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# Honors  Chemistry                                                                                                                                                  Name:  Jocelyn,  Junsung,  Jay,  Celine          Period:  5

Stoichiometry  and  Measurements  Lab
Stoichiometry  Lab As  a  doctor  in  the  hospital,  your  patient  needs  1.35  g  of  barium  sulfate  for  the  production  of  his  "life saving"  medicine.  You  know  that  every  time  you  conduct  this  reaction,  you  get  a  79.5%  yield.    The chemicals  that  you  have  to  work  with  are  sodium  sulfate  and  barium  nitrate  .    (they  are  very expensive,  so  use  the  minimum  amount  needed)
Unit  4:Stoichiometry

Purpose:  To  apply  stoichiometry  in  order  to  find  the  needed  amount  of  barium  sulfate  (1.35  g)  reacted  from sodium  sulfate  and  barium  nitrate. Materials: -­Barium  nitrate -­Sodium  sulfate -­Flask -­Funnel -­Filter  paper -­Distilled  water -­Beaker -­Stirring  rod
Describe  fully  what  you  are  going  to  do. Procedure: 1.  Obtain  the  calculated  amount  of  Sodium  Sulfate  and  Barium  Nitrate  by  massing  them  on  a  scale 2.  Put  the  salts  into  a  beaker  and  dissolve  with  distilled  water 3.  Pour  the  mixture  into  a  filter  paper  in  the  funnel 4.  Filter  the  mixture  and  wait  for  the  distilled  water  on  the  filter  paper  to  evaporate 5.  Mass  the  precipitate  that  is  left  over  on  the  filter  paper Draw  in  the  following:

Pre-­lab:  Questions  to  address  prior  to  starting  lab 1. How  much  of  the  reactants  will  you  need  to  measure  out?

N a2 SO 4(aq ) + Ba(N O 3 )2(aq ) > BaSO 4(s) + 2N aN O 3(aq ) 1.35gBaSO 4 1.35gBaSO 4
1 mol BaSO4 233.43 gBaSO4 1 mol BaSO4 233.43 gBaSO4 1 mol N a 2 SO4 1 mol BaSO4 1 mol Ba (N O3 )2 1 mol BaSO4 142.04 gN a 2 SO4 1 mol N a 2 SO4

= 0.821g N a2 SO 4 = 1.51g Ba(N O 3 )2

261.37 gBa (N O3 )2 1 mol Ba (N O3 )2

2. How  much  water  should  you  add  to  the  beaker?

At  least  enough  to  fully  cover  the  substances,  so  that  they  are  capable  of  mixing. mass  the  filter  paper  before  hand?  Why? After  filtering,  the  substance  that  remained  on  the  filter  paper  was  the  BaSO4,  which  is  the  precipitate. It  is  necessary  to  mass  the  filter  paper  before  hand  so  that  the  weight  of  just  the  precipitate  can  be determined  at  the  end. Mix  the  Na2SO4  and  Ba(NO3)2  in  H2O.  Then  filter  the  mixture  through  filter  paper  and  into  a  flask.    The aqueous  solution  will  end  up  in  the  flask.    This  does  not  need  to  be  measured. percent  yield  and  minimize  your  percent  error? There  are  a  few  scenarios  in  which  one  might  lose  some  of  the  project.    When  pouring  the  solution into  the  filter  paper,  some  may  spill  or  fully  transfer  onto  the  filter  paper.    In  addition,  if  the  scale  is not  tared,  then  the  data  would  not  be  accurate.  To  maximize  percent  yield  and  minimize  percent  error, it  is  wise  to  use  distilled  water  to  wash  down  the  remainders  in  the  beaker. Before  beginning,  include  all  calculations  necessary  to  begin  your  procedure. Draw  a  data  table  necessary  to  collect  the  data.    Be  careful  to  think  of  all  data  necessary  to  collect and  include  this  in  your  table.    (if  you  forget  something,  you  can  always  repeat  the  lab) Table  1.1:  List  of  materials  and  their  corresponding  mass Materials Filter  paper Filter  paper  +  precipitate  (BaSO4) Precipitate  (BaSO4) Na2SO4 Ba(NO3)2 Mass  (g) 1.322 2.408 2.408  -­  1.322  =  1.086 0.821 1.51

