BD)
19
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
=
1
2
( ) ( )
2 2
–1– 3 + 4 – 0
¸ _
¸ ,
×
( ) ( )
2 2
– 2 – 4 + –1– 5
¸ _
¸ ,
=
1
2
( ) ( )
16 + 16 × 36 + 36
=
1
2
( ) ( )
32 × 72
=
1
2
( ) ( )
4 2 × 6 2
=
1
2
× 24 × 2 = 24 square units.
OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS
Q.1. If the centroid of the triangle formed by
the points (a, b), (b, c) and (c, a) is at the origin,
then a
3
+ b
3
+ c
3
is equal to :
(a) abc (b) 0 (c) a + b + c (d) 3abc
Sol. (d) We have
+ +
3
a b c
= 0 and
+ +
3
b c a
= 0
¬ a + b + c = 0
Now, a
3
+ b
3
+ c
3
= 3abc, if a + b + c = 0
Q.2. The line segment joining points (–3, – 4)
and (1, – 2) is divided by y-axis in the ratio :
(a) 1 : 3 (b) 2 : 3 (c) 3 : 1 (d) 2 : 3
Sol. (c) Let the required ratio be K : 1 and the
coordinates of the point of intersection be (0, y).
Then, 0 =
( ) K×1–1× –3
K +1
¬ K = 3
Hence, required ratio is 3 : 1.
Q.3. The ratio in which (4, 5) divides the join
of (2, 3) and (7, 8) is :
(a) 4 : 3 (b) 5 : 2
(c) 3 : 2 (d) 2 : 3
Sol.(d) Let the required ratio be K : 1.
Then, 4 =
K×7 +1×2
K +1
¬ 4k + 4 = 7k + 2
¬ 3K = 2 ¬ K =
2
3
Required ratio is
2
3
: 1 = 2 : 3
Q.4. The x-axis divides the join of A(2, –3)
and B(5, 6) in the ratio :
(a) 1 : 2 (b) 2 : 1 (c) 3 : 5 (d) 2 : 3
Sol. (a) Let the required ratio be k : 1 and the
coordinates of the point of intersection be (x, 0).
Then, 0 =
( ) ×6 +1× –3
+1
k
k
¬ k =
1
2
Required ratio is 1 : 2.
Q.5. The point which divides the line
segment joining the point (7, –6) and (3, 4) in the
ratio 1 : 2 internally lies in the :
(a) I quadrant (b) II quadrant
(c) III quadrant (d) IV quadrant
Sol. (d) Let the coordinates of the required point
be (x, y).
Then x =
1×3 + 2×7 17
=
3 3
and y =
( ) 1×4 + 2× –6 –8
=
3 3
Coordinates of the point are
17 –8
,
3 3
¸ _

¸ ,
.
Clearly, this point lies in IV quadrant.
Q.6. If P
, 4
3
a ¸ _

¸ ,
is the mid-point of the line
segment joining the points Q(– 6, 5) and
R(–2, 3), then the value of a is :
(a) – 4 (b) –12 (c) 12 (d) – 6
Sol. (b) We have
–6 – 2
=
3 2
a
¬ a = –12
Q.7. A line intersects the x-axis and the y-
axis at the points P and Q respectively. If (2, –5)
is the mid point of PQ, then the coordinates of
points P and Q are; respectively.
(a) (4, 0), (0, –10) (b) (0, 10), (– 4, 0)
(c) (0, 4), (–10, 0) (d) (0, –10), (4, 0)
Sol. (a) Let the line intersects the x-axis at (x, 0)
and the y-axis at (0, y).
20
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
Then,
+0
2
x
= 2 and
0 +
2
y
= –5
¬ x = 4 and y = –10
Coordinates of P and Q are (4, 0) and (0, –10)
respectively.
Q.8. Find the coordinates of a point on
x-axis which divides the line segment joining the
points (–2, –3) and (1, 6) in the ratio 1 : 2.
[2011 (T-II)]
Sol. Let the coordinates of the point which divide
the join of points A(–2, –3) and B(1, 6) in the ratio
1 : 2 be (x, y).
Using the section formula, we get
x =
+ + ÷
=
+ +
2 1
(1)(1) 2( 2)
1 2
mx nx
m n
=
÷ ÷
=
1 4 3
3 3
= –1
And, y =
2 1
(1)(6) 2( 3)
1 2
my ny
m n
+ + −
·
+ +
=
÷
=
6 6 0
3 3
= 0
Hence, the coordinates of required point are
(–1, 0).
Q.9. Find the ratio in which the point
÷ ÷ | |
|
\ .
2 20
,
7 7
divides the join of (–2, –2) and
(2, – 4). [2011 (T-II)]
Sol. Let the point C divide AB in the ratio  : 1.
Then, the coordinates of C are
ì ÷ ÷ ì ÷
ì + ì +
| |
|
\ .
2 2 4 2
,
1 1
But, the coordinates of C are given as
2 20
,
7 7
− − ¸ _

¸ ,

ì ÷ ÷
=
ì +
2 2 2
1 7
and
÷ ì ÷ ÷
=
ì +
4 2 20
1 7
 14 – 14 = –2 – 2 and –28 – 14 = –20 – 20
 16 = 12 and –8 = –6   =
3
4
Hence, the point C divides AB in the ratio 3 : 4.
Q.10. Find the coordinates of a point R
which divides the line segment joining the points
P(–2, 3) and Q(4, 7) internally in the ratio
4
7
.
[Imp.]
Sol. Let the coordinates of the required point be
(x, y). Then
x =
( ) 4×4 + 7× –2 16 –14 2
= =
4 + 7 11 11
And, y =
4×7 + 7×3 49
=
4 + 7 11
Hence, coordinates of the required point are
2 49
,
11 11
¸ _

¸ ,
.
Q.11. Find the ratio in which the point
– 6
, 4
5
| |
|
\ .
divides the join of the points
(3, 5) and (– 4, 5). [Imp.]
Sol.
Let the required ratio be k : 1.
Then,
–6
5
=
3 – 4
+1
k
k
¬ – 6k – 6 = 15 – 20k ¬ 14k = 15 + 6
¬ k =
21 3
=
14 2
required ratio is 3 : 2.
Q.12. Find the coordinates of the points
which divide the line segment joining the points
(–2, 0) and (0, 8) in four equal parts. [2005C]
Sol. Let the points P, Q, R divide the join of
A(–2, 0) and B(0, 8) in four equal parts. Then
Q is the mid point of AB, so, coordinates of or are
–2 + 0 0 +8
,
2 2
¸ _

¸ ,
i.e., Q(–1, 4).
P is the mid-point of AQ, so, coordinates of P are
21
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
–2 –1 0 + 4
,
2 2
¸ _

¸ ,
i.e., P
–3
, 2
2
¸ _

¸ ,
.
R is the mid point of QB, so, coordinates of Q are
–1+ 0 4 +8
,
2 2
¸ _

¸ ,
i.e., R
–1
, 6
2
¸ _

¸ ,
Hence, the required points are :
P
3
– , 2
2
¸ _

¸ ,
, Q(–1, 4), R
1
– , 6
2
¸ _

¸ ,
.
Q.13. In what ratio does the point P(2, –5)
divide the line segment joining A(–3, 5) and
B(4, –9)? [2005C]
Sol. Let the required ratio be k : 1.
Then, by the section formula, the coordinates of P
are :
4 – 3 –9 + 5
,
+1 +1
k k
k k
¸ _

¸ ,

4 – 3
+1
k
k
= 2 and
–9 +5
+1
k
k
= –5
¬ 4k – 3 = 2k + 2 and – 9k + 5 = – 5k – 5
¬ 2k = 5 and 4k = 10 ¬ k =
5
2
in each case.
Hence, the required ratio is
5
2
: 1, which is 5 : 2.
Q.14. Prove that (4, –1), (6, 0), (7, 2) and
(5, 1) are the vertices of a rhombus. Is it a
square? [V. Imp.]
Sol. Let the given points be A, B, C and D
respectively. Then,
Coordinates of the mid-point of AC are :
4 + 7 –1+ 2 11 1
, = ,
2 2 2 2
¸ _ ¸ _

¸ , ¸ ,
Coordinates of the mid-point of BD are :
6 +5 0 +1 11 1
, = ,
2 2 2 2
¸ _ ¸ _

¸ , ¸ ,
Thus, AC and BD have the same mid-points.
Hence, ABCD is a parallelogram.
Now,
AB =
( ) ( )
2 2
6 – 4 + 0 +1 = 5
BC =
( ) ( )
2 2
7 – 6 + 2 – 0 = 5
AB = BC
So, ABCD is a parallelogram, whose adjacent
sides are equal.
Hence, ABCD is a rhombus. Proved.
We have,
AC = ( ) ( )
2 2
7 – 4 + 2 +1 = 3 2 ,
and BD =
( ) ( )
2 2
6 – 5 + 0 –1 = 2
.
Clearly, AC = BD.
So, ABCD is not a square.
Q.15. If the mid-point of the line segment
joining the points A(3, 4) and B(k, 6) is P(x, y)
and + y – 10 = 0, find the value of k.
[2011 (T-II)]
Sol. We have x =
3 +
2
k
and y =
4 + 6
2
¬ 2x = 3 + k and y = 5
Also, x + y – 10 = 0 ¬
3 +
+ 5 – 10
2
k
= 0
¬ k = 7
Q.16. ABCD is a parallelogram with
vertices A(x
1
, y
1
), B(x
2
, y
2
) and C(x
3
, y
3
). Find
the coordinates of the fourth vertex D in terms of
x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, y
1
, y
2
, y
3
.
Sol. Let the coordinates of D be (x, y).
Then, we know that the diagonals of a
parallelogram bisect each other.
Therefore, mid-point of AC = mid-point of BD.
¬
1 3 1 3
+ +
,
2 2
x x y y ¸ _

