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So far…

• General Approach
– Universal Grammar (UG) / Language Instinct

Phrase Structure

• Data
– native ti speakers’ k ’i intuitions t iti ( (acceptability t bilit j judgments) d t )

• Resulting Theory of Grammar
– words, phrases, categories for words and phrases (e.g., Nouns, Verbs; Noun Phrases, Verb Phrases) (basic concepts any theory of grammar must have in order to capture the data)
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Next:
• The internal structure of phrases and how we can represent it. • H How phrases h are put tt together th to t create t sentences.

Phrase Structure
My very funny friend in Russia will go to Det Adv A N P N Aux V P a concert t tomorrow. t Det N Adv My very funny friend in Russia NP → Det AP N PP NP → (Det) (AP*) N (PP*)
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Phrase Internal Structure
• why (AP*):
– My talented handsome funny friend A A A – My friend

Phrase Internal Structure
very funny AP→ Mod A AP→ (Mod) A (PP) • why (PP):
– proud (of himself)

• why (PP*):
– My friend in Russia with a convertible PP PP – My friend
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Phrase Internal Structure
[in Russia] PP P NP PP (Mod) P (NP) [tomorrow] AdvP Adv AdvP (Mod) Adv (very) infrequently
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Phrase Internal Structure
[go to a concert tomorrow] VP→ V PP AdvP VP→ (AdvP) V (NP*) (PP*) (AdvP*) why NP* : give Mary the book NP NP why PP*: go to a concert in his convertible PP PP why AdvP*: go to a concert briefly tomorrow AdvP AdvP
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Phrase Internal Structure
[My very funny friend in Russia will go to a concert tomorrow] S NP (Aux) VP [S [NP My very funny friend in Russia] will [VP go to a concert tomorrow]]

Phrase Structure Rules for English
S → NP (Aux) VP NP → (Det) (AP*) N (PP*) VP → (AdvP) V (NP*) (PP*) (AdvP*) PP → (Mod) P (NP) AP → (Mod) A (PP) AdvP → (Mod) Adv (PP)

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Embedding 1
• • • • • A mouse A mouse in a house A mouse in a house on a street A mouse in a house on a street with a lamp p A mouse in a house on a street with a lamp without a switch • • • •

Embedding 2
Bill saw Mary Harry said that Bill saw Mary Rita heard that Harry said that Bill saw Mary Marvin whispered that Rita heard that Harry said that Bill saw Mary

• What’s embedded in what? • Prepositional Phrases can be embedded inside Noun Phrases, to make bigger and bigger NPs.
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• What’s embedded in what? • Sentences can be embedded inside bigger sentences.
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Embedding 3 Relative Clauses
• • • • The cat The cat that ate the rat The cat that ate the rat that lived in the barn The cat that ate the rat that lived in the barn that sat near the house that Jack built

We can mix and match ALL of these various embedding mechanisms
• If Bill distinctly heard that a mouse in the house that sits on the edge of the forest will most likely eat a frog from Moline and if Taras Bulba believes that this will threaten the stability of the Western empire, then pink panthers with shining eyes and split lips may decide that it is time that they took matters into their own limp paws!

• What is embedded in what? • Relative Clauses inside Noun Phrases; to make bigger and bigger Noun Phrases.
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Phrase Structure Rules for English
S → NP (Aux) VP NP → (Det) (AP*) N (PP*) VP → (AdvP) V (NP*) (PP*) (AdvP*) PP → (Mod) P (NP) AP → (Mod) A (PP) AdvP → (Mod) Adv (PP)

Recursion
[NP The cat [PP on [NP the mat [PP in [NP the bedroom [PP next to [NP the bathroom…]]]]]]] NP → (Det) (AP*) N (PP*) PP → (Adv) P NP

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Two key ideas
Phrase Structure

• Recursive Rules:
– rules that can apply again and again to their own outputs

• Hierarchical structure:
– recursive rules can yield bigger and bigger phrases

Beads on a string

Hierarchical structure

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Phrase Structure Tree
S NP Aux VP

Phrase Structure Tree
• Branch: a line connecting two parts of a tree • Node: the terminal point (the beginning or the end) of a branch • Label: the name given to a node (e.g., N, VP, S, etc.)
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D

AP A

N

PP P NP

V P

PP NP D N

AdvP Adv

My good friend in Russia will go to a concert tomorrow.