3. To  separate  the  solid  from  the  liquid,  you  will  need  to  filter.  What  is  in  the  filter  paper?  Should  you

4. How  will  you  collect  the  aqueous  product?    Does  this  need  to  be  measured?

5. Where  are  some  places  where  you  might  lose  some  of  your  product?  How  can  you  maximize  your

Analysis  and  Discussion:    As  you  collect  your  data,  include  a  calculation  of  the  percent  yield  and percent  error,  sources  of  error,  will  your  patient  have  enough  for  his  medicine,  what  improvements would  you  make  to  your  procedure  for  next  time. Percent  Yield          Given  percent  yield:  79.5% 1.35g  BaSO4/TY    x  100=  79.5% 1.35g  BaSO4/TY=  0.795 1.35g  BaSO4=0.795TY 1.70g  BaSO4≈TY          Actual  percent  yield:          AY/TY  x  100%  =  %  yield          (1.086g  BaSO4/1.70g  BaSO4)  x  100          =  0.638235  x  100          =  63.8% Percent  Error  Calculations          |AY-­TY|  /  TY  x  100          |1.086g  BaSO4-­1.35g  BaSO4|  =  0.264          0.264/1.086  =  0.195556          =  0.195556  x  100          =  19.6% Sources  of  Error When  massing  the  precipitate,  some  happened  to  fall  on  the  floor.    As  a  result,  it  was  difficult  to obtain  accurate  data  because  some  precipitate  was  lost  in  the  process.  Furthermore,  the  scale  would not  tare  to  zero.    This  inhibited  the  ability  for  precise  data. Will  patient  have  enough  for  his  medicine? No,  the  patient  needed  1.35  grams  of  BaSO4,  however  the  precipitate  obtained  was  1.086  grams, making  the  percent  yield  too  low.  Thus,  another  0.264  grams  of  precipitate  is  required  to  fulfill  the patient’s  need,  so  unfortunately,  the  patient  passed  away. Improvements  for  the  Future: To  improve  the  lab  in  the  future,  there  should  be  less  errors.    The  scale  used  should  tare  properly  and

when  moving  the  precipitate  from  one  place  to  another,  one  must  be  very  careful.  Moreover,  to improve  the  lab,  distilled  water  should  be  used  to  hose  down  the  beaker  because  some  of  the precipitate  may  happen  to  be  on  the  sides. Conclusion: In  this  lab,  through  experimentation,  it  was  determined  that  because  the  mass  of  the  precipitate  ( BaSO 4 )  was  1.086  grams,  the  percent  yield  is  63.8%.  However,  our  results  are  less  than  the anticipated  yield,  which  is  79.5%. Discussion  1:

What  was  the  theory  behind  your  lab? The  theory  behind  the  lab  was  that  more  reactants  should  have  been  added.    This  was  because a  79.5%  yield  was  necessary  for  the  patient  to  survive.  So  the  goal  was  to  achieve  1.35  grams of  barium  sulfate  which  is  the  amount  needed  to  heal  the  patient. What  techniques  were  used?  Why? Stoichiometry  was  used  to  figure  out  how  much  sodium  sulfate  and  barium  nitrate  was  needed. Filtration  was  used  to  separate  the  precipitate  and  the  aqueous  solution. What  chemical  concepts  helped  you  to  produce  the  products? A  double  replacement  reaction  between  sodium  sulfate  and  barium  nitrate  helped  produce  the products,  which  were  barium  sulfate  and  sodium  nitrate. Did  you  get  close  to  100%  yield?    Will  your  patient  survive?    Is  your  yield  too  high  or  low? No,  the  percent  yield  we  obtained  was  63.8%.  The  patient  will  not  survive  because  the  yield was  too  low. What  affected  your  yield  for  each?  (be  specific  in  your  error  analysis  –  to  coincide  with  your results  (high  or  low). As  a  result  of  the  errors  made  in  the  lab,  there  was  less  precipitate  than  it  should  have  been,  so the  percent  yield  was  lower.  (see  above  -­  “Sources  of  Error”) Discussion  2: What  would  you  differently  next  time?  Propose  three  feasible  improvements  to  this  lab.

