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Parts-of-the-body language

You can send signals with individual parts of the body as well as in concert. Here's details of the contributions of each part of the body.

Head body language
The head can send such a wide range of signals that the face and other parts of the head are covered in other pages. Here, we focus just on movement of the head as affected by the neck muscles.

Lowering
A lowered head covers the neck with the chin and hence can be a defensive posture that can occur as a result of any perceived threat not just physical threat!. "owering the head also lowers the eyes and hence can be a sign of submission, effectively saying '# dare not even look at you'. The eyes are typically also lowered here. #t can be driven by affection 'you are so wonderful'! or fear 'you might hurt me if # look at you'!. "owering the head whilst maintaining eye contact can also be a strong flirting signal, typically by women. #t says 'You are superior and # just can't take my eyes off you'. #t can also be a sign of defiance or caution, for e$ample when showing respect to an enemy 'You are strong and # do not trust you'!. %ometimes, lowering the head is just a sign of e$haustion. The head is rather heavy and a tired person's head will sag. "owering the head can be a part of ducking as the person refle$ively pulls the head down to avoid a real or imagined ha&ard. This makes the body smaller and protects the neck. A single short lowering of the head can be an abbreviated nod. This is a common greeting, perhaps as a small bow. #t may also be a signal of power '# am so powerful people are paying will notice even a small nod'!. Again it may be a deliberate concealment, sending covert agreement to a colleague.

Raising
'hen the head is low, raising it may be a sign of interest as the person moved to looking at the point of interest. This is typically accompanied by other e$pressions of interest such as raised eyebrows. (rom a level position, a )uick flick upwards can be a sign of )uery ''hat do you mean*'!. +aising the head and looking at the ceiling may signal boredom. #t may also indicate a visual thinker who is looking at internal images. Another alternative is where a person wants to focus on the sound and is thus averting the eyes in order to concentrate on the sound.

Tilting
Tilting the head sideways can be a sign of interest, which may be in what is said or happening. #t can also be a flirting signal as it says '# am interested in you,' Tilting can similarly indicate curiosity, uncertainty or )uery, particularly if the head is pushed forward, as if the person was trying to look at the subject in a different way in the hope of seeing something new. The greater the tilt, the greater the uncertainty or the greater the intent to send this signal. A tilted head pulled back tends to indicate suspicion, as the uncertainty of the tilt is combined with a defensive pulling back. The tilted head e$poses the carotid artery on the side of the neck and may be a sign of submission and feelings of vulnerability. #f the head is propped up by the hand, it may be tiredness or an e$pectation of continued interest 'This is so interesting,'!.

Oscillating (nodding and shaking)
-odding up and down signals agreement in most cultures and may well be accompanied by smiling and other signs of approval. A vigorous nodding probably indicates strong agreement, whilst slow nodding may indicate conditional agreement and so may be )uestioned if you want full agreement!. Turning the head from side to side usually indicates disagreement or disapproval and may originate in infant refusal of food. Again, speed of swinging indicates strength of feeling. A head tilted down whilst swinging may signal particular disapproval '# don't even want to look at you'!. Alternately tilting the head at an angle to each side can say '#'m not sure', though in %outhern #ndia it means 'Yes'. -odding or shaking the head whilst talking is an encouragement for the other person to agree which works surprisingly often!. -odding whilst the other person is talking sends approval signals and encourages them to keep talking. %haking the head shows disagreement and they may either stop and seek your view or redouble their attempts to persuade you. A nod can be used when emphasi&ing a point. The may range from a subtle encouragement to agree to a rapid and aggressive tilt. A short, sharp nod can symboli&e a head.butt, indicating the desire to strike the other person this may be in emphasis or for other reasons!. %haking the head when saying something positive is a negative signal and may indicate the person does not believe what they are saying.

Rotating
+otation of the head in a circle is a relatively rare gesture and may just be the person e$ercising a stiff neck if they should be paying attention, this may thus indicate boredom!. Turning the head away removes attention and thus may say '# do not want to communicate with you'. This can be very insulting as it denies the e$istence of the other person. Turning the head slightly to the side points the ear at the other person, perhaps better to hear them. This is usually accompanied by continued eye contact and the hand may be cupped behind the ear. A slight head turn also puts one eye in the middle of your head as the other person sees it. To make eye contact they thus have to focus on one eye. This can be very

disconcerting and this 'one.eye' ga&e may be used as an act of dominance #t may also be used in the act of 'giving the evil eye'!. A slight rotation on top of oscillation may indicate incomplete agreement or disagreement, for e$ample where a nod has a slight additional side.to.side movement, indicating primary or e$ternal agreement but with a certain amount of disagreement too which may be significant if they feel coerced into agreement!.

Pointer
'e tend to point at people and things in which we are interested in some way. /ointing the head and face at another person shows interest in them. #n groups and meetings, you can often see power people as others often look at them. "ikewise, the less significant people are not looked at often. 'e can also point with a twitch of the head in any given direction. /ointing at a person in this way without looking can be insulting and can be subtle, for e$ample where you do not want the indicated person is being pointed at.

Touching
'e can touch the head in many places. Touching the face is a common sign of an$iety and people tend to have preferred places they touch or stroke when they are concerned. This is a classic pattern that poker players look for in other players as signs of having good or bad hands. 0overing eyes, ears or mouth may say we do not want to see, hear or say something. 'e may touch the side of the nose or stroke the chin when we are thinking, making decisions and judging others. Tapping the head can be self.punishment and hence signal regret, for e$ample tapping the forehead with the heel of the hand '#'m stupid,'!. -ote that, depending on conte$t, this can also be a signal that somebody else is considered stupid. The head is heavy and when tired we may prop it up, either under the chin or at the side. 1oredom makes us tired so propping the head may indicate this. /ropping up the head also happens when a person is thinking or evaluating. #n some cultures, the head is considered the part of the body that is most spiritual. Touching the head can be considered wrong in such conte$ts.

Unmoving
The head often moves during speaking and often to signal submission or an$iety. 'hen it does not move, it may indicate that the person is serious or talking from a position of authority. 'ith a stable head, it is easier to fi$ others with a dominant ga&e. This is a )uite significant effect that actors often use. 2ust holding your head steady can lead to others affording you higher status. 'hen the head is not moving and the eyes are not focused the person may not be attending outer world, instead being lost in inner thoughts and musings.

Face body language
The face has around 34 muscles in it, with about 54 of these purely for e$pressing emotion. #t can thus be used to send many non.verbal signals, using its various features in concert.

olor

Red
A generally red face may indicate that the person is hot as the blood come to the to surface to be cooled. They may heat up either from e$ercise or emotional arousal, for e$ample when they are e$cited and energi&ed. A red face is typical of a person who is angry. This is a clear danger signal, warning the other person that they may be harmed if they do not back down. /eople blush with embarrassment in various ways. %ome people's neck goes red. 'ith others it is mostly the cheeks. %ometimes the whole face goes red.

White
'hite skin may be a sign of coldness as the blood goes deep to avoid cooling further. 'hite skin is also an indication of fear, often e$treme. This happens as the blood abandons a surface that might be cut, going to muscles where its power is needed more.

Blue
The skin can also take on a bluish tinge. This can also indicate coldness or e$treme fear.

!oisture
%weating is the body's natural cooling mechanism when it gets hot, possibly from e$citement and emotional arousal. %weat is also associated with fear, perhaps to make the skin slippery and hence prevent an opponent from taking a firm grasp.

"motions
Here are some of the facial signals that you might see for different emotions. 6o note that these are only possible indicators7 not all signals are needed and not all signals indicated here necessarily indicate the associated emotion. "motion An$iety #acial signals 8yes damp9 eyebrows slightly pushed together9 trembling lower lip9 chin possibly wrinkled9 head slightly tilted down. 8yes wide, closed or pointing down9 raised eyebrows9 mouth open or corners turned down9 chin pulled in9 head down, white face. 8yes wide and staring9 eyebrows pulled down especially in middle!9 wrinkled forehead9 flared nostrils9 mouth flattened or clenched teeth bared9 jutting chin, red face. :outh smiling open or closed!9 possible laughter9 crows. feet wrinkles at sides of sparkling eyes9 slightly raised eyebrows9 head level.

(ear

Anger

Happiness

8yes wide open with dilated pupils9 slightly raised eyebrows9 lips slightly parted or puckered or smiling9 head tilted forward. . 8yes looking away9 face generally immobile9 corners of mouth turned down or lips pulled to the side9 head propped up with hand. 8yes staring9 mouth corners turned down9 nose turned in sneer9 chin jutting. possibly with tongue protruding9 chin jutting. 8yes and head turned away9 nostrils flared9 nose twisted in sneer9 mouth closed. 8yes and head turned down9 eyebrows held low9 skin blushing red. 8yebrows tilted outwards lowered outer edges!9 mouth either tilted down or smiling9 head tilted. %teady ga&e of eyes at item of interest may be s)uinting!9 slightly raised eyebrows9 lips slightly pressed together9 head erect or pushed forward. 0heeks sucked in to the e$tent that the lower lips curl can indicate pensiveness which may be uncomfortable look also for a furrowed brow!.%adness 8nvy 8yes cast down and possibly damp or tearful9 head down9 lips pinched9 head down or to the side. it indicates disapproval. $n-out 0heeks can be drawn in or blown out. 'hen pulled in and particularly when linked with pursed lips. /erhaps mouth turned up slightly at sides in gentle smile. 8yes in e$tended ga&e and possibly damp9 eyebrows slightly pulled together in middle or downwards at edges9 mouth turned down at corners9 head tilted to side. although admittedly not very much. 8yes wide open9 eyebrows raised high9 mouth dropped wide open with conse)uent lowered chin9 head held back or tilted to side. +ela$ed facial muscles and steady ga&e with eyes. 6esire #nterest 1oredom %urprise +elief 6isgust %hame /ity 0alm Cheek body language 0heeks can speak body language.

