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SURVEYING (CE-303

)

2013

COMPASS SURVEYING
Compass surveying is defined as the survey which is done to observe magnetic bearing of each and every station during reconnaissance and exploratory surveys, and to locate other points by measuring the directions with reference to a given point (or) line.  The direction of survey lines can be measured with the help of an instrument known as Compass.

Applica ion an! uses o" compass survey# $. %. &. '. (. ). *.  To find out the magnetic bearing of a line To fill in details of a survey operation. To find out the direction using night marching. Tracing streams Plotting irregular shore lines Reconnaissance survey learing in roads

The magnetic poles keep on changing with time and thus the magnetic bearings also change and are therefore not reliable. The observed magnetic bearing therefore be converted to true bearings! the true meridian is invariant.

Impor an !e"ini ions

• Magne ic +earing# "t is defined as the hori#ontal angle which a line makes with the magnetic meridian. • Magne ic meri!ian# "t is the direction indicated by a freely suspended and balanced magnetic needle unaffected by local attractive forces. • Magne ic !eclina ion# "t is defined as the difference of angle between true meridian and magnetic meridian. • Meri!ian# "t is the fixed direction in hitch the bearings of survey lines are expressed. • ,earing# "t is the hori#ontal angle between the reference meridian and the survey line measured in clockwise or anticlockwise direction. "t is described either from north (or) south and the angle described is either east (or) west. • -rue meri!ian# The true meridian passing through a point on the earth$s surface is the line in which a plane passing through the given point and the geographic (true) north and south poles, intersects the surface of the earth. "t represents the true north%south direction at that point. • -rue +earing# The hori#ontal angle measured clockwise between the true meridian and the line is called true bearing of the line. • Gri! +earing# The hori#ontal angle which a line makes with the grid meridian is called grid bearing.

S A T Y A J E E T P R A K A S H Page 1

on the imaginary celestial sphere. &or a country. The vector from an observer (origin) to a point of interest is pro'ected perpendicularly onto a reference plane! the angle between the pro'ected vector and a reference vector on the reference plane is called the a#imuth. is toward the nadir. i. • A.imu /# (n a#imuth is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system. usually from a survey station to some well%defined permanent ob'ect. The opposite direction. • Ar+i rary meri!ian# "t is any convenient direction. it is one of two vertical directions at a specified location. orthogonal to a hori#ontal flat surface there. Trough ompass S A T Y A J E E T P R A K A S H Page 2 . )ince the concept of being below is itself somewhat vague.. the true meridian of the central place is regarded as the reference meridian. +(bove+ means in the vertical direction opposite to the apparent gravitational force at that location. • Na!ir The nadir is the direction pointing directly below a particular location! that is. The vertical grid lines on a national survey map indicate the direction of grid north. • Ar+i rary +earing# The hori#ontal angle measured with respect to the arbitrary meridian is known as arbitrary bearing. scientists define the nadir in more rigorous terms.e. -ypes o" compass . • 0eni /* The #enith is an imaginary point directly +above+ a particular location.SURVEYING (CE-303) 2013 • Gri! meri!ian# "t is the reference meridian for a country on a national survey map. the direction in which gravity pulls. The first line of survey at times is also taken as arbitrary meridian.