¸ ,
=
2 2
+ +
,
2 2
x x y y ¸ _

¸ ,
¬
1 3 2
+ +
=
2 2
x x x x
and
1 3 2
+ +
=
2 2
y y y y
22
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
¬ x = x
1
– x
2
+ x
3
, y = y
1
– y
2
+ y
3
Therefore, the coordinates of D are (x
1
– x
2
+ x
3
,
y
1
– y
2
+ y
3
)
Q.17. If (9a – 2, –b) divides the line segment
joining A(3a + 1, –3) and B(8a, 5) in the ratio
3 : 1, find the values of a and b. [V. Imp.]
Sol. We have, 9a – 2 =
( ) 3×8 +1× 3 +1
3 +1
a a
¬ 36a – 8 = 24a + 3a + 1
¬ 9a = 9 ¬ a = 1
And – b =
3×5 –1×3
3+1
¬ – 4b = 12 ¬ b = –3
Q.18. Find the ratio in which the line
2x + 3y – 5 = 0 divides the line segment joining
the points (8, –9) and (2, 1). Also, find the
coordinates of the point of division. [2011 (T-II)]
Sol. Let the required ratio be k : 1 and the
coordinates of division are (x, y).
Then, x =
2 +8
+1
k
k
andy =
– 9
+1
k
k
…... (i)
But, P(x, y) lies on the line 2x + 3y – 5 = 0

2 +8 – 9
2. + 3 . – 5
+1 +1
k k
k k
= 0
¬ 4k + 16 + 3k – 27 – 5k – 5 = 0
¬ 2k = 16 ¬ k = 8 ¬ Required ratio = 8 : 1
Also, from (i) x =
2 × 8 + 8
9
=
8
3
and y =
1

9
Hence, coordinates of the point of division are
8 1
, –
3 9
¸ _

¸ ,
.
Q.19. If the point C(–1, 2) divides internally
the line segment joining A(2, 5) and B(x, y) in the
ratio 3 : 4, then find the coordinates of B.
[2011 (T-II)]
Sol. Let the coordinates of B be (, ). It is given
that AC : BC = 3 : 4.
So, the coordinates of C are
3 4 2 3 4 5 3 8 3 20
, ,
3 4 3 4 7 7
α + × β + × α + β +
·
+ +
¸ _ ¸ _

¸ , ¸ ,
But, the coordinates of C are (–1, 2).

3 8
7
α +
= –1 and
| + 3 20
7
= 2
  = –5 and  = –2
Thus, the coordinates of B are (–5, –2).
Q.20. If the coordinates of the mid-points of
the sides of a triangle are (1, 1), (2, –3) and
(3, 4), find its centroid.
Sol. Let P(1, 1), Q(2, –3) and R(3, 4) be the mid-
points of sides AB, BC and CArespectively of triangle
ABC. Let A(x
1
, y
1
), B(x
2
, y
2
) and C(x
3
, y
3
) be the
vertices of triangle ABC. Then, P is the mid-point of
AB.
¬
1 2 1 2
+ +
= 1, = 1
2 2
x x y y
¬ x
1
+ x
2
= 2 and y
1
+ y
2
= 2 …(i)
Q is the mid-point of BC.

2 3 2 3
+ +
= 2, = –3
2 2
x x y y
¬ x
2
+ x
3
= 4 and y
2
+ y
3
= –6 …(ii)
R is the mid-point of AC
¬
1 3
+
= 3
2
x x
and
1 3
+
= 4
2
y y
¬ x
1
+ x
3
= 6 and y
1
+ y
3
= 8 ...(iii)
From (i), (ii) and (iii), we get
x
1
+ x
2
+ x
2
+ x
3
+ x
1
+ x
3
= 2 + 4 + 6
23
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
and y
1
+ y
2
+ y
2
+ y
3
+ y
1
+ y
3
= 2 – 6 + 8
¬ x
1
+ x
2
+ x
3
= 6 and y
1
+ y
2
+ y
3
= 2 ...(iv)
The coordinates of the centroid of AABC
are :
1 2 3 1 2 3
+ + + +
,
3 3
x x x y y y ¸ _

¸ ,
.
=
6 2 2
, = 2,
3 3 3
| | | |
| |
\ . \ .
Q.21. A(3, 2) and B(–2, 1) are two vertices
of a triangle ABC whose centroid G has the
coordinates
5 1
, –
3 3
¸ _

¸ ,
. Find the coordinate of the
third vertex C of the triangle. [2004]
Sol. Let the coordinates of the third vertex of
triangle ABC be C(x, y).
Then,
3 + – 2 5
=
3 3
x
¬
+1 5
=
3 3
x
¬ x = 5 – 1 = 4
Again,
2 +1+ 1
= –
3 3
y
¬
3 + 1
= –
3 3
y
¬ y = –1 – 3 = – 4
 Coordinates of third vertex are C(4, – 4)
Q.22. If the points (10, 5), (8, 4) and (6, 6)
are the mid-points of the sides of a triangle, find
its vertices. [2006]
Sol. Let the vertices of the triangle be A(x
1
, y
1
),
B(x
2
, y
2
) and E(x
3
, y
3
).
(10, 5) is the mid-point of A(x
1
, y
1
) and B(x
2
, y
2
)
¬ 10 =
1 2
+
2
x x
and 5 =
1 2
+
2
y y
¬ x
1
+ x
2
= 20 … (i)
and y
1
+ y
2
= 10 … (ii)
(8, 4) is the mid-point of B(x
2
, y
2
) and C(x
3
, y
3
).
x
2
+ x
3
= 16 … (iii)
and y
2
+ y
3
= 8 … (iv)
(6, 6) is the mid-point of C(x
3
, y
3
) and A(x
1
, y
1
)
x
1
+ x
3
= 12 … (v)
and y
1
+ y
3
= 12 … (vi)
Adding (i), (iii) and (v), we get
x
1
+ x
2
+ x
3
= 24 … (vii)
Adding (ii), (iv) and (vii), we get
y
1
+ y
2
+ y
3
= 15 … (viii)
Subtracting (i) from (vii), we get x
3
= 4
Subtracting (ii) from (viii), we get y
3
= 5
Similarly, we get x
1
= 8 and y
1
= 7, x
2
= 12 and
y
2
= 3
Hence, coordinates of the vertices are (8, 7), (12,
3) and (4, 5).
Q.23. If (4, –8), B(3, 6) and C(5, – 4) are the
vertices of AABC, D is the mid-point of BC and
P is a point on AD joined such that
AP
PD
= 2.
Find the coordinates of P. [2008]
Sol. Let the coordinates of P be (x, y).
Coordinates of D are
– 4 + 6 5 + 3
,
2 2
¸ _

¸ ,
or (4, 1).
P divides AD is the ratio 2 : 1
x =
2×4 +1×4
3
and y =
( ) 2×1+1× –8
3
¬ x = 4 and y = –2
Hence, coordinates of P are (4, –2).
24
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
PRACTICE EXERCISE 7.2A
Q.24. If the points A(6, 1), B(8, 2), C(9, 4)
and D(p, 3) are the vertices of a parallelogram
taken in order, find the value of p. [2011 (T-II)]
Sol. We know that the diagonals of a
parallelogram bisect each other. So, coordinates of the
mid-points of diagonal AC are same as the coordinates
of the mid-point of diagonal BD.

