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# Karnataka State Open University

Study Material for B.Tech
Mathematics - Code - BTC 11

by

K.S. Srinivasa
Retd. Principal & Professor of Mathematics Bangalore

Bangalore

BTC 11 MATHEMATICS
Syllabus
1. Complex Trigonometry
Revision of Plane Trigonometry - trigonometric ratios, expressions for relation between allied angles and trigonometrical ratios. Addition formulae for trigonometrical ratios and simple problems. Complex numbers and functions, definition, properties, De Moivre's Theorem (without proof), Roots of a complex number, expansions of sin ( n ), cos ( n ) in powers of sin & cos , addition formulae for any number of angles, simple problems.

2. Matrix Theory :
Review of the fundamentals. Solution of linear equations by Cramers' Rule and by Matrix method, Eigen values and Eigen vectors, Cayley Hamilton's Theorem, Diagonalization of matrices, simple problems.

3. Algebraic Structures
Definition of a group, properties of groups, sub groups, permutation groups, simple problems, scalars & vectors, algebra of vectors, scalar & vector products, scalar triple product, simple problems.

4. Differential Calculus
Limits, continuity and differentiability (definition only), standard derivatives, rules for differentiation, derivatives of function of a function and parametric functions, problems. Successive differentiation, nt hderivative of standard functions, statement of Leibnitz's Theorem, problems, polar forms, angle between the radius vector and the tangent to a polar curve, (no derivation) angle between curves, pedal equation, simple problems, indeterminate forms, L' Hospital's rule, partial derivatives, definition and simple problems.

5. Integral Calculus
Introduction, standard integrals, integration by substitution and by parts, integration of rational, irrational and trigonometric functions, definite integrals, properties (no proof), simple problems, reduction formulae and simple problems.

6. Differential Equations of first order
Introduction, solution by separation of variables, homogeneous equations, reducible to homogeneous linear equation, Bernoulli's equation, exact differential equations and simple problems.

Text Books
1. 2. Elementary Engineering Mathematics by Dr. B.S. Grewal, Khanna Publications Higher Engineering Mathematics by B.S. Grewal, Khanna Publications

Reference Books
1. 2. 3. Differential Calculus by Shanti Narayan, Publishers S. Chand & Co. Integral Calculus by Shanti Narayan, Publishers S. Chand & Co. Modern Abstract Algebra by Shanti Narayan, Publishers S. Chand & Co.

CONTENTS
Page Nos. 1. Complex Trigonometry 2. Matrix Theory 3. Algebraic Structures 4. Differential Calculus 5. Integral Calculus 6. Differential Equations 01 27 47 69 101 123

A DB = 90 ° . It can be seen by the above definition that sin è tan = cos è 1 sin è AB AC ie AB BC è The reciprocal of sin ie ie is defined as ‘cosecant of ’and written as cosec . right angled at C.From the right angled triangle ABC AC2 + BC2 = AB2 divide by AB 2 . then BD = DC = 1. Identities:.(1) sin (2) sec 2 2 + cos 2 =1 2 2 = 1 + tan 2 (3) cosec = 1 + cot Proof:. The reciprocal of cos ie 1 cos è is defined as ‘secant of ’and written as sec .then 1+ BC 2 AC 2 = AB 2 AC 2 ie 1 + cot 2 = cosec 2 Trigonometric ratios of 30° & 60° Consider an equilateral triangle of side 2 units AB = BC = AC = 2.COMPLEX TRIGONOMETRY Trigonometric ratios of acute angles è BC = . A The ratio opposite side hypotenuse ie AC AB is defined as ‘sine of ’& written as sin . The side AB is hypotenuse.we have AC 2 BC 2 +1 = AB 2 BC 2 ie tan 2 + 1 = sec 2 divide by AC 2 . The Reciprocal of tan ie BC AC is defined as ‘cotangent of ’and written as cot . A BD = 60 ° & BAD = 30 ° . 90º BC The ratio opposite side adjacent side ie AC BC is defined as ‘tangent of ’& written as tan . The side AC Consider a right-angled triangle ABC. The ratio adjacent side hypotenuse ie BC AB is defined as ‘cosine of ’& written as cos . AD = 3 . Draw AD r to BC .we have AC 2 AB 2 + BC 2 AB 2 =1 ie sin 2 + cos 2 =1 divide by BC 2 . Let A opposite to angle is called ‘opposite side’. further AD2 = AB2 – BD2 = 4 – 1 = 3. Then in the triangle ABD . The side BC is called ‘adjacent side’.

. Trigonometric ratios of any angle (from 0 º to 360 º) Let XOX'& YOY' be co-ordinate axes where O is the origin. cos60º = sin30º and tan60º = cot30º. it can seen that sin60º = cos30º. y ). Trigonometric ratios of 45 º A Consider a right-angled isosceles triangle ABC where A CB = 90 ° A B C = 45° = B AC Let AC = BC = 1 unit then AB = \ sin 45 ° = AC AB cos 45 ° = BC AB tan 45 ° = also. Consider a circle of radius r with centre O. sec 45 ° = = = 1 2 1 2 =1 2 units 2 1 B 1 C 2 and cot 45 ° = 1 Note :- Trigonometric ratios of 30º. hence these values have to be always remembered.2 KSOU Complex Trigonometry In the triangle ABD take A BD A sin 60° = AD AB BD AB = 3 2 1 2 30º cos 60° = = 22 3 AD 3 tan60° = = BD 1 also cosec 60 ° = 2 3 take 2 B AD sin 30 ° = BD AB = 1 . sec 60 ° = 2 & cot 60 ° = 1 3 60º BDC 90º 11 cos 30° = AD 3 = AB 2 BD AD = 1 3 3 tan 30 ° = also cosec 30 ° = 2. 45º and 60º are called ‘Standard Trigonometric’ ratios which are always useful. sec 30 ° = 2 3 & cot 30 ° = From the above results. Draw PM perpendicular to OX . Let P be any point on the cirlce whose co-ordinates are ( x. cosec45 ° = AC BC = 1 1 2 .

Y' In the III quadrant bothx & y are –ve Therefore. signs of the Trigonometric ratios changes. cot è = . sec & cot are –ve. when it satisfy 90º < < 180º. 1) As \ 0. P will be in third quadrant & finally when 270º < < 360º the point P will be in fourth quadrant. because of these positions. +) (+. In the II quadrant x is –ve. º. cosec & cot are –ve.1 . yis +ve Therefore sin & cosec are +ve cos . tan . tan & cot are +ve and sin . Therefore sin . –) M P (x. OP satisfy 0º < < 90º the print P will be in first quadrant of the circle. 90 º. In the IV quadrant x is +ve & y is –ve Therefore. cos . sec è = . 180 º. tan . tan è = y x x y Y (–. y sin 0° = 0 r 0. their reciprocals are also +ve. cos & tan are +ve.y ) When M . x =0 r fig.BTC11 Then OM = x & PM = y Let M O P = è sin è = y r also cosec è = r y . In the I quadrant both x & y are +ve and r is always +ve. cos è = x r r x . P will in second quadrant. when 180º < < 270º. Note :The signs of the trigonometric ratios can be easily remembered with the help of the following diagram Sine is +ve All are +ve SA in short TC tan is +ve cos is +ve Trigonometric ratios of angles 0 (can be called border angles). +) y X' X x O (–. 270 ºand 360 º y x OM P Let M O P be an angle whose measure is very close to zero (as in fig. cos & sec are +ve and sin . cosec & sec are –ve. –) (+.

r r cos 270 ° = 0 r tan 270 ° = . 4 As \ 270° . x sin 90° = r r cos 90° = 0 r r 0 =0 0.2 tan 90 ° = =8 P y If is very close to 180º as in fig.4 If is very close to 360º as in fig.3 If is very close to 270º as in fig. As \ 9 0°. OP is very close to 90º as in fig.5 . x sin 360 ° = 0 r cos 360 ° = r r tan 360 ° = 0 r =0 =1 =0 r.r r tan 180 ° = 0 r =0 = -1 M x O . y =1 r fig. x sin 180 ° = 0 r cos 180 ° = .r 0 = -8 =0 . 2. 5 When 360 ° . y =0 0 fig. 3 As \ 180 °. 0x sin 270 ° = . y 0 x r M y P \ fig.4 KSOU Complex Trigonometry P =1 cos 0° = r r tan 0° = 0 r =0 y O Mx If M . y = -1 -r M x y r O P fig.r.

y = sin x Ox 90° 270° 180° 360° fig. y = cos x & y = tan x are as follows.6 y = cos x Ox 90° 270° 180° 360° fig. tan 270 ° = -8 sin 360 ° = 0. cos 0° = 1. tan 180 ° = 0 sin 270 ° = . cos 360 ° = 1. Whereas the value of tan will be between -8 & 8 and hence the graphs of the trigonometric functions y = sin x.1. tan 360 ° = 0 Note :.7 y = tan x Ox 90° 270°180° 360° fig. tan 90 ° = 8 sin 180 ° = 0 .1.From the above derivations it can be seen that the values of sin & cos always be between –1 & 1. cos 270 ° = 0 . tan 0° = 0 sin 90 ° = 1.8 .BTC11 Thus we have the following sin 0 ° = 0. cos 180 ° = . cos 90 ° = 0 .

cos 30° = 1 2 3 Eg.cos ) = . Let AB be a arc such that arc AB = r . 45° & 60° and using the above rules for allied angles.cot sin( 180 ° cos( 180 ° tan( 180 ° sin( 180 ° + ) = sin ) = .tan ) = .cos 45° = - 1 2 B Radian Measure Consider a circle of radius r with centre O . Let arc AB = r so that A O B is 1 radian.sin ) = cos ) = .3 sin 315 ° = sin( 360 ° . .45° ) = . Measure of the A O B is called a 'radian' denoted as 1C .tan ) = sin cos( 180 ° + ) = .30° ) = . Let C be a point on the circle such that AO C = 90 ° .sin 45° = - or sin 315 ° = sin( 270 ° + 45° ) = . Since the angle subtended at the centre of a circle is proportional to the corresponding arc.sin tan( 270 ° + ) = .cos ) = .6 KSOU Complex Trigonometry Rules for allied angles sin( 90 ° cos( 90 ° tan( 90 ° ) = cos ) = sin ) = cot sin( 270 ° cos( 270 ° tan( 270 ° sin( 270 ° + cos( 270 ° + ) = .1 2sin 120° = sin(90° + 30° ) = cos 30° = 3 or s 2 in120° = sin(180° .cot sin( 360 ° cos( 360 ° tan( 360 ° sin( 360 ° + ) = . Eg.60° ) = sin 60° = 3 Eg. we can find the trigonometric ratios of other angles as follows. O rr 1 radian r A To prove that radian is a Constant angle Consider a circle of radius r with centre O .sin ) = cot ) = .sin tan( 90° + ) = .cos ) = sin sin( 90 ° + ) = cos cos( 90 ° + ) = .cos tan( 180 ° + ) = tan cos( 360 ° + ) = cos tan( 360 ° + ) = tan Using the Trigonometric ratios of standard angles 30°.sin 60° = - 3 or c 2os 150° = cos(180 ° .2 2cos 150° = cos( 90° + 60°) = .

sin 2 A 1 + sin 2 A + 2 sin A .Mathematics SVT 7 AO B AOC 1 radian 90 ° arc AB arc AC = r 1 4 1 = Q AC = Circumfere nce 4 1 4 (2 p r ) = 2 C B r r A = p O ( 2p r ) r p radians = 180 ° ie p = 180 ° imp.(1 .1 . p 3 = 60 °. Eg. Show that 1 + sin 4 A 1 . result. Show that (1 + cot A)2 + (1 . : Convert 40° to radians Solution : 40 ° = 40 × p 180 = 2p 9 radius Eg.cot A)2 = 2 cosec 2 A Solution : LHS = 1 + cot 2 2 A + 2 cot A + 1 + cot 2 A = 2 cot +2 2 cot A A = 2(1 + cot2 A) = 2 cosec 2 A = RHS.sin A 1 + sin A = sec A tan A Solution : LHS = (1 + sin A)2 .2 sin A ) 1 . Using the relation p = 180° measurement of an angle in degrees can be converted to radians and vice-versa. p 2 = 90 °. p 4 = 45 ° .sin 2 A + 2 sin A cos 2 A 4 sin A cos 2 A =4 1 sin A · cos A cos A = = = 4 sec A · tan A = RHS . (1) Qn.MCA 11 . (2) Qn. 2. p 6 = 30 ° . : Convert 2p 3 180 2p 3 radians in to degrees Solution : × p = 120 ° Some Problems 1.sin A)(1 + sin A) = (taking LCM) (1+ sin 2 A + 2 sin A ) .(1 + sin 2 A .sin A)2 (1 .sin A 1 .

