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12/6/13

Honors Chemistry Semester 1 Project - Google Drive

Names:  Junsung  Park,  Jocelyn  Hung,  Chris  Pang Period:  5

Honors  Chemistry  Semester  1  Project
PART  1:  Explore  the  following  environmental  threats  to  life  on  Earth
Using  the  internet,  library  reference  books  or  your  textbook  you  will  explore  the  environmental threats  above,  outlining  what  problems  they  pose,  the  main  idea/definition  of  each  threat,  giving some  explanations  of  some  but  not  all  variations  that  exist  within  each  threat  category  (include pic  of  each  threat) 1.  Climate  Change Climate  change  is  the  change  in  global  climate  patterns,  largely  due  to  the  growth  of  carbon dioxide  levels  in  the  atmosphere.  Climate  change  is  warming  up  our  planet  because  of  heat trapping  gases  emitted  from  factories  and  vehicles.  It  is  causing  a  growing  crisis  for  many dimensions,  some  of  which  include:  economy,  health  and  safety,  food  production,  and  security. Many  diverse  ecosystems  such  as  rainforests  and  tundras  may  face  dramatic  changes  due  to the  warming  and  drying  climate.  Climate  change  also  brings  shifting  weather  patterns,  which may  trigger  unpredictable  precipitation  patterns,  rising  sea  levels,  an  increased  risk  for  intense floods  and  droughts,  and  all  these  factors  affect  food  production.  Furthermore,  as  climate change  increases  the  temperature,  it  also  increases  the  risks  of  heat-­related  illnesses.  It increases  the  chance  of  these  disease,  because  warmer  temperatures  allow  disease  carrying organisms  to  live,  whereas  in  the  cold  they  would  die. One  example  of  climate  change  is  the  raising  of  water.  Because  burning  fossil  fuels  release greenhouse  gases,  it  causes  the  temperatures  to  rise  as  green  house  gases  trap  heat.  Water absorbs  80%  of  the  upcoming  heat  and  water  expands  as  it  absorbs  the  heat.  This  causes water  levels  to  rise.  Furthermore,  temperature  rise  causes  the  glaciers  and  ice  caps  melt,  which also  raises  water  levels. Source:  http://ocean.nationalgeographic.com/ocean/critical-­issues-­sea-­level-­rise/ Image:

Source:  http://www.unep.org/climatechange/Introduction.aspx

https://docs.google.com/a/hkis.edu.hk/document/d/13zOU8KxinO0rRBB60b-g47CVr_YpWWj2q3R3btIr8T8/edit

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2.  Water  pollution Water  pollution  is  the  contamination  of  water  by  various  substances.  70%  of  the  Earth’s  surface is  covered  by  water,  and  it  is  without  a  doubt  an  extremely  important  resource  for  people  and  the environment.  Water  pollution  affects  drinking  water,  rivers,  lakes,  and  oceans,  which  in  turn harms  human  health  and  the  natural  environment.  For  example,  industrial  waste,  which  contains toxic  compounds  are  usually  accumulated  next  to  bodies  of  water,  and  this  may  damage  the health  of  aquatic  animals  and  those  who  eat  them.  One  common  type  of  water  pollution  is  called microbiological  water  pollution,  where  microorganisms  live  in  the  water  and  spread  illnesses  to underwater  animals  and  humans. Water  pollution  is  a  huge  problem  because  we,  as  human  beings  depend  on  water  to  survive. Around  65%  of  our  body  is  made  of  water,  which  demonstrates  how  crucial  water  is. A  variation  of  water  pollution  is  water  acidification.  The  oceans  over  many  years  have  become slightly  acidic  due  to  the  fact  that  the  atmosphere  has  more  carbon  dioxide.  The  carbon  dioxide reacts  with  water  to  form  carbonic  acid.  This  process  is  H2O   +  CO2   →  H2CO3.  Because  the reaction  causes  carbonic  acid,  it  is  making  water  more  acidic.  This  increase  in  acidity  causes marine  organisms  such  as  coral  and  sea  urchins  to  die,  as  the  increased  acidity  causes  their calcium  carbonate  shells  not  to  form  properly. Image:

Source:  http://www.water-­pollution.org.uk/ 3.  Toxins  in  food  and  soil All  living  organisms  depend  on  other  organisms  to  survive.  In  many  cases,  toxins  can  be transferred  to  humans  through  the  food  web.  Tiny  phytoplankton  cells,  which  are  a  type  of microscopic  algae  (producers),  have  the  ability  of  creating  toxins.  Although  the  amount  of  toxins created  by  one  tiny  phytoplankton  cell  is  miniscule,  it  can  accumulate  quickly  through  a  process called  bioaccumulation.  Bioaccumulation  is  one  variation  of  toxins  in  the  soil.  It  is  a  process  in which  compounds  accumulate  or  build  up  in  an  organism  at  a  rate  faster  than  they  can  be broken  down.  Many  organisms,  such  as  krill,  mussels,  and  fish,  are  not  directly  affected  by  the toxins,  but  help  transport  the  toxins  farther  down  the  food  web.  Often  times,  humans  are  affected

https://docs.google.com/a/hkis.edu.hk/document/d/13zOU8KxinO0rRBB60b-g47CVr_YpWWj2q3R3btIr8T8/edit