The ring is graduated from the south end of the needle. • The inverted figures in the graduated ring below the prism can be read erect after being reflected from the hypotenuse side of the prism. provided at the base of the ob'ect vane. Prismatic compass is considered to be more widely used in comparison with the later. • The ob'ect vane is sometimes provided with a hinged mirror which can be raised upward and downward and can also be slided.11mm in diameter. • • "t consists of a circular box of about .21 o with #ero placed at south. which is used to dampen the oscillation of the needle to facilitate the reading. it orients itself in the magnetic meridian and the north and south ends of the ring face the 4%) direction. • (n aluminium ring. directly. /. The two vanes are hinged at the box in diagonally opposite directions. graduated to degrees and half degrees is attached to the needle.SURVEYING (CE-303) -. • ( prismatic compass reads the whole circle bearing of the line of ob'ects. The observations run clockwise round to . There is a broad magnetic needle balanced on a hard steel pointed pivot. • There is a breaking pin. S A T Y A J E E T P R A K A S H Page 3 . so that it also acts as magnifier. ( prism is provided on the observer$s side to read the bearings. • 3hen the needle is balanced on the pivot. • The two perpendicular faces of the prism are made convex.. . • )unglasses are provided on the prism to sight luminous ob'ects. Tubular ompass Prismatic ompass )urveyor$s ompass 2013 0ost commonly used are prismatic and surveyor$s compass. • The ob'ect vane carries a vertical hair of fine silk thread attached to a suitable frame. to sight the ob'ects too high or too low. when the observer looks hori#ontally into the prism. Prisma ic Compass "t is a device used to measure directions of line (or) a point. • The sight vane consists of a vertical slit cut into the upper assembly of the prism.

I em 0agnetic needle 5raduated ring Surveyor1s Compass The needle is of edge bar type. .. the -. The graduations are engraved erect. The graduated ring is attached to the box and rotates along with line of the sight. 5raduations are engraved inverted since graduation ring is read through the prism.SURVEYING (CE-303) 2013 Comparison o" surveyor compass an! prisma ic compass S.No. The readings are taken directly by seeing through the top of the box glass. . )ighting and reading simultaneously. The graduated ring is attached with the needle and does not rotate with the line of sight. cannot be done Prisma ic Compass The needle is a broad needle.. )ighting and reading can be done simultaneously. The graduations are in whole circle bearing system. Reading system S A T Y A J E E T P R A K A S H Page 4 . The readings are taken with the help of a prism provided at the eye vane. since the graduated ring is read directly. The graduations are in 6uadrantal bearing system.

the bearing of a line is always measured clockwise from the north point of the reference meridian towards the line right round the circle. Tripod 8anes The instrument cannot be used without a tripod. "t will have the values between 1%. The compass is fixed on the tripod. E9amples S A T Y A J E E T P R A K A S H Page 5 . The eye vane consists of a metal vane with a large slit. the bearings of lines are measured clockwise (or) anticlockwise from the north (or) south. 3eveling# The compass is levelled by eye 'udgment.. -emporary a!2us men s o" compass The ad'ustment re6uired to be made every time the compass is set up are called its temporary ad'ustments.21 degrees. .EARING SYS-EM "n this system. The angle thus measured between the reference meridian and the line is called the whole circle bearing of the line.EARING "n this system. 8UA5RAN-A3 .SURVEYING (CE-303) /. 2013 The instrument can be held in hand also while making the observation. 4ocussing /e prism# -his ad'ustment is done only in a prismatic compass. The prism is moved up or down till the figures and graduations are seen clearly. Cen ering# ( tripod is placed over the station with its legs spread well apart so that it is at a workable height. . This is essential so that the graduated ring swings freely. -.. whichever is nearer to the line. "t is then centered over the station where the bearing is to be taken with the help of a plumb bob. The eye vane consists of small vane with a small slit. 5esigna ion o" +earings There are two systems commonly used to express bearings. 67O3E CIRC3E . 7.

6. .when fore bearing E . $<=oD. .when fore bearing F . NO. ... 3. C 4 /1@ : .....?1 . SYS-EM &.?-@.1$3 6.C. .ack bearing C 4ore +earing . 3... 8. . 4.. . .. (): ..21@%3.1 @11$: )1-@..C. it must be reduced to the corresponding angle less than 91 o and the value recorded along with the 6uadrant in which its value will fall.?1%-B1 -B1%. NO.. 6.1$ 2013 Re!uce! +earing# 3hen the whole circle bearing of a line exceeds 91 o. . .?1@ . between 1%91 91%... / 3. This angle is known as reduced bearing. SYS-EM .S.ack bearing C 4ore +earing > $<=oD. <=(>R(4T 4: ): )3 43 4ore +earing# The bearing of a line in the direction of the progress of the survey is called the fore or forward bearing. .?1o 8..?1@ A 3.....1 @11$ .S.. 472@-1$: )9@77$: S. .?1o .. S A T Y A J E E T P R A K A S H Page 6 .ac: +earing# The bearing of a line in the opposite direction of progress of the survey is called back or reverse bearing.21 R.C ) /1@ 3 Angle remains /e same? N is replace! +y S or vice versa@ E is replace! +y 6 or vice versa.C.. 72@-1$ . A .B1@17$ 8....SURVEYING (CE-303) S..