+ + + +
=
| | | |
| |
\ . \ .
6 9 1 4 8 2 3
, ,
2 2 2 2
p

+
=
| | | |
| |
\ . \ .
15 5 8 5
, ,
2 2 2 2
p

+
=
15 8
2 2
p
 15 = 8 + p  p = 7
Q.25. The line segment joining the points
A(2, 1) and B(5, –8) is trisected at the points P
and Q such that P is nearer to A. If P also lies on
the line given by 2x – y + k = 0, find the value
of k. [2009, 2011 (T-II)]
Sol . Since the line segment AB is trisected at
point P and Q.
So, AP = PQ = QB
¬ AP : PB = 1 : 2
x coordinate of P is
1×5 + 2×2
1+ 2
= 3
y coordinate of P is
( ) 1× –8 + 2×1
1+ 2
= –2
Coordinates of P are (3, –2)
Since, P lies on the line 2x – y + k = 0
¬ 2 × 3 + 2 + k = 0 ¬ k = –8.
Choose the correct option (Q. 1 – 8) :
1. If the ratio in which P divides the line
segment joining (x
1
, y
1
) and (x
2
, y
2
) be k : 1, then
coordinates
of the point P are :
(a)
1 2 2 1
+ +
,
+1 +1
kx x ky y
k k
¸ _

¸ ,
(b)
2 1 2 1
+ +
,
+1 +1
kx x ky y
k k
¸ _

¸ ,
(c)
1 2 1 2
+ +
,
+1 +1
x x y y
k k
¸ _

¸ ,
(d) none of these
2. The y-axis divides the join of P(– 4, 2) and
Q(8, 3) in the ratio :
(a) 3 : 1 (b) 1 : 3 (c) 2 : 1 (d) 1 : 2
3. Two vertices of PQR are P(–1, 4) and
Q(5, 2) and its centroid is G(0, –3). The
coordinates of R are :
(a) (4, 3) (b) (4, 15)
(c) (– 4, –15) (d) (–15, – 4)
4. A point A divides the join of X(5, –2) and
Y(9, 6) in the ratio 3 : 1. The coordinates of A
are :
(a) (4, 7) (b) (8, 4)
(c)
11
, 5
2
¸ _

¸ ,
(d) (12, 8)
5. The point M(1, 2) divides the join of
P(–2, 1) and Q(7, 4) in the ratio :
(a) 1 : 2 (b) 2 : 1 (c) 3 : 2 (d) 2 : 3
6. If M(–1, 1) is the mid point of the line
segment joining P(–3, y) and Q(1, y + 4), then
the value of y is :
(a) 1 (b) –1 (c) 2 (d) 0
7. The coordinates of the centroid of the
triangle with vertices (a, 0), (0, b) and
(a, b) are :
(a)
,
2 2
a b ¸ _

¸ ,
(b)
,
3 3
a b ¸ _

¸ ,
(c)
2 2
,
3 3
a b ¸ _

¸ ,
(d) none of these
8. If the point P(2, 1) lies on the line segment
joining points A(4, 2) and B(8, 4), then
(a) AP =
1
3
AB (b) AP = PB
25
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
(c) PB =
1
3
AB (d) AP =
1
2
AB
9. In what ratio does the point P(2, –5)
divide the line segment joining A(–3, 5) and
B(4, –9)?
10. What are the coordinates of the centroid
of a triangle whose vertices are (0, 6), (8, 12)
and (8, 0)?
11. Find the coordinates of a point A, where
AB is the diameter of a circle whose centre is
(2, –3) and B is (1, 4).
12. Check whether A(4, 3), B(6, 4), C(5, –6)
and D(–3, 5) are the vertices of a parallelogram.
13. Point P(5, –3) is one of the two points of
trisection of the line segment joining the points
A(7, –2) and B(1, –5). Is this statement true?
14. In what ratio does the x-axis divide the
line segment joining the points (– 4, –6) and
(–1, 7)? Find the coordinates of the point of
division.
15. If (a, b) is the mid-point of the line
segment joining the points A(10, –6) and B(k, 4),
and a – 2b = 18, find the value of k and the
distance AB. [Imp.]
16. The line segment joining the points
A(3, 2) and B(5, 1) is divided at the point P in
the ratio 1 : 2 and it lies on the line 3x – 18y
+ k = 0. Find the value of k. [V. Imp.]
17. Find the coordinates of the point R on
the line segment joining the points P(–1, 3) and
Q(2, 5) such that PR =
3
5
PQ. [V. Imp.]
18. If the coordinates of the mid-points of
the sides of a triangle are (1, 2), (0, –1) and
(2, –1), find the coordinates of its vertices.
19. Find the length of the medians of a
AABC whose vertices are A(7, –3), B(5, 3) and
C(3, –1).
20. If the mid-points of the sides of a triangle
are (2, 3),
3
, 4
2
¸ _

¸ ,
and
11
, 5
2
¸ _

¸ ,
, find the centroid
of the triangle.
21. Three vertices of a parallelogram are
(a + b, a – b), (2a + b, 2a – b) and
(a – b, a + b). Find the fourth vertex. [V. Imp.]
22. Prove that the coordinates of the centroid
of a AABC with vertices A(x
1
, y
1
), B(x
2
, y
2
) and
C(x
3
, y
3
) are given by
1 2 3 1 2 3
+ + + +
,
3 3
x x x y y y ¸ _

¸ ,
[2009]
23. If A(5, –1), B(–3, –2) and C(–1, 8) are
the vertices of a triangle ABC, find the length of
the median through A and the coordinates of the
centroid. [2006]
24. The mid-points of the sides of a triangle
are (3, 4), (4, 6) and (5, 7). Find the coordinates
of the vertices of the triangle. [2008]
25. The line segment joining the points P(3,
3) and Q(6, –6) is trisected at the points A and B
such that A is nearer to P. If A also lies on the
line given by 2x + y + k = 0, find the value of k.
[2009]
26. If P(x, y) is any point on the line segment
joining the points A(a, 0) and B(0, b) then show
that
x y
a b
+
= 1 [2011 (T-II)]
27. Using the section formula, show that the
points A(–3, 1), B(1, 3) and C(–1, 1) are
collinear. [2011 (T-II)]
28. Prove that the parallelogram
circumscribing a circle is a rhombus.
[2011 (T-II)]
7.3 AREA OF A TRIANGLE
1. The area of a AABC with vertices
A(x
1
, y
1
), B(x
2
, y
2
) and C(x
3
, y
3
) is given by :
Area AABC =
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
1 2 3 2 3 1 2 1 2
1
– + – + –
2
x y y x y y x y y
Since area of a triangle cannot be negative,
we consider the absolute or numerical value of
the area.
2. Three given points A(x
1
, y
1
), B(x
2
, y
2
) and
C(x
3
, y
3
), are collinear if area of AABC = 0
26
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
¬
1
2
[x
1
(y
2
– y
3
) + x
2
(y
3
– y
1
)
+ x
3
(y
1
– y
2
)] = 0
¬ x
1
(y
2
– y
3
) + x
2
(y
3
– y
1
) + x
3
(y
1
– y
2
) = 0
TEXTBOOK’S EXERCISE 7.3
Q.1. Find the area of the triangle whose
vertices are :
(i) (2, 3), (–1, 0), (2, – 4)
(ii) (–5, –1), (3, –5), (5, 2)
Sol. Area of the triangle with vertices (x
1
, y
1
),
(x
2
, y
2
) and (x
3
, y
3
)
=
1
2
[x
1
(y
2
– y
3
) + x
2
(y
3
– y
1
) + x
3
(y
1
– y
2
)]
(i) Vertices of trianlge are (2, 3), (–1, 0) and (2, – 4).
Area of triangle
=
1
2
[2{0 – (– 4)} + (–1)(– 4 –3)
+ 2(3 – 0)] sq. units
=
1
2
(8 + 7 + 6) =
21
2
sq. units.
(ii) Vertices of triangle are (–5, –1), (3, –5) and
(5, 2).
Area the triangle
=
1
2
[(–5) {–5 – 2} + 3 {2 – (–1)}
+ 5{(–1) – (–5)}] sq. units
=
1
2
[35 + 9 + 20] = 32 sq. units.
Q.2. In each of the following find the value
of k, for which the points are collinear.
(i) (7, –2), (5, 1), (3, k) [Imp.]
(ii) (8, 1), (k, – 4), (2, –5) [Imp.]
Sol.(i) Let given points (7, –2), (5, 1) and (3, k)
are collinear.
Area of the triangle formed by these points
=
1
2
[x
1
(y
2
– y
3
) + x
2
(y
3
– y
1
) + x
3
(y
1
– y
2
)]
=
1
2
[7 (1 – k) + 5{k – (–2)} + 3(–2 –1)]
=
1
2
[7 – 7k + 5k + 10 – 9]
=
1
2
[8 – 2k] = 4 – k
If the points are collinear, then area of the triangle
= 0
¬ 4 – k = 0 ¬ k = 4
(ii) Let the given points (8, 1), (k, – 4) and
(2, –5) are collinear.
Area of the triangle
=
1
2
[8{– 4 –(–5)} + k (–5)}
+ k (–5 –1) + 2{1 – (– 4)}]
=
1
2
[8 –6k + 10] =
1
2
[18 –6k] = 9 – 3k
If the points are collinear, then area of the triangle
= 0
¬ 9 – 3k = 0 ¬ 3k = 9 = k = 3.
Q.3. Find the area of the triangle formed by
joining the mid-points of the sides of the triangle
whose vertices are (0, –1), (2, 1) and (0, 3). Find
the ratio of this area to the area of the given
triangle.
Sol. Let A, B, C be the vertices of the triangle
ABC. Let D, E and F be the mid-points of sides BC,
CA and AB respectively. Then,
Coordinates of point D are
2 + 0 1+ 3
,
2 2
¸ _