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by  toxins  through  the  contaminated  shellfish.  Toxins  can  absorb  directly  into  crops  through  soil, and  thus  affects  the  quality  of  the  food  we  eat. Image:

Source:http://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/Contexts/Toxins/Science-­Ideas-­and-­Concepts/Toxins-­a nd-­food-­webs 4.  Depleting  ozone  layer The  ozone  layer  depletion  is  when  the  ozone  layer  is  deteriorated  because  of  pollution  containing chlorine  and  bromine.  The  primary  culprit  for  the  depletion  of  the  ozone  layer  is chlorofluorocarbons  which  is  mostly  found  in  aerosols.  When  the  chlorofluorocarbons  reach  the ozone  layer,  it  reacts  with  ultraviolet  rays  and  decomposes  into  chlorine  and  various substances.  The  chlorine  reacts  with  oxygen  gas,  and  damages  the  ozone  layer.  This  causes abnormal  amounts  of  ultraviolet  B  to  enter,  which  can  cause  skin  cancer  in  humans. Furthermore,  the  increase  of  ultraviolet  B  also  hinders  the  reproductive  cycles  of  phytoplankton like  algae.  This  is  a  huge  concern  because  phytoplankton  is  in  the  bottom  of  the  food  chain,  and the  reduction  of  phytoplankton  will  also  reduce  populations  of  animals  higher  up  in  the  food chain. Source:  http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/substances/toxsubstance.asp?toxid=47 Image:

 

https://docs.google.com/a/hkis.edu.hk/document/d/13zOU8KxinO0rRBB60b-g47CVr_YpWWj2q3R3btIr8T8/edit

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Source: http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-­warming/ozone-­depletion-­overvie w/

5.  Air  pollution Air  pollution  is  any  harmful  substance  that  humans  release  into  the  atmosphere  that  impairs organisms  and  the  environment.  One  of  the  main  culprit  of  air  pollution  is  carbon  dioxide.  Even though  we  exhale  carbon  dioxide  it  is  also  released  from  burning  fossil  fuels,  and  vehicles.  The chemicals  in  the  atmosphere  causes  discomfort,  disease  or  death  to  humans.  It  also  damages other  living  organisms  such  as  food  crops,  or  damage  the  natural  environment  or  built environment.  It  especially  causes  stratospheric  ozone  depletion  because  of  the  amount  of  air pollution. An  example  of  air  pollution  is  the  amount  of  sulfur  trioxide  in  the  air.  Sulfur  trioxide  is  formed  from sulfur  dioxide  reacting  oxygen  in  the  air.  Sulfur  dioxide  is  produced  by  various  industrial reactions  such  as  burning  coal  as  coal  contains  small  amounts  of  sulfur.  Sulfur  trioxide  is  a  huge pollutant  as  it  rapidly  reacts  with  water  and  forms  sulfuric  acid.  The  formation  of  sulfuric  acid causes  acid  rain. Source: http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-­warming/pollution-­overview/ Image:

Source: http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-­warming/pollution-­overview/?rptre gcta=reg_free_np&rptregcampaign=20131016_rw_membership_n1p_intl_se_w#

https://docs.google.com/a/hkis.edu.hk/document/d/13zOU8KxinO0rRBB60b-g47CVr_YpWWj2q3R3btIr8T8/edit

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Part  2:  Research  reactions  that  contribute  to  these  environmental threats:
Give  at  least  1  example  of  a  reaction  that  contribute  to  each  of  the  above  environmental  threats. For  each  reaction  you  will: A.  Classify  the  reaction. B.  Balance  the  reaction  (if  not  already  balanced)  and  include  all  states. C.  Identify  it  as  a  oxidation  reduction  reaction  or  not:  If  oxidation/reduction  you  will  identify species  oxidized  and  species  reduced,  &  #  of  e-­  transferred. D.  Write  the  net  ionic  equation  for  each  reaction. E.  Give  qualitative  observations  of  reactants  and  products Climate  Change 6  O2  +  C6H12O6  -­-­-­>  6  H2O  +  6  CO2   +    energy A.  Combustion B.  6  O2  (g)  +  C6H12O6  (s)  -­-­-­>  6  H2O    (l)  +  6  CO2   (g)  +  energy C.  Yes,  it  is  a  redox  reaction Species  oxidized:  O2   (g) Species  reduced:  C   in   C6H12O6  (s) #  of  e-­  transferred:  24  e-­  transferred D.  6  O2  (g)  +  C6H12O6  (s)  -­-­-­>  6  H2O    (l)  +  6  CO2   (g)  +  energy E.  Reactants:  a  colorless  gas,  a  white  solid Products:  a  clear  transparent  liquid,  a  colorless  gas Source:  http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/climate/GCclimate2e.html Water  pollution CO2   +  H2O  -­-­-­>  H2CO3 A.  Synthesis  not  a  redox  reaction B.  CO2  (g)  +  H2O  (l)  -­-­-­>  H2CO3  (aq) C.  Not  a  redox  reaction Species  oxidized:  N/A Species  reduced:  N/A #  of  e-­  transferred:  N/A D.  CO2  (g)  +  H2O  (l)  -­-­-­>  H2CO3  (aq) E.  Reactants:  a  colorless  gas,  a  clear  transparent  liquid Products:  a  yellowish  liquid Source:http://www.chemistry.wustl.edu/~edudev/LabTutorials/Water/FreshWater/acidrain.html

https://docs.google.com/a/hkis.edu.hk/document/d/13zOU8KxinO0rRBB60b-g47CVr_YpWWj2q3R3btIr8T8/edit