SURVEYING (CE-303) 2013 Calcula ion o" inclu!e! angles "rom +earings 67O3E CIRC3E . .EARING (a) 3hen bearings are measured in the same side of the common meridian! B E F G H (b) 3hen bearings are measured in the opposite side of the common meridian! B E F . deduct .?1o "f . C G A H C >ve B$Cexterior angleDDD. the included angles are measured clockwise from the preceding line to the forward line. o" /e ne9 line C &.. S A T Y A J E E T P R A K A S H Page 7 . H (c) 3hen bearings are measured in the same side of the different meridians! B E $<=o G CH .. C4or ge ing e9 erior inclu!e! angle a!! &)=o. &ig.. of the forward line A .?1.?1o • NO-E# "f the traversing is done in anticlockwise direction.?1. (gain. TR(8:R)"45 >"R: T"@4> AN-IC3OCA6ISE "ncluded angle at . of the forward line A . of the previous line !g" !g" 2 1 C H A G C B Cinterior angleDDDDD&ig. the observed included angle is interior angle! whereas it is exterior angle.. deduct . . the sum E . C4or ge ing in erior inclu!e! angle a!! &)=o.EARING TR(8:R)"45 >"R: T"@4> C3OCA6ISE "ncluded angle at . the sum F .D 8UA5RAN.. &ig. Magne ic !eclina ion# "t is defined as the hori#ontal angle between true north and the magnetic north at the time of observation. of the previous line I included angle measured clockwise • • • "f . C &. if traversing direction is clockwise... of the previous line C G A H C >ve B Cinterior angleDDDD.?1o "f ..D C H A G C B$ Cexterior angleD DDDD. FD (d) 3hen bearings are measured in the opposite side of the different meridians! B E $<=o> CH G FD Calcula ion o" +earings "rom inclu!e! angles 4..&ig. C &. the sum F 7/1. add .

. Secular varia ion* The magnetic meridian swings like a pendulum. and then swings in other direction. This is known as secular variation. /.%. "t is due to the rotation of earth about its own axis. -.. the declination is #ero.71 years. gradually comes to rest. (nnual variation is in the range of . c.o. 2013 True bearing C 0agnetic bearing IJ% magnetic declination (:J3) Varia ion o" magne ic !eclina ion The declination at any place keeps on changing from time to time. The variation are as follows* . Irregular varia ion# the variation caused by the magnetic disturbances or storms are listed under irregular variation. The value is in the order of . Purpose o" magne ic !eclina ion 0ost of the original land survey has been in terms of magnetic bearings.mins. d. Annual varia ion* "t is the change in the declination at a place over a period of .SURVEYING (CE-303) • • >eclination is Ive in eastern side and Ave in western side. geographical position of the place( lesser near e6uator and increases towards the pole) the time of the day ( more in day) season of the year (more in summers) the year of the cycle of secular variation. 0agnetic declination is hence re6uired for* S A T Y A J E E T P R A K A S H Page # . (one) year.. "t swings in one direction for about . 5iurnal varia ion* "t is the change in the declination at a place in -/ hours. b. 3hen true and magnetic meridian coincide. "t is depends upon* a.11%.