1 a2 + 1 = sin A Solution : LHS = = sec 2 A + tan 2 A + 2 sec A tan A . If sin 5 = 4 .1 + tan2 A + 2 sec A tan A sec 2 A + tan 2 A + 1 + 2 sec A tan A = 2 tan 2 A + 2 sec A tan A 2 sec 2 A + 2 sec A tan A (using the identity) = 2 tan A( tan A + sec A) 2sec A (sec A + tan A ) = tan A sec A = sin A cos A × cos A 1 = sin A = RHS 4. If sec A+ tan A = a . 3 5 4 3 adjacent side = 25 .3 3 4 5 3 5 5 cos 8sec + 8 tan . find the value of 4 5 sin tan + cos .3 cosec Solution : Since sin = 3 5 lies in II Quadrant sine is +ve cosine & tangant are –ve.8 KSOU Complex Trigonometry 3.4.5 = 10 15 = 2 3 6. and cos =4 5 4 5 8 5 4 .6 .10 . then prove that a2 . Prove that tan(180 sec ° + ) sec( 180 ° sec( 360 ° ) cot( 90 ° + ) cosec (90 ° + ) ) sin( 90 ° ) = 2 . If tan =- 3 4 . p 2 < < p find 5 cos 8sec + 8 tan .cot Solution : If sin = then opposite side is 4 hypotenusis 5.cot + - = 5 4 3 7 5 = 5 = 12 3 7 5 4 12 5.3 cosec = - +8 = .1 a2 = +1 a2 .1 sec 2 A + tan 2 A + 2 sec A tan A + 1 sec 2 A .16 = 4 3 9 =3 cos = & tan = sin tan + cos .

Mathematics SVT 9 Solution sec : LHS = tan (.tan )( .cot ( . sin 75 ° = sin( 45 ° + 30 °) = sin 45 ° sin cos 30 ° + cos 45 ° 30 ° 2 = 1 2 × 3 1 1 3 +1 + × = 2 2 2 2 cos 75 ° = cos( 45° + 30 ° ) = cos 45 ° sin cos 30 ° . 105° etc.tan A tan B replacing Bby –B sin( A .30 ° ) = sin 45 ° sin cos 30 ° .B ) = tan A .sin cot + 3p 2 ) cos tan ) ) cot -p 2 sin( .B ) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B tan( A .tan B 1 + tan A tan B Using the above formulae we can find the trigonometric ratios of 15°.B ) = sin A cos B . Prove that sin( p + ) cos( 2p tan +p 2 (.sec sec ) sec = 2 ( .) = sin Solution : LHS = ( .sin = cos = cos tan × sin cos = sin = RHS Addition Formulae sin( A + B ) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B cos( A + B ) = cos A cos B .sin 45 ° 30 ° 2 = 1 2 × 3 1 1 3-1 × = 2 2 2 2 tan75° = sin 75° 3 +1 = cos 75° 3-1 sin 15 ° = sin( 45 ° . 75°.sin A sin B tan( A + B ) = tan A + tan B 1 .tan ) cos 7.cos 45 ° 30 ° .cos A sin B cos( A .MCA 11 .

75 °) = 75 ° = 3 -1 2 2 cos 15 ° sin = cos( 90 ° .1 3 +1 sin 105 ° = sin( 60 ° + 45 °) = sin 60 ° sin cos 45 ° + cos 60 ° 45 ° 2 = 3 1 1 1 3 +1 × + × 2= 2 2 2 2 cos 105 ° = cos( 60 ° + 45 ° ) = cos 60 ° sin sin 45 ° .75 °) = 75 ° = 3 +1 2 2 sin 105 sin ° = sin( 180 ° .75 ° ) = - 75 ° = - () 3-1 2 2 = 1- 3 2 2 .10 KSOU Complex Trigonometry 2 = 1 2 × 3 1 1 3-1 × 2= 2 2 2 cos 15 ° = cos( 45° .75 °) = 75° = 3 +1 2 2 cos 105 cos ° = cos( 180 ° .30 °) = cos 45 ° sin cos 30 ° + sin 45 ° 30 ° 2 = 1 2 × 3 2 + 1 2 × 1 2= 3 +1 2 tan15° = sin15° = cos 15° 3.sin 60 ° 45 ° 2 = 1 1 3 1 1× × 2= 2 2 2 2 3 +1 13 3 tan105 ° = Alternate method sin 15 ° cos = sin( 90 ° .

sin A sin B put A = B = cos 2 = cos = cos 2 cos .2 sin2 = 2 sin sin (1 .2 (1 .4 ) .MCA 11 .sin 2 2 using cos sin2 cos 2 = 1= 2 cos 2 . cos2 & tan2 .2 cos + 2 cos )cos 3 .1) cos .1 2 also using sin cos 2 = 12 cos 2 sin = 1.2 sin 2 .tan 2 =B + tan tan To find sin3 sin 3 .cos .2 + sin . sin( A + B ) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B put A = sin 2 =B cos cos + cos sin = sin = 2 sin cos( A + B ) = cos A cos B .2 3 = cos( 2 + = cos 2 2 cos = (2 cos 2 = 2 cos 3 = 2 cos 3 = 4 cos 3 3 .2 tan( A + B ) = tan A + tan B 1 .sin sin .sin2 = 2 sin = 3 sin cos 3 .2 sin 3 .tan A tan B put A = tan 2 = tan 1 . cos3 & tan3 .cos 2 .cos cos .sin sin 3 )sin 3 ) + sin .tan = 2 tan 1 .Mathematics SVT 11 To find sin2 . = sin( 2 + ) = sin 2 2 cos + cos sin = 2 sin cos cos + (1 .

tan 2 tan 2 tan = 1.tan2 .12 KSOU Complex Trigonometry tan 3 = tan( 2 + ) = tan 2 + tan 1 .tan 2 sin 3 sin = 3 sin cos 3 = 4 cos 3 3 tan .3 tan2 Thus we have.3 tan 2 = 3 tan . sin A = = .tan2 ) = 1 .4 cos 2 A + 3 ) = 6 .tan 3 1 . If cos A = 2 3 find sin2 A& cos3 A.4 3 cos tan 3 = . 2 3 9.2 2 1 .4 3 5 3 Solution : Given cos A = .4 sin 3 A sin A - cos A = 3 . sin 2 2 = sin cos 2 cos 2 sin = cos 2 tan 2 = 2 tan = 2 cos sin 2 .1 =1.4(sin 2 A + cos 2 A = 6 .tan2 1 . Show that sin 3 A sin A cos 3 A cos A =2 4 cos 3 A cos A Solution : LHS = 3sin 3 A .3 tan 2 Problems 1.tan3 1 .4sin 2 A .tan2 = 2 tan + tan 1 .tan2 + tan × tan 2 tan + tan (1 .4 = 2 = RHS 2.tan2 2 tan 11 .tan 3 ) .2 tan2 (1 .

cos 1 + cos = tan2 2 and hence prove that 3 tan15° = 2 - Solution : 1 .1 + 2 sin 2 = 1 + 2 cos 2 2 1 .3 ()() 2+ 3 2 3 22- 3 3 = 2- ()() 3 4-3 2 = 2- 3 2 tan 2 =2- .sin + sin .sin 2 (dividing Nr & Dr inside the bracket by cos ) 1 + tan 1 .tan = tan( 45 ° + ) = RHS 4.3× sin A cos A = 2 × cos A 2 3 = 32 27 .1 = - 2 sin 2 2 using cos2 A formula 1 + 2 cos 2 2 1 1 .2 sin (cos (cos = cos cos = cos cos )2 )2 2 = tan 2 ( 45 ° + ) = + sin .sin 2 Solution : LHS = 1 + 2sin 1 .cos 1 + cos = tan 2 2 = . Prove that 1 + sin 2 1 .MCA 11 . Prove that 1 .1 2 sin 2 2 cos 2 2 2 = tan 2 2 2 3 2 1+ 3 2 = 22+ 3 3 put = 30 ° . tan 2 15 ° = 1 .cos 1 + cos 1.54 27 = .Mathematics SVT 13 sin 2 A = cos 3 3 A = 4 cos 3 A = 4× 8 27 sin 2 A = 4 5 9 .2 = 5 3 × 2 3 = 4 5 9 32 .22 27 .cos 30 ° 1 + cos 30 ° 1= = ()() .22 27 & cos 3 A = 3.

z . i 4 = 1 etc ( x + iy ) 1 1 (5) Division.14 KSOU Complex Trigonometry Complex Number Definition :A number of the form x + iy where x R. z = x + iy 1 1 1 2 2 2 z +z 1 2 = ( x + x ) + i( y + y ) 1 2 1 2 (3) (4) Subtraction. Let M OP = . Note :. From the triangle OPM .1. then 2 2 = ( x + iy )( x . Draw PM OP = r.x2 ) + i ( y1 . Let P( x. ie z z = ( x + iy)( x . r P (x. xis called Real part & y is called Imaginary part. z1 . y1 = y2 Addition.z 2i y Polar form the complex number z = x + iy is called the Cartesian form.y 2 ) 1 Multiplication.z 2 = ( x . Then OM = x . Complex number denoted as . In a complex x-axis is called Real axis & y-axis Imaginary axis.iy ) = x2 + y2 & z + z = 2 x. x – iy is called Conjugate. y R & i= . 1 = z2 ( x2 + iy 2 ) 2 2 multiply numerator & denominator by the conjugate of x + iy ie z 1 x – iy .1. Z A or z complex number can be represented by a point on a plane by taking real part on x -axis & imaginary part ony-axis. y ) ry OxM x & to x -axis & join PM . z2 = x2 + iy2 are said to be equal if x1 = x2 . The plane on which complex numbers are represented is called a Complex Plane. i 2 = .z = 2 iy x= z+ z 2 & y = z.x y ) 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 x2 + y 2 2 2 = x x +y y 1 2 1 2 x2 2 +i x y .Product of a complex number with its conjugate is always a positive real number. Two complex numbers z1 = x1 + iy1 . y ) be any point in the plane which represents a complex number.iy ) 1 1 2 2 z2 ( x2 + iy 2 )( x2 .y1 y2 + i ( x 1 y2 + x2 y1 ) Q i = .i .1 Note : i = z . For every point in a plane there is a complex number & for every complex number there is a point in the plane.x y 2 1 1 2 2 x2 + y2 2 + 2 y2 which is a complex number. MP = y . Properties (1) (2) Equality. If z = x + iy . i3 = .iy 2 ) = x x + y y + i (x y .1 is defined as a Complex Number and usually denoted as Z. z z = ( x + iy )( x + iy ) 1 2 1 1 2 2 =x x + ix2 y1 + ix1 y2 + i2 y1 y2 1 2 2 =x 1 x 2 .