Touching The cheek is a wide area that can be touched without obscuring any of the functional organs.ooh' indicate light surprise. # dare you. 0heeks pale when blood drains from them. Holding the chin in also lowers the head. where a predator might try to asphy$iate you or worse. . has its own body language. as with other corners of the face.' This can thus be a signal of defiance. /ushing the tongue into the cheek can show pensiveness as the person thinks about something and tries to come to a decision. /ale cheeks can also be a sign of coldness. Holding in the chin protects both it and the throat. #f the person has been e$ercising the face may also be red and sweaty. this can signify uncertainty as to what to do ne$t watch also for raised eyebrows and rounded eyes!. Touching the cheek is often done in surprise or horror. if not towards the other person then instead towards some situation or person in the conversation. 1lown out cheeks can also be a sign of e$haustion. %utting The chin can be used as a subtle pointing device and a small flick of the head may give a small signal that only people in the know are likely to notice. which is a submissive gesture. what do # do now**'!. 'atch for them becoming red some people just have natural red cheeks!. 'atch here for other anger signs. Touching both cheeks with the flat of the palm is an e$aggeration of this and may indicate horror. along with an open mouth that says '. This can similarly be a shy or flirting gesture. A light touch. Redness +ed cheeks is a classic sign of embarrassment. This is distinct from the defensive move as the head tilts down more and the eyes are often largely downcast. This typically happens when a person is frightened as the blood is moved to the muscles in readiness to flee. try to hit me and see what happens. such as enlarged and staring eyes. and hence is a naturally defensive move that people use when they feel threatened.'hen cheeks are blown out. 2utting out the chin towards a person e$poses it and says '<o on. +ed cheeks may also be a sign of anger. 8ven more vulnerable than the chin is the throat. Protecting The chin is vulnerable when fists are flying as a good upper.cut punch can knock you out. This may be e$aggerated by the person actually blowing air from their mouth '/foof . Chin body language The chin. $nternal 0hewing the inside of the cheek or mouth can be a hidden sign of nervousness and may indicate lying.

particularly in cultures where being clean.function orifice as we use it for communicating. A full beard is more likely to indicate a person who has no vanity needs and is confident and rela$ed as they are. #n emoting. #t may also point to a person for whom e$ternal appearance is unimportant. &eard 1eards and moustaches are sometimes controversial items. 1oredom can make you sleepy and a hand under the chin may be done to stop an embarrassing drop of the head. . but intellectually want more information so they can have good reason before they say yes.shaven is the norm. An unkempt beard that is left to grow wild may indicate an untidy mind or simply that the person is la&y. from happiness to sadness. "moting The mouth is involved in the e$pression of many different emotions. from fear to disgust. %troking a beard can be a preening gesture. but when we need more o$ygen we use the mouth to gulp in greater amounts of air. 6oing it briefly with the chin is more covert and can thus be an insult. breathing and eating. particularly if the conversation has offered them a choice or decision to make. conformist. 'hen the beard is shaped and neatly clipped. it may indicate a more vain and fussy person who is particular about how they appear and what they do. symbolically making oneself look beautiful and hence sending '#'m gorgeous' signals. /ointing at a person with the finger is a threatening act. Mouth body language <enerally speaking body orifices are not terribly desirable as they can cause problems such as being entries for disease or can be snagged on passing bushes.2utting may also e$poses the teeth and is a thus a threat to bite which may be added to an aggressive display. Holding the chin also prevents the head from moving and can signal that the person wants to send a head signal but simultaneously does not want to send the signal. The head is a heavy object and is often propped up by holding the chin in a cupped hand. Touching %troking the chin is often a signal that the person is thinking hard. such as a university intellectual. particularly when the person is tired and it may drop. A beard may thus be an indicator of a non. the lips play a major role in creating visible shapes. The mouth is perhaps the ultimate multi. They may well be judging or evaluating something. with able backup from the teeth and tongue. for e$ample when they emotionally agree and want to nod. &reathing 'e usually breath through the nose.

sipping smaller amounts and swallowing noiselessly. They also do not speak when they have food in their mouth. Yawning is a process of taking a deep gulp of air as a )uick 'pick. an uncouth person gobbles large mouthfuls and opens their mouth as they chew and talk at the same time.up' and often indicate a person who is tired or bored.or. A well. %hort inhalation. perhaps including incoherent mumbling. and the way people eat can tell things about them. 'ith closed eyes. A hot person also pants hard. e$haling sigh. particularly in a se)uence.me. snobbish gourmands who take great pleasure in eating may do it noisily as an e$pression of pleasure. this may indicate an unwillingness to speak. A short. #t may also be done with loud glugging and followed by . This may also be a cultural variable and in some places noisy eating is not only acceptable but also desirable. . "ating The mouth is also used for eating. (ast speakers are often visual thinkers who are trying to get out what they are seeing.' 0areful shaping of words can also indicate a person with auditory preferences or a concern for precision and neatness.A person who is frightened or angry by the fight. can be like silent sobs and hence be an indicator of deep and suppressed sadness. )rinking As with eating. They may also be looking upwards. they are seldom aware of what is going on around them and this may be done as an escape. %low speakers may be deep thinkers who are being careful about finding the right words.mannered person opens their mouth the minimum to put in a moderate amount of food and keeps it closed whilst carefully chewing each mouthful. can indicate sadness.n the other hand. %low. deep breathing. do not interrupt. drinking may be done in a polite way. for e$ample from shyness or from a fear of betraying themselves. A mouth that moves a lot during speech can indicate e$citement or dominance as it sends clear signals that '# am speaking. #n a curious reversal. /eople who chew for a longer time may be chewing on ideas at the same time. frustration or boredom. 'ith typical the red face. this may also be pensive. /eople who chew smaller amounts at the front of their mouth are like children whose molars have not developed and may be timid. sometimes with slightly parted lips. deep. may indicate someone who is rela$ing or meditating. 'hen people slide their jaw sideways when they eat are grinding the food. This may also involve breathing faster panting!. this can be mistaken for anger or vice versa!.flight reaction may well open their mouth to get more o$ygen in preparation for combat or running away. They may also have an auditory preference as they carefully enunciate each word. '(eaking The mouth sends additional signals when it is speaking. #f the mouth moves little.

The hand is also used to conceal the mouth when it will betray emotions that may be undesirable. %miling is also a sign of submission as the person effectively says '# am nice and not a threat'. laughter is a relatively brief affair. which crease and 'twinkle'. %miling with lips only is often falsehood. "owering the jaw to show a 6. may indicate embarrassment about unsightly teeth. #n polite society. #t may also be a suppression of words '# can see the funny side. e$posing the inside of your mouth may be considered rude. laughter shows greater pleasure and happiness. from the suppressed titter to the loud and uproarious belly. A false smile may be more symmetrical or larger on the left side of the face. after the scientists who first described it in =>?@. (alse smiles also tend to last for longer. This false smile is known as the 6uchenne smile.e)ually distasteful burping . on one side of the face. and particularly with lips firmly pressed together.'!. such as a joke. may indicate cynicism. "ouder and less suppressed laughter may indicate someone who is less self. #t may also be a deliberate signal of amusement and and an invitation to laugh. but #'m not going to comment. # don't buy that idea. #t may also be used by a person who is trying to gain attention. A full smile engages the whole face. %miling without opening the mouth. sarcasm or uncertainty '%orry. . particularly including the eyes.shaped mouth can be a false smile as it is easy to do. although again.laugh. 0overing the mouth may also be a reason for hiding a yawn. A genuine smile is often asymmetric and usually larger on the right side of the face. happening for a few seconds. where the smiler wants to convey pleasure or approval but is actually feeling something else.'!. 'e also cover the open mouth of surprise and the downturned mouth of sadness. overing %ometimes the hand is used to cover the mouth. %miling in some cultures indicates a )uestion or that you want the other person to speak.conscious. 'hilst smiling may happen over a longer period. 'miling %miling indicates pleasure. There are many variants on laughter and we all laugh differently. Laughing 1eyond smiling. either that you are generally happy and are enjoying the other person's company or that you are amused by something in particular. A half. %omeone who is slooshing their drink around their mouth may well be thinking and deciding. and we may do this to hold back from telling the truth. so the hand is used to politely cover a yawn.smile. in some cultures this is a desirable e$pression of pleasure.. Thus we put our hands over impolite giggles and smirks.

'ucking or biting %ucking a finger is often an echo of doing this in childhood. 1oredom can indicated by yawning. The gulping of air in yawning can also be in preparation for action and a stressed person may yawn more. done when the person is uncomfortable or stressed in some way. '(unny' often gets e)uated to 'nice' and 'harmless' and the use of humor thus can a way of sending friendship signals. Young children suck fingers or thumb as a breast substitute. women laugh at men they like whilst men like women who laugh at them '#t's working. the side of a hand or other parts of the body such as the lips or inner cheek. which makes it often impolite also because it shows the inside of the body!. particularly if the lips are then licked and even more so if done whilst holding the ga&e of another person. "aughs. thus e$aggerating further the signals sent by them. or at least take some bigger breaths. This action is hence a comforter. %ometimes a physical item is used as a substitute. 'e do it when we are tired and blood o$ygen is low. "aughing and smiling at the misfortune of others is often socially unacceptable although we often find this funny <ermans call this 'schadenfreude'!. Lips body language "ips can say a lot of things without words.ur muscles around them mean we can shape them with incredibly fine control. Pursed "ips which are pulled inwards from all directions are an indication of tension and may indicate frustration or disapproval. This can lead to a satisfying bonding mechanism. /arting lips is the first stage in speaking and may thus be a signal that the person wants to talk. #n such cases you may see suppressed grins and giggles as the person tries desperately to hide their feeling of amusement. Parted "ips which are slightly parted can be a strong flirting signal. %he likes me. such as a pen or pencil. Bariants on this include sucking or biting knuckles. . for e$ample may get disguised as coughs and the person may turn away to hide their e$pression. "aughing at ris)uA jokes is a sign of acceptance of the other person the alternative is to critici&e or otherwise censure them!. "ipstick is used to draw attention to the lips. This results often in the yawn being covered with the hand or concealed such as by turning the head or holding the mouth more closed than it actually want to be. 1iting generally indicates greater stress than sucking. signalling that the other person is so uninteresting they are sending us to sleep. .'!.#n general. *awning Yawning is opening the mouth wide and gulping in a large )uantity of air. This can happen in general an$iety or specific situations such as when lying.

the eyes are either narrowed or staring. This subvocali&ation often happens with very small movement and is often completely subconscious./ursed lips are a classic sign of anger. %ome people are so miserable so often. particularly including the eyes. %miling with lips only is often falsehood. A full smile engages the whole face. !oving "ips which are moving in the shape of words but without making sounds means that the person is thinking of saying the words. where the smiler wants to convey pleasure or approval but is actually feeling something else. this can be a grimace of disgust or a smile of pleasure. Retracted 'hen the lips are pulled back. evening out lipstick. #n a grimace. the corners of the eyes are creased. 'hen you say 'oo'. they e$pose the teeth. #t can also indicate uncertainty. The eyes should tell you which is which. Turned down 0orners of the mouth turned down indicates sadness or displeasure. #t can also be a sign of uncertainty or disapproval look for accompanying lowered eyebrows!. #t is effectively holding the mouth shut to prevent the person saying what they feel like saying. either because of dislike of offered food or some other motivation. <rimaces are often flatter and tenser. %ome people chew the insides of their mouths when they are nervous. particularly if the lips are touched with the fingers. This may be in a broad smile or it may be a snarl of aggression. the teeth are unlikely to be shown although toothless smiles are also common!. This indicate disapproval '#f # spoke # would be very critical.read as they silently sound the word. #lattened "ips which are kept hori&ontal but s)uee&ed flat are an e$aggerated closing of the mouth and hence indicate a repressed desire to speak. Puckered A light puckering of the lips into a kiss shape typically indicates desire. the lips form the kiss shape. #t can also indicate frustration '# want to speak. which # do not want to be'!. This may also be an indication of lying or withholding the truth as the person stops themselves from telling the truth. (lattened lips can also indicate a refusal to eat. Turned u( 'hen the corners of the mouth are turned upwards. this is the natural state of rest of their mouths which is perhaps rather sad!. Twitching . #n a full smile. Cp and down movement may indicate chewing. +olling in the lips so they roll across one another can be a preening gesture for women. but others are speaking and # feel # should wait'!. This is one reason that romantic songs often linger on words like 'you' and 'too'. %tage mentalists use this when they ask their 'victims' to think hard of a word and then lip. including when it is suppressed. #n a snarl.