¸ ,
i.e., (1, 2).
Coordinates of point E are
( ) 3 + –1 0 + 0
,
2 2
¹ ¹
' ;
¹ ¹
i.e.,
(0, 1).
27
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
Coordinates of point F are
( ) 1+ –1 2 + 0
,
2 2
¹ ¹
' ;
¹ ¹
i.e.,
(1, 0).
Area of the triangle DEF
=
1
2
[x
1
(y
2
– y
3
) + x
2
(y
3
– y
1
) + x
3
(y
1
– y
2
)]
=
1
2
[1 (1 – 0) + 0 (0 – 2) + 1 (2 – 1)]
=
1
2
[1 + 0 + 1] = 1 sq. unit
Again, area of the triangle ABC
=
1
2
[0 (1 – 3) + 2 {3 – (–1)} + 0 (–1 – 1)]
= 4 sq. units.
Ratio of the area of the triangle formed by
joining mid-points to the area of the given triangle
= 1 : 4.
Q.4. Find the area of the quadrilateral
whose vertices, taken in order, are (– 4, –2),
(–3, –5), (3, –2) and (2, 3). [Imp.]
Sol. Let A(– 4, –2), B(–3, –5), C(3, –2) and
D(2, 3) are the vertices of the quadrilateral ABCD.
Since, area of the triangle with vertices (x
1
, y
1
),
(x
2
, y
2
) and (x
3
, y
3
)
=
1
2
[x
1
(y
2
– y
3
) + x
2
(y
3
– y
1
) + x
3
(y
1
– y
2
)]
Join BD.
So, area of AABD =
1
2
[(– 4){–5 – 3)}
+ (–3) {3 – (–2)} + 2{(–2) – (–5)}]
=
1
2
[32 – 15 + 6] =
23
2
sq. units
Area of ACBD
=
1
2
[3(–5 – 3) + (–3){3 – (–2)}
+ (2){(–2) – (–5)}]
=
1
2
[–24 – 15 + 6]
= –
33
2
=
33
2
sq. units [numerically]
Area of the quadrilateral ABCD
= Area of the triangle ABD
+ Area of the triangle CBD
=
23
2
sq. units +
33
2
sq. units = 28 sq. units
Q.5. You know that, a median of a triangle
divides it into two triangles of equal areas. Verify
this result for AABC whose vertices are A(4, –6),
B(3, –2) and C(5, 2). [HOTS]
Sol. Let D be the mid-point of the side BC of the
triangle ABC. Then
The coordinates of point D are
( ) –2 + 2 3 +5
,
2 2
¹ ¹
' ;
¹ ¹
= (4, 0)
Then, AD is median
Now, area of AABD =
1
2
[4{(–2) – 0}
+ 3{0 – (–6)} + 4{(–6) – (–2)}]
=
1
2
[–8 + 18 – 16] = –3 square units
= 3 sq. units [numerically]
Similarly, area of AACD
=
1
2
[4(2 – 0) + 5{0 – (–6)} + 4(–6 – 2)]
=
1
2
[8 + 30 – 32] = 3 sq. units
Clearly, area of AABD = area of AACD
Hence, a median of a triangle divides it into
two triangle of equal areas. Verified.
28
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS
Q.1. The area of the triangle formed by
(x, y + z), (y, z + x) and (z, x + y) is :
(a) x + y + z (b) xyz
(c) (x + y + z)
2
(d) 0
Sol. (d) Required area
=
1
2
[x (z + x – x – y) + y (x + y – y – z)
+ z (y + z – z – x)
=
1
2
[xz – xy + xy – yz + zy – xz]
=
1
2
× 0 = 0.
Q.2. If points (x, 0), (0, y) and (1, 1) are
collinear, then
1 1
+
x y
is equal to :
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 0 (d) –1
Sol. (a) (x, 0), (0, y) and (1, 1) are collinear.
¬ x (y – 1) + 0 (1 – 0) + 1 (0 – y) = 0
¬ xy – x – y = 0
¬ x + y = xy ¬
1 1
+
x y
= 1.
Q.3. If (x, 2), (–3, – 4) and (7, –5) are
collinear, then x is equal to :
(a) 60 (b) 63 (c) – 63 (d) – 60
Sol. (c) (x, 2), (–3, – 4) and (7, –5) are collinear.
¬ x (– 4 + 5) – 3 (–5 – 2) + 7 (2 + 4) = 0
¬ x + 21 + 42 = 0 ¬ x = –63
Q.4. If the area of the triangle formed by the
points (a, 2a), (–2, 6) and (3, 1) is 5 square units,
then a is equal to :
(a) 2 (b)
3
5
(c) 3 (d) 5
Sol. (a) We have, 5 =
1
2
[a (6 – 1) – 2 (1 – 2a)
+ 3 (2a – 6)]
¬ 10 = 5a – 2 + 4a + 6a – 18
¬ 15a = 30 ¬ a = 2
Q.5. If the area of a quadrilateral ABCD is
zero, then the four points A, B, C and D are :
(a) collinear (b) not collinear
(c) nothing can be said
(d) none of these
Sol. (a) Area of quadrilateral ABCD = 0, means
A, B, C, D are collinear.
Q.6. The area of the triangle with vertices
A(3, 0), B(7, 0) and C(8, 4) is :
(a) 14 (b) 28 (c) 8 (d) 6
Sol. (c) Required area
=
1
2
[3(0 – 4) + 7(4 – 0) + 8(0 – 0)]
=
1
2
[–12 + 28] = 8 sq. units.
Q.7. If the points A(1, 2), O(0, 0) and C(a, b)
are collinear, then : [2011 (T-II)]
(a) a = b (b) a = 2b
(c) 2a = b (d) a = –b
Sol. (c) We have
1(0 – b) + 0(b – 2) + a(2 – 0) = 0
¬ –b + 2a = 0 ¬ b = 2a
Q.8. Check whether the points (4, 5), (7, 6)
and (6, 3) are collinear.
Sol. Area of the triangle formed by the points
(4, 5), (7, 6) and (6, 3)
=
1
2
[4 (6 – 3) + 7 (3 – 5) + 6 (5 – 6)]
=
1
2
[12 – 14 – 6] = – 4 = 0
Hence, the points are not collinear.
Q.9. Find the area of the triangle ABC with
A(1, – 4), and the mid-points of sides through A
being (2, –1) and (0, –1). [Imp.]
Sol. Let the coordinates of B and C be (x
1
, y
1
)
and (x
2
, y
2
) respectively.
29
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
Then,
1 1
1+ –4 +
,
2 2
x y ¸ _

¸ ,
= (2, – 1) and
2 2
1+ –4 +
,
2 2
x y ¸ _

¸ ,
= (0, – 1)
¬ 1 + x
1
= 4, – 4 + y
1
= –2
and 1 + x
2
= 0 and – 4 + y
2
= –2
¬ x
1
= 3, y
1
= 2 and x
2
= –1, y
2
= 2
Coordinates of B and C are (3, 2) and
(–1, 2) respectively.
Area of AABC =
1
2
[1(2 – 2)
+ 3(2 + 4) – 1(– 4 – 2)]
=
1
2
[0 + 18 + 6] = 12 sq. units.
Q.10. Find the values of k if A(k + 1, 2k),
B(3k, 2k + 3) and C(5k – 1, 5k) are collinear.
[V. Imp.]
Sol. We have, (k + 1) (2k + 3 – 5k) + 3k (5k – 2k)
+ (5k – 1) (2k – 2k – 3) = 0
¬ (k + 1) (–3k + 3) + 9k
2
– 15k + 3 = 0
¬ –3k
2
+ 3k – 3k + 3 + 9k
2
– 15k + 3 = 0
¬ 6k
2
– 15k + 6 = 0 ¬ 2k
2
– 5k + 2 = 0
¬ 2k
2
– 4k – k + 2 = 0
¬ 2k (k – 2) – 1 (k – 2) = 0
¬ (k – 2) (2k – 1) = 0 ¬ k = 2 or
1
2
.
Q.11. Find the area of the quadrilateral
whose vertices are A(0, 0), B(6, 0), C(4, 3) and
D(0, 3). [2008C]
Sol. Area of AABC =
1
2
[0 (0 – 3) + 6(3 – 0)
+ 4 (0 – 0)] sq. units
=
1
2
(0 + 18 + 0) = 9 sq. units
Area of AADC =
1
2
[0 (3 – 3) + 0 (3 – 0)
+ 4 (0 – 3)] sq. units
=
1
2
(0 + 0 – 12) sq. units = –6 sq. units
= 6 sq. units
Area of quadrilateral ABCD
= (9 + 6) sq. units = 15 sq. units
Q.12. Prove that the points (a, b + c),
(b, c + a) and (c, a + b) are collinear.
[2004, 2011 (T-II)]
Sol. Let A be the area of the triangle formed by
the points (a, b + c), (b, c + a), (c, a + b).
We have
a b c a
(b + c) (c + a) (a + b) (b + c)
A =
1
2
|{a(c + a) + b(a + b) + c(b + c)}
– {b(b + c) + c(a + c) + a(a + b)}|
=
1
2
|(ac + a
2
+ ab + b
2
+ bc + c
2
)
– (b
2
+ bc + c
2
+ ca + a
2
+ ab)|
A = 0 ¬ the given points are collinear. Proved.
Q.13. Find the value of p for which the
points (–5, 1), (1, p) and (4, –2) are collinear.
[2006]
Sol. The given points are A(–5, 1), B(1, p) and
C(4, –2). These points are collinear, so the area of
triangle formed by these points will be zero.
–5 1 4 –5
1
2
1 –2 1 p
1
1
1
1
¸ ]
= 0
¬ [{(–5 × p) + (1) × (– 2) + (4 × 1)}
– {(1 × 1) + (4 × p) + (–5) × (– 2)}] = 0
¬ [(–5p – 2 + 4) – (1 + 4p + 10)] = 0
¬ (–5p + 2 – 11 – 4p) = 0
¬ (–9p – 9) = 0 ¬ –9p = 9 ¬ p = – 1.
Q.14. If three points (x
1
, y
1
), (x
2
, y
2
), (x
3
, y
3
)
lie on the same line, prove that
2 3 3 1 1 2
2 3 3 1 1 2
– – –
+ +
y y y y y y
x x x x x x
= 0. [V. Imp.]
Sol. Points (x
1
, y
1
), (x
2
, y
2
) and (x
3
, y
3
) are
collinear. So, area of the triangle formed by these
points will be zero.
¬ x
1
(y
2
– y
3
) + x
2
(y
3
– y
1
) + x
3
(y
1
– y
2
) = 0
30
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
¬
( ) ( )
1 2 3 2 3 1
1 2 3 1 2 3
– –
+
x y y x y y
x x x x x x
+
( )
3 1 2
1 2 3
– x y y
x x x
= 0
[Dividing by x
1
, x
2
, x
3
]
¬
2 3 3 1 1 2
2 3 1 3 1 2
– – –
+ +
y y y y y y
x x x x x x
= 0. Proved
Q.15. Four points A(6, 3), B(–3, 5), C(4, –2)
and D(x, 3x) are given in such a way that
( )
( )
1
=
2
ar ΔDBC
ar ΔABC
,
find x.
[V. Imp.]
Sol. For ADBC
x –3 4 x
3x 5 –2 3x
Area of ADBC =
1
2
[(5x + 6 + 12x)
– (–9x + 20 – 2x)]
=
1
2
[(28x – 14)] = [14x – 7] = 7|2x – 1|
For AABC
6 –3 4 6
3 5 –2 3
Area of AABC
=
1
2
[(30 + 6 + 12) – (–9 + 20 – 12)]
=
1
2
[48 + 1] =
49
2
.
Now,
Area of DBC 1
=
Area of ABC 2