z = z = r = arg z = tan .1 y x is called argument which are r is always positive and argument varies from 0° to 360°. z = where – p < =p x Examples 1. Express (1 + i ) 2 3.Mathematics SVT 15 OM OP sin = PM OP = x y y r + ir sin = r (cos + i sin ) y = r sin cos = = x = r cos z = x + iy = r cos This form of the complex number is called 'Polar form'.) 3.2 + 6i 10 = .i )( 3 + i ) = 6 i + 2i2 9+1 = .2 10 + 6i 10 = 1 5 + 3i 5 3. Where r is called Modulus & given by r = x2 + y 2 & = tan .i in the form x + iy Solution : (1 + i )2 1 + i2 + 2i 2i (3 1+ i ) = = (using i 2 = . = 45 ° = p 4 2 and amplitude is p 4 . The value of argument satisfying – p < as amplitude which is unique for a complex number.i ) (1 + i )(1 . Express 2 + 3i 1+ i 2 + 3i 1+i = = in the form x + iy 2 + 3 i .MCA 11 .i ) 2 +i +3 2 = = 5+ i 2 2. Find the modulus and amplitude of 1 + Solution : z = r = cos = x r Modulus = 1 2 is x2 + y 2 = and sin = 1+1 = y r = 1 2 2 i.i (3 .3i2 1 +1 = 5 2 +i 1 2 Solution : ( 2 + 3i )(1 . we have to find satisfying ie cos = x y and sin = y x2 + y 2 = p is defined and amp.1 y x while finding the amplitude of a complex number. Thus we have Mod.2 i .i ) (3 .

i Equating real and imaginary parts separately a = a a2 + b 2 and ß = . Find the modulus & amplitude of 1 Solution : z = x r sin = y r = 1 +1 = 1 2 1 2 = 2 – i.ib a 2 + b2 = . Find the modulus & amplitude of Solution : z = 3+ 1 = 4 = 2 - 3+i cos = sin = 2 1 2 3 = 5p 6 Modulus is 2 & amplitude is 5p 6 5.then prove that (a 2 + ß 2 )( a 2 + b2 ) = 1 Solution : a + i ß = 1 a + ib = ( a .16 KSOU Complex Trigonometry 4.b a2 + b 2 .1.ib ) a a 2 + b2 b a 2 + b2 = a . If a + i ß = 1 a + ib . Find the modulus & amplitude of 3 Solution : z = 1+ 3 = 4 = 2 .i cos = - 1 2 =- 2p 3 3 sin = 2 Modulus is 2 & amplitude is - 2p 3 6. cos = = p 4 Modulus is 2 & amplitude is - p 4 7.ib ) ( a + ib )( a .

sin m + cos m sin sin ] = cos( 1 m + 1) + i sin( m + ) the result is true for n = m + 1. then (cos + i sin )n = cos n + i sin n (cos + i sin )n is cos n + i sin n . Case (ii) When n = p q where p& qare +ve integers. one of the values of Proof : Case (i) when nis a +ve integer proof by Mathematical Induction. Let us assume that the result is true for n = m ie (cos + i sin )m = cos m + i sin m multiply both sides by cos (cos + i sin )m + i sin + i sin ) (cos + i sin ) = (cos m + i sin m )(cos ie (cos + i sin )m +1 = cos m = cos m cos cos + i sin m . p q q + p Consider cos q = cos p q i sin ·q + i sin p q ·q = cos q + i sin p = (cos + i sin )p ie (cos + p + i sin ) p = cos q i sin p q q p taking qth roots on both sides. Thus if the result is true for n = m then it is true for n = m + 1. + i sin . + i sin = cos 1 . Let n = –m where m is a +ve integer or +ve fraction (cos + i sin )n = (cos + i sin ). hence by Induction the result is true for all +ve integers. One of the values of (cos + i sin ) q = cos p q + i sin p q Case (iii) when nis –ve integer or –ve fraction. If n is a +ve or –ve fraction.sin m cos sin + i cos m sin + i [sin m cos . When n = 1.m .Mathematics SVT 17 Squaring and adding a 2 +ß 2 = ()() a +b 2 a2 2 2 + 2 b2 a +b 2 2 = (a 2 + b2 ) () a +b 2 2 2 = 1 a2 + b 2 cross . ie If it is true for one integer it is true for next integer. (cos + i sin )1 = cos result is true for n= 1.multiplyin g (a 2 + ß 2 )( a2 + b2 ) = 1 DeMoivre's Theorem Statement : If nis a +ve or –ve integer.MCA 11 .

1 = r 1 n 2( n ..18 KSOU Complex Trigonometry = (cos = (cos m = cos m 1 + i sin )m = cos m 1 + i sin m = cos m cos 2 m .m ) = cos n + i sin n . .i sin = 2 cos = 2 i sin .. express the complex number in the polar form.i sin m ) = cos( ... zn .m ) + i sin( .i sin )n xn = cos n . ie z = r (cos = z 1 n + i sin ) ) 1 n r [] cos( 2 k p 1 n + ) + i sin( 2 k p + + ) + i sin( 2 kp + + i sin ( 2 kp n where k I = r [] cos( 2 k )p 2k p + + = r 1 n cos n ) where k = 0.i sin m + sin 2 m (cos m .. for k = 0.. z .... Important Results (i) If x = cos x+ 1 x + i sin then and x - 1 x 1 x = cos .1) p + + cos n + i sin =r 1 n cis the above nvalues gives nth roots of z = x + iy .i sin n xn + 1 xn = 2 cos n & xn - 1 xn = 2 i sin n Note :. 2... z 0 = r 1 n + cos n i sin n =r 1 n cis n 2p + n 4p + n 2( n . n – 1. .1)p n 2 ( n . z 2 + i sin = r 1n cis k = n ... z .i sin = cos & 1 = (cos .. (ii) If x = cos + i sin xn 1 x = (cos + i sin )n = cos n + i sin n . z = r 1 n cos 1 n 4p + + = r 1 n cos n + i sin 2p n 4p n = r 1 n cis k = 2. Let us denote the nth roots of the complex number by z .. Roots of a complex number Let z = x + iy .. 1...i sin m 1 . z 0 1 2 n –1 Then.i sin m ) + i sin m )(cos m ..For convenience cos + i sin can be written as cis .1) p + n 2p + + k = 1...1.

i sin f = cos sin 2 . Hence these will be only nvalues of z1 n which are distinct.4)(1 .nf ) Solution : 2 cos =x+ 1 x = x2 + 1 x x2 + 1 = 2cos · x 0 ie x2 . Then B represent z . Using the polar form of the complex number we can plot the nth roots of the complex in the following way.i sin 5 ) 2 (cos 7 (cos 4 . (given expression) = (cos (cos + i sin + i sin ) .3 .10 .i sin .10 = (cos + i sin )5 = cos 5 sin +i (3 ) If 2 cos = x+ 1 x & 2 cos f = y + 1 y Show that (i) x m y m + 1 x y m m = 2 cos( m + n f ) & (ii) xm y n + yn xm = 2 cos( m .E.5 (cos 3 . n + 2 etc.10 (cos ) . n + 1.1 0 (cos ). r 1 A n Problems : (1) Simplify cos 5 . = = (cos + i sin ). like this all the nth roots can 1 z B O /n 0 be represented.then 1 y 1 x Similarly if 2 cos f = y + .2 1 )5 = (cos + i sin ).E. y = cos f + i sin f & 1 y = cos f .3 + i sin )5 z n Solution : G. z Draw a circle of radius r 1n whose centre is O .4 x= 2= 2 cos ± (.2 cos x +1 = 2 cos ± 4 cos 2 2 2 cos ± . Take a 0 C z 1 point C such that A OC = 2p + n then Crepresent z .Mathematics SVT 19 Note :If k = n . This diagram is called 'Argand Diagram'. The values will repeat.i sin 4 ) (cos 9 + i sin 7 ) .16 (cos + i sin + i sin + i sin ) 10 )9 )10 5 Solution : G. Mark a point on the circle and take OA as intial line.i sin 3 ).i sin 4 ) 4 (cos + i sin + i sin ).MCA 11 .3 6 (cos + i sin + i sin ).21 +36 .10 + 9+ 16 . Take a point B such that A OB = n 2 .cos 2 ) = = 2 cos ± 2 i sin 2 = cos ± i sin .4 2 If x = cos + i sin .5 = (cos + i sin )0 = 1 ( 2) Simplify (cos 2 (cos 4 (cos (cos + i sin 2 ) .

20 KSOU Complex Trigonometry (i) xm = (cos + i sin )m = cos m + i sin m y n = (cos f + i sin f )n = cos nf + i sin nf xm yn = (cos m + i sin m )(cos nf + i sin nf ) = cos( m 1 xm y n = 2 cos( m + n f ) + i sin( m + nf ) (1) (2) + n f ) .1 b a Q r = a 2 + b 2 & tan = b a = tan .1 ( a + ib ) m n =r m n (cos ) + i sin ) m n =r m n m + cos n i sin (1) a .ib )m n = 2 a2 + b 2 () m 2 n 2 cos m n tan .1 b a .1 ( a + ib )m n + ( a .ib ) m n = r m n cos n i sin m n (2) adding (1) & (2) (a 2 + ib ) m n + ( a .i sin( m .nf ) & yn xm = cos( m .i sin( m + n f ) adding (1) & (2) xm y n + 1 xm yn = 2 cos( m + nf ) (ii) xm = cos m 1 yn + i sin m = cos n f = i sin n f xm yn = cos( m .ib ) m n =r m n cos m n ( a + ib ) m n + ( a .i sin m ( a .nf ) (4) Prove that ( a + ib ) m n + ( a .nf ) .nf ) adding xm y n + yn xm = 2 cos( m .ib ) m n = + m a2 b2 2n 2 cos b a m n tan .n f ) + i sin( m .ib = r (cos .ib )m n = 2 (tan a 2 + b2 ) m 2 n cos m n -1 b a b a Solution : Let a + ib = r (cos + i sin ) where r = a2 + b2 & m n = tan .