this is the bottom lip especially if the person has overhanging top teeth!. This may be a habitual action and people who do this. <entle biting also stimulates nerve receptors and is thus similar to touch. Csually.like petulance at not getting their own way. "iars in particular will often give themselves away with very brief grimaces as their conscience e$presses disapproval of the conscious lies. where the person e$presses child. Actual biting is rare. for e$ample a single twitch of the corner of the mouth that indicates cynicism or disbelief. #t can also be an indicator for stress during lying. &iting 1iting the lip. 'hen people play with friends they may also e$pose their teeth. This can create arousal from the basic fear instinct but the person knows from the conte$t that they are not in danger and hence reframes the arousal as pleasure. lightning. 8$posing the teeth in a snarl is saying '# am thinking of biting you' and is hence a primitive and potentially scary threat. for e$ample where lovers chew the other person's lip or ear. will often repeat the move in predictable situations. especially if accompanied by wide eyes and eyebrows raised in the middle and lowered at the sides. This is a fairly child. is often a sign of an$iety.%mall. tear and grind. but this is a complete section. #f the finger touches them. Teeth body language There's not a lot of body language with teeth. Protruding 'hen the top lip is over the bottom lip. this may be linked with biting of the bottom lip. as if the person is saying 'umm'. but indicates the person has been reduced to a base position and is probably not thinking rationally. 1iting can also be affectionate. 1oth lips pressed together and pushed out generally indicates doubt. The bottom lip jutting out is often a part of a sulky pout.fast movements of the mouth betray inner thoughts. a common indicator that the person is feeling guilty about something.like action. Rela+ed (inally. This usually indicates that the person is also feeling rela$ed. 'miling . it may indicate internal thinking or may say '# am considering speaking but am not )uite ready to talk yet'. so here's details. the lips will have a position of rest when they are not pulled in any direction. and thus may betray concern about being told off or otherwise being censured in the manner of a child. centrally or at the side. &iting Teeth are made to bite. Young animals at play pretend to bite one another as they prepare for adulthood. The bottom lip e$tended over the top lip can indicate uncertainty.

poking is often followed by a smile or laughter. &iting it . 0hattering teeth may indicate e$treme fear and is usually accompanied by shaking of the body. 'hen people are talking in romantic setting. saying '# would like to like you'. perhaps for another person and perhaps for food. making a noise that echoes in the mouth. Tongue body language The tongue is normally important in spoken body language. particularly when done slowly and with other flirting signals such as a slightly lowered head and steady ga&e. although considered rather childish and thus reflects as much on the person doing it. "ip. 'ticking out A deliberate gesture of sticking out the tongue at a person is impolite.8$posing the teeth in smiling tends to indicate e$treme pleasure. As such. #t may also be a deliberate interruption or irritant. %ticking out the tongue also can happen when the person is trying hard to do something. The rest of the face should indicate more of the intent. Ta((ing %ometimes people tap their teeth with their nails. As a deliberate signal to others it can be se$ually enticing. although this is less likely. pretty much the only thing the tongue can lick is the lips although a more hidden way of this is licking the teeth!. 1y oneself. #n practice it can also send some body language non. "ight tapping of the teeth can be mild frustration or thinking it is similar in effect to tapping of a finger!. <rinding teeth can indicate suppressed anger or frustration as the person tensely tries not to speak. 'hen this happens it traditionally appears at the side of the mouth. The gesture thus appears petulant unless it is done in an amusingly cheeky way. This may also indicate e$treme coldness. As with other repetitive action. 0heeky tongue.verbal signals.conscious and particularly if their teeth are not that attractive may try not to show their teeth when smiling. This can signal thinking or boredom. Licking The tongue can be used to lick.licking may indicate desire. teeth noise can also just be habit. it can be very arousing. Csually it is for what is in front of the licker. /eople who are self. "icking another person can be e$tremely arousing and is typically done either as a part of foreplay or as a )uick tease.oise Teeth can make a noise when banged or slid together. . sticking out the tongue can be a sign of lust.

suppressed nose. /ushed in front of the teeth. sniffing can indicate displeasure or disgust. Another variation is when the person is thinking about something but is not satisfied with their own ideas. you can still sometimes see what it is doing. #lared 'hen the nostrils are widened it allows more air to be breathed in and out and readies the person for combat.taste metaphor. perhaps for fear of offending or breaking social rules. #t can also appear with a metaphoric bad smell is thought about. /ressed against the cheek it can indicate thinking and uncertainty. /inching the bridge of the nose can show the person is evaluating something. for e$ample when somebody else suggests a distasteful idea see7 even language uses bad. can send a certain amount of body language.!. (iddling with the nose or pressing it down can just be a habit when the person is thinking.1iting the tongue typically indicates that the biter wants to say something but somehow feels unable or unwilling to say what they want. which makes the nose itch and so may lead to the person touching or scratching it this is probably the basis of the /inocchio story!. Touching it Touching the nose can indicate that the person has detected a bad smell. 'hen a person lies. which is right in the middle of the face. blood vessels in their nose may dilate. 'niffing Aside from when a person has a cold. with the mouth twitching up as well. pushing out the lips. .scratch related to lying. This may also happen on one side. +ubbing the finger alongside the nose can indicate disagreement. (lared nostrils may also indicate that the person is making an internal judgment about something. this can indicate the person is e$periencing e$treme displeasure. #t is also common signal from a person who is not telling the truth. Nose body language The nose. The nasal engorgement then causes mast cells to release histamine. -rinkled The nose can be wrinkled by pushing up from the mouth. This happens when a bad smell is detected. #t may also be a semi. usually negatively and with some frustration. $nside the mouth 'ith mouth closed and tongue inside the mouth. #n a related sense. can also indicate uncertainty. making the nose swell or appear redder.

especially when combined with a frown. if in doubt.verbal signals. As with visual and other movements. really9 please do not hurt me.. "ooking upwards and to the left can indicate recalling a memory. with some justification. #t can also indicate that the person is feeling guilty. Head lowered and eyes looking back up at the other person is a coy and suggestive action as it combines the head down of submission with eye contact of attraction. #n many cultures where eye contact is a rude or dominant signal. #t can also be judgemental. which hence may be a sign of submission '# am not a threat. "ooking down involves not looking at the other person. "ooking to the right can indicate that they are imagining the sound. A notable way that a lower person looks down at a higher person is by tilting their head back. You are so glorious # would be da&&led if # looked at you. looking up may be their recalling their prepared words. Looking down "ooking at a person can be an act of power and domination. "ooking up may also be a signal of boredom as the person e$amines the surroundings in search of something more interesting. 1e careful with this7 sometimes the directions are reversed . Looking u( 'hen a person looks upwards they are often thinking. .'! "ooking down can thus be a signal of submission. this can be reversed and may need checking against known truth and fabrication. test the person by asking them to recall known facts or imagine something. "ooking to the left can indicate a person recalling a sound. "ooking down and to the left can indicate that they are talking to themselves look for slight movement of the lips!. they are either looking away from what is in front of them or looking towards something that has taken their interest.'!. so when a person looks sideways. A )uick glance sideways can just be checking the source of a distraction to assess for threat or interest. people will look down when talking with others in order to show respect. 'the windows of the soul' as they can send many different non. (or reading body language this is )uite useful as looking at people's eyes are a normal part of communication whilst ga&ing at other parts of the body can be seen as rather rude!. "ooking upwards and the right can indicate imaginative construction of a picture which can hence betray a liar!. #n particular they are probably making pictures in their head and thus may well be an indicator of a visual thinker. Looking sideways :uch of our field of vision is in the hori&ontal plane. #t can also be done to show irritation '# didn't appreciate that comment. 'hen they are delivering a speech or presentation. 8ven taller people may do this.Eyes body language The eyes are often called. "ooking down and to the right can indicate that they are attending to internal emotions.

<lancing at a person can indicate a desire to talk with them. . . with rela$ing of muscles around the eye and a slight defocusing as the person tries to take in the whole person is sometimes called doe eyes. 'hen looking at a person normally. your feelings are unimportant to me and you will submit to my ga&e'. . either as a potential threat or as a se$ual partner notice where the ga&e lingers!. The ga&e can also be a defocused looking at the general person. a table or a person. This may also be shown by defocused eyes where the person is 'inside their head' thinking about other things. below!. for e$ample glancing at the door can indicate a desire to leave.a/ing "ooking at something shows an interest in it. #t can also indicate a concern for that person's feeling when something is said that might upset them. "ooking at a person's mouth can indicate that you would like to kiss them.to. "ooking at their forehead or not at them indicates disinterest.Lateral mo ement 8yes moving from side. whether it is a painting.lancing <lancing at something can betray a desire for that thing. 8yes may also move back and forth sideways and sometimes up and down! when the person is visuali&ing a big picture and is literally looking it over. as it often indicates se$ual desire. as if they are checking that nobody else is listening. <lancing may indicate a desire to ga&e at something or someone where it is forbidden to look for a prolonged period. "ooking up and down at a whole person is usually si&ing them up.side can indicate shiftiness and lying. particularly if the ga&e is prolonged and the pupils are dilated see below!. 8ye contact in many cultures is considered dominant or rude. "ye contact !oe eyes A softening of the eyes. as it aids comple$ communication. "ooking at se$ual regions indicates a desire to have se$ual relations with them. Making eye contact "ooking at a person acknowledges them and shows that you are interested in them. This is one reason why we have larger eye whites than animals. as the person effectively says '# am more powerful than you. the ga&e is usually at eye level or above see eye contact. "ateral movement can also happen when the person is being conspiratorial. #t is difficult to conceal a ga&e as we are particularly adept at identifying e$actly where other people are looking. This can be )uite insulting and hence indicate a position of presumed dominance. as if the person is looking for an escape route in case they are found out. The eyes may also appear shiny. particularly if you look in their eyes.

so it's important to watch for other signals. and especially when we are paying close attention to what the other person is saying. . knowing that low eye contact is a sign of lying. this can indicate domination. it is a sign of attraction. "overs will stare into each others eyes for a long period. but not with the eyes as this is more difficult. so in conversation we fre)uently look away and back again. with the first person to look away admitting defeat. a break in eye contact can also be caused by something as simple as dried out contacts or any new stimulus in one's immediate area. . then this indicates they have grabbed your attention.'!. A trick to reduce stress from this is to look at the bridge of their nose.f course. 1reaking eye contact can indicate that something that has just been said that makes the person not want to sustain eye contact. %ometimes liars. contracted pupils and an immobile face. 'e also look more at people we like and like people who look at us more. They may smile with the mouth. 8ye contact often increases significantly when we are listening. Limited eye contact 'hen a person makes very little eye contact. 'hen done with doe eyes and smiles. for e$ample. #f the other person is still looking at them. "ess eye contact is used when talking. They will think you are still looking in their eyes. Breaking eye contact /rolonged eye contact can be threatening. breaking eye contact and then looking immediately back at them is a classic flirting action. particularly with the head held coyly low in suggested submission. #n such circumstances a staring competition can ensue. will over. they feel threatened. compensate and look at you for a longer than usual period. they are rewarded with a coy smile or a slight widening of the eyes 'Yes. They may also be lying and not want to be detected. for e$ample that they are insulted. Attraction is also indicated by looking back and forth between the two eyes. "ooking at a person. they may be feeling insecure. #f a person says something when you are looking away and then you make eye contact. /rolonged eye contact can be disconcerting. etc. . as if we are desperately trying to determine if they are interested in us too. 'hen done without blinking. An attraction signal that is more commonly used by women is to hold the other person's ga&e for about three seconds.ften this is done without blinking as they force themselves into this act. 'e are ama&ingly good at detecting what they are looking at and can detect even a brief glance at parts of our body. Then look down for a second or two and then look back up again to see if they have taken the bait!. particularly by people who are visual thinkers as they stare into the distance or upwards as they 'see' what they are talking about. they have been found out. aggression and use of power. this message is for you. This can also happen when the person thinks something that causes the same internal discomfort. Long eye contact 8ye contact longer than normal can have several different meanings."ooking at a person's eyes also lets you know where they are looking.