1.  The  scale  used  should  tare  properly 2.  When  moving  the  precipitate  from  one  place  to  another,  one  must  be  very  careful. 3.  Distilled  water  should  be  used  to  hose  down  the  beaker  because  some  of  the  precipitate  may        happen  to  be  on  the  sides.

What  did  you  learn  from  the  lab? To  find  the  percent  yield,  you  must  first  find  the  theoretical  yield  using  equations.  Then  you have  to  find  the  actual  yield  by  separating  the  precipitate  from  the  mixture.  The  mass  of  the completely  dried  precipitate  should  get  you  the  actual  yield.  Then  you  must  put  the  data  into  the equation  (Actual  yield/Theoretical  Yield) 100.  Therefore,  in  conclusion,  stoichiometry  can  be used  to  find  purities  of  substances. What  other  real  life  application  can  you  apply  this  to? This  is  very  useful  because  in  situations  where  you  have  to  get  a  mixture  with  an  exact  yield,  you  can  use this  experiment  to  find  out.  Some  examples  would  be  finding  the  exact  yield  for  a  type  of  medicine,  or  this can  also  be  applied  to  find  yield  of  a  certain  substance  in  a  mixture  like  concrete.  Therefore,  stoichiometry  is necessary  in  many  aspects  of  our  lives,  because  it  contributes  daily  in  the  making  of  mixtures  with  certain purities  and  yields.

Honors  Chemistry      Lab  Stoichiometry  and  Measurement  LAB  BLOG  RUBRIC Group  Members ____________________________________________________________________________ Title/purpose _____/  1 Materials _____/  1 Conclusion  statement                      _____/  1              Concluding  statement  at  the  end  of  the  report  summarizes your  lab  findings  and  refers  back  to  purpose. Lab  clean                                                        _____/  2
Excellent 5 Very Good 4.5 Good 4 Average 3.5 Below Averag e 3-­0

Procedure:  (past  tense,  number/bullet  format,  no  use of  “I”  or  “we”)    -­  with  rationale  related  to  the  “Questions to  be  addressed  “  from  pre-­lab Show  all  calculations  in  your  logic  of  the  masses  of reactants  used Is  the  amount  of  water  important?    Why  not?    Why  did you  mass  the  filter  paper  and/or  the  beaker? Data  tables  with  titles  and  labels  eg)  Table  1:  Masses of  … ONLY  relevant  data  provided  in  the  data  table  (for example,  do  you  need  the  mass  of  the  beaker  that  you mixed  the  reactants  in?  Did  you  use  that  mass  in  your calculations?    If  not,  don’t  include  it!) Reaction  described  (reactants  and  products) Analysis  of  data Show  calculations  of  actual  yield Calculations  to  determine  percent  yield  and  percent  error for  each  product.  (with  attention  to  sig  figs  from  data) Discussion  1:    What  was  the  theory  behind  your  lab? What  techniques  were  used?  Why?  What  chemical concepts  helped  you  to  produce  the  products?  Did  you get  close  to  100%  yield?    Will  your  patient  survive?    Is your  yield  too  high  or  low?    What  affected  your  yield  for each?  (be  specific  in  your  error  analysis  –  to  coincide with  your  results  (high  or  low)).

Discussion  2:  What  would  you  differently  next  time. Propose  three  feasible  improvements  to  this  lab.  What did  you  learn  from  the  lab?  What  other  real  life application  can  you  apply  this  to?

/35  points