Drepresent z . r sin = 3 2 + i sin ) D r cos = 2 Squaring & adding r2 = 1 4 + 3 4 = 4 4 =1 . C . OB = 15 ° take a point Con the circle such that A OC = 135 ° & take a point D on the circle such that the points B. z 2 = 2 cis 17 p 12 k = 2 .Mathematics SVT 21 (5) Find the cube roots if 1 + Solution ): Let z = 1+ i = r (cos r cos = 1. r sin iand represent them on Argand diagram. z .MCA 11 . Solution : Let z = 1 1 3 -i = r (cos 2 2 . z0 = 2 1 cis cis15 ° 3p 4 k = 1. z2 = 2 1 6 cis =2 1 6 cis255 ° To represent them on Argand diagram. C Take a point B on the circle such that A . Let OA be the initial line. + i sin =1 say Squaring & adding r 2 (cos 2 r2 = 2 r = 1 2 sin = 1 2 + p 2 cos 4 = 2 + sin2 ) = 1 +1 cos = p 4 z = i sin p 4 = + 2 cos 2 k p p 4 + + i sin 2 kp p 4 for k I z = 1+ i = + 2 cis 2 kp p 4 z1 3 = (1 + i )1 3 = () 2 1 6 1 3 cis p 12 + 8kp p 4 =2 1 6 1 3 =2 1 6 cis 8 kp + p 12 for k = 0. Draw a circle of radius 2 1 6 with centre O. 1. z . 0 1 2 A OD = 255 ° then 255° 135° B 15° 1 26 O A (6) Find all the values of -1 2 1 i 3 2 4 & find their continued product. 2 when k = 0. z1 = 2 6 cis 1 6 9p 12 = 2 6 cis 1 =2 1 6 cis 135 ° 17 p 12 k = 2.

... z = cis 0 p 12 11 p 12 k = 1. 6 kp .10 cos2 sin3 + sin5 ] .1 a + nC2 xn...10 cos 3 = cos 5 . 2 3 - for k = 0.2 a2 + .p 12 for k = 0.10 cos3 sin2 + 5 cos sin 4 + i[5 cos 4 sin .10 i cos 2 sin 3 + 5 cos sin 4 + i sin 5 . z = cis 3 Their continued product = ci s - p 12 cis 5p 12 cis 11 p 12 17 p 12 cis 17 p 12 + p 5 p 11p = cis + + 12 12 12 + = cis 2 p 2p 3 = cis 2p 3 = cis 2p 3 32 p 12 = cis 2p 3 8p 3 = cos + i sin =- 1 3 +i 2 2 Expansion of sin ( n ) and cos ( n ) in powers of sin & cos Consider (cos + i sin )n = cos n + i sin n Expand (cos n + i sin n )n Using Binomial Theorem ( x + a)n = xn + nC1 xn .6kp p 3 1 4 = cis .22 KSOU Complex Trigonometry cos sin = 1 2 3 2 p 3 =- p 3 =- z = 1 cos - + i sin - p 3 z = cis 2 kp p 3 for k I z1 4 = -1 2 1 i 3 2 4 = cis 2 kp p 3 1 4 = cis . + nCn an Equating real and imaginary parts separately we get the expressions of cos n Eg. z = cis 1 5p 12 17 p 12 k = 2.. (1) Express cos 5 sin +i 5 in powers of 5 & sin n sin & cos . z = cis 2 k = 3. 1. Solution :)cos 5 + i sin 5 = (cos + i sin = cos 5 = cos 5 + 5 C1 cos 4 + 5 i cos 4 · i sin sin + 5 C2 cos 3 sin 2 (i sin )2 + 5 C3 cos 2 (i sin )3 + 5C4 cos ( i sin )4 + 5C5 ( i sin )5 ..

20 cos 3 sin 3 + 6 cos sin5 ] Equating real and imaginary parts separately cos 6 = cos 6 sin 6 sin = 6 cos 5 .15 cos 4 sin 2 + 15 cos2 sin4 .. + n ) = cos 1 cos 2 ..) 1 1 tan tan 2 1 2 tan 3 ........ cis 2 n = cis( n 1 + 2 + 3 + .....) 1 2 3 4 ( 1 ..iS + S ............ cos )(1 + i tan 2 n (1 + i tan n ) n cos + 3 2 .............. .. ......... ..S ...) 1 3 Equating real and imaginary parts separately cos( 1 + 2 + 3 + . cos (1 + i tan ) n 1 )............S 3 . .... cis ) cos 1 = cos = cos ie cis ( 1 (1 + i tan 1 1 (1 + i tan 2 n 2 ).....S2 + S 4 ....... (2) Express cos 6 & sin 6 in powers of cos 6 + i sin Solution :)cos 6 + i sin 6 = (cos + i sin = cos6 + 6C1 cos 5 (i sin ) + 6C2 cos 4 (i sin )2 + 6 C3 cos 3 ( i sin )3 + 6 C4 cos 2 ( i sin )4 + 6C )5 cos ( i sin )5 + 6C6 (i sin 6 = cos 6 + 6 i cos 5 sin .20 i cos 3 sin 3 + 15 cos 2 sin 4 + 6i cos sin 5 .... . .............. . + n ) = cos 1 cos 2 .. + n ) Now cis cis 3 .. ...........S 3 .... 1 ...) + i cos 2 4 1 cos 2 .......MCA 11 ...) tan( è1 + è 2 + è 3 + .................. + è n ) = S1 ...... ..... cos n ( S .15 cos 4 sin 2 ...................15 cos 4 sin sin 2 + 15 cos 2 sin 3 sin 4 .... . cis ( è + è + ... cis 1 cis cis 2 cis 1 3 ................... ............. + 2 n = cos where S = 1 S2 = S3 = 1 cos tan tan tan cos 3 .........S ..... cos ..... cos n n ( 1 + iS ... .) and sin( 1 + 2 + 3 + .... 2 4 .( 1 + i tan ) + 2 + ...20 cos 3 + 6 cos Addtion formulae for any number of angles We have..sin 6 + i[ 6 cos 5 sin ...Mathematics SVT 23 Equating real & imaginary parts separately cos 5 sin = cos 5 sin 5 sin = 5 cos 4 ...............S + S ...10 cos 3 sin sin 2 + 5 cos sin 3 + 5 4 and ... cos n (1 .........sin 6 5 and .... cos n ( S1 ..... + è ) n 1 2 = cos = cos 1 1 cos cos 2 2 ..... .......S + S .........sin 6 = cos6 .10 cos 2 Eq.. cos (1 + iS1 + i2 S2 + i3 S3 + ...................

7.i 2 22. 16 . show that x2 + y 2 = 9 . prove that ( x2 + y 2 )2 = a2 + b2 c2 + d 2 1+ i 1. 2 3 ) . find i. 15 . show that a 2 + b 2 = 1.i n . 20 . 23 . Write the conjugate of the multiplica tive inverse of the complex number ( sin + i cos ).i in the polar form.n +1 + i .i 2 in the polar form. 2. Express 3.3) y . 10. findthe value of (1 + )3 .n + 2 + i.2 = 2 z . z . Find the continued product of fourth roots of unity. 4. . What isthe multiplicative inverse of i101 ? If ' ' in the cube root of '1' . Express 1 . Find the modulus and amplitude of . Find the least positive integer ' n 'for which = 1. 9. Find the realvalues of x and y which satisfy th e equation ( 2 0x . 17 .n + i.4 = . 12 . z . 3. If z = x + iy be such that amp = p 4 . 8. If 'n'is any integer. If ' ' isthe cube root of unity. 11. 2 +i 3.3 Findthe value of sin(p / 8) + i cos( p / 8) sin(p / 8) .y ) + i (3 x + 2 y + 1 ) = Find the realvalues of x and y which satisfy th e equation ( 2 0 + i ) x + ( i . If z = x + iy and If z = a + ib and z + 6 = 2 z + 3 .) Simplify (sin + i cos )3 (cos a + i sin a 2 . 13 .3 . 21.then findthe value of (4 .(1 + Simplify 2 i + 4 i2 + 2 i3 + 4 i4 i sin 3p 4 in the Cartesian form. Find the real part of p + 1 + cos 5 i sin p 5 -1 . Express + 3p 2 cos 4 14.1 . . If z = x + iythen wha t does z + 1 =1 represents? Simplify (sin 2 x + i cos 2 x )2 using De Moivre's Theorem. 6.n + 3 .1 z +1 19 .i cos( p / 8 ) 8 2 3 ). If x + iy = a + ib c + id . 18 . show that x2 + y 2 .2 y = 1 .24 KSOU Complex Trigonometry Exercise 1. 5.

prove that i) xy + 1 xy = 2 cos( a + ß ) ii) xy 1 xy = 2 i sin( a + ß ). 33 . Provethe following i) (1 + i)3 + (1 . 28.i sin . y = cis ß . show that Z n + = 2 cos n and Z n - If x = cis a . If x = cis .then find i2 + i4 + i6 + L + (2n)terms.(a . + 4 )(1 - 4 + 8 )(1 - 8 + 16 ) =16. 34 . 31 . 30. Simplify If (cos 7 + i sin 7 ). provethat ii ) sin 3a + 8 sin 3ß + 27 sin 3 = 18 sin(a + ß + ).then find x5 + 1 x5 .i 2 1 Zn ()() 6 + 1+ 2 6 = 46. 26. If cos a + 2 cos ß + 3 cos = 0 = sin a + 2 sin ß + 3 sin . 1 Zn = 2i sin n .np 2 n 40 . If x = cis a . 35. If a & ß arethe roots of x2 . If x = cis 27.i sin n 7 n [] = cos .2 (cos 3 + i sin 3 )4 (cos + i sin ).cos 1 + cos 1 + i tan a 1 .then prove that a + ß n = 2n + 1 cos np 3 .i)3 = . 39 . xyz 38.i sin )8 = 2 9 ·cos( 4 ) · cos 8 ( / 2).1 x2 n + 1 = 2 cos( 2a + 3 ß ) ii) x2 y 3 1 x2 y 3 = 2 i sin( 2a + 3 ß ). 25. If x = cis a and y = cis ß . . Show that (a + ib)2 n .4 ii) 1 . provethat x y z i) xyz + 1 = 2 cos(a + ß + ) xyz ii ) xyz 1 = 2 i sin( a + ß + ). showthat (1 . If Z = cos + i sin .Mathematics SVT 25 24.4 + 2 )(1 2 is a cube root of unity. 36. prove that i) x2 y 3 + 1 x 2 y3 x2 n .1. prove that x.i cos .MCA 11 .i tan a · cis 7 . If i2 = .y x+ y = i tan -a 2 n ß 29 . 1 1 1 If 2 cos a = x + . 32 . i) cos 3a + 8 cos 3 ß + 27 cos 3 = 18 cos(a + ß + ) 37.np 2 n + i sin . Provethat (1+ cos + i sin )8 + (1+ cos . Prove that = i tan 7 2 1+ i tan a 1 . 2 cos ß = y + and 2 cos = z + . y = cis ß .i tan a + i cos . prove that = i tan n . Prove that = .ib )2 n = 2i ( a2 + b 2 )n · sin 2n · tan.1 (b / a) Prove that 1 + sin 1 + sin 1 .2 x + 4 = 0 . 41 .