/. such as iron pipes. 2013 5ip# "t is observed that in elevation. The vertical angle made by the magnetic needle with the hori#ontal is known as dip or inclination of the needle. provided the compass is devoid of any instrumental errors.. etc.a-e' +a0!&g 'a1e 0a. the needle is deflected from its original position.)-! ).?11. a magnetic needle in e6uilibrium is not in a hori#ontal plane. *+e /. chains. "f the difference between them is .SURVEYING (CE-303)  Re%running the survey lines  "n a future time. arrows. 3!/" Aclinic: %!&e' ()!&!&g *+e .a-e' 4!*+ &) 3!/5 '2-+ a' 6ag&e*!. then both the end stations are considered to be free from local attraction.)-! ). 5e ec ion o" 3ocal A rac ion# The local attraction at any station is detected by observing the fore and back bearing of the line. This is because in elevation the lines of magnetic earth are inclined downward towards north in northern hemisphere and also downward towards south in southern hemisphere. which aligns along the magnetic lines of force due to earth$s magnetism and points 4% ) direction.2e ). Agonic lines# Kines 'oining the places of #ero declination. cables. to check the accuracy of the work  To locate the direction Isogonic lines# "t is the loci of the points or places having e6ual magnetic declination. but in a plane inclined at a definite angle to the hori#ontal. in the presence of magnetic materials. Isoclinic lines: %!&e' ()!&!&g *+e . Lowever. Elimina ion o" 3ocal A rac ion# There are two methods by which local attraction can be eliminated.e72a*)8" 3ocal A rac ion# The compass contains needle. S A T Y A J E E T P R A K A S H Page $ . steel structures. This effect is known as local attraction.

whose fore bearing and back bearing differ by .?1o M4or e9ample pro+lem? re"er class no es.?1o.ack bearing C &ore bearing N . -/eo!oli e -/eo!oli e is an instrument to measure hori#ontal and vertical angles. -. .?1o The end stations of such a line are accepted free from local attraction and the bearings observed at such stations are taken to be correct. ..ecause of its variety of uses such as • • • hori#ontal and vertical angle measurement. • • • • alculate the sum of interior angles of the traverseC (-n N /) OJ-.y calcula ing /e local a rac ion a eac/ s a ion# Kocal attraction at each station is calculated and then the re6uired correction is applied to the observed bearings. "t is most suitable for an open traverse. &ind out the correct bearing of the successive lines by using the relations! &ore bearing of next lineC &ore bearing of previous line + included angle. alculate the error if any. "f the observed bearing is more than the corrected reading determined in the previous step.SURVEYING (CE-303) 2013 . S A T Y A J E E T P R A K A S H Page 10 . M4or e9ample pro+lem? re"er class no es.y inclu!e! angles# This method is most suitable for closed traverse. measurement of bearings and measurement of vertical.?1o as the case may be. The steps involved are* • • • • • • @bserve a line whose fore and back bearings differ exactly by . . >istribute the error e6ually to all the angles. The correct fore bearing of the preceding line or the back bearing of the next line can be calculated by adding or subtracting . . prolonging a straight line. Kocate the line. error will be positive and correction will be negative and vice versa. The back bearing of the preceding line and the fore bearing of the next line will also be correct. orrection will be done one by one. .

but leads to uneven pressures on screws which results in excessive wear.. simple vernier Theodolite micrometer Theodolite optical (glass arc) Theodolite electronic Theodolite -. )hifting center* )hifting center or movable head is provided for facilitating the operation of centering. Plumb bob* ( plum bob is suspended from the vertical axis of the Theodolite. ( four screw head is compact. S A T Y A J E E T P R A K A S H Page 11 . the lower carrying the main scale and the upper carrying the vernier scale. .ased on the facilities provided for reading of observation* . Classi"ica ion . -ransi -/eo!oli e# The Theodolite. 2013 it is also referred as universal instrument. but sometimes it is placed above the tribach.?1o in a vertical plane about its hori#ontal axis. to be centered over the station. whereas. Cons ruc ion !e ails (lidade assembly* "t is the top most assembly which includes a telescope supported by two standards of letter ( forming an =%frame and the vertical circle. is known as non%transit Theodolite.. whose telescope can be revolved through . from where the measurements are made. a three screw head is free from such ob'ections. . Kevelling screws* The levelling head consists of three or four screws. whose telescope cannot be revolved through .. "t is placed immediately below the trivet stage. and determination of the direction of true north. Kevelling Lead assembly* "t is the bottom%most assembly which is screwed on to the top of the tripod. Lori#ontal ircle assembly* "t consists of two plates. Non> ransi -/eo!oli e# The Theodolite. -. /. thus directing the telescope in exactly opposite direction.?1 o in vertical plane.SURVEYING (CE-303) • • hori#ontal distances. when the plumb line is exactly over the station mark. is known as transit Theodolite. (n altitude bubble is also attached to the standards.ased on the construction* . The advantage of movable head is that the theodolite and the attached plumb line can be moved and clamped independent of the tripod. (t its base is the tribach which contains three or four screws and a circular bubble.