'! %)uinting can also be used by liars who do not want the other person to detect their deception. They also follow neutral or feared things in case the movement turns into a threat. affectionate or deceptive and is discussed further above. The correction back to normal implies that the person would like to stare more. +eali&ing this. "owering eyelids whilst still looking at the other person can be a part of a romantic and suggestive cluster. This can be an indication of lying as the liar has to keep thinking about what they are saying. 'hen the eyes are defocused. 'ithout care. including to eye contact and to parts of the product being sold. 'hen a person thinks about something and does not want to look at the internal image. #t can similarly indicate uncertainty '# cannot )uite see what is meant here. perhaps considering that something told to them is not true or at least not fully so!. prolonged attention to something and with reduced blinking. guiding where the customer looks. . #t generally indicates particular interest in something or someone. much as a windscreen wiper on a car. #ollowing The eyes will naturally follow movement of any kind. %taring at a person can indicate shock and disbelief. %taring at another's eyes is usually more associated with aggressive action. 1link rate tends to increase when people are thinking more or are feeling stressed. the person's attention may be inside their head and what they are staring at may be of no significance. this can become )uite embarrassing for them!. &linking 1linking is a neat natural process whereby the eyelids wipe the eyes clean. "owering of eyelids is not really a s)uint but can have a similar meaning. with eyes wide open and then back to normal indicates surprise. %)uinting can also happen when lights or the sun are bright. they may also force their eyes open and appear to stare. particularly after hearing une$pected news. /rolonged eye contact can be aggressive. %omeone who is listening carefully to you is more likely to blink when you pause keeping eyes open to watch everything you say!.'taring %taring is generally done with eyes wider than usual. This is used when sales people move something like a pen or finger up and down. 1linking can also indicate rapport. and people who are connected may blink at the same rate. #f the person is looking at something of interest then they will naturally keep looking at this. but knows it is impolite this may be accompanied with some apologetic te$t!. they may involuntarily s)uint. A short stare. #t can also indicate tiredness. and may be accompanied with tossing back the head and slightly puckering the lips in a kiss. '0uinting -arrowing of a person's eyes can indicate evaluation.

6amp eyes can be suppressed weeping. 'eeping can be silent. ours may well contract also. when emotions are e$treme.'!. sometimes when talking. %ometimes when people are talking they close their eyes. 6ampness can also occur when the person is tired this may be accompanied by redness of the eyes. 'inking can also be a slightly suggestive greeting and is reminiscent of a small wave of the hand 'Hello there. when their pupils are small. gorgeous. 8ven if their eyes feel damp they may turn away. can be accompanied by uncontrollable. both for washing them and for tears. which may be direct at whoever is available. 'hen another person's eyes dilate we may be attracted further to them and our eyes dilate in return. though others do not'!. )am( The tear ducts provide moisture to the eyes. Pu(il si/e A subtle signal that is sometimes detected only subconsciously and is seldom reali&ed by the sender is where the pupil gets larger dilates! or contracts. +apid blinking also flutters the eyelashes and can be a coy romantic invitation. #t also typically involves screwing up of the face and. indicating an$iety. fear or sadness. Bisual thinkers may also close their eyes. not even being able to cry when alone. it is so terrible'. convulsive sobs. #t can also indicate that the person has been crying recently. so they can better see the internal images without e$ternal distraction. :en in many culture are not e$pected to cry and learn to suppress this response. -inking 0losing one eye in a wink is a deliberate gesture that often suggests conspiratorial 'You and # both understand. losing 0losing the eyes shuts out the world. and is sometimes called 'bedroom eyes' maga&ine pictures sometimes have deliberately doctored eyes to make a model look more attractive!. "ikewise. a single blink can signal surprise that the person does not )uite believe what they see '#'ll wipe my eyes clean to better see'!. Tears and sadness may be transformed into anger. saying '# am so important. This is an e)uivalent to turning away so eye contact can be avoided and any implied re)uest for the other person to speak is effectively ignored. This can mean '# do not want to see what is in front of me. %e$ual desire is a common cause of pupil dilation. +apid blinking blocks vision and can be an arrogant signal. # do not need to see you'. . although parado$ically you can also weep tears of joy.1eyond natural random blinking. with little e$pression other than the tears indicating a certain amount of control!. Tears Actual tears that roll down the cheeks are often a symptom of e$treme fear or sadness.

The rubbing may be with one finger. The more the coverage. This typically happens as a part of opening the eyes wider. 'hen as )uestion is asked and the eyebrows are raised afterwards.' +elated to this. this is a clear invitation to answer the )uestion. with the effect is that their dark pupils look larger than they are. making them more attractive 'at the right time'. /articularly with a lowered head. the eyes may water a little. this can thus indicate deception or a desire that eye signals are harder to see. This also gives the opportunity to turn the head away. Rubbing 'hen a person is feeling uncomfortable. as it lets the other person see your eyes '# am not looking where # should not. so when their pupils actually do dilate then the signal is clearer to detect. their eyebrows are often raised. Eyebro" body language 8yebrows can send body language. "owered eyebrows may also indicate annoyance. they person may rub their eye and maybe even feign tiredness or having something in the eye. !iddle-raised . Lowered "owering the eyebrows conceals the eyes to a certain degree. the more the person is trying to hide behind the hands.'!. they are highly visible communicators. # do not want to look at you. for e$ample asking 'Are you sure*' when the other person appears to be talking with limited accuracy. raising eyebrows is may be a submissive move or indicate openness. which are the major senders of signals.!. 1eing near the eyes. perhaps to see more clearly what is going on. perhaps in an echo of s)uint. the higher the eyebrows are raised. lowered eyebrows are a sign of a dominant person./upils dilate also when it is darker to let in more light perhaps this is why clubs and bars are so dingy. perhaps effectively saying '# am so displeased. The more the surprise.like narrowing of the eyes. /eople with dark irises the colored circle around the pupil! can look attractive because it is difficult to distinguish the iris from the pupil. +aising a single eyebrow is something that only some people can do and can be a bit more wry in its meaning. although the limited control of muscles around them can limit what they say. The reverse of this is that pupils contract when we do not like the other person. with a finger and thumb for two eyes! or with both hands. Raised 'hen a person is surprised. +aising the eyebrows asks for attention from others and can signal general emphasis. . /eople with light irises make the pupils easier to see. To cover this and try to restore an appropriate dryness.pposite to the dominant lowering of eyebrows.

This can indicate relief ''hew. %weating can occur when we are hot. even when the person is not sweating.1y pushing together the eyebrows and pulling up the forehead. #ts main limitation is that it can only make a few movements. #t typically indicates relief and can be a deliberate e$aggeration. as if the person was massaging their brain to get it going. Tapping the forehead with an open palm or light fist says '<osh. making it significant in sending moisture. This is a common signal across all primates. +ubbing the temples either side can indicate stress as the person tries to massage away the actual or implicit headache. A cold sweat can indicate e$treme fear and may be accompanied by damp eyes. Touching 'iping the forehead can be to remove sweat. this often shows that the person is angry or frustrated. #t can also indicate intense concentration. which can come from e$ternal temperature. typically with the thumb touching the side of the face. we often give a )uick up. and hence acts as an amplifier of these signals.'!. #t can also indicate fear.down flash of the eyebrows in recognition and greeting. Oscillating 'hen we see people we know. often as a part of a wider set of signals. -rinkling 'rinkling the forehead is often connected with movement of the eyebrows. This is effectively shading the eyes and says 'You are so wonderful # am da&&led by your brilliance. e$ercise and also inner energy and arousal. +apid and repeated up and down movement may be an e$aggerated signal. including monkeys and gorillas. 'weating 'e often sweat more from the forehead than other parts of the body.' %lowly rubbing the forehead can indicate deep thinking.'!. Touching the forehead happens in the greeting of a salute. the eyebrows can be made to slope outwards.related signals.' . The forehead may also be touched as a part of a propping up the head. +aised eyebrows and wrinkled forehead! indicates surprise or )uestioning.'. particularly upwards. meaning ''ell how about that then. in the way that <roucho :ar$ used it. #t is near the eyes and can be looked at without sending other signals for e$ample looking the mouth can say '# want to kiss you'!. Forehead body language The forehead has its place in body language communications. which can make even small movements with it reliably observed and hence significant. how stupid # am. #t can also indicate an$iety '. !iddle-lowered 'hen the middle of the eyebrows are pulled down so they slope inwards.h no.

Hair body language The hair is a part of the body and hence is used in various ways for communication.esteem. perhaps when she has lower confidence or self. Touching %troking the hair is a preening gesture. it can indicate a desire to be male. wouldn't you like to stroke my gorgeous long. like a man or perhaps to be unattractive to men. 1((earance Hair can be cut and shaped into a wide range of styles which contributes to the overall image and hence sends non. 'hen unkempt it can show a lack of care and perhaps lower self. /articularly when covering the eyes. "ong hair frames the face and may partially cover it. drawing attention to it. with hair cut reasonably short. Tossing Tossing the head throws the hair backwards actually or virtually!.outs' or those who would like to. "onger hair can also be a sign of rebellion and assertion of identity. 'ell. /laying with the hair is particularly flirtatious and invites the other person to do this for you.esteem. #t can also be an aggressive act as the person now gives you more unwanted attention. men usually have a very limited social style. which can be deliberate checking that it is perfectly coiffed or an invitation to stroke also. for e$ample when they have been mistreated by other women when they were young. 'hen women cut their hair short. perhaps echoing army crew cuts. Women 'omen are socially permitted to wear a much wider range of styles. "ong male hair is typical of young 'drop. guys.'!. . blonde hair.verbal signals. #t can thus be a romantic gesture 'Hey. teasing about the beauty behind this curtain. A conventional and tidy cut indicates a conventional person who follows basic social rules. which may be an invitation. #t may also be a rebellion against womanhood. long hair over the face provides a barrier behind which the woman can hide. Bery short hair may signal aggression. opening the doors to communication. Throwing long hair back also e$poses the face. #t has also been used by 'skinheads' and is popular with club bouncers and other 'heavies'. but cannot afford it 7!. Men 0onventionally.styled hair can indicate a desire to be attractive and so get the approval and admiration of others. probably to attract men and compete with other women in this!.

it e$aggerates it further.#rm body language The arm is an interesting appendages with a ball at the top. "+(anding Arms are clever e$panding devices that can make us bigger or smaller.arm. This waving of arms needs control and a person who bangs their hand on something may indicate clumsiness. #n martial arts arms can be used to block and strike and this is reflected in how they may be used in communication. %hields act in two ways7 one is to block incoming attacks and the other is a place behind which the person can hide and perhaps not be noticed. blocking and sweeping away attacks. our shaping is smaller and closer to the body. a hinge in the middle. They can symboli&e clubs and spears as they strike out at imaginary foes. They can e$tend towards the other person. 0rossed arms may thus indicate an$iety which is either driven by a lack of trust in the other person or an internal discomfort and sense of vulnerability that may. They can also be defensive. 'hen we are e$cited or confident. reaching out without having to move the rest of our body. 'ha(ing Arms are used as a part of shaping as we wave them around and carve out the world. blocking out the outside world. either in threat or a more friendly way. and with a rather comple$ toolset at the end.'!.raising gesture is frustration. this is often the first place the deceiver starts when trying to control body language they may even hold one arm with the other to keep them both still!. it throws things into the air. 'atch also for arms held still . we may wave our arms about like windmills. . rossing Arms can act as the doorway to the body and the self. Raising +aising the arms lifts something up.. 'ith both arms. sometimes as a part of a body. The can also e$tend laterally. for e$ample. 6one rapidly. 0urved and moving more slowly they may offer comfort. 0oupled with a shrug it indicates confusion '# don't know. 'hen they are crossed. :oved directly and )uickly they threaten..e$panding '# am big' display that can signify confidence or perhaps aggression. as everything that is weighing the person down with confusion is thrown up into the air. they form a closed defensive shield. A typical two. -ea(on Arms can be like weapons. 'hen we are less confident. They are an adjunct to our words as we literally show other people how big the fish was or how small the child is. be rooted in childhood trauma!.

