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Lesson 2 Title: How do organisms respond to changes in their environment?

Grade Level: Third Grade Benchmarks: Next Generation Science Standards (3 !"# d$ Use models to evaluate how environmental changes in a habitat affect the number and types of organisms that live there; some remain, move in, move out, and/or die. (3 !"# e$ Use evidence to argue that some changes in an organism’s habitat can be beneficial or harmful to the organism. %ommon %ore State Standards &%%SS 'ath %ontent 3 '( B 3$ raw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. !olve one" and two"step #how many more$ and #how many less$ problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs. For example, draw a bar graph in which each square in the bar graph might represent 5 pets. #%lace holder$ " %otential to add standards and ob&ectives related to visual art appreciation and to develop an opportunity for students to respond in writing to the camouflage art of 'ui (olin. !ee engagement activity. #)*ectives: T') use models to show how environmental changes affect the number and types of a species that live there. (3 !"# d$ T') use models to show how environmental changes can benefit or harm a population based on organism characteristics (adaptations*. (3 !"# e$ T') draw a scaled bar graph based on data collected from a scientific model which represents changes in a population of animals over time. &%%SS 'ath %ontent 3 '( B 3$ 'aterials and Set+p: +ngage,

 -amouflaged animal pictures for pro&ection +.plore/+.plain,  access to http,//phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/natural" selection  one computer for each group of two students  #/atural !election %h+T !imulation$ wor0sheet +laborate,  one piece of graph paper for each student ,oca)+lar-: -amouflage 1 an adaptation that helps an organism blend into their environment and avoid detection by predators .roced+re: !ngage: Teacher says, #'et’s start today by loo0ing at some pictures of animals in their habitats. !omeone remind me what a habitat is.$ !tudents respond. Teacher says, #2nd we have groups of habitat e.perts with us in the class today. )here are my ocean habitat e.perts3 esert3 4orest3 Tropical rain forest3 5!ee lesson 6 for habitat groups.7 2lright. 8 brought some pictures of animals that 8 will put up on the screen. 2s soon as you see the animal, put your pointer finger on your nose.$ Teacher shows pictures of camouflaged animals in a habitat.

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← Teacher says, #!ome animals have special characteristics, which allow them to survive and reproduce in their environment. The animals in these pictures are camouflaged. Fow would that help them survive3$ !tudents respond, #8t helps them hide from things that want to eat them.$ !xplore: Teacher says, #)e’re going to continue discussing organisms and their habitats today by playing with bunny rabbitsG virtual bunny rabbits. 2fter playing with the virtual rabbits, 8 will e.pect you to answer the following Huestions, • • Fow do changes in the environment affect the number and 0ind of organisms that live there3 &3 !"# d$ Fow do changes in the environment benefit or harm certain organisms3 &3 !"# e$

8 will let you play with the simulation for five minutes so you can become are comfortable with the controls, and then we will get started analy@ing the bunnies in order to answer Huestions and complete challenges on the wor0sheet (#/atural !election %h+T !imulation$ )or0sheet*. )e will wor0 in groups of two, and the group members will wor0 as a team to complete and turn in the wor0sheet. Ine student will drive the pointer with the mouse. The other student will navigate by telling the other student what to clic0 on or try. The navigator should also write the responses on the wor0sheet. 2fter completing an activity, the driver and navigator will e.change &obs.$ 8nstructions for students 'og on to, http,//phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/natural"selection or open the simulation if you downloaded it to your computer. Ea0e sure your computer or sound system is turned I/.

/ames, ???????????????????? Nat+ral Selection .h!T Sim+lation 6* %lay with the simulation for five minutes. (e prepared to share what you have foundJ <* 4ill in the table below with your observations. Fow can youG Gma0e more white bunnies3 Gma0e <= brown bunnies3 )hat did you change3 Fow many generations did it ta0e3

B* %hallenge /: 4ind a way to ma0e the bunnies ta0e over with brown furJ 4ill in the table with your selections. Note: 2 #!election 4actor$ in this simulation and on this wor0sheet is the answer the Huestion #)hat did you change to affect the bunny population3$ Eutation +nvironme nt !election 4actor Ibservations

C* %hallenge 2: 4ind a way to ma0e <== bunnies when food is a selection factorJ 4ill in the table with your selections. Eutation +nvironme nt !election 4actor Ibservations

A* %hallenge 3: 4ind a way for the bunnies to ta0e over when the environment is the articJ 4ill in the table with your selections. Eutation +nvironmen t !election 4actor Ibservations

K* In your own, !imulations are useful for understanding how natural processes wor0 but are not always representative of the real world. Fow does this simulation differ from what might happen in a true ecosystem3 ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?