¬
7 2 – 1 1 7
= 2 – 1 = ±
49
2 4
2
x
x ⇒
¬ 2x =
11
4
or, 2x =
–3
4
x =
11
8
or x =
–3
8
.
Q.16. If a = b = c, prove that the points
(a, a
2
), (b, b
2
) and (c, c
2
) can never be collinear.
Sol. Let A be the area of the triangle formed by
the points (a, a
2
), (b, b
2
), (c, c
2
);
a b c a
a
2
b
2
c
2
a
2
A =
1
2
[(ab
2
+ bc
2
+ ca
2
) – (a
2
b + b
2
c + c
2
a)]
=
1
2
[(a
2
c – a
2
b) + (ab
2
– ac
2
)
+ (bc
2
– b
2
c)]
=
1
2
[–a
2
(b – c) + a(b
2
– c
2
) – bc (b – c)]
=
1
2
[{(b – c) (–a
2
+ a(b + c) – bc}]
=
1
2
[(b – c) (– a
2
+ ab + ac – bc)]
=
1
2
[(b – c) {–a(a – b) + c(a – b)}]
¬ A =
1
2
[(b – c) (a – b) (c – a)]
It is given that a = b = c ¬ A = 0.
Hence, given points are never collinear. Proved.
Q.17. The area of a triangle is 5 sq. units.
Two of its vertices are (2, 1) and (3, –2). The
third vertex lies on y = x + 3. Find the third
vertex. [HOTS]
Sol. Let the third vertex be A(x, y). Other two
vertices of the triangle are B(2, 1) and C(3, –2).
x 2 3 x
y 1 –2 y
Area of AABC = 5 sq. units.
¬
1
2
|(x – 4 + 3y) – (2y + 3 – 2x)| = 5
¬
1
2
|(x – 4 + 3y – 2y – 3 + 2x)| = 5
¬
1
2
|3x + y – 7| = 5 ¬ 3x + y – 7 = ± 10
¬ 3x + y – 17 = 0 or 3x + y + 3 = 0
It is given that the vertex A(x, y) lies on y = x + 3.
Solving 3x + y – 17 = 0 and y = x + 3, we get
x =
7
2
and y =
13
2
31
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
Solving 3x + y + 3 = 0 and y = x + 3, we get
x =
–3
2
and y =
3
2
Hence, the coordinates of the third vertex are
7 13 –3 3
, or ,
2 2 2 2
¸ _ ¸ _

¸ , ¸ ,
.
Q.18. A(6, 1), B(8, 2) and C(9, 4) are three
vertices of a parallelogram ABCD. If E is the
mid-point of DC, find the area of AADE.
Sol. Let the coordinates of D be (x, y). Then,
we know that the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect
each other.
mid-point of AC = mid-point of BD
¬
15 5
,
2 2
¸ _

¸ ,
=
8 + 2 +
,
2 2
x y ¸ _

¸ ,
¬
8 + 15
=
2 2
x
and
2 + 5
=
2 2
y
¬ x = 7 and y = 3
Coordinates of D are (7, 3).
Now, coordinates of E are
7 + 9 3 + 4
,
2 2
¸ _

¸ ,
=
7
8,
2
¸ _

¸ ,
Area of AADE
=
1
2
( )
7 7
6 3 – + 7 – 1
2 2
+ 8 1 – 3
1 ¸ _ ¸ _
1
¸ , ¸ ,
1
1
¸ ]
sq. units.
=
1
2
35
–3 + – 16
2
¸ _

¸ ,
sq. units
=
1
2
3

2
¸ _

¸ ,
sq. units = –
3
4
sq. units
=
3
4
sq. units.
Q.19. If the points A(1, –2), B(2, 3), C(a, 2)
and D(– 4, –3) form a parallelogram, find the
value of a and height of the parallelogram taking
AB as base. [HOTS]
Sol.  Diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each
other
mid-point of AC = mid-point of BD
¬
1+ –2 + 2
,
2 2
a ¸ _

¸ ,
=
2 – 4 3 – 3
,
2 2
¸ _

¸ ,
¬ 1 + a = –2¬ a = –3
Area of AADC =
1
2
[1 (– 3 – 2) – 4 (2 + 2)
+ a (– 2 + 3)] sq. units.
=
1
2
[– 5 – 16 + a] sq. units =
1
2
[–21 – 3]
= 12 sq. units
Area of the parallelogram = 2 × 12 sq. units
= 24 sq. units
AB =
( ) ( )
2 2
1– 2 + – 2 – 3
= 1 + 25 units =
26
units
Area of parallelogram = AB × height
¬ 24 = 26 × h
¬ h =
24 24 × 26 12 26
= =
26 13 26
units.
Q.20. If A(4, –6), B(3, –2) and C(5, 2) are
the vertices of ABC, then verify the fact that a
median of a triangle ABC divides it into two
triangles of equal areas. [2011 (T-II)]
Sol. Let D be the mid-point of BC. Then, the
coordinates of D are (4, 0).
We have
4 3 5 4
–6 –2 2 –6
32
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
Area of AABC
=
1
2
|(4 × –2 + 3 × 2 + 5 × –6)
– (3 × –6 + 5 × –2 + 4 × 2)|
¬ Area of AABC =
1
2
|(–8 + 6 – 30)
– (–18 – 10 + 8)|
¬ Area of AABC =
1
2
|(–32 + 20)| = 6 sq. units
Also, we have
4 3 4 4
–6 –2 0 –6
Area of AABD
=
1
2
|{4 × (–2) + 3 × 0 + 4 × (–6)}
– {(3 × (–6) + 4 × (–2) + 4 × 0}|
¬ Area of AABD =
1
2
|(–8 + 0 – 24)
– (–18 – 8 + 0)|
¬ Area of AABD =
1
2
|(–32 + 26)| = 3 sq. units

Area of ABC 6 2
Area of ABD 3 1

· ·

¬ Area of AABC = 2(Area of AABD)
PRACTICE EXERCISE 7.3A
Choose the correct option (Q.1 – 5) :
1. Area of the triangle with vertices (x, 0),
(0, y) and (x, y) is :
(a) x + y (b) x – y (c)
x
y
(d)
2
xy
2. Area of the triangle with vertices (0, 0),
(x, 0) and (x, y) is :
(a) xy (b) 2xy (c)
2
xy
(d)
3
xy
3. If (a, b), (0, a) and (a, 0) are collinear
then :
(a) a = 0 (b) b = 0
(c) either a = 0 or b = 0
(d) none of these
4. Area of the triangle having vertices
(– 4, 2), (– 4, 6) and (– 4, –6) is :
(a) 7 sq. units (b) 10 sq. units
(c) 11 sq. units (d) 0
5. The area of the triangle whose vertices are
(a, a + b), (b, a + b) and (a, b) is :
(a)
2
+
2
a ab
(b) a
2
+ ab
(c)
2

