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anthropometric.Nutritional Assessment  The interpretation of information obtained from dietary. biochemical. clinical studies and/or other studies to determine the nutritional status of individuals/groups and identify those at nutritional risk .

Nutritional Status condition of health of an individual as influenced by intake and utilization of nutrients .

Methods of Nutritional Assessment Methods that provide direct information  Anthropometric measurement  Biochemical examination  Biophysical technique  Clinical examination .

socio-economic conditions  Studies on cultural and anthropological influences .Methods of Nutritional Assessment Methods that provide indirect information  Dietary Assessment  Food consumption studies  Studies on physical activities  Studies on food supply  Studies on demographic.

Nutritional Anthropometry  concerned with the measurement of the variations of the dimensions. proportion and gross composition of the human body at different age levels and degrees of nutrition .

Examples Common Body Measurements Weight Length or Height Knee Height Skinfold Thickness What the Measurement Indicates Body mass Skeletal growth Skeletal growth Body fat Mid-upper arm Circumference Mid-arm Circumference Waist/Hip Ratio Fat and fat free mass Fat free mass Android obesity .

either because of primary or secondary deficiency .Dietary Assessment  Determines inadequacy of dietary and/or nutrient intakes.

Dietary Evaluation . Obtaining dietary information  24-hour Food Recall  Food Frequency Questionnaire  Food Record  Dietary History 2.Steps in Dietary Assessment 1. Dietary data analysis  Qualitative  Quantitative 3.

Scheme for the development of a nutritional deficiency Stage Depletion Stage Method(s) Used 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Dietary inadequacy Decreased level in reserve tissue store Decreased level in body fluids Decreased functional level in tissues Dietary Biochemical Biochemical Anthropometric/ Biochemical Decreased Activity in nutrient-dependent Biochemical enzyme Functional change Clinical symptoms Anatomical sign Behavioral/ Physiological Clinical Clinical .



Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) Kwashiorkor • Caused by inadequate protein in the presence of adequate food energy • Usually experienced among 0-2 years old children • Occurs after breastfeeding stops and child is weaned into a starchy diet .

KWASHIORKOR •Moon face •Apathetic •Scrotal Edema •Hair dyspigmentation •Hepatic enlargement •Flaky paint dermatosis .

Marasmus  a disease of starvation. deficiency of both protein and food energy  Usually experienced among 1-3 years old children  Due to inadequate breastfeeding or improper (diluted) milk formula .

MARASMUS •Old man's face. "monkey face" •Severe muscle wasting •Loss of subcutaneous fat .

marasmic-kwashiorkor .

Classifications used during Disaster and Emergency Situation  Moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) means weight of children under 5 years is between 70% and 80% of the median weight-for-height or between -3 and -2 Zscores weight-for-height .

 Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) means weight of children under 5 years is less than 70% of the median weight-forheight or less than -3 Z-scores weight-forheight. .