The lesser. #t may also indicate repressed anger # have to hold myself to prevent myself hitting you!. Elbo" body language 'hen you think 'body language'. Pulling back 'hen arms are thrust forward. for e$ample holding upper arms in a folded. both individually and as a part of a wider cluster. #t can also be power position that dares the other person to attack whilst knowing that the other person dare not. making them more vulnerable. should always be watched. and indeed there are less things they can say. they e$pose the torso and the person. for e$ample. This signifies comfort that often indicates trust. This may range from a light cross to arms folded to arms wrapped around the person. are just a rela$ed position. holding the sides. 'i/e 8lbows are often used as a central part of a si&e display as we push them outwards as we puff ourselves up to appear bigger larger than we are much as birds stand their feathers on end!. they are the first thing that may be grabbed or attacked. . and a sudden thrust forward can indeed be an aggressive signal. #n some cultures it also signals that the person is holding themself still so they can pay greater attention to you and is hence a compliment!. This can be to suppress any signals. A common method sales people use to break a crossed. 0rossed arms is a very obvious signal and if you do it in front of other people they will likely feel rejected and respond accordingly including not agreeing with you!.hug. seeking to touch and join with the other person.noticed parts.arms closed position is to give the person something to hold or otherwise ask them to use their hands. %ometimes folded arms. -ote that not all crossed arms are defensive. the elbow is not usually the first thing you think of. however. #f the thumbs are up.cross may also be used to hold the person in a reassuring self. #f legs are crossed also then this adds to the signal. The hands in an arm. 0rossed arms are also used when the person is cold this is typically done with hands tucked under armpits to keep them warm!.arms position or wrapped around the torso. this may indicate some approval or agreement with what is being said. An e$treme version which may indicate additional hostility is a tight close with hands formed as fists.The e$tent of crossing indicates how firmly closed the person is. Reaching forward +eaching forward to the other person can be )uite scary for them as you could attack them. especially when holding one another can show the person to be trying to keep themselves still. especially if the hand is pointing or shaped as a fist. +eaching forward can also be an offer of support or affection. 'hen a person feels defensive they may pull back their arms out of harm's way. 'hen arms are not crossed. 0rossed arms.

A hand signal may be small. Hand body language Hands have @D bones and are a very e$pressive part of our anatomy. with one foot pointing forward at the target person. 'e also do it with other parts of the body. the stronger the feeling!. Pro( 'hen seated. #n everyday language a symbolic strike towards someone without hitting them! says '# feel like hitting you' or '# could hit you'. #t thus can be a suggestion to desist from some undesirable behavior./utting hands on the waist sends a stronger signal.shaped body curve. #t may also be e$aggerated or done with both hands to emphasi&e the point. effectively stopping them from attacking. . 'ringing the hands indicates more e$treme nervousness. Pointer 'e tend to point at people and things in which we are interested in some way. .!. This can signify aggression.ne of the most subtle and subconscious of these is the elbow. Holding the self can also be an act of restraint. -ea(on (or those who have struggled in big 2anuary sales know or any hurrying crowd for that matter!. :ore subtle is simply to e$pand the chest and push elbows slightly out. This can be to let the other person talk. perhaps betraying subconscious thinking. This often is accompanied by a rela$ed %. but may also be a more rela$ed attention. elbows can make e$cellent weapons. Hands may also hold the self. typically for comfort. putting elbows on the table may indicate a rela$ed state. <ripping can show possessiveness. After the face. The give us enormous capability as an evolved species in how we handle our environment. <ripping hands can hold tightly. hands probably the richest source of body language.getting pose look at me. 2olding 0upped hands form a container which can hold gently. ownership and desire the tighter the fist. such as when people hold their own hands. They may also be used for giving. The most obvious way is with the finger. Hands can hold both individually or together giving an e$aggerated effect!. +eading palms is not just about the lines on your hand. They are a pointed tool at the end of the powerful upper arm and a jab in the ribs can wind even a somewhat larger opponent. #t can also be used when the person is angry. #t is also worth noting that gestures with the hands vary significantly across cultures and an 'innocent' hand signal can get you arrested in another country. This is usually done whilst standing and with the body stationery it is difficult to run with elbows sticking out!. 0upped hands can symboli&e delicacy or hold a fragile idea. The head may thus be propped up by cupped hands.

so they are effectively hugging themself!.The two hands can show different desires. Holding imaginary objects as they are talked about can show importance. palm up and which is sometimes clammy and with a )uick withdrawal. but mostly only in the military. you might get suspicious. and when they are kept still often holding one another!. A wide.'!. 6ominance is shown with hand on top. ontrol A hand with palm down may figuratively hold or restrain the other person.pening the palm shows that there is no concealed weapon.on. . are firm without being crushing and for a very e$act period so both know when to let go!.down signal '%top. or doodling with it. This also appears in the dominant hand. The similarity between dominant and affection handshakes leads to tricky situations where a dominant person pretends to be friendly. strength. The most common form of greeting is shaking hands.armed hold may indicate the whole world or something massive. such as fiddling with a pen. 8ven ideas may be held. A common si&e is as if they are holding a basketball . This is one of the few times we are allowed to touch the other person and it may get used to send various signals. 'aving is also used for a greeting and may be done at a distance. :ost handshakes use vertical palms to show e)uality. the wider the arms are held. 'ha(ing Hands can carve the air. prolonged holding '# decide when to let go'! and holding the person with the other hand. . for e$ample where a person hugs a cup the cup represents the person. They can thus create visual metaphors out of literally nothing. waves etc. Things which are not wanted are held further away or even tossed away!. shaping what the person is talking about or meaning. restraining the desire to punch the other person. Things which are important and perhaps with fear of loss! are held close and tight. clicking it on and off. which may be used as comfort objects. %ubmission is shown with a floppy hand. #tems may also be for distracting activity that releases nervous energy. This is significant in greeting.top handshake. 6o not come any closer. %alutes are sometimes used. touching with the other hand and enthusiastic smiles. Holding an item with two hands effectively creates a closed position. salutes. The bigger and more important the idea.reeting Hands are often used in greetings. As ever. of which there are many different forms. where their style is strictly prescribed. A palm facing outward towards others fends them off or pushes them away in a more obvious way than the palms.. these are only possible indicators and you should also look for similar signs. this is useful as you can give it to other people. Hands may also be used to hold items such as pens or cups. Another sign can be holding them behind the back. Affection is shown with speed and duration of shake. This can be an authoritative action '%top that now'! or may be a re)uest '/lease calm down'!. -ote also that people who are lying often try to control their hands. A pointing finger or whole hand tells a person where to go '"eave now.'!. . for e$ample with one forming a fist and the other holding it back.

ne hand is often used for symbols as two hands as fists can be an invitation to fight two hands held inwards can also indicate e$treme tension!. for e$ample when a person on stage asks the audience to stop clapping so they can speak. 1sking /alms offered upwards are a common plea gesture. The cutting hand may strike the other palm. cutting the air like a karate chop. A shaking fist signifies a strong desire to strike someone.swiped cut with palm down tells others to stop what they are doing. /unching the air indicates triumphal e$citement. 'hen moved towards a person. /alms downwards may ask a person to calm down.A man talking may shape a fish he caught. A hand may also cover a rudely open mouth. /alms up or at EF degrees and then pulled towards the body seeks to bring others closer to you in an attenuated beckoning gesture.ther gestures can shape more crudely. indicating holding and moving se$ually significant body parts. . Hands can cover other things. 'triking The hand can strike openly. giving what # have. A side. they put their hands to their mouth. which may be opened in such as surprise or a yawn.swiped cut can chop away someone else's argument. They may also indicate decisiveness. Hands can also cover one another. 'hen they do not want to look. they put hands to ears. They may also show that nothing is being concealed. they signal aggression towards that person. 'hen they want to say something but feel restrained. The fist can strike forwards. they cover their eyes. Held upwards they openly proffer an idea. %ometimes a tense fist may be covered by the other hand. 'hen people do not want to hear something.iving . utting The side of a flat hand can appear as a knife. creating visual and aural impact.utstretched palms may offer something to another person. (ist shapes and movements are often symbols of inner aggression. . Hands with palms pressed together indicate a more an$ious pleading. as if asking for alms. although it may also just indicate uncertainty. overing Hands can hide things. which is nothing. chopping with each point. particularly when coupled with an aggressive face. sideways or downwards. This gesture may be done with fingers upwards in a clear prayer position '/lease do not harm . Hands covering the mouth when speaking may be an indicator of lying. with the palm or closed as a fist. Held with palms faced towards one another they might hold something large. A short side swipe may also signal 'no' in any conversation. 0uts can signal aggression. A hand to the groin may protect from dangerous attack. He might also carve out the shape of his ideal woman. A hand to heart may seek to protect it from shocking harm. even a small amount. A single offered hand is the start of the handshake. . A side.

the person may well be thinking. and can thus be a signal of an$iety. this is a thinking and evaluating signal. and possibly thrust towards the other person. Rubbing +ubbing the hands together can mean that the person is cold. evaluating or deciding. Thinking 'hen the fingers are pressed together forming a steepled shape. with all finger. this says 'look at my face. This may also be indicated with a single hand propping up the chin or side of the head.restraining act.me. such as when they are listening. isn't it nice' and may thus be an enticing position. where the person is holding their head still in order to focus on the other person. . Hands clenched can be a self. This also happens when that part of the body is tense. effectively holding the person back from speaking until they are ready. Again. A variant of this is to have fingers interleaved. /articularly when looking at the other person. This can be a shared benefit and be used in a conspiratorial way. 'hen they do this less obviously and more slowly. the person may rub it. this may be more concealed or a less an$ious desire for agreement.'!. #t also means the person is feeling particularly gleeful about something. but otherwise making the same shape and movement. 'u((orting Hands may be used to support the head or even the body when leaning. The steepled position forms a barrier against the other person and may be held lower when the person wants to connect more. "ight stroking of the body can be a romantic invitation. for e$ample the neck or abdomen. 'ith fingers pointing down. pointing upwards. The hands may also lightly support the head. 'hen a part of the body is sore. This may also be done with just inde$ fingers pressed together and other fingers interlinked 'the church'!. 'atch also for small smiles and defocused eyes as they imagine a rosy future at least for them!. evaluating and deciding.up positions may include touching of the mouth or chin with the fingers. The fingers may also be all intertwined and typically held under the chin. This says '# would like you to do this' and can be very arousing. A subtler version of the evaluative position is with the hand supporting the head but with the inde$ finger up the side the of the face. particularly if the erogenous areas or nearby! are touched. Hands wrapped around the cheeks with elbows on the table indicates a heavy head and the person may be sleepy or bored. either as a single hand gently under the chin or with fingers intertwined with elbows on table and chin touching the fingers. The middle finger may cover the mouth '#'m not ready to talk yet'!. they might thinking that they are going to benefit at the e$pense of someone else.tips touching 'the cage'! or with fingers interlinked. A lightly supported head may also be a position of listening. +ubbing the face and particularly the chin can indicate thinking. which may indicate the person is thinking about saying something but is not yet ready to speak out loud. These fingers.