Phrase Structure Tree
A nodes label B branch C

The Internal Structure of a Noun Phrase NP

Specifier
the a every this my Bill’s Head

N
student friend he Mary

Complement
in my class who is a liar that took my wallet
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Types of NPs
NP N dogs toothbrushes quiche sheep Oswald Ruby
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Types of NPs
NP N dogs toothbrushes quiche sheep Oswald Ruby NP Pro I, me, you, he, him, she, her, we, us, they, them, it NP Det N

the dog a mouse most cats these people every guy

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Types of NPs
NP (Det) AdjP N happy dogs the big one a raw deal rainy days

Types of NPs
NP (Det) AdjP N happy dogs, the big one, a raw deal, rainy days NP (Det) AdjP AdjP N the big bad wolf, a small yellow ball a mad mad world
longer strings of AdjPs are possible

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Types of VPs
VP V slept arrived smiled coughed waved ate
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Types of VPs
VP V slept, left, arrived, smiled, coughed waved ate
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VP V h chase NP

NP

NP

Types of VPs
Det VP V slept, left, arrived, smiled, coughed waved ate
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Types of VPs
N VP V slept, left, arrived, smiled, coughed waved ate VP V NP Det N VP V chase h NP the dog, a boy, those cats, these people, that guy the dog, a boy, those cats, these people, th t guy that

chased the dog, saw a boy, love these people, hate that guy

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Types of VPs
VP V slept, left, arrived, smiled, coughed waved ate VP V h chase NP NP Pro I, me, my you, your he, him, his, she, her, we, us, our, their, 31 them, it

Types of VPs
VP V slept, left, arrived, smiled, coughed waved ate VP V NP NP Pro I, me, my you, your he, him, his, she, her, we, us, our, their, them, it 32

chased me, saw you, love them, hate her

So you plug these little trees together like puzzle pieces to get more and more complex structures
S

So you plug these little trees together like puzzle pieces to get more and more complex structures
S

NP

VP

NP

VP

VP

V
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NP
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So you plug these little trees together like puzzle pieces to get more and more complex structures
S

So you plug these little trees together like puzzle pieces to get more and more complex structures
S

subject
NP

predicate
VP VP

subject
NP

predicate
VP

V

NP
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V

NP
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So you plug these little trees together like puzzle pieces to get more and more complex structures
S
NP

S

VP V NP

Mary predicate
VP

subject
NP

likes

Bill.

V

object
NP
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Phrase Structure Trees
S NP VP V NP NP

S mother sisters

VP V NP

Mary

Mary

likes

likes

Bill.
PS rules relate mothers to sisters
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Bill.

Phrase Structure Rules: S NP VP A sentence is divided into phrases produced by Phrase Structure Rules

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S

S NP VP

S

NP Det N NP Det N V

VP

VP V NP NP NP Det N Det N

NP Det N V

VP NP Det N

The girl

likes

The girl

likes

the
Phrase Structure Trees and Rules

boy
S NP VP
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the

boy.

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S NP NP Det N V VP Det NP Det N N PP

The girl

The girl in the bluedress
NP Det N PP

likes

the
NP Det N

boy.

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S NP Det N PP Det P NP Det AdjP PP P NP NP Det AdjP N
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S NP VP

NP N

NP Det N PP PP PP P NP V P

VP NP N

The girl

in
N

The girl

in

NP NP D AP N Det Det AdjP N

likes

the

boy.

the bluedress

the bluedress
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NP Det N PP Det

NP N

NP Det N PP PP P PP P NP NP NP Det N D N

The boy in her class

The boy

in her class

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S

S NP VP VP VP V NP

NP Det N PP P NP Det AdjP N V

NP Det N PP P NP N
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The g girl

likes in the blue dress the boy in
Det

NP Det N PP NP Det AdjP N

PP P NP NP Det N

her class

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