2
a ab
(d) a
2
– ab
6. Find the area of the triangle whose
vertices are :
(a) (4, 6), (2, 6), (0, 0)
(b) (–5, –3), (–6, –8), (0, 0)
(c)
, , ,
a a b b
b c a c
¸ _ ¸ _

¸ , ¸ ,
, (0, 0)
(d) (a, a + b), (b, a + b), (a, b)
7. The coordinates of A, B, C are (3, 4),
(5, 2), (x, y) respectively. If area of ABC = 3,
show that x + y = 10. [Imp.]
8. If the vertices of a ABC are A(1, m),
B(4, –3) and C(–9, 7) and its area is 15 sq. units,
find the value of m.
9. A and B are points (3, 4) and (5, –2). Find
the coordinates of the point P such that
|PA| = |PB| and area of PAB = 10 sq. units.
10. Find the area of the quadrilateral whose
vertices are :
(a) (1, 1), (7, –3), (12, 2), (7, 21)
(b) (0, 0), (4, 6), (2, 5), (5, 1)
11. Find the area of ABC, the coordinates
of the mid-points of whose sides are D(–1, –2),
E(6, 1) and F(3, 5) respectively.
33
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
12. If D
1 5
– ,
2 2
¸ _

¸ ,
, E (7, 3) and F
7 7
,
2 2
¸ _

¸ ,
are
the mid-points of sides of AABC, find the area of
AABC. [Imp.]
13. Find the value of x if the points (x, 8),
(– 4, 2) and (5, –1) are collinear.
14. Show that the points (2, 4), (0, 1), (4, 7)
are collinear.
15. Prove that the area of triangle whose
vertices are (t, t – 2), (t + 2, t + 2) and
(t + 3, t) is independent of t. [Imp.]
16. Prove that the points (a, b), (c, d) and
(a – c, b – a) are collinear if ad = cb. [Imp.]
17. Find the relation between x and y if the
points (x, y), (1, 2) and (7, 0) are collinear.
[2009]
18. Find the area of the triangle formed by
joining the mid-points of the sides of the triangle
whose vertices are (0, –1), (0, 1) are (0, 3).
[2009]
TEXTBOOK’S EXERCISE 7.4 (OPTIONAL)
Q.1. Determine the ratio in which the line
2x + y – 4 = 0 divides the line segment joining the
points A(2, –2) and B(3, 7). [2011 (T-II)]
Sol. Let the line 2x + y – 4 = 0 divide the line
segment joining the points A(2, –2) and B(3, 7) in the
ratio K : 1. Let the point of intersection be P.
Then, coordinates of P are
=
K(3) + (1) (2) K(7) + (1) (–2)
,
K +1 K +1
¹ ¹
' ;
¹ ¹
=
3K + 2 7K – 2
,
K +1 K +1
¸ _

¸ ,
P lies on the line 2x + y – 4 = 0

3K + 2 7K – 2
2 +
K +1 K +1
¸ _ ¸ _

¸ , ¸ ,
– 4 = 0
¬ 2(3K + 2) + (7K – 2) – 4 (K + 1) = 0
¬ 6K + 4 + 7K – 2 – 4K – 4 = 0
¬ 9K – 2 = 0 ¬ K =
2
9
Hence, the required ratio is 2 : 9.
Q.2. Find a relation between x and y if the
points (x, y), (1, 2) and (7, 0) are collinear.
Sol. We know that area of A
=
1
2
[x
1
(y
2
– y
3
) + x
2
(y
3
– y
1
) + x
3
(y
1
– y
2
)]
Let given points are A(x, y), B(1, 2) and C(7, 0)

1
2
[x (2 – 0) + 1 (0 – y) + 7 (y – 2)] = 0
¬
1
2
[2x – y + 7y – 14] = 0 ¬ [2x + 6y – 14] = 0
¬ x + 3y – 7 = 0
This is the required relation between x and y.
Q.3. Find the centre of a circle passing
through the points (6, –6), (3, –7) and (3, 3).
[HOTS]
Sol. Let O(x, y) be the required centre of the
circle passing through A(6, –6), B(3, –7) and C(3, 3).
Then, OA = OB = OC
[By definition of a circle]
¬ OA
2
= OB = OC
2
¬ (x – 6)
2
+ (y + 6)
2
= (x – 3)
2
+ (y + 7)
2
= (x – 3)
2
+ (y – 3)
2
Taking first two, we have
(x – 6)
2
+ (y + 6)
2
= (x – 3)
2
+ (y + 7)
2
¬ x
2
– 12x + 36 + y
2
+ 12y + 36
= x
2
– 6x + 9 + y
2
+ 14y + 49
¬ 6x + 2y = 14
¬ 3x + y = 7 [Dividing both sides by 2]
¬ 3x + y – 7 = 0 …(i)
Taking last two, we have
(x – 3)
2
+ (y + 7)
2
= (x – 3)
2
+ (y – 3)
2
¬ (y + 7)
2
= (y – 3)
2
¬ y
2
+ 49 + 14y = y
2
+ 9 – 6y
¬ 49 + 14y – 9 + 6y = 0 ¬ 20y + 40 = 0
¬ 20y = – 40 ¬ y = –2
Putting y = –2 in equation (i), we have
3x + (–2) = 7
¬ 3x = 7 + 2 ¬ 3x = 9 ¬ x = 3
Hence, the centre of the circle is (3, –2).
Q.4. The two opposite vertices of a square
are (–1, 2) and (3, 2). Find the coordinates of the
other two vertices. [HOTS]
Sol. Let two opposite vertices of the square
34
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
ABCD are A(–1, 2) and C(3, 2) and coordinates of B
be (x, y). Length of each side of a square is equal, i.e.,
AB = BC = CD = DA.
AB = BC
AB
2
= BC
2
¬ (x + 1)
2
+ (y – 2)
2
= (x – 3)
2
+ (y – 2)
2
¬ x
2
+ 1 + 2x = x
2
+ 9 – 6x
¬ 8x – 8 = 0 ¬ 8x = 8 ¬ x = 1 … (i)
In AABC, using Pythagoras Theorem,
AC
2
= AB
2
+ BC
2
¬ (3 + 1)
2
+ (2 – 2)
2
= (x + 1)
2
+ (y – 2)
2
+ (x – 3)
2
+ (y – 2)
2
¬ 4
2
= x
2
+ 1 + 2x + y
2
+ 4 – 4y + x
2
+ 9
– 6x + y
2
+ 4 – 4y
¬ 16 = 2x
2
+ 2y
2
– 4x – 8y + 18
¬ 2x
2
+ 2y
2
– 4x – 8y + 18 – 16 = 0
¬ 2x
2
+ 2y
2
– 4x – 8y + 2 = 0
¬ x
2
+ y
2
– 2x – 4y + 1 = 0
Put x = 1, we have
¬ 1 + y
2
– 2 – 4y + 1 = 0 ¬ y
2
– 4y = 0
¬ y (y – 4) = 0
Either y = 0 or y – 4 = 0 ¬ y = 4
Hence, required points are (1, 0) and (1, 4).
Q.5. The Class X students of a secondary
school in Krishinagar have been allotted a
rectangular plot of land for their gardening
activity. Sapling of Gulmohar are planted on the
boundary at a distance of 1 m from each other.
There is a triangular grassy lawn in the plot as
shown in figure. The students are to sow seeds of
flowering plants on the remaining area of the plot.
(i) Taking A as origin, find the coordinates of
the vertices of the triangle.
(ii) What will be the coordinates of the
vertices of APQR if C is the origin ? Also
calculate the areas of the triangles in these
cases. What do you observe?
Sol. (i) Taking A as origin, AD and AB as
coordinate axes, the coordinates of the vertices of the
triangle PQR are P(4, 6), Q(3, 2) and R(6, 5).
(ii) Taking C as origin, CB and CD as coordinate
axis, the coordinates of the vertices of triangles PQR
are P(12, 2), Q(13, 6), R(10, 3).
Area of the triangle PQR taking A as origin
=
1
2
[x
1
(y
2
– y
1
) + x
2
(y
3
– y
1
) + x
3
(y
1
– y
2
)]
=
1
2
[4 (2 – 5) + 3 (5 – 6) + 6 (6 – 2)]
=
1
2
[–12 – 3 + 24]
=
9
2
sq. units = 4.5 sq. units … (i)
Area of APQR taking C as origin
=
1
2
[12(6 – 3) + 13(3 – 2) + 10(2 – 6)]
=
1
2
[36 + 13 – 40]
=
9
2
sq. units = 4.5 sq. units … (ii)
From (i) and (ii), we find that areas are same.
Q.6. The vertices of a AABC are A(4, 6),
B(1, 5) and C(7, 2). A line is drawn to intersect
sides AB and AC at D and E respectively, such
that
AD AE 1
= =
AB AC 4
. Calculate the area of the
AADE and compare it with the area of AABC.
[HOTS]
35
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
Sol. We have,
AD AE 1
= =
AB AC 4
¬
AB AC 4
= =
AD AE 1
¬
AD + DB AE + EC
=
AD AE
= 4
¬ 1 +
DB
AD
= 1 +
EC
AE
= 4
¬
DB
AD
=
EC
AE
= 3 ¬
AD AE 1
= =
DB EC 3
D and E divide AB and AC respectively in the
ratio 1 : 3.
So, the coordinates of D and E are
1+12 5 +18 13 23
, = ,
1+ 3 1+ 3 4 4
| | | |
| |
\ . \ .
and
7 +12 2 +18 19
, = , 5
1+3 1+3 4
¸ _ ¸ _