# forgot. a signal of superiority or indicate feelings of vulnerability. 1. %ingle.' /utting hands in pockets or behind the back can also be due to just feeling rela$ed and not needing to talk. including strength and aggression. but the length of the inde$ finger compared with the length of the ring finger is related to masculinity.handed weighting bounces the cupped hand up and down. support is light. An$iety can be related to concern for the outer world or the inner world of thoughts and forecasts. where parts of the body may be lightly touched or stroked in simulation of desired or suggested action by the other person. such as stuffing hands in pockets. "iars may hide their hands in fear that they will give themselves away. /erhaps the most common reason for touching oneself is self. Touching is also used in romantic situations. this will be the one which the person thinks is most significant. Preening /reening is a common action as the person brushes their hair and clothes. This may be done in a deliberate gesture of defiance. figuratively making themselves look more attractive and sending the signal 'Aren't # beautiful. Touching can also be a form of punishment. the stronger the signal is sent.A simple rule is that the more that the head is supported. . for e$ample when an argument is being proposed. in pockets. the more the person is bored. Hiding hands may also be a position of listening. -eighing 0upped hands may be used to indicate weight. They are often used in communication and hiding the hands may indicate a desire not to communicate or not to collaborate.'! and related an$iety. 2iding Hands may be hidden by putting them behind the back. High levels of testosterone in the womb lead to a longer ring finger. Testosterone is also related to other masculine characteristics. sending the message '# do not want to talk because # want to listen to you. 'atch which hands seems to hold the heavier weight . spatial and musical ability. Touching the other person can be an act of domination or of friendship. # am real. for e$ample when a person slaps their head '1other . saying '# don't want to talk with you' or '# do not agree with you'. under the table or sitting on them.affirmation '# am here. 1nd333 -ot body language as such. for e$ample a hand on the shoulder whilst telling them off adds authority. /icking at bits of fluff clothes often shows disapproval as the person figuratively picks apart your argument.' This is thus says '/lease like me' and may be a romantic invitation.. 'hen they are interested in what others are saying. which often is used as a metaphor for importance. # am ok. Two hands are used to indicate discussion of A vs. Touching The hand may touch any part of the body in a whole range of situation. The more erotic the parts being touched.'!. whilst a gentle touch on the arm when sympathi&ing demonstrates concern for them.

/eople who are angry tend to point more. The thumb may be used to pointer to something being as it is jerked over the shoulder. #n some cultures the thumb is a phallic symbol and giving a 'thumbs up' signal says '# want to have se$ with you. Prod The finger prod can act like a stiletto knife.1y looking for long and short ring fingers as compared with the inde$ fingers!. especially at other people. The inde$ finger is usually used. though the middle finger or even all fingers may be used. This is usually the inde$ finger. offering the held item to others. The prod can also be made less threatening by bringing several fingers together and bending the fingers. A more polite version points downwards as it beats out an important point. stabbing forward at the other person. . can be particularly rude in a number of cultures. /ointing. perhaps tapping on something like a table. the finger may be pointed diagonally upwards.thumb pinch. including at themselves when they feel hurt or insulted! and at those who they feel are to blame. The forefinger held up and stationary means 'wait' perhaps as a threat of being used as a club otherwise!. The plate may be proffered forwards. Pointer A pointing finger indicates direction '#t's over there'!. This is less threatening than pointing directly at the person. (or large things both hands may be held together. /ointing at people is like using the prod see below! and is often considered to be rude and threatening. This can cause a lot of confusion between people from the . This is often very threatening and felt as a personal attack.ccident. Plate (ingers e$tended and closed join with the palm to form a plate. it presents the face as an object to be admired and is often used in flirting. such as ideas. although the middle finger is sometimes used. as if firing an arrow. A disguised form of this is the finger. often gently.rient and the . giving an e$aggerated striking movement.and. (or a long distance. where an imaginary idea is delicately held and offered forward. #t may also be done with the whole arm. Held under the chin. The prod may also be used to prod downwards at an imaginary item in front. you might hence find a tendency towards masculine or feminine characteristics. This can be with a stable hand and just a finger way.' or may just be a rude insult. lub The wagging finger of admonition beats up and down as if striking the culprit. The plate holds symbolic things. Finger body language (ingers are very fle$ible and allow for subtle gestures.

Young children suck fingers or thumb as a breast substitute. done when the person is uncomfortable or stressed in some way. #f the fingers are held loosely. 6rumming with the nails makes an even louder noise and hence sends a more urgent signal. the claw may threaten to reach forward and grab. Held downwards it may gently restrain. . Held out towards others it offers them the idea. The inde$ and little finger pointing upwards as a gesture can say that the other man is a cuckold. is unable to gain a female partner and thus has to masturbate to get se$ual relief!.u( (ingers held together and curled upwards form a cup that can contain things more securely than the plate. scratch or tear. for e$ample when another person is speaking and the person wants to interrupt. Bariants on this include sucking knuckles or sucking a pencil. and that the frustration is with internal thoughts and perhaps that an easy solution cannot be found. /ushed down it holds the idea whilst beating out the key points. Yet with little finger facing outwards it can also mean '. :oved up and down it may indicate male masturbation implying the other person. 6rumming can also indicate that the person is thinking. Rudeness The middle finger pointing upwards says 'up yours' and symboli&es a penis. 'ucking %ucking a finger is often an echo of doing this in childhood. with the palm facing the other person indicates peace!. the shape is more of an open cup and may thus hold something. the greater the tension the person is feeling. #t can also signify the 'evil eye'. whilst tense fingers form a more closed cup. The little finger in this gesture indicates the other person has a small penis this is sometimes used as a rude gesture from a woman to a man!.' which can have many different meanings!. 0ups may be used to plead for something to be given or offer something forward to others.verbal noise sends an audible interrupt signal to the other person. law 0urved and separated fingers form a claw. This action is hence a comforter. The first two fingers pointing upwards and with the palm towards the self says 'fGGk off' though curiously. a male. The louder the noise and faster the drumming. Two hands together form a big cup to hold bigger things!. #t may also mean that the person drumming wants to leave. -on.H' or 'wonderful'. #t may be used when saying 'you must grasp this idea'. 'ith palm facing down. Pinch (ingers pinched together hold something small and delicate. This may be finger and thumb or may involve more fingers finger and thumb is less fre)uent as this forms an '. +ela$ed fingers form a loose cup. The finger and thumb together forming a circle may symboli&e the female genitalia perhaps likening the other person to this!. #t can also indicate the anus. )rumming 6rumming or tapping the fingers can indicate frustration.

Held sideways and perhaps waggled! indicates uncertainty!. #t can also be an invitation to others to show approval of what you are saying.Thumb Thumbs. thus giving our head several degrees of freedom and the ability to look in many directions. 'hen people feel threatened they will thus naturally act to protect the neck. Thumbs up when arms are crossed or a single hand is held across the chest is a subtle sign of approval. This may well indicate timidity and feelings of inferiority.up signals approval and agreement. 8$ercising the neck can be a sign of tension. feeling rela$ed and in control. 1nd333 (ingers crossed indicates hope because they form a rough crucifi$!. pulling the chin down to protect the throat and possibly also raising the shoulders to protect the sides of the neck. #t may also indicate boredom. #t also may send a few signals of its own. (idgeting fingers may indicate boredom or tension. The neck can also become stiff from propping up the head and rotation of the neck may be done to e$ercise it.like. either going for the jugular artery at the side or crushing or ripping out the windpipe. %ucking fingers is a regressive return to childhood and breast feeding. Neck body language The is used to support and rotate the head and hence controls some head body language. 2iding The neck a classic position where a predator attacks.down signals disapproval. This may because they are lying or otherwise are . indicating '# am not a threat' or 'protect me'!. Thumbs sticking out when hands are in pockets is often a sign of confidence. Touching Touching the front of the neck may indicate concern about what the person is saying via their windpipe!. both hori&ontally and vertically. A hand on the throat may cover up the signs of swallowing as the person seeks to hide this signal. +oman amphitheater audiences reputedly used this signal to suggest to the emperor that a defeated gladiator be spared or killed. #nspecting fingernails indicates boredom and disinterest. Turning The neck can be rotated. Thumbs. The eyes can also look without turning the head. 8mbarrassment or fear can lead to increased swallowing. +otating the neck is useful for e$tending the range of vision. #t can thus be both a sign of authority and also of friendliness. (luttering fingers may indicate uncertainty '#'m not sure'! or may be a small wave for e$ample being child. #t can also be used deliberately to send a signal that the person is giving or removing attention.

'hen curled forward with the hands down this reduces the width of the body and can thus be a defensive posture or a subconscious desire not to be seen. .embarrassed or uncomfortable with what they are actually saying or are thinking of saying.o neck Having 'no neck' is often associated with people who have done so much weight training that their necks are almost as wide as their heads. they may e$aggerate it with arms held wide. as it reflects the desire to cover their windpipe. 'hen a person is uncomfortable with what they are saying or where they are saying it. Raised Holding the shoulders in a raised position re)uires that the whole weight of the arms are lifted. 'hen a person is uncomfortable they may sweat. urved forward curving the shoulders forward happens naturally when arms are folded. coupled with a muscled body. which may well be an$iety. %uddenly grabbing the back of the neck can be a displacement activity for anger. $houlder body language The shoulders. #f the person enjoys this effect on others. As a result they may pull at their collar. There are also major muscles at the side and back of the neck and rubbing or s)uee&ing these indicates tension. can be very threatening. although they have limited movement when compared with other parts of the body. often from an$iety or fear. Pushed back . for e$ample when the person is feeling threatened or when they want to stay 'under cover'.grab can also be a sign of shock or surprise as if the person is pulling their head back and grabbing it to suppress the reaction. This may be done as a deliberate e$aggeration. then their neck muscles may tense. as if the person raises their hand to strike then has to do something to restrain it. #f they are wearing a tight collar this will start to rub and irritate them. affecting their voice through constriction of the windpipe or tensing of the vocal chords. . can be used to convey various signals. This takes continued effort. %houlders hunched up can be a sign that the person is cold they may be shivering too!. The neck also contains the tubes going down to the stomach and touching the neck may show a concern about eating or drinking. which is supplied if the person is aroused in some way. The appearance. Another reason for touching the neck is when the person fears attack. this is a sign of tension. +aising the shoulders and lowering the head protects the neck when the person fears attack actual or virtual!. fierce glares and other dominant body language.ften. A neck. This can cause discomfort in the neck and the hand thus acts to sooth this irritation.