3 L provethat Z1 · Z2 · Z3 L L 8 = i.1 + i 3 . Find the fourth roots of 1 + i 3 and represent them in the Argand diagram. 43. x5 + 1 = . Find allthe values of (1 . 44. 46 .i )2 / 3 . 50 . If Z r = cis (p / 3r ). sin 7 cos 8 & cos 7 & sin 8 in powers of sin in powers of cos & cos & sin . 2. 45.26 KSOU Complex Trigonometry 42 . 48 . Solve Solve x7 . Findthe cube roots of .x = 0. 47. r = 1. Find allthe values of (1 + i )2 / 3 . Express Express ––––––––––––– . . 0 49.

A matrix of order m ×n is said to be rectangular if m n. Two matrices are said to be equal if the corresponding elements are equal. Types of Matrices (1) Equivalent Matrices : (2) Equal Matrices : Two matrices are said to be equivalent if the order is the same. (3) Rectangular & Square Matrices : (4) Row Matrix : (5) Column Matrix : A matrix having only one row is called Row Matrix. Examples a1 Matrix of order 3 ×2 is a2 a3 a1 b 1 b2 b3 a2 b2 c 2 2 a3 b3 c 3 3 Matrix of order 4 ×3 is b1 c 1 1 d d d a1 Matrix of order 3 ×3 is a2 a3 b 1 b2 b3 c1 c2 c3 Note :. 4 0 0 6 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 4 Example are diagonal matrices of order 2 & 3.Elements of Matrices are written in rows and columns with in the bracket ( ) or [ ]. square if m = n . (8) Scalar Matrix : A diagonal matrix in which all the elements in the principal diagonal are same. A matrix having only one column is called Column Matrix. .MATRIX THEORY Review of the fundamentals A rectangular array ofmn elements arranged inmrows & n columns is called a 'Matrix' of a orderm × n matrices are denoted by capital letters of The English Alphabet. (6) Null Matrix or Zero Matrix : A matrix in which all the elements are zeros is called Null Matrix or Zero Matrix denoted as O. [English alphabet Onot zero where as elements are zeros] (7) Diagonal Matrix : A diagonal matrix is a square matrix in which all elements except the elements in the principal diagonal are zeros.

c1 a2 .e 2 Matrix Multiplication If A is a matrix of order m × pand B is matrix of order p × n. (ie. 1 Example . Example : If A = a1 a2 A+B = b1 b2 a +c 1 1 2 c1 c2 & B= c1 c2 d1 d2 1 2 e 1 e2 b +d 1 1 2 c +e 1 a +c 2 b +d 2 c +e 2 A. as A3 etc..c2 b1 . Matrix addition Two matrices can be added or subtracted if their orders are same. for AB to be defined number of columns of A must be same as number of rows of B) a 1 a2 b1 b2 c 1 c2 a1 & B= a2 a3 1 3 3 1 1 1 2 ß1 ß2 ß3 2 1 3 3 Example : Let A = a a +ba then AB = 1 1 1 2 2 2 +ca 2 a ß +b ß +c ß 2 1 2 2 a a +b a 2 1 +c a a ß +b ß + c ß which is of order 2 ×2.d2 c1 .28 KSOU Matrix Theory 8 Example 4 0 0 4 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 8 are Scalar Matrices of order 2 & 3.If A is multiplied by Athen AAis denoted as A2 . (9) Unit Matrix or Identity Matrix : A diagonal matrix in which all the elements in the principal diagonal is 1 is called Unit Matrix or Identity Matrix denoted by I .. then the product AB is defined and its order is m × n. Note :. a Example : If A = c e b d then A' is f a b c d e f A is of order 3 ×2 but A'is of order 2 ×3. (10) Transpose of a Matrix : If A is any matrix then the matrix obtained by interchanging the rows & columns of A is called 'Transpose of Aand it is written as A'or AT . .. AAA. : 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 are unit matrices of order 2 & 4.B = a1 .d1 b2 .e1 c2 .

B ' . a1 Example: Let A = a 2 b 1 b 2 c1 2 a1 2 b1 b 2 c1 c 2 c then det.. skew symmetric if A = –AT or A = –A' also A + A' is symmetric & A – A'is skew symmetric. j= 1.Mathematics SVT 29 Scalar Multiplication of a Matrix If Ais a matrix of any order andKis a scalar (a constant).MCA 11 . .. Thus we can form nine minors..A = ( aij ) i = 1. 2 Example : A = 3 5 3 5 7 6 is symmetricwhere A = A' 6 8 0 B= 2 -7 . A If A is a square matrix its determinant is denoted as ... a1 Example : If A = a2 a3 b1 b2 b3 c 1 c2 c3 Ka1 then KA = Ka2 Ka3 Kb1 Kb2 Kb3 Kc1 Kc2 Kc3 Symmetric and Skew Symmetric Matrices Let A be a matrix of ordern × nan element in it hrow and jth column can be denoted as aij. 2 3 a11 ie A = a21 a31 a11 A = a21 a31 Consider a 12 a22 a32 a 12 a 22 a 32 a13 a23 a33 a a 23 33 a 13 a 23 a33 a a 22 32 which is a determinant formed by leaning all the elements of row and column in which all lies.. . In general if A is matrix of order n × nthen minor of aij is . 2.. Note :. 2.. This 11 determinant is called Minor of a .. n A matrix of order n × n is said to be Symmetric if aij = aji and Skew Symmetric if aij = –aji or A is symmetric if A = AT or A = A'. then KA represent a matrix in which every element ofA is multiplied by K . n...6 0 Determinant A determinant is defined as a mapping (function) from the set of square matrices to the set of real numbers. 2 . 3 j = 1.In a skew symmetric matrix the elements in principal diagonal are all zeros. Hence a matrix of order n × n can be denoted as ( aij ) or [aij] where i = 1..2 7 0 6 is skew symmetricwhere B = . A or A = a c3 a3 b3 a3 b3 c3 Minors and Co-factors Let .

A The order of this minor is n– 1where as the order of given determinant is n if this minor is multiplied by (–1) i + j then it is called Co-factors of aij .factor of a1 is ( .b a2 a3 2 1 c2 c3 1 + c a2 a3 3 2 1 = a (b c .a1 b3 c 2 ) . Example : Let A = a a 1 2 b b 1 1 2 Co-factor of a is b 1 2 2 Co-factor of b is –a A =a 1 b2 .a b ) 3 2 3 1 2 3 3 2 = a1 b2 c3 .a3 b2 c1 .1)2 +1 a1 2 a3 2 a13 a3 3 =- a1 2 a3 2 a13 a3 3 Value of a determinant Consider a matrixA of ordern × n.factor of b is (.factor of c1 is (.a3 b1 c2 + a2 b3 c1 . Consider all the elements of any row or column and multiply each element by its corresponding co-factor.b 1 a2 a1 Let A = a 2 a3 b1 b2 b3 c1 c2 c3 b b 2 3 Co .1)1 + 1 = a Minor of a 21 is a 12 32 a a 13 33 Co .30 KSOU Matrix Theory obtained by leaning all the elements in the row and column in whichaij lies in . Then the algebraic sum of the product is the value of the determinant.1)1 + 3 a = a 2 3 A =a b2 b3 1 c2 c3 2 3 1 .1 )1+ 1 c c 2 3 = b b 2 3 c 2 3 c a2 a3 Co .factor of a 11 = ( .a2 b1 c 3 .a c ) + c ( a b . a11 Example : Let A = a21 a31 a12 a22 a32 a22 a32 a13 a23 a33 a23 a33 a 22 a3 2 a2 3 a3 3 a2 2 a3 2 a2 3 a3 3 Minor of a1 1 = Co .b c ) .factor of a 21 is (.1)1 + 2 1 a2 a3 a a 2 3 c2 c3 b b 2 3 =- c2 c3 b b b2 b3 2 3 Co .b (a c .

B . c as A . B . A .b c ) + b ( a c .abc +ab c +a bc . (5) If all the elements of any row or column are multiplied by a constant and added to the corresponding elements of any other row or column then the value of the determinant donot alter.c (a b .a c ) . a . A 1 Matrixof Co .c1 a 1 3 b b 1 3 b = .Mathematics SVT 31 Properties of determinants (1) If the elements of any two rows or columns are interchanged then value of the determinant changes only in sign. c . A A 1 B 1 C1 A2 B2 C2 A 3 B3 C3 a A + b1 B3 + c1 C3 1 3 a2 A + b2 B3 + c2 C3 3 a3 A + b3 B + c3 C3 3 3 a + c1 a 2 3 B1 B2 B3 C1 C2 C3 Theorem A.a ( b c .A = A I = a1 A.factors = A 2 A 3 A 1 Adjoint of A = B 1 C1 A 2 B2 C2 A 3 B3 C3 .b1 a 2 3 c c 2 3 b b 2 3 b c = = The value of the det.a b c +a b c =0 1 1 3 1 3 1 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 3 1 3 1 1 .a1 1 3 a + b1 a 1 3 c c 1 3 a . Adjoint of a Matrix a 1 Let A = a2 a3 b1 b2 b3 c1 c2 c3 Let us denoted the co-factors of a . A. adj adj . a . Similarly 2 a A +b B +c C 3 3 3 3 3 3 = b 1 3 c c a1 A2 + b1 B2 + c1 C 2 = . A .A.a b ) 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 3 3 1 =. C transpose of matrix of 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 co-factors is called Adjoint of the Matrix. b . c . C . b . C .a bc . (2) If the elements of two rows or columns are identical then the value of the determinant is zero. B . (4) If all the elements of any row or column are written as sum of two elements then the determinant can be written as sum of two determinants.MCA 11 . b . (3) If all the elements of any row or column is multipled by a constant K . adj . then the value of the determinant is multipled by K . A = a2 a3 b1 b2 b3 c1 c2 c3 a1 A +b B + c1 C1 1 1 1 = a2 A +b B + c2 C1 1 2 1 a3 A +b B + c3 C1 1 3 1 b Now a1 A + b1 B1 + c1 C1 = a1 1 a A +b B +c C 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 a1 A2 + b B + c1 C 2 1 2 a2 A + b2 B2 + c2 C2 2 a3 A2 + b3 B2 + c3 C2 c 2 3 a .