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Depleting  Ozone  Layer Reaction:  Most  like  synthesis Equation: Cl(g)   +  O3(g)   -­>  CIO(g)  +  O2(g) Yes,  it  is  a  redox  reaction Oxidized:  O2(g) Reduced:  Cl(g) #e-­  transferred:      2  e-­  transferred. Net  Ionic  equation: Cl(g)   +  O3(g)   -­>  CIO(g)  +  O2(g) No  ions  as  they  are  gasses This  is  a  repeated  cycle  that  is  continuous  because  it  keeps  destroying  ozone  molecules  and turns  them  into  oxygen. http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Physical_Chemistry/Kinetics/Case_Studies/Depletion_of_the_Ozon e_Layer Air  Pollution

2SO2  +  O2  →  2SO3  +  heat A.        Synthesis B.        2SO2  (g)  +  O2  (g)  →  2SO3  (g)  +  heat
C.  Yes,  it  is  a  redox  reaction. Species  oxidized:  S  in  SO2 Species  reduced:  O2  (g) #  of  e-­  transferred:  4  e-­  transferred

D.    2SO2  (g)  +  O2  (g)  →  2SO3  (g)  +  heat
E.  Reactants:  a  colorless  gas  with  a  strong  pungent  odor,  a  colorless  gas Products:  a  colorless  gas

https://docs.google.com/a/hkis.edu.hk/document/d/13zOU8KxinO0rRBB60b-g47CVr_YpWWj2q3R3btIr8T8/edit

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Part  3:  Investigate  proposed  solutions  to  solve  these  environmental threats
Climate  Change: One  solution  to  climate  change  is  burning  hydrogen  instead  of  fossil  fuels.  Hydrogen  is  one  of the  most  simplest  and  plentiful  elements  in  the  world.  However,  it  is  not  found  in  nature  by  itself, usually  pairing  itself  with  oxygen  to  form  water,  or  to  various  carbons.  Hydrogen  has  a  great  deal of  energy,  and  produces  water  as  a  by-­product:  2H2  +  02   →  2H2O.  NASA  has  used  liquid hydrogen  since  the  70’s  to  propel  space  shuttles.  The  main  method  of  obtaining  hydrogen  is  by  a process  called  Steam  Methane  Reformation.  High  temperatures  and  pressures  break hydrocarbons  (gas)  into  hydrogen  and  carbon  oxide.  This  is  a  problem  because  95%  of America’s  hydrogen  comes  from  this  process  that  uses  natural  gases.  This  process  is  shown CH4  +  H2O  -­-­>  CO  +  3  H2.  Another  method  of  obtaining  hydrogen  is  through  electrolysis.  However, electrolysis  has  it’s  flaws  as  well  because  it  requires  a  ton  of  energy  to  split  water,  and  70%  of the  world's  electricity  comes  from  fossil  fuels.  Electrolysis  of  water  is  shown  by  this  reaction  : 2H20→  2H2  +  O2. Source:  http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/tech/hydrogen

Depleting  Ozone  Layer: Ozone  depletion  is  caused  by  chlorofluorocarbons  (CFC).  CFC  is  made  up  of  chlorine,  fluorine and  carbon  which  makes  it  extremely  stable.  The  stability  allows  CFC  to  reach  upto  the stratosphere  where  it  acts  as  a  catalyst;;  breaking  down  ozone  and  combining  it  with  oxygen. This  process  is  shown  here:  Cl(g)   +  O3(g)   -­>  CIO(g)  +  O2(g) CIO(g)   +  O(g)   -­>  Cl(g)   +  O2  (g)     ;;  shows  the  ozone  disappearing.  One  solution  to  depleting  ozone layer  is  to  reduce  the  amount  of  CFC  being  produced.  Air  conditioners  contains  a  chemical “Freon”  that  has  CFC.  Finding  another  chemical  without  CFC  or  using  less  air  conditioning  will reduce  the  amount  of  CFC  produced.  Hairspray,  cans,  fridges  and  foam  plastic  also  contains CFC.  Reducing  the  production  or  usage  of  these  items  will  only  benefit  the  ozone  from deteriorating.

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/05/100505-­science-­environment-­ozone-­hole-­25-­ years/ http://loveasanastronaut.tripod.com/id4.html

https://docs.google.com/a/hkis.edu.hk/document/d/13zOU8KxinO0rRBB60b-g47CVr_YpWWj2q3R3btIr8T8/edit

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