This is often done to e$ercise a stiff shoulder. with one or both shoulders. and hands held to the side. This posture is thus used when the person does not fear attack and may be used as a taunt to demonstrate power. in fear that their words may give themselves away. A small and )uick shrug may send the same signal but be performed subconsciously and thus can indicate uncertainty or lack of understanding. particularly when the person is up against the wall.turned mouth. . Leaning 'hen the person leans against a wall. they often contact the wall with their shoulder. #f a person turns their shoulders whilst still looking at you. %houlders may not move much in a small or suppressed shrug. %hrugging may be associated with lying where a person shrugs rather than speaks. This e$ercising can signal that the person is readying themselves for action and perhaps combat. it probably means they want to leave maybe because what you are saying is uncomfortable for them!.e$ercising movements. Rela+ed 'e often carry tension in the shoulders and a person who is truly rela$ed will have their shoulders held low. down. 'hen done whilst the other person is talking and it would be polite to listen carefully. which may have been held tensely and hence may indicate an$iety!. This is usually a rela$ed pose as galvani&ing into physical movement would take more than a little effort. which puts the person in a position vulnerable to attack. A more prolonged and animated shrug can be similar to the circling shoulders that indicate readying for aggression and can thus signal a threat. with one.' and may be accompanied with raised eyebrows. This may also be accompanied by rotating or leaning of the neck and other muscle. this deliberate breaking of protocol can be an insulting signal of power 'You are so unimportant # do not need to bother listening politely'!. #f the body is pulled back when the shoulders are pulled back. 'hrug The classic shrug. %ometimes all you may see is a slight raising of the arms. ircling 0ircling the shoulders may be done forwards or backwards. with arms that can move naturally. or otherwise defensively move it out of harm's way. #n a smaller form it may indicate irritation or frustration. without jerkiness and swinging free. with palms upwards or forwards showing nothing is being concealed!. and hence may be used as a sign of aggression. this can indicate a desire to hide the body and not be seen.off raising and lowering of shoulders usually means '# don't know. Turning Turning shoulders is a key part of turning away./ushing the shoulders back forces the chest out and e$poses the torso to potential attack.

the most common muscles that are used to assess overall strength. the effect of a thrust. so you'd better not get in my way'!. as if breathing would either cause what is feared or destroy what is being enjoyed. 'omen may use this to display the curve of their breasts. then the chest moves more. 'hen a woman does this in front of a man it makes the man think of doing this and is thus a highly suggestive and flirtatious act. 'hen women push forward their chests they may thus be inviting intimate relations or just teasing!. #t also increases the o$ygen intake and readies the person for action. Touching Touching the chest draws further attention to it. This is a function of high heels. 8nlarged pectorals are. &reathing The chest e$pands and contracts with breath. #'m strong and will protect you and our babies'! and also other men '# am strong. Thrust out /ushing the chest forward draws attention to it. 'omen. perhaps from tension and stress.Chest body language The chest can send a few non. and can be a part of a provocative romantic display.out chest is e$aggerated as the person is seen in profile. -ithdrawn The chest cavity. 'hen the chest is pulled back. 'hen the person is breathing deeply. "ikewise. thus indicating such as fear or anger. 'hen a person in a state of hopeful suspense they may hold their breath. . +ubbing the chest can also be a sign of pain of discomfort.'!. especially. taking in so much o$ygen they get giddy and can even faint!. as above. although protected to some e$tent by the ribs. this may well indicate that the person is trying to hide or appear inoffensive '# am weak . 0urling forward the shoulders may offer further protection. contains vital organs and thus is vulnerable in attack. 6eep breath may be used to help thrust out the chest. along with biceps. men may show their strong profiles. please don't hurt me. know that men are programmed to be aroused by the sight of breasts. :en also thrust their chest out to display their strong pectorals and perhaps hide their bulging gut!.verbal body language signals. 'e also breath deeply when we are e$periencing intense emotions such as love. A person who is particularly an$ious may breathe too fast and deep and so hyperventilate. which curves the spine to push out the chest and buttocks. A difference with men is that they do this both to women '"ook at me . then breathing is more difficult and short breaths are more likely and may indicate tension. Profiled 'hen the person stands sideways or at EF degrees. 'hen the body is held rigid.

at least. not making eye contact. Pulling it in #n romantic and 'body beautiful' situations. #n men. Twist further one foot rotates!. venter. Turn the head. #t is broad and well. 8ach of these is an escalating signal. gut. 'hen we face imminent impact we turn around. does not send much non.muscled. the ultimate is a 'si$ pack' where individual muscles can be seen.' Power Turning around means you are potentially vulnerable to attack as you cannot see anyone behind you make a move on you. with ribs around the organs. Belly body language The belly tummy. which says '# do not have to look at you to decide if you are going to attack me because # am so powerful you do not dare. #f we do not want to talk to them. abdomen. which includes the spine and the rear of the torso. a flat tummy is considered desirable in both men and women as it indicates fitness and health. 8ven turning at a slight angle sends a clear message giving the 'cold shoulder'!. Turn at an angle both feet move!. stomach. Turn around so they can only see our back!. . usually between men. for this section. This is a refle$ive action for e$ample when something is thrown at us or someone tries to his us with a stick. verbal signal '# do not want to talk with you. with complete =>4 degree rotation as the ma$imum rejection. defined as the area between the bottom of the ribs and the top of the hips.' Protection 'hilst having the back facing someone makes you unable to defend yourself.Back body language The back. Twist the torso feet not moving!. Turning fully around thus sends the loudest possible non. typically also putting our hands behind our head to protect it and crouching down to make ourselves a smaller target.verbal body language and is probably the 'least communicative' part of the body. Re4ection The face is on the front of the body and so we present the front when talking to other people. we can indicate our desire not to talk with them in several stages7 • • • • • • Avert the ga&e. if you are about to be hit with something the back provides perhaps the least sensitive area on the body. This can thus be a power move. paunch! is.

#t can thus say 'kiss my ass' or 'fondle my fanny' and may thus need careful interpretation. depending on the situation. (ortunately. for e$ample from e$cessive worry. etc. Pregnancy 'hen women become pregnant. #t houses the smelly anus and hence can symboli&e unpleasantness. #t has many alternative names bum.reactive move. (or the determined. we do have muscles in our abdomen and we use these to pull in the belly walls so. +ubbing the stomach can mean the person simply has a digestive problem.:ost of us. both of which are used to process food and which may be subject to assorted pains as we over. . perhaps as a signal of fertility or maybe just delight at impending motherhood. this can cause internal bleeding and a slow death. Pushing out The bottom has a strange combination of meaning. Pushing it out %ticking out the tum does not indicate a desire to be attractive and can be a counter. This can be a point of pride. they have little opportunity but to let their ever.eat or consume substances that disagree with us. perhaps for feminism. ass. The gut is particularly vulnerable to attack and is a common area for punching and stabbing. resulting in a conve$ belly. e$panding abdomens push forward. Yet it also can have a se$ual significance and some people find it particularly attractive in a partner. corsets may be used to apply constant inwards pressure. for at least whilst we are walking past that desirable other person. these may still be found in surreptitious use. The abdomen walls contain significant muscles and we can carry tension here. #f the gut is pierced. we look good.!. 'letting it all hang out' without feeling judged can be )uite relieving and contribute to male bonding along with loud discussions and lewd jokes!. Bottom body language The bottom is a large padded area at the base of the back. particularly as we get older. +ubbing or holding them can thus indicate tension. indicating its significance. Holding hands across the tum can thus be a defensive act when we actually or literally fear attack. The tummy may stick out more as a counterbalance when we want to pull our vulnerable upper body and head away in a situation where we feel uncomfortably close to another person. /articularly in groups of men. 'hilst not as popular as they once were. fall victim to e$cessive consumption of food and drink. /ushing the bottom towards someone may thus be an insult or an invitation. Touching The tummy area contains the stomach and the intestine. fanny.

serious insult and involves e$posing the naked bottom.8$posing the bottom can range from a slight push towards the person or significant e$tension. This may thus either be a rela$ed and comfortable position or else a defiant power display. !oving 'aving the bottom draws attention to it even more than pushing it out. The thigh may be slapped as a self. the person is more vulnerable and cannot cover their front. %troking the bottom often suggests that the person would like their bottom stroked and may thus be a suggestive invitation. #t defends and hides the genitals. seeking to protect them or avoid them being noticed. such that the upper body is hidden and the bottom is highly visible. making the move even more attractive. Pushed sideways . 'iggling the hips can cause loose muscle on the buttocks to oscillate even more. /utting hands in rear pockets makes them slightly less difficult to retrieve in the event of an attack and hence suggests the person is even more rela$ed. Touching 'ith hands behind.punishment or 'gee up' self motivation. folding the body over them. This is a bit degrading and is often done with a certain amount of humorous intent. :en may use the hip thrust with other men as a signal of power 'my penis is bigger than yours' or '# am so powerful you dare not attack my e$posed and vulnerable parts'!. . so this is sometimes done by leaning back against something like a wall to support the upper body whilst the hips are clearly foremost. Thrust out The hips contain the primary se$ual organs and thrusting them forward is a provocative and suggestive gesture. 'iggling hips may also make the upper body move in compensation. such as from leaning on a table to retain balance! or bending over. Hips body language The hips are at the base of the body trunk and are made up of the pelvis and covering tissue. This is highly visible and is used by women to attract men.ne way of holding them back is to sit down. This may be compounded by crossing legs and covering the genitals with crossed hands. ':ooning' is a semi. /lacing the hands on the buttocks also e$poses the chest and hence gives a combined suggestive signal. /ushing the hips forwards is difficult without losing balance. e$posing the genitals further and inviting intercourse. #t is sometimes called 'shaking the booty' and is a common feature in dancing. although this tends to be more enticing than insulting. This may be e$aggerated further if the legs are opened. 2eld back Holding the hips back is the opposite of thrusting them out.