2 .5 .(4 . 0 A.I 1 .2 4 . adjA = A · I = Singular and Non-singular Matrices A square matrix A is said to be singular if 0A = and non-singular if . A adj = A A. A = A A.5 + 8 ) = .10) 3 6 = 0 6 0 9 3 .2 4 (. To find the inverse of A A. adj.1 A.2 .2 1 .2 4 .1 . A = A · I multiply by A .2 .5 4 -5 .1 .2 1 1 1 1 .(4 . Inverse of B is denoted as B–1 and further (AB )–1 = B–1 A– 1 .32 KSOU Matrix Theory Similarly the other five elements of A adj.4) (. Inverse of A is denoted as A– 1 .2 .2 4 1 .5 .factors = 4 .5 +8) 3 6 .5 .1 = .2 1 1 Let A = .A A 1 Example : Find the inverse of .4) (16 . adj. AA .4 ) (4 + 5) . A 0 Inverse of a Matrix Two non-singular matrices A& B of the same order is said to be inverse of each other if AB = I = BA .5 .(.2 .2 1 .2 Matrix of Co .2 4 .Ais zero.2 4 1 4 1 .adj.adj.2 1 1 1 1 .1 ie adj.A = 0 0 0 0 0 = .2 4 - - .2 1 4 .4) (1 + 2) .2 4 1 .(.A 0 0 where = A 1 0 = 0 1 0 0 A.

a1 x = x a2 a3 b1 b2 b3 c1 c3 a x 1 a3 x b1 b3 c1 c2 c3 c2 = a2 x b2 multiply the elements of columns 2 & 3 by y& z and add to elements of column 1. a x+b y + c1 z 1 1 then x = a2 x + b2 y + c2 z a3 x + b3 y + c3 z d1 = d2 d3 b 1 b 2 b 3 c1 c2 = c3 1 b1 b2 b3 c1 c2 c3 (say) (2) multiply both sides of (1) by y a1 y = y a2 a3 b1 b2 b3 c1 c3 a1 a3 b1 y b2 y b3 y c1 c2 c3 c2 = a2 .A = 6 3 0 9 1 A= -2 1 4 .4 ) .4( .5 .Mathematics SVT 33 3 0 6 adj.18 = 9 3 6 9 = 1 A adj. A = 1 9 9 9 9 0 3 6 9 9 6 9 6 3 0 = 9 6 3 0 3 9 1 3 3 0 1 2 3 3 2 3 A.1 = 2 0 1 3 1 Solutions of Linear equations Cramer's Rule To solve the equations a1 x + b1 y + c1 z = d1 a2 x + b2 y + c 2 z = d 2 a3 x + b3 y + c3 z = d3 a1 Consider = a2 a3 b 1 b2 b3 c 1 c2 c3 (1) first evaluate & if it is not zero then multiply both sides of (1) by x.2 6 3 -2 4 1 3 0 6 A -1 = 1( 55 + 8 ) .2 .MCA 11 .2( 4 + ) = 3 + 24 .

2 -1 1 -3 .z x= x+ y + z x .34 KSOU Matrix Theory multiply the elements of columns 1 & 3 by x & z and add to the elements of column 2.z can be done by substituting in the given equations.1(.2 + 4 + 3 = 5 multiply both sides of (1) by x 2 then x= x1 1 1 -1 1 2x = x x 1 1 -1 1 1 .1 Solve 2x + y . Example . y .3 .1 ) .2 -3 multiply the elements of columns 2 & 3 by y and z and add to the elements of column 1.3 = 2 (-13 + 2 ) .z = 3 1 x+ y + z = 4 x. 2x+ y. a1 = a2 a3 a1 x + b y + c1 z 1 a3 x + b3 y + c3 z c1 c3 a1 a3 d1 d2 d3 c1 c2 = c3 2 a2 x + b2 y + c2 z c2 = a2 (say) (3) multiply both sides of (1) by z a 1 z = z a2 a3 b1 b2 b3 c1 c3 a 1 a3 b 1 b2 b3 c z 1 c2 z c3 z c2 = a2 multiply the elements of columns 1 & 2 by x & yand add to the elements of column 3.3 .) = .2 .Verification of values of x.3y = 2 Let =1 1 1 1 -1 1 (1) -2 .1( .3y 1 1 . a1 = a2 a3 a1 = a2 a3 then x = 1 b1 b2 b3 b1 b2 b3 a1 x + b1 y + c1 z a2 x + b2 y + c2 z a3 x + b3 y + c3 z d1 d2 = d3 3 (say) (4) from (2) y = 2 from (3) z = 3 from (4) Note :.2 y .2 .2y .

z x+ y + z x .3( .MCA 11 .3 = .2 .3 10 5 =2 multiply both sides of (1) by y 2 3 y= y1 1 1 4 -1 .3 1 4 .Mathematics SVT 35 3 =1 4 x= 10 = 1 1 -1 1 = 3(43 + 2 ) .14 + 12 .3 + 7 + 6 = 10 -2 .20 ) + 0 ( 0 3 4 = 4( 9 ) = 36 + 20 = 56 0 3 . Example .2 y . 2 then y=1 1 2x + y .3z 2 3 = 1 1 -1 1 = 2( -13 .3 .3z 1 1 3 1 + 2) .5 = .3z multiply the elements of column 1 by x& column 2 by yand to the corresponding elements of column 3.3 .2 ) = .1( .4 ) .1) .2y -1 1 .3 . 2 then z=1 1 1 1 .) = 12 .3 y = .2 4 z = 0 = 0 5 =0 Thus solution is x = 2.1(4 .5 -1 1 .2 y .) = .0) .1 (.2 Solve 4 x + y = 7 53y + 4z = 5x+ 3z = 2 4 =5 2 1 0 15 .1(4 .4 ) .3 2 1 y y .9 = 0 1 = 2( 4 1 .3 1 == 1 multiply the elements of column 1 by x& 3 by z and to the corresponding elements of column 2. y = –1 & z = 0 which can be verified by substituting in the given equations.2 2 = 1 2x+ y .z x+ y + z x .1 (0 .1) + 3( .5 5 = -1 multiply both sides of (1) by z 2 z =z1 1 3 1 -1 2 1 3 -z z 1 =1 1 4 -3 4 .

If 0 A A.) = 63 .20 ) + 0 ( 0 .z = 8 x + 3 y .1 B ie IX = A.8) + 0(0 .1 B Example Solve 3 x .1 ( AX ) = A.5z = 3 -1 Let A = 2 1 1 3 2 -1 .1(15 .7 = 56 3 =5 3 2 0 4 7 0 2 = 0 5 4 = 4(15 .1 AX = A.7(0 .105 = .56 3 =0 3 5 0 1 x= = =1 y = 2 = 168 56 = 3 z = 3 = .56 56 =-1 Solution of Linear equations by Matrix Method Given a1 x + b1 y + c1 z = d1 a 2 x + b2 y + c 2 z = d 2 a3 x + b3 y + c 3 z = d3 a1 Consider A = a 2 a3 b1 b2 b3 c1 c2 c3 x z d1 d3 solution exists multiply both sides by A–1 X = y & B = d2 then given equations can be written in Matrix form as AX = B .8 then given equations can be written as AX = B .1 B A.0 ) .8) .25) = 28 + 140 = 168 5 2 3 4 1 7 5 = 4( 6 15 .1 B X = A.y + 2 z = 13 3 2x + y .36 KSOU Matrix Theory 7 1 1 0 4 = 7( 9 6 . B= z 13 3 .1(0 .0) .25 ) + 7( 0 2 56 56 ) = 24 + 25 .5 x X = y .

5 (1) 1 3 .15 3 1 10 = .10 .17 -7 -1 7 5 5 .1) = .3 4 3 4 3+ =0 2 4 3 1 0 0 1 Let A = Characteristic equation is - =0 2 (1 2 )(3 .17 .Mathematics SVT 37 X = A-1 B To find A–1 3 A=2 1 -1 1 3 2 .y + 2z = 9 + 2 + 2 = 13 Characteristic equation.1 1 .( .56 5 65 . Eigen Values & Eigen Vectors ALet A& I be square matrices of same order and a scalar then 0 I = is called Characteristic equation and the roots of X is called Eigen this equation ie values of are called Eigen Values or Characteristic roots.15 . Example .3 .1 = 3 (.(.5 .26 3 8 1 117 .4) (6 . The matrix Xsatisfying AX= Vector.10 +1) (.5 + 3 ) = .51 .2 -2 adj.2 ) .17 . y = –2.(5 .factors = 3 .5 2 .A = A 5 9 5 Using this in (1) -2 X =1 5 9 5 1 .10 + 1) + 2( 6 .5 2 .5=0 .1 . z = 1 is the solution Verification : Consider the first equation 3x .2 1 -1 1 .2 = .1 7 5 .1 - 2 1 3 1 -1 .(9 + 1) (3 + 2) .8 = 0 .1 Matrix of Co .5 2 -1 - 2 1 3 1 3 2 1 3 .1 3 .MCA 11 .A = 9 5 1 .10 -1 7 5 13 3 -8 =.6 .30 .1 = 1 1 adj.5 + 3) + 1(.9 + 10 = .1) .6) 1.2 5 -5 1 =- x = 3.4 ).40 .1 Find the eigen roots and eigen vectors of the matrix 1 4 3 1 2 1 2 ie 14 3.8=0 .5 2 .10 5 A.1 1 - 3 2 (.17 .10 9 .

2 3 -1 2 -1 3 )2 .2 2 ie (6 ie (6 ie (6 ie 6 ie 2 3 .y .2 = y 1 Eigen vector corresponding to eigen value –1 is (–2.6 .8= 0 + 36 .2 3-1 2 -1 = 3- .36 + 32 = 0 which is the characteristic equation.12 2 2 + 36 . corresponding to –1. To find eigen vector X. 1) To find the eigen vector corresponding to 5. AX = –1 ie 1 2 4 3 x y = .8+ 4 .38 KSOU Matrix Theory ( .1 + 2 [][] .2 . + 1) = 0 = -1 5 Eigen roots are –1 & 5.2 6 Find the eigen roots and eigen vectors of the matrix -2 2 6 Let A = . 2 .8) = 0 8 .8 +4 ie 3 .12 2 .6 +2 +2 + 2 2 .4 y ie x = .x = .2 3 -1 6- 2 -1 3 .y x+ 4y 2x+3y x+ 4y = .2)( ie ( .x .2 y x . ie 1 2 4 3 x1 x2 2 =5 x1 x2 x + 4 x2 1 2 x1 + 3 x2 = 5 x1 5 x2 x + 4x 1 = 5x 1 2 x1 + 3 x2 = 5 x2 ie x1 = x2 ie x1 1 = x2 1 Eigen vector is (1.32 by .10 + 16) = .2 )( = 2 .4) = 0 + 48 2 3 +6 2 .6 + 8) + 2(2 .x 2 x + 3y = .1 + 2 [][] .we have 0( .4) + 2 (2 .2(3 - [] [] )9 + ) (3 )( .5 )( .6+ 2 ) = 0 .y ix = .2(3 2 Characteristic equation is 0.36 + 12 2 ) =0 .2)( ..32 = 0 . 1) Example . 1) Eigen vector corresponding to eigen root 5 is (1. by inspection 2 is a root dividing 3 .2 2 ) + 2 + 2 2 .

. ) Properties of Eigen values (1) The sum of the eigen values of a matrix is the sum of the elements of the principal diagonal.1.2 x2 + 2 x3 = 0 1 .2 x2 + 2 x3 = 8 x1 .2 3 -1 2 3 x1 x3 x 1 = 2 x2 x3 1 x1 where X = x2 x3 4 x . (2) The product of the eigen values of a matrix is equal to the value of its determinant.2 3 -1 2 3 x1 x3 8x 1 = 8x 2 8x 3 ie . 1) Eigen roots are 2.then 2 x = x 3 1 2 ie x1 1 = x2 2 ie x1 1 = x2 2 = x 3 0 Eigen Vector is (1.2 2 .x2 + 3 x3 = 8 x3 ie x + x2 . 1.1 x2 ie 6 x1 .1.x2 .2x + 3x .Mathematics SVT 39 To find eigen vector or = 2 Consider AX = 2 X 6 ie .MCA 11 .x + x = 0 1 2 3 1 2 3 the above three equations represent one equation 2x – x + x = 0.1 x2 6 x1 .x3 = 0 2x . . .2 = x2 1 = K (Say) subsitituting in (1) . Let x = 0.2 x2 x = K 2 x1 .2 x1 + 3 x2 .x = 2x 1 2 3 2 2 x1 . 2. 8 &1 Eigen vect ors are (1.5 x3 = 0 1 =8 . 2.x3 = 8 x2 2 x1 .2 K &.2. (3) If is an eigen value of Athen 1 is the eigen value of A–1 .1) or (2.2 2 .2 x + 2x = 0 2 2 3 .2x + x .2 x1 . 0) & (2 .K x3 = .K Eigen vect or is (.5 x2 .x2 + 3 x3 = 2 x3 . x2 = K x3 = . 0) To find the eigen vector for Consider AX = 8 X 6 ie .2 K + K .x2 .2 x2 + 2 x3 = 2 x1 .x = 0 1 3 2x .5 x3 = 0 (1) (2) (3) adding (1) & (2) we get 3 x1 + 6 x2 = 0 ie x + 2 x2 = 0 1 then . 2.x3 = 0 1 2 x1 + 5 x2 + x3 = 0 2 x1 .x3 = 0 x1 = . . x = -2K 1 ie x1 = .2 x .