S A T Y A J E E T P R A K A S H Page 12 .7 to . Rea!ing a -/eo!oli e . To facilitate transiting it is convenient to provide an internal focusing rather than external focusing. =sually.) Telescope* ( telescope of either internal or external focusing type is provided. a small circular tube is fitted to the foot plate of the tribach to facilitate the setting up of the theodolite. which is known as the altitude bubble. The magnification ranges from . @ne set of clamp and tangent screws is provided to control the movement of telescope about the hori#ontal axis of the theodolite. it is graduated from 1 to . ( bubble tube is also attached either to the vertical vernier frame or to the telescope.1 diameters. The main scale least count in the figure is /1 minutes and 8ernier scale least count is /1 seconds. until the corresponding clamp screw has been set. (4o tangent screws will function.SURVEYING (CE-303) 2013 Kevelling tubes* Two level tubes are provided on the hori#ontal circle upper plate for levelling the theodolite.21 degrees. The tangent screws make possible slow movement for accurate settings after the clamps have been tightened. lamp and tangent screws* Two sets of clamp and tangent screws are provided on the hori#ontal circle to control the motion of the telescope about the vertical axis. The vertical circle is usually of the same diameter as the hori#ontal circle with graduation from 1 to 91 degrees. ircles* The si#e of the theodolite is defined by the diameter of the hori#ontal circle which varies from ? to -7 cm.elow is an example of how to read scale of a theodolite. @ne of the two is placed parallel and the other at right angles to the line of sight.

then it is termed as right face of the theodolite.e 8ea3!&g9 127)00: &ig* 0ain scale with least count /1$ and 8ernier scale with least count /1P @riginal scale of a 8ernier theodolite is shown the figure below.00: !&a. 8ea3!&g9 127)00: < 14. "f the vertical circle is on the left side of the observer. and the vice versa. The least count of main scale is -1 minutes and that of 8ernier scale is -1 seconds. The errors eliminated by changing face are as follows* S A T Y A J E E T P R A K A S H Page 13 .00: 6a!& '-a. 8ea3!&g9 127)00: < 14.SURVEYING (CE-303) 2013 !&a.e 8ea3!&g9 14. it is termed as the left face position of the theodolite and if it is on the right side of the observer. &ig! Original scale o" /eo!oli e with main scale leas coun %=1 and 8ernier scale leas coun %=I C/anging 4ace "t is the operation of bringing the vertical circle of the theodolite to the left of the observer. if originally it was to the right.00: Ve8&!e8 '-a.