¸ , ¸ ,
respectively..
For AADE :
4
13
4
19
4
4
6
23
4
5 6
Area of AADE
=
1
2
23 13 19
4× + × 5 + × 6
4 4 4
¸ _

¸ ,

13 19 23
× 6 + × + 4 × 5
4 4 4
¸ _

¸ ,
=
1
2
92 65 114
+ +
4 4 4
78 437
– + + 20
4 16
1 ¸ _
1
¸ ,
1
1
¸ _
1
¸ ,
¸ ]
=
1
2
271 1069

4 16
1
1
¸ ]
=
1
2
×
15
16
=
15
32
sq. units.
Also, for AABC :
4 1 7 4
6 5 2 6
Area of AABC =
1
2
[(4 × 5 + 1 × 2 + 7 × 6)
– (1 × 6 + 7 × 5 + 4 × 2)]
=
1
2
[(20 + 2 + 42) – (6 + 35 + 8)]
=
1
2
[64 – 49] =
15
2
sq. units.

15
Area of ADE 1
32
= =
15
Area of ABC 16
2


.
Hence, Area of AADE : Area of AABC = 1 : 16.
Q.7. Let A(4, 2), B(6, 5) and C(1, 4) be the
vertices of AABC.
(i) The median from A meets BC at D. Find
the coordinates of the point D.
(ii) Find the coordinates of the point P on
AD such that AP : PD = 2 : 1.
(iii) Find the coordinates of points Q and R
on medians BE and CF respectively such that
BQ : QE = 2 : 1 and CR : RF = 2 : 1.
(iv) What do you observe?
(v) If A(x
1
, y
1
), B(x
2
, y
2
) and C(x
3
, y
3
) are the
vertices of AABC, find the coordinates of the
centroid of the triangle.
Sol. Given vertices of AABC are A(4, 2), B(6, 5)
and C(1, 4).
(i) AD is the median from vertex A, D is the mid-
point of BC.
Using mid-point formula the coordinates of D are
6 + 1 5 + 4 7 9
, i.e., ,
2 2 2 2
| | | |
| |
\ . \ .
.
36
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
(ii) Let P(x, y) be the point on AD such that
AP : PD = 2 : 1
Then,
7
2 +1×4
7 + 4 11 2
= = =
2 +1 3 3
x
¸ _

¸ ,
9
2 +1×2
9 + 2 11 2
= = =
2 +1 3 3
y
¸ _

¸ ,
Hence, coordinates of point P are
11 11
,
3 3
| |
|
\ .
(iii) Since, BE and CF are medians, E and F are
mid-points of AC and AB respectively.
So, x
1
=
4 +1 5
=
2 2
, y
1
=
4 + 2 6
=
2 2
= 3
Coordinates of point E are
5
, 3
2
¸ _

¸ ,
.
Similarly, x
2
=
4 + 6 10
=
2 2
= 5,
y
2
=
5 + 2 7
=
2 2
Coordinates of point F are
7
5,
2
| |
|
\ .
Q divides BE such that BQ : QE = 2 : 1
Coordinates of Q are
5
2× + 6 × 1
2×3 + 1 × 5
2
,
2 +1 2 +1
1
1
1
1
¸ ]
=
5 + 6 6 +5
,
3 3
¸ _

¸ ,
=
11 11
,
3 3
| |
|
\ .
Similarly, R divides CF such that CR : RF
= 2 : 1
Coordinates of R are
11 11
,
3 3
| |
|
\ .
.
(iv) From above, it is clear that coordinates of P,
Q and R are same. This point is known as centroid of
triangle, which divides each median in the ratio 2 : 1.
(v) The vertices of AABC are A(x
1
, y
1
), B(x
2
, y
2
)
and C(x
3
, y
3
). D is the mid-point of BC.
So, coordinates of D are
2 3 2 3
+ +
, .
2 2
| |
|
\ .
x x y y
Let G(x, y) be the centroid of AABC.
Then G divides the median AD in the ratio 2 : 1
So, x =
2 3
1
+
2 × +
2
2 +1
x x
x
and
y =
2 3
1
+
2 × +
2
2 +1
y y
y
¬ x =
1 2 3
+ +
3
x x x
and
y=
1 2 3
+ +
3
y y y
Hence, coordinates of the centroid of AABC
are
1 2 3 1 2 3
+ + + +
,
3 3
| |
|
\ .
x x x y y y
.
37
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
Q.8. ABCD is a rectangle formed by the
points A(–1, –1), B(–1, 4), C(5, 4) and D(5, –1).
P, Q, R and S are the mid-points of AB, BC, CD
and DA respectively. Is the quadrilateral PQRS
a square? a rectangle? or a rhombus? Justify
your answer. [2011 (T-II)]
Sol. The vertices of the given rectangle are
A(–1, –1), B(–1, 4), C(5, 4) and D(5, –1). P, Q, R and
S are the mid-points of side AB, BC, CD and DA
respectively.
Coordinates of P are
–1 –1 –1 + 4 3
, = –1,
2 2 2
| | | |
| |
\ . \ .
Coordinates of Q are
–1 + 5 4 + 4
,
2 2
¸ _

¸ ,
= (2, 4)
Coordinates of point R are
5 + 5 –1 + 4
,
2 2
¸ _

¸ ,
=
3
5,
2
¸ _

¸ ,
Coordinates of point S are
–1 + 5 –1 – 1
,
2 2
¸ _

¸ ,
= (2, –1)
PQ = ( )
2
2 3
2 + 1 + 4 –
2
¸ _

¸ ,
=
25 61
9 + =
4 2
QR= ( )
2
2 3
5 – 2 + – 4
2
¸ _

¸ ,
=
25 61 61
9 + = =
4 4 2
RS = ( )
2
2 3 25
2 – 5 + –1– = 9 +
2 4
¸ _

¸ ,
=
61 61
=
4 2
SP = ( )
2
2 3 25
2 + 1 + –1– = 9 +
2 4
¸ _

¸ ,
=
61 61
=
4 2
PR = ( )
2
2 3 3
5 + 1 + – = 6
2 2
¸ _

¸ ,
QS =
( ) ( )
2 2
2 – 2 + 4 + 1
= 5
Hence, we see that
PQ = QR = RS = SP
All the sides are equal.
But, PR = QS (diagonals are not equal)
Hence, PQRS is a rhombus.
B. FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Activity-1
Objective : To verify the distance formula and section formula. Or to verify the following :
(i) The distance between the points (x
1
, y
1
) and (x
2
, y
2
) is
( ) ( )
2 2
2 1 2 1
– + – x x y y
(ii) The coordinates of the point P, which divides the line segment joining the points
A(x
1
, y
1
) and B(x
2
, y
2
) in the ratio m : n are
2 1 2 1
+ +
,
+ +
mx nx my ny
m n m n
¸ _

¸ ,
.
(iii) The coordinates of the mid-points P of the line segment joining the points A (x
1
, y
1
) and
B(x
2
, y
2
) are
1 2 1 2
+ +
,
2 2
x x y y ¸ _

¸ ,
.
Materials Required : Graph paper/squared paper, geometry box, etc.
Procedure : 1. Take a 1 cm squared paper and on it draw the coordinate axes XOX' and YOY'.
38
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
2. Plot the points A (–3, 1), B (5, 1) and C (1, 8) on the squared paper and join AB, BC and AC
to get a AABC.
3. Now using a pair of compasses, find the mid-points of AC and BC. Mark these mid-points as
P and Q respectively.
4. Mark the point R on AB such that AR =
1
4
AB or R divides AB in the ratio 1 : 3. Similarly,,
mark S on AB such that AS =
3
4
AB or S divides AB in the ratio 3 : 1.
5. From the graph paper write the coordinates of P, Q, R and S.
Coordinates of
P (–1, 9/2)
Q (3, 9/2)
R (–1, 1)
S (3, 1)
39
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
Observations :
1. Using a ruler, measure the length of AB, BC and CA
We have AB = BC = CA = 8 cm.
2. Now, using formula
AB =
( ) ( )
2 2
5 +3 + 1–1
cm = 8 cm
BC =
( ) ( )
2 2
1– 5 + 8 –1 cm
=
16 + 49 cm = 65 cm
= 8.06 cm = 8 cm
CA =
( ) ( )
2 2
1+3 + 8 –1 cm
=
16 + 49 cm = 65 cm
= 8.06 cm = 8 cm
We see that in both the cases, the length of each side comes out to be 8 cm.
3. Since P and Q are mid-points of AC and BC respectively, therefore, using formula, the
coordinates of P are
1– 3 8 +1 9
, or –1,
2 2 2
¸ _ ¸ _