.z + . In general if A is a square matrix of order n then characteristic equation will be of the form (.... 1 2 Cayley Hamilton Theorem states that A 02 + a1 A + a2 I = where I is a unit matrix of order 2 & 0 is a null matrix of order 2. where I is a unit matrix of order 3 & 0 is a null = Then as per Cayley Hamilton Theorem 0 .1 + a2 An .1 + a2 n. + an I = 0 and by Cayley Hamilton Theorem (.z + .1 a Let A = c b d ac 1 2 Characteristic equation is ie 2 b d =0 + a1 + a2 = 0 where a . a are constants.1 = 0 ie A + a1 I + a2 A.. a are constants.40 KSOU Matrix Theory Cayley . + a n I = 0 where I is a unit matrix of order n & 0 is a null matrix of order n.1 )n n +a n.1 + a2 A. matrix A is singular & an n 0 the matrix Ais non-singular & hence inverse exists and we can find the inverse of A using Cayley Hamilton Theorem.. Let A = a c b d ab d- Characteristic equation is =0 c which on simplification becomes a quadric equation in in the form 0 2 + a1 + a2 = where a .. By Cayley Hamilton Theorem A2 + a1 A + a2 I = 0 multiply both sides by A–1 then A2 A-1 + a1 AA..If we put = 0 in the characteristic equation then an = A If a = 0.( A + a I) 1 A..Hamilton Theorem Every square matrix satisfies its characteristic equation. a1 If A = a2 a3 b 1 b2 b3 c1 c2 c3 a1 then characteristic equation is 0 a2 a3 which on simplification becomes 0 3 b1 b2 b3 + a1 2 c1 c2 c3 + a2 + a3 = which is a cubic equation.1 = 0 a2 A. Note :..1 = . Example ....1 = 1 a2 ( A+ a I ) 1 .1 )n An + aAn .A3 + a A2 + a2 A + a3 I = 1 matrix of order 3..

E. Let Abe a square matrix of order 3 and let vectors where x 1 x3 x 1 Let P = x2 x3 Example .3 1 4 5 3 1 2 . 3 be the eigen values.1 4+ 2 Solution : Let A = C.2 The characteristic equation of a matrix A of order 2 is Solution : put = 0 in C.3 2 -1 4 2 .4+6 = 4 3 1 2 A.2 4 . X 2 = y2 .10 = 0 1 .A + 6 I = 2 .2+ 6 3+ 0 1+0 . X be three 1 2 3 y1 y3 y1 y2 y3 z1 z2 z3 z1 z3 1 X1 = x2 .3 .5 . then the constant 10 is . corresponding to these. 2 . Let X .E.1 4 +6 1 0 0 1 = .6 A + 5 I = 0 multiply both sides by A–1 A . 2. Find the inverse of 2 .3=0 ie 8 .6 +5 = 0 by Cayley Hamilton Theorem A2 .5 .1 = 0 5A.2 4=0 (1 )( 4 ) .1 AP = 0 0 0 1C.E.4 . X .2 . A Example . is .Mathematics SVT 41 Example . X3 = z2 0 2 0 0 3 Then P . is =0 ie ( 2 ie 2 )( 4 - ).6 I + 5 A.3=0 .1 1 Let A = .1 = .5 + 10 = 0 find A.3 .1 = Diagonalisation of Matrices If Ais a square matrix of order nwhere all the eigen values are linearly independent then a matrix Pcan be found such that P–1 AP is a Diagonal Matrix.MCA 11 .3 -1 4 using Cayley Hamilton Theorem.

x1 .X 1 ie .1 AP = .6 0 42 .1 let AX = .42 + 9 2 =0 3 + 7 .6+ 6 .x1 ..6=0 ( + 1)( .2 ) + 3(.5 .1 = 1 5 .2 4 x x 1 2 6x = 6x 1 2 x1 .5 Example .5.5 .2 -1 4 1 2 5 2 5 1 7 1 7 0 .5 1 .( 3 .1 P .1 0 .42 KSOU Matrix Theory ie 2 .11 - ie (1ie ie 2 )( .1.6 2 .10 + 8 -1 2 +4 10 ..eigen vect or is 1 1 x .2 4 1 .14 + 3 ) = 0 + 3 +42 +6 2 .2 x2 = .5 x1 + 4 x2 = . 6 are eigen valu es For .4 ie + 2 .1 .10 7 .3 + 3 1 ..7 + 36 = 0 by inspection –2 is a root ( + 2 )( 2 + 2 is a factor.x ie 1 2 . = .5 Then P.2 Let P = -1 1 5 2 5 1 5 2 1 1 .10 12 + 30 1 = = = = Thus P = -1 1 5 2 diagonaliz ethe matrix .6 + 4) . AX = 6X 1 ie .2 1 1 3 Let A = 1 5 1 3 1 1 1Characteristic equation is 0 1 3 ie (1 ) [][][] (5 .5 7 .5 .5x + 4 x = .)(1 - 1 51 3 1 1.1 = 7 .6 ) = 0 = .3( 5 ) = 0 = ) .2 -1 6 0 6 1 5 2 7 .x 1 2 2 For = 6 .x2 ie x 1 5x = .2x = .1.x2 x1 = x2 x1 1 = x2 1 .9 +18) = 0 .2 4 x1 x2 1 = . equation becomes .36 = 0 .2 7 .2x 1 2 = x 2 eigen vect or is 1 5 5 2 1 2 .

2y + y + 3y = 0 1 2 3 y + y +3y = 3y 1 2 3 1 y +5y +3y 1 2 3 (1) (2) (3) = 3y 2 y +2y + y = 0 1 2 3 3 y1 + y 2 + 3 y3 = 3 y3 3y + y .2x x + 5x + x = .Mathematics SVT 43 ie ( + 2)( .6) = 0 6 = .2x 2 2 3 ie 3x + x + 3x = 0 1 2 3 (1) (2) (3) x + 7x +x = 0 1 2 3 3x + x + x = .4 y3 = 0 . 6.2 X 1 x1 x2 x3 2 3 .2 x2 . .1 = x3 1 eigen vector X1 = = 3..y3 y2 -1 = y3 1 (4) Let us eliminate y from (2) & (3) (2) ×1 is (3) × 2 is subtractin g y1 + 2 y 2 + y3 = 0 6 y1 + 2 y 2 .2x1 = .2.MCA 11 .2 x3 1 2 3 x + x + 3x = .2x 1 3 3x + x + 3x = 0 1 2 3 (1) & (3) are same.3 ie characteristic roots are –2. To find the eigen vector for = –2 Consider x 1 where X1 = x 2 x 3 1 1 3 ie 1 5 1 3 1 1 ie 1 1 AX 1 = . Put x2 = 0 in (1) or (2).3( .2 y = 0 1 2 3 Let us eliminate y from (1) & (2) 1 (1) × 1is .5 y + 5y = 0 2 3 5 y1 = 5 y 3 y1 = y3 y1 1 = y3 1 (5) .2 y1 + y 2 + 3 y3 = 0 (2) ×2 is adding 2 y1 + 4 y2 + 2 y3 = 0 5 y 2 + 5 y3 = 0 y 2 + y3 = 0 2 ie y 2 = .1 0 1 Let X be the eigen vector for 2 ie AX 2 = 3 X 2 1 1 3 ie 1 5 1 3 1 1 ie y1 y2 y3 3 y1 = 3 y2 where 3 y3 ie y1 X 2 = y2 y3 .x3 1 x1 . 3. then x1 + x3 = 0 ie x = .

b. z1 1 = z2 2 = z3 1 X3 = 2 1 . Evaluate b .c c.1 Let P = 0 1 -1 P= 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Then P .1 AP = 1 -1 2 0 0 3 0 0 6 1 1 3 diagonalize 1 5 1 3 1 1 -1 2 1 Exercise 1 2 a.5z + z + 3z = 0 1 2 3 z + z + 3z (1) (2) (3) z + 5z + z = 6 z 1 2 3 2 3 z1 + z 2 + z3 = 6 z3 adding (1) & (2).4 z + 4 z = 0 1 3 z . Evaluate .44 KSOU Matrix Theory 1 From (4) & (5) y1 1 = y2 .1 2 3 .b b.a a .2 0 0 .a 2 3 3 1 b.1 1 =6 Next.c .4 z2 = 0 z1 1 = z2 2 (5) 1 From (4) & (5).b 2. let X be the eigen vector for 3 ie AX 3 = 6 X 3 1 1 3 ie 1 5 1 3 1 1 ie 1 z1 z2 z3 2 3 6 z1 = 6 z 2 where 6z 3 =6z 1 z1 X3 = z 2 z3 ie .5 y3 = 0 8z1 .5z = 0 1 2 3 ie z1 = z3 3 z1 1 = z3 1 (4) Let us eliminate z from (2) & (3) (2)× 5 is (3) ×1 is adding ie 2 z1 = z2 5 z1 .1 = y3 1 X2 = .c c.a c. . 1 .5 z 2 + 5 z3 = 0 3 z1 + z2 + .z +z =0 1 2 3 3 z + z . a.

10 A + I = .Mathematics SVT 45 1 2 3. 4 -1 .p q p 1 . Find the inverse of tan tan sec -1 0 4 .1 0 2 4 3 find A and B . If +1 5 x x x + = - 4 12 5 4x ' find x and y . If A = -1 3 0 -4 3 4 5 and B = 2 3 2 find 5 A . 12 . Find the adjoint of . If 3 A + B = 2 7 x 7 7 10 y 5 6 and 2 B + A = 2 .y 13 .7 A . If A = find A A ' & A 'A .3 1 1 5. If A = 2 3 4 findthe co . Find the characteri stic equation of 1 0 2 4 . . 17 . 1 2 3 7. If A = 5 8 6 9 verify th at () A' = A.4 3 4 3 .3 B and 6 B . 11 . If 6 0 x 4 5 = 0. 3 4 2 2 0 1 3 5 7 8. Find the inverse of 6 3 5 2 . 0 If A = 3 5 4 7 prove that A 2 .2 find A + B ' and A' .then find x . 1 0 3 6.2 1 15 .MCA 11 . . . sec 9. 14.factorof 1. 3 4. If A = -3 6 4 5 2 and B = . Evaluate .B. 2 10 . Evaluate 2 3 3 4 2 4. 16 .r 2 2 -q r .