??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ? >* In your own, )hat changes would you ma0e the simulation to ma0e it a better representation of a true ecosystem3 ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?

!xplain: 54ormative 2ssessment (3 !"# d$: !tudents e.plain their findings on the simulation and describe how environmental changes affect the number and types of a species that live there by answering the following Huestions as the teacher wal0s around and observes the groups. !ome of these Huestions appear in teaching resources associated with the online simulation provided for classroom use by UTeach Iutreach, and are included here for convenience7 6. )hat are a few differences between the desert and arctic environments3 <. )hy do you thin0 the wolves eat the white bunnies in the desert environment3 B. )hat is missing from this simulation’s representation of a desert (arctic* environment3 (i00erent predators1 seasonal changes1 di00erent t-pes o0 0ood C. )hat does the graph show3 The n+m)er o0 )+nnies in a pop+lation1 how man- )+nnies have each trait A. )hat happens when you add the selection factor of 4ood, versus having /o 4actors3 K. )hy do you thin0 more bunnies die each generation with food, than without food3 There is not eno+gh availa)le 0or all o0 them2 the- 0ight 0or 0ood >. Fow does the simulation environment differ from a real wilderness environment3 Limits predators to onl- wolves (oesn3t allow 0or )oth 0ood and predators at the same time (oesn3t have seasons and weather changes D. )hat parts of the habitat are living3 The )+nnies The wolves The 0ood L. )hat parts of the habitat are not living3 %limate4s+nlight4weather 6=. )hat strategies did you use to answer the challenges3 St+d- one m+tation at a time1 wait lots o0 generations Trial and error1 thinking a)o+t what we have done in science class )e0ore 66. 8f you were a scientist, when would a computer simulation be useful3 To st+d- things that are challenging to st+d- in real li0e1 to collect lots o0 data 5!ummative 2ssessment (3 !"# e$, /atural !election %h+T !imulation wor0sheets are used to assess the ability of the students to manipulate environments to affect bunny populations in beneficial and harmful ways. 7 !la)orate4!xtend:

Using a graph of the bunny population from the simulation, have the pairs of students practice creating bar graphs of the bunny population at different times. 'oo0ing at a sample graph, students describe which changes in an environment could have caused changes reflected in the bunny populations represented on the bar graph.

54ormative assessment &%%SS 'ath %ontent 3 '( B 3$: Using the following graph from a simulation, students produce a bar graph with population on the y"a.is and time on the ."a.is. !tudents draw four bars at four different times (in order of occurrence* representing increases and decreases in the bunny population over time.7

Scienti0ic Backgro+nd 0or the Teacher #2nimal 2daptations to the +nvironment$, !mith, Thomas E., and Mobert 'eo !mith. #lements o$ #cology. D. United !tates of 2merica, %earson , <=6<. 66L"6C>. %rint. # escent with Eodification, 2 arwinian Niew of 'ife$, -ampbell, /eil, Oane Meece, 'isa Urry, Eichael -ain, !teven )asserman, %eter Einors0y, et al. !iology. Dth. !an 4rancisco, (oston, /ew Por0, %earson +ducation, <==D. CA<"CK>. %rint. #The +volution of %opulations$, -ampbell, /eil, Oane Meece, 'isa Urry, Eichael -ain, !teven )asserman, %eter Einors0y, et al. !iology. Dth. !an 4rancisco, (oston, /ew Por0, %earson +ducation, <==D. CKD"CDK. %rint. #%opulation +cology$, -ampbell, /eil, Oane Meece, 'isa Urry, Eichael -ain, !teven )asserman, %eter Einors0y, et al. !iology. Dth. !an 4rancisco, (oston, /ew Por0, %earson +ducation, <==D. 66>C"66L>. %rint.

5eso+rces 8nternet %h+T !imulation on /atural !election http:44phet colorado ed+4en4sim+lation4nat+ral6selection The %h+T e.ercises in this lesson were adapted versions of a >th grade lesson developed by UTeach Iutreach in !pring <=6< which can be found at http,//phet.colorado.edu/en/contributions/view/BA>D. The #/atural !election %h+T !imulation$ wor0sheet embedded in this lesson can be found with an answer 0ey at http,//phet.colorado.edu/en/contributions/view/BA>D. (oo0s Hard to %ee &nimals http:44www scholastic com4teachers4)ook4hard6see6animals -amouflage art 'iu (olin, Hiding in the City No. 71 !ulldo"er, <==D http,//www.e0fineart.com/artist/'iu?(olin/wor0s/