¸ , ¸ ,
the coordinate of Q are
1+ 5 8 +1 9
, or 3,
2 2 2
| | | |
| |
\ . \ .
Also, from the table : the coordinates of P and Q are same as obtained above.
4. Since R divides AB in the ratio 1 : 3, therefore, coordinates of R (using formula) are
( ) 1×5 + 3× –3 1×1+ 3×1
,
1+3 1+ 3
¸ _

¸ ,
or (–1, 1).
Similarly, S divides AB in the ratio 3 : 1, therefore, coordinates of S (using formula) are :
( ) 3×5 +1× –3 3×1+1×1
,
3 +1 3 +1
¸ _

¸ ,
or (3, 1). Also, from the table, the coordinates of R and S are same
as obtained above.
Conclusion : From the above activity it is verified that :
(i) the distance of the line segments joining the points (x
1
, y
1
) and (x
2
, y
2
) is given by
( ) ( )
2 2
2 1 2 1
– + – x x y y
(ii) If a point P divides the line segment joining the points (x
1
, y
1
) and (x
2
, y
2
) in the ratio m :
n, then the coordinates of P are
2 1 2 1
+ +
,
+ +
mx nx my ny
m n m n
¸ _

¸ ,
.
(iii) The coordinates of the mid-point of the line segment joining the points (x
1
, y
1
) and (x
2
, y
2
)
are
1 2 1 2
+ +
,
2 2
x x y y ¸ _

¸ ,
.
Do Yourself : Draw three different triangles on a paper and in each case verify the above formulae.
40
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
Activity-2
Objective :To verify the following formula :
The area of a triangle having vertices (x
1
, y
1
), (x
2
, y
2
) and (x
3
, y
3
) is given by
1
2
[x
1
(y
2
– y
3
) + x
2
(y
3
– y
1
) + x
3
(y
1
– y
2
)]
Materials Required : Graph paper/Squared paper, geometry box etc.
Procedure : 1. Take a 1 cm squared paper and on it draw the coordinate axes XOX' and YOY'.
Case I.
1. Plot the points A (–3, 0), B (4, 0) and C(0, 4) on the squared paper and join AB, BC and AC
to get a scalene triangle ABC.
2. Find AB, BC and AC using the distance formula.
AB =
( ) ( )
2 2
– 3 – 4 + 0 – 0 cm
= 49 cm = 7 cm
BC =
( ) ( )
2 2
4 – 0 + 0 – 4 cm
=
16 + 16 cm = 4 2 cm
AC =
( ) ( )
2 2
– 3 – 0 + 0 – 4 cm
=
9 + 16 cm = 5 cm
3. Find the area of AABC using
Heron's formula
Here, a = 7, b =
4 2
, c = 5
s =
7 + 4 2 +5
= 6 + 2 2
2
Area of AABC = ( )( )( ) – – – s s a s b s c
( )( )( )( )
6 + 2 2 6 + 2 2 – 7 6 + 2 2 – 4 2 6 + 2 2 – 5 = cm
2
= ( )( )( )( )
6 + 2 2 2 2 – 1 6 – 2 2 2 2 + 1 cm
2
=
( )( )( )( )
6 + 2 2 6 – 2 2 2 2 – 1 2 2 + 1 cm
2
= ( )( )
2
36 – 8 8 – 1 cm =
2 2
28×7 cm = 14 cm
4. Now, find the area of the triangle ABC, using the formula
1
2
[x
1
(y
2
– y
3
) – x
2
(y
3
– y
1
) + x
3
(y
1
– y
2
)]
Area of AABC =
1
2
[–3(0 – 4) + 4(4 – 0) + 0(0 – 0)] cm
2
=
1
2
[12 + 16] cm
2
= 14 cm
2
.
41
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
Observations : From (3) and (4), we see that the area of AABC comes out to be same on both
the cases.
Case II.
1. Plot the points P (–2, 3), Q (–2, 0) and R (2, 0) and join PQ, QR and PR to get the right triangle
PQR.
2. Find PQ, QR and PR using the distance formula.
PQ =
( ) ( )
2 2
– 2 + 2 3 – 0 cm
=
9 cm = 3cm
QR =
( ) ( )
2 2
– 2 – 2 + 0 – 0 cm
=
16 cm = 4 cm
PR =
( ) ( )
2 2
– 2 – 2 + 3 – 0 cm
=
16 + 9 cm = 5 cm
3. Find the area of APQR using Heron's
formula :
Here, a = 3 cm, b = 4 cm, c = 5 cm
s =
3 + 4 + 5
2
cm = 6 cm
Area of APQR = ( )( )( ) – – – s s a s b s c
= ( )( )( ) 6 6 – 3 6 – 4 6 – 5 cm
2
=
6×3×2×1
cm
2
= 6 cm
2
4. Now, find the area of APQR using the formula
1
2
[x
1
(y
2
– y
3
) + x
2
(y
3
– y
1
) + x
3
(y
1
– y
2
)]
Area of APQR =
1
2
[–2 (0 – 0) – 2 (0 – 3) + 2 (3 – 0)] cm
2
=
1
2
[6 + 6] = 6 cm
2
Observations : From (3) and (4) above we see that area of APQR comes out to be same in both
the cases.
Conclusion : From the above activity it is verified that the area of a triangle having vertices
(x
1
, y
1
), (x
2
, y
2
) and (x
3
, y
3
) is given by
1
2
[x
1
(y
2
– y
3
) + x
2
(y
3
– y
1
) + x
3
(y
1
– y
2
)]
Investigation
On a squared / graph paper, draw a rectangle of dimensions 4 × 3. Draw one of the diagonals
of the rectangle. The diagonal passes through 6 squares.
Now on a squared paper draw several rectangles of different sizes. The length (l) and breadth (b)
of each rectangle must be a whole number of squares with a common factor of 1 only. For example
sides 4 squares by 9 squares is acceptable but 4 squares by 6 squares is not because 4 and 6 have
a common factor 2.
For each rectangle draw a diagonal and count the number of squares through which the diagonal passes.
42
G
O
Y
A
L
B
R
O
T
H
E
R
S
P
R
A
K
A
S
H
A
N
The dimensions of a rectangle is 120 × 91. How many
squares will the diagonal pass through?
If the dimensions of a rectangle are m × n, where m
and n are co-primes, then how many squares will the
diagonal pass through?
Puzzle
A merchant has nine gold coins which look identical but
in fact one of the coins is an underweight fake. Investigate
how the merchant can use only a balance to find the fake
coin in just two weighings.
ANSWERS
A. SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Practice Exercise 7.1A
1. (b) 2. (b) 3. (a) 4. (d) 5. (a) 6. (d) 7. (a) 8. (a) 9. True 10. Scalene
11. (–3) 12. –3, –5,
190, 13 2
13. (i)
( )
2 2
+ sin + cos o o a b (ii)
2 2b
(iii) a
2
+ b
2
15. a = 8 or 2 16. (–2, 0) 20. 3 or –9 21. (2, 2) 22. P(5, 2), 5 26. (– 4, 2) 27. (5, 0), (9, 0); two points
28. (9, 0), (1, 0) 29. s = 2 30. (3, 6);
1 2
,
5 5
¸ _

¸ ,
Practice Exercise 7.2A
1. (b) 2. (d) 3. (c) 4. (b) 5. (a) 6. (b) 7. (c) 8. (d) 9. 5 : 2 10.
16
, 6
3
11. 3, –10 12. No 13. Yes 14. 6 : 7,
–34
, 0
13
| |
|
\ .
15. 22, 2 61 16. 19 17.
4 4
,
5 5
| |
|
\ .
18. A (1, – 4), B (3, 2), C (–1, 2) 19. AD = 5 units, BE = 5 units and CF =
10
units
20. (3, 4) 21. (–b, b) 23.
1 5
65, ,
3 3
| |
|
\ .
24. (4, 5), (2, 3), (6, 9) 25. –8
Practice Exercise 7.3A
1. (c) 2. (c) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5. (c) 6. (a) 6 (b) 11 (c)

2
a b
c
(d)
2

2
a ab
8. –3 or
13
x
9. (7, 2) or (1, 0) 10. (a) 132 (b)
15
2
11. 74 sq. units 12. 11 13. x = –22
17. x + 3y = 7 18. 1
B. FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Investigation
If m and n are the dimensions of the rectangle, where m and n are co-prime, then the diagonal will pass
through m + n – 1 squares.
Puzzle
Place three coins on one pan and three coins on another pan of a balance. If the pans balance each other,
it means the under weight coin is among the remaining three coins. Now, remove these coins and place one coin
of the remaining three coins on one pan and other on the other pan of the balance. If the pans balance each other,
it means the remaining third coin is underweight. While weighing six coins, above, if the pans do not balance
each other, then you can clearly identify the pan in which the underweight coin is placed. Then proceed further.