The hips may be used as a subtle pointer. covering them. it may be a signal of power or a se$ual signal. #n particular when a person is trying to control their body language. making the body look larger and thus may be a signal of power or aggression. #f he does this overtly. Taking a stable position is readying the body in case the other person attacks and can be a cautious position. indicating what the person really wants. The sagging can also come from disappointment or tiredness. (ingering genitals is e$tremely arousing and is only usually used as a direct invitation to intercourse. . #t also draws attention to that part of the body and hence can be a flirtatious action. A wider stance makes the body wider and hence appear bigger and is a signal of power and dominance.verbal body language as the may say a lot without us really reali&ing. particularly if accompanied by swaying hips and prolonged eye contact. Hands held over the genitals. This can be a rela$ed position as the person lets the body drop. The natural position of rest for this is at hip level and thus may not be se$ual in nature. rela$ed pose. :oving the hips back and forth is a simulation of se$ual intercourse and can be highly arousing. then there is a possible of deliberate control. they typically concentrate on the upper body. is a sign of embarrassment or fear. Leg body language "egs are interesting in the field of non. #f the legs and upper body are in conflict. The legs may thus tell what they are thinking. The male penis can become uncomfortable in his underpants and he may surreptitiously rearrange it. /ointing at the door can mean the person wants to leave./ushing the hips sideways makes the spine curve and rearranges the whole body to compensate. Touching Hands on hips pushes the elbows sideways. %lightly wider indicates that the person feels grounded and confident. This also takes up more territory and shows domination. %tanding with feet about the width of the shoulders is a normal. Holding hands with yourself is a comforting move for someone who is an$ious. /ointing at a person it may indicate they are found to be attractive. O(en $tanding "egs which are held apart when standing provide a stable base for the person. !oving %waying the hips from side to side is a common dance move and can indicate the person would like to dance. %troking the hips in a romantic setting is suggesting that the other person may want to do this and is thus rather flirtatious.

width! then this may display an$iety as it makes them smaller as a target and gives some protection to the genitals. losed $tanding 'hen the person is standing with feet together or less that a rela$ed shoulder. Tension may be seen in crossed legs and greater an$iety leads to legs held more rigidly and which move more jerkily. 'hen one foot is forward and the other behind. #t can also be a fro&en walk. %itting allows a wider opening of the legs and can thus be even more of a se$ual 'crotch display'. depending on the an$iety level.closed standing position has knees touching. $itting 'hen sitting. indicating that the person wants to go somewhere which way are they pointing*!. . this is seldom a defensive stance. 1eing so easy to be pushed over and slow to unwind and run away. #f the person is a bit worried about this. although it can be submissive.. shielding the person from other people and their ideas. $tanding 0rossing legs when standing can be an indication of shyness or being coy and may be accompanied by such as hands held behind the back and a lowered head. $itting 0rossing legs is much easier when sitting and can take several different forms. showing the person is comfortable. This is an unstable position and the person may sway a little. leaning forwards a little or pulling the hips back. crossing legs can protective and negative. rossed As with arms. This can be a se$ual display especially men to women! or a show of power especially between men!.ne or both legs may be flopped down sideways as far as they can go. 0rossing ankles is a minimal cross and can be fairly rela$ed. the knees may be held gently or tightly together. $itting %itting with slightly open legs is a rela$ed position. -ote that a closed position also happens when the person is cold. especially when the legs are stretched forward and the person is leaning back and more so if the . 0rossed legs can also mean that the person wants to visit the toilet.pen legs displays and makes vulnerable the genitals. then their hands may cover the genitals. #ncreased desire for protection may be indicated by the person turning slightly to the side. this can be taking a e$tra stable position in case of frontal attack as with martial artists!. A fully.

particularly if the legs appear tense and even more so if one leg is wrapped firmly around the other. for e$ample in clenched hands. then this may be a signal of self. where they still may subconsciously point in a direction of interest!. 0rossing knees may indicate greater an$iety or defensiveness. 'hen more tension is seen. %itting forward with one foot pointing away and the other back is preparation to stand up and is a common signal that the person wants to leave or go somewhere. #f done in time to music. . Pointing "egs may be used to point to things of interest. !oving :oving legs sometimes is just e$ercising them to get the circulation moving more and loosen cramped muscles. $itting 'hen sitting.hands are behind the head!. A rela$ed cross with lower legs falling close together needs a wider pelvis and hence may be used as a se$ual signal by women. $tanding 'hen standing. %itting legs may point with knees or feet at interesting other people.restraint. when the genitals are e$posed in a crotch display the legs do point to the side. This may be covered with hands that hold the shin or ankle of the top leg. with top leg's knee pointing sideways. /ointing anywhere away from the other person means '# want to be elsewhere'. especially if it bounces the upper body. one leg may point at an angle with both foot and knee. particularly if they have e$posed legs.rejection' game that invites the other person to chase after you.four cross occurs where one ankle is placed on top of the other legs' knee. legs do not have to support the body but they are more visible and so send more obvious messages unless they are under a table. as with other parts of the body. and is more common amongst men as it invites females and challenges other males. $tanding %winging a leg when standing can act as a pointer. This can be a surreptitious crotch display. %ometimes. %ometimes also this sends a signal. An ankle cross with legs tucked under the chair can indicate concealed an$iety. for e$ample in a conversation where a person who wants to leave points at the door. The reverse is also true and pulling a leg back may show disinterest. The concern may be more obvious if the person is leaning forward. but this is not the real message that is being sent. as well as desired direction of travel. it can be an invitation to dance females sometimes deliberately do this to make their breasts bounce and so entice a male!. The figure. /ulling it back shows disinterest. 1ouncing the leg can indicate impatience. :oving a leg is one way of getting closer to another person without full body movement. 'hen the leg moves back and fore towards and away from a person it may be a subtle 'Attraction.

'hat a nuisance. and in a more visible manner. (or men it says something along the lines 'Hey. This can make a kick very powerful. /reening may also be used. This can be a sign of impatience particularly if rapid! or attraction. the shin a nice hard bone! or the top. The legs can hit with thigh or knee such as in the groin strike!.' $itting 'hen sitting. leg position. this can mean ':y penis is bigger than yours. The bottom or thighs may be stroked seductively. not much of the leg can be touched. they e$pose the genitals and thus send a very inviting message. perhaps in time to music and perhaps impatiently. O(ening 'hen the thighs are rotated apart. ball or side of the foot. 'triking "egs can also be weapons. Touching $tanding 'hen standing. particularly in the figure. as all martial artists know.' #n a rela$ed pose.pening the thighs also e$pose the genitals to attack and this move may also be a power display. The leg may also swing in time to music. with legs running in parallel from the hips. The leg may also be tapped. containing the femur and a lot of muscle. %winging the leg may simulate kicking. let's go' and signal that the person is about to make a suggestion.four cross.$itting A crossed leg may bounce up and down.' . more of the leg may be reached. "egs are longer than arms and have much bigger muscles. the thighs are typically slightly open. . particularly when wearing a short skirt or dress. saying '6ang.' (or other men. a knee waving sideways can also indicate impatience or point sideways. A slapped side of leg may also indicate irritation. #t may also be rather obvious pointing. as with standing movement. but moving as if to kick someone can come from a desire to actually do so. look at my great big penis. 'hen sitting. a woman's thighs are open and thus this is a particularly strong suggestion. They may also be slapped. #n intercourse. Actual striking is rare. A single slap can say '+ight. saying 'You dare not attack me because # am so powerful. Thigh body language Thighs are the upper legs. They have a ball joint at the top that allows full rotation and a hinge at the knee at the bottom. A slight twitch in the right direction can thus signal aggression and cause embarrassment. %eductive stroking can thus be a strong se$ual invitation. brushing real or imagined bits of fluff off crossed legs. indicating that the person is rela$ed and enjoying the vibe and perhaps inviting others to join in!.

rossing 0rossing the thighs. 1ouncing the thigh up and down may be a signal of impatience.losing #n an opposite of opening. "ifting the thigh may simply be a stretching e$ercise.compensating with! their legs. 'hilst other areas may offer greater communication. . particularly when sitting. The thigh may be slapped as a self. Touching the inside of the leg is more suggestive than touching the outside of the leg.' Hnees together can be )uite a prim move. it can also be a pragmatic position to prevent embarrassing and socially undesirable e$posure of the genitals. 'hen the upper body is open and the thighs are closed. Thus a knee in a crossed leg standing or sitting! in a conversation can indicate who the person is really thinking about. thighs that are pulled tight together send a signal of rejection that says something like '-o way you're getting in here. This can also be a rela$ed position. The nearer the genitals the hands move. Touching 'hen people are about to stand up. /ointing away.punishment or 'gee up' self motivation. this may be a symptom of the person applying deliberate control to their upper body but forgetting and over. touching can be very suggestive.hips. just like the elbow. particularly when the muscles seem loose. 'hen pointing towards something or somebody. standing or sitting. #t is often a strong 'closed' signal very much like crossing the arms right across the body. 'hen wearing a short skirt. Lifting "ifting the thigh is a basic element of walking and may be a signal of a desire to walk away. they may put both hands on the thighs to push themselves up. This may also be a signal of readiness '#'m ready to go. it indicates the opposite. Pointing The knee can act as a subtle pointer. /utting both hands on the thighs with the elbows out sideways can be a sitting version of hands. the more inviting it is. the knee does its bit.on. The weight of the body rests on the legs and the thigh has the largest muscles to manage this precarious balance. the knee can indicate desire. widening the body and showing displeasure or threatening action. %nee body language The knee is made up of the kneecap patela! and the joint between the upper and lower legs.'!. Touching the thighs draws attention to them. Alternatively the person may point their knee at such as the bar or the door to show their inner wishes. As the thighs are near the genitals. takes the defensiveness of closing further.

Another attack is in the side of the thigh. 1ttracting Hnees are often considered to be se$ually attractive and e$posing them below the hemline in short skirts and dresses can be a deliberate female ploy to create attention. . with the ball of the foot popular in martial arts!. the bottom of the foot. urling 'e cannot move the foot a great deal and pretty much all we can do is curl the toes up or down. 0urling the feet can be a sign of e$treme pleasure or e$treme pain!. The knees are vulnerable in an attack. Touching Touching and stroking the knee. particularly the sole of the foot so be careful when crossing your legs!. with perhaps the most well known if not the most common! use being an attack on the usually male! groin of another person. 5icking The feet can be used for kicking and hurting others. the heel or with the top of the foot. 'e can kick with the toes not always good as this may break them!. and a good kick will disable the person for a long time. with the side of the foot. as with other parts of the body. Twitching of the knee towards a person may be a desirable pointing and it may also be a desire to hit them. we have lost most of the ability that our primate cousins still have to pick things up and manipulate things as if our feet were another pair of hands. can act as a weapon. Foot body language After eons of using our feet mostly for erect walking. Pointing (eet are elongated as walking and stable platforms and so can be used for pointing. temporarily disabling them with a 'dead leg'. being down on the ground are often not noticed. again like the elbow. They thus may send a very subtle and subconscious signal about people we like or places we would like to go like away from a current conversationalist!. may signal a desire that a nearby man does the same and is hence a se$ual invitation or tease. #n some cultures the feet are the lowest part of the body and e$posing them to others is an insult. %ometimes they dress in attractive ways more from social convention than from a desire to be picked up. 'omen may also hold their knees when they feel the attention of men that they would rather not have.-ea(on The knee. Holding the knees may thus be a defensive act when the person is feeling an$ious. 'e point at things that are of interest to us and feet. particularly when done by women.

%tamping makes a noise and can be an attention. even when they know they should really stay in one place. particularly when used with other noise. #f the person knows or has discovered some of these. 'hen legs are crossed. "isten to me.' #t can often be signal of anger and aggression. perhaps to frighten the other person into submission or flight. particularly if they are sitting down and their feet are hidden under a table. An$iety brings energy and presenters at conferences and teachers may walk up and down. %winging the foot can be a form of pointing. This is sometimes called 'happy feet'. the foot may be massaged or s)uee&ed. perhaps to relieve tension or as a substitute for massaging tension elsewhere in the body. :oving the feet is also a common indicator of a person lying. !oving Tapping the foot can be a sign of impatience as the person gets into a kind of tense repetitive state. then they may be subtly . marking and moving on time.'tam(ing 'e can stamp with the whole flat of the foot or the heel.getting signal 'Hey. The foot becomes literally a like a clock's pendulum. +efle$ology is a massage method that relieves all kinds of ills by using pressure points on the sole of the foot.making devices such as shouting. Touching The foot can be an erotic object and stroking it can be mildly suggestive.