on al pla e axis of the theodolite.. These relationships get disturbed over a period of time due to mishandling. 7. These corrections (or) ad'ustments are known as permanent adjustments.. :rror due to hori#ontal axis not being perpendicular to the vertical axis.SURVEYING (CE-303) .. the axis of plate levels. The desired relations are* . The axis of the plate levels must be perpendicular to the vertical axis. Cross>/air ring es # 0ake the vertical cross%hair lie in a plane perpendicular to the hori#ontal axis. Spire es # 0ake the hori#ontal axis perpendicular to the vertical axis. The order of the tests and ad'ustments are as follows* .. S A T Y A J E E T P R A K A S H Page 14 . Ver ical circle in!e9# (d'ustment of altitude level and vertical index frame. 2013 -emporary A!2us men s CSame as /e emporary a!2us men !one "or !umpy level. Or!er o" permanen a!2us men # The permanent ad'ustments of a theodolite are carried out in such an arrangement that the next ad'ustment does not disturb the previous ad'ustment. of theodolite. 7ori. The permanent ad'ustment of a theodolite consists of the following ad'ustments* . The line of collimation must be at right angles to the hori#ontal axis. :rrors due to line of collimation not being perpendicular to the hori#ontal axis. /. -elescope# (d'ustment of hori#ontal and vertical hair. .D    )etting up the theodolite% centering and approximate levelling Kevelling up &ocussing% &ocussing of the eyepiece and focusing the ob'ective Permanen a!2us men There are nos. The axis of the telescope level must be parallel to the line of collimation. -. of fundamental lines like vertical axis.. which re6uires correction. .on al a9is# Lori#ontal axis is made perpendicular to the vertical axis. :rrors due to line of collimation not being parallel to the axis of the altitude level. .. Collima ion in a.imu / es @ 0ake the line of sight perpendicular to the hori#ontal axis. which have interrelationship amongst each other. the line of collimation. /. -. The hori#ontal axis must be perpendicular to the vertical axis. the hori#ontal axis.. Re"er class no es "or !e ail. . /.. -elescope level# (d'ustment of level tube on the telescope. Pla e level es # 0ake the plate bubbles central to their run when the vertical axis of the theodolite is truly vertical. level# the axis of the plate level is made perpendicular to the vertical -. 7ori. -. and the bubble line of the altitude.

the angle is called the angle of elevation (I) and if the point is below it. means to measure it two or more times allowing the vernier to remain clamped each time at the end of each measurement instead of setting it back to 1 o every time when sighting at the previous station. ( hori#ontal angle is measured either of the following methods. "f not. Personal errors of bisection are eliminated. The errors due to eccentricity of the centers and that of the verniers are eliminated. Me /o! o" rei era ion This method of measuring a hori#ontal angle is preferred when several angular measurements are to be made at a station. . Measuremen o" /ori. the observation should be made in clockwise direction.. ( .u++le u+e a!2us men # 0ake the telescope bubble central when the line of sight is hori#ontal. The errors of graduations are minimi#ed by reading the angle on different parts of the graduated circle. This method of measuring angles is generally adopted for closed traverses in theodolite traversing. Measuremen o" ver ical angle ( vertical angle may be defined as the angle subtended by the line of sight and the hori#ontal line at a station in the vertical plane. A!van ages# . Measuremen o" !irec angle (n angle measured in clockwise from the preceeding line to the following line is called direct angle or angle to the right of a#imuth. by reading both the verniers. the angle is called the angle of depression.SURVEYING (CE-303) 7.on al angle Lori#ontal angles are measured on the hori#ontal circle of a theodolite by operating the upper clamp. and the upper and the lower tangent screws. (ll the angles are measured successively and finally the hori#on is closed. the discrepancy is e6ually disturbed among all the angles. No e# This method is most commonly used in triangulation survey. of repetitions.. 8e/e*!*!)& -. A = C 6e*+)3 ). whereas for face right. /. Thus an angle is mechanically multiplied by the no. "f the point to be sighted is above the hori#ontal plane. > S A T Y A J E E T P R A K A S H Page 15 . 2013 Ver ical arc es # 0ake the vertical circle indicate #ero when the line of sight is perpendicular to the vertical axis. of repetitions. the lower clamp. . 2. &or face left. Me /o! o" repe i ion To measure an angle by repetition. :rror due to the line of collimation not being perpendicular to the transverse axis of the telescope is eliminated as both the face left and face right readings are taken. they should be made in the anticlockwise direction. between two stations. The final reading on vernier ( should be same as the initial #ero. The value of the angle observed is obtained by dividing the accumulated reading by the no.

it is the left deflection angle. 3hen the angle is measured clockwise. it is called right deflection angle. This method is useful in open traversing. made by the prolongation of the preceeding line with the following line. whereas when measured anticlockwise. S A T Y A J E E T P R A K A S H Page 16 .SURVEYING (CE-303) Measuremen o" !e"lec ion angle 2013 ( deflection angle is the angle.