19 .2y + 6z = 5 by matrix method.2 by Cramer' s Rule. Verify Cayley .Hamilton Theorem for the matrix 3 2 24.y + 4z = 5 2 x + 3y + 5z = 2 7x. 23. 21. Findthe eigen values and eigen vect ors for the matrix . Find the eigen valu es of 2 0 3 4 . Verify Cayley . 2 y + x = 5. 3 . Solve 5 x .y = . 20.Hamilton Theorem for the matrix 1 25. 3 1 2 4 0 -1 . .1. z .2 3 -1 2 -1. Find the eigen vect ors for the matrix 1 2 2 1 . -1 0 22.46 KSOU Matrix Theory 18 . 6 26. Solve 2 x + z = .2 2 . Findthe characteri stic roots of 1 2 2 2 1 1 . Find the characteri stic roots of -2 0 1 1 .

+ve integers including zero. – & ×are B.) and denoted by * (read as star). n Z = {0.O. ( x1 + iy1 ) + ( x2 + iy 2 ) = ( x1 + x2 ) + i ( y 1 + y 2 ) C C ( x1 + iy1 ) + ( x2 + iy 2 ) = ( x1 x2 .O. b S. . but ÷is not a B.. : represent non-negative integers ie. 4..O. ie. C.{o} : set of real numbers except zero.4 = 1 Z .O. (3) On (4) on Q& R+. 3. Examples (1) on N + and ×(ie addition & multiplication) are B. 1..... Z represent set of integers modulo n. n– 1} ie.{o} ÷is a B..O.O. 4+5 Z.. 2+3=5 N 2× 3 = 6 N (2) on Z..{o} : represent set of rational numbers except zero.3 = 1 Z 5 × 6 = 30 Z a 0 Q & R but on Q . 3 . on Q& R Q for 0. A set in general is denoted by S. : represent set of +ve and –ve integers including zero.{o} & R..BCA 21 / IMCA 21 / Mathematics SVT 21 ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURES Abreviations used N Zor I Z+ Q R C n : represent set of natural numbers. +.. : represent set of complex numbers..O.. z . – & ×are B. a * b S. : for all : belongs to Binary Operation If S is a non-empty set then a mapping (function) from S × Sto Sis defined as Binary Operation (in short B.y1 y 2 ) + i ( x1 y 2 + x2 y1 ) . : represent set of real numbers. : S ×S S (Star maps S cross S to S) Another Definition If Sis non-empty set then * (star) is said to be a Binary operation if a. + and ×are B. : represent set of rational numbers.{o} : represent set of integers except 0. . Q+ : represent set of +ve rational numbers. 2. R . Q .

there exists an element bsuch that a * b = e = b * a . G . G & G are satisfied it is called 'Monoid'. Note :Every group is a monoid but the converse is not true. (ii) B.O. *) only G is satisfied it is called a 'groupoid'. +. is matrix multiplication then I = is an identity element. *on S. Qand R for the B. Then (G. +) is a group and also a monoid but N ( . Q & R. *) G & G are satisfied it is called a 'semi-group'. +. G. b .O. Group A non-empty set Gtogether with a B. ( N. b G. G . Inverse : 4 as a–1 a G . +. a * a–1 = e = a * a. +) is a groupoid and semigroup. Associative Law : 2 a. * if Associative Law : A B. Where as O is an identity on Z . a * e = a = e * a. *ie ( G.O. a+ (– a ) = 0 = – a + a . * ) is called an'abelian group' or 'commutative In addition to the above four axions if a.b S. Ssatisfying Sis called an identity element for the B.O. ×) are all algebraic structures. a a. . semigroup and Monoid (identity for ×is 1) (iii) ( Z . b a. * is said to be associative on Sif ( a * b ) * c = a * ( b * c) a. ( a * b) * c = a * ( b * c) Gsuch that a G. 1 0 0 1 (iv) If S is a set of 2 ×2 matrices and B. a * b = b * a. +) is a group (identity is O and a–1 = – a) ie. This b is called inverse of aand usually denoted –1 ie. b. (4) (5) Commutative Law : A B.O.O. Note (1 ) If for ( G . c G. (2) (3) Closure Law : A set S is said to be closed under a B.O. (iii) 1 is an identity for B. c S. *is said to be commutative on Sif Identity Law : An element e a * e = a = e * a. Identity Law : 3 There exists an element e G . – (subtraction) is not associative & commutative. b group'. (ii) ( N. ×on Nbut + has no identity on N.48 KSOU Algebraic Structures Definitions (1 ) A non-empty set S with one or more binary operations is called an 'Algebraic Structure'. 1 2 (3 ) If for ( G . *) is said to form a group if the following axioms are satisfied. ×) is a groupoid. ×) is a monoid but not a group. *) G . ×). Z ( .O. ( Z. ( Q. 1 2 3 Examples (i) ( N. a * b S S. Closure Law : 1 a. Z . a * b G G . Examples (i) + and ×(addition and multiplication) are associative and commutative on N. 1 (2 ) If for ( G . a * b = b * a .O. +).

1 * b ie )( a.To prove identity is unique. left cancellati on law) right cancellati on law) Proof :.1 * a )* x2 ie e * x1 = e * x2 x1 = x2 solution is unique. Operating on both sides by a–1 a -1 * (a * x) = a. If possible let e & e are two identities then 1 2 a G .1 * b x = a.Mathematics SVT 49 Properties of Groups 1.a * x = b a * x = b and y * a = b have unique solutions.1 * b To prove that the solution is unique. c G. let x & x be two solutions of 1 2 a * x = b. b .1 G * (a * b ) = a -1 -1 * (a * c ) -1 ie (a * a )* b = (a * a)* c ie e * b = e * c where e is the identity. In a group G.1 * a * x = a. a. Proof :. In a group the identity element and inverse of an element are unique. the equations Proof :.1 * ( a * x1 ) = a .1 * a ) * x1 = (a. b =c Similarly by considering (b * a) * a. a a -1 G a. as .1 * ( a * x2 ) ie ( a.1 * b ie e * x = a . Cancellation laws are valid in a group ie if ( G .1 we get b = c 2. a* x =b ie & 1 a* x =a * x 1 2 a* x = b 2 Operating on both sides by a–1 We get a. b G.MCA 11 . 3. a * e1 = a = e1 * a & a * e2 = a = e 2 * a (1) (2) From LHS of (1). *) is a group then (i )( a * b = a * c (ii ) ( b* a = c*a b=c b=c a. a * e1 = a = e2 * a (using (2)) ie a * e1 = e2 * a = a * e2 (using LHS of (2)) .a * b = a * c .1 = (c * a) * a.

A group of order 3 is abelian. Proof :. Thus inverse of an element is unique.1 = e (a * b ). a * b cannote be equal to aor b a*e = e a= e a *b = e Similarly we can prove that b* a = e a*b =b *a (G .1 6. which is denoted as O( G ) = n. Let a * b = b ( a * b )* b -1 = b * b. G . *) G.Consider ) ( a * b) * (b . ( a * b).50 KSOU Algebraic Structures by left cancellation.1 * a e *b = e b=e which is not possible.1 )* a.1 = a and c.Order of group means the number of elements in a group.1 * a.1 * a it can be easily seen from above relation that inverse of a–1 is aie a.1 = a * e * a . If a group Ghas nelements.1 = b . To prove that inverse of an element is unique. such that b * c = e = c * b then each is the inverse of the other. b } be a group with a binary operation * .1 Proof :.1 = a a*b = e & a *c = e where eis the identity of the group a *b = a *c by left cancellation law b = c .1 = b. a.1 = a * a.1 which is not possible.1 = a * (b * b. *) is abelian. a . If nis finite it is called finite group and nis Infinite then it is called Infinite group. 4. .1 = e = a . if possible let b & care inverses of a ie b.1 () -1 =a. eis the identity by definition of identity it commutes with every element Q a * e = a = e * a So we have to prove that a * b = b * a Let a * b = a (a. In a group G . Let a Now. b ( G . e1 = e2 .1 * a)* b = a. Thus the identity is unique. Let G = { e .1 * a.If b& care elements of G . Note :.1 () -1 =a a G Proof :.As a– 1 is the inverse of a We have a * a . The order of Gis n.1 * a. In a group a. 5.

1 H .. g ( 2) = 3 .O.a satisfied. b. i.. 4 2. . For convenience f o g is denoted as gf. } is a subgroup of G = {1.. a .1 H H Since all elements of H are elements of G . } with B. (1) ( (2) (3) z .O. 2 .. following is the procedure. a.1 G (inverse axion) & ab. a n } Then a one-one and onto mapping or function from Sonto itself is called a Permutation..1 closure H . this can be taken as binary operation.i } with respect to the B.. Let b . . a... b -1 ie ab () -1 H Hence H is a group and hence a subgroup. Let f = 1 3 1 3 2 1 2 1 3 4 3 4 4 2 4 2 1 2 2 3 & g = 1 2 3 4 2 3 4 1 3 4 4 1 1 ? S4 the B. S n .1 H condition is satisfied.... g (4) = 1 & in f : f (1) = 3.. a 3 . g a1 f (a ) 1 a2 2 a3 3 . H . g (3 ) = 4. Eg. Permutation group Let S = { a1 . f ( a ) n n permutations the set of permutations is denoted by S . ab ... case (ii) Let Hbe a non-empty subset of Gwith the property . multiplication.1 H aa -1 = e H &e a H ea. f ( 4) = 2 Now f o g (1) = f [ g (1)] = f ( 2 ) = 1 f o g (2) = f [ g ( 2)] = f (3) = 4 f o g ( 3) = f [ g ( 3)] = f ( 4 ) = 2 f o g ( 4) = f [ g ( 4)] = f (1) = 3 . a . b Proof :. Permutation is denoted as There will be n! ie Let f .1 H ie a . 4. ab .... bie H & property for a His .. } is a subgroup of G = { 0. Theorem A non-empty subset Hof a group Gis a subgroup of Gif and only if . composite function is given by 2 ? 3 ? 4 ? f og = o = to fill up the second row.1.1 G (closure law) H . b G . . Then the set Sn with binary operation 'O' (ie composite mapping) will form a group...case (i) Let H be a subgroup of Gthen H is a group a.. associative property is satisfied.. * ) is a group..BTC111 Subgroups A non-empty subset Hof a group Gis said to form a subgroup with respect to the same binary operation * if ( H . Let a . 3.... a2 . a n n f (a ) f ( a ) . f ( 2) = 1. There is a composite mapping forf& g denoted as f o g . b We have to prove that H is a subgroup. + mod 6 ie 6 H ={1 1.O. 5 1. f ( 3) = 4. +) H = { 0.. in g : g (1) = 2 . +) is a subgroup of ( Q .

(1) Let S = {1. (2) Let S = {1. 3 2. } 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 2 3 3 2 1 3 2 2 3 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 2 3 1 S = 3 Let us denote the elements as f1 . be product permutation 1 then 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 = = 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 e = 1 1 2 2 = closure law is satisfied. f3 . Eg. 1 2 2 1 Let B. 2 } then S = 2 1 1 2 2 . f4 . f3 . 1 f 2 . f5 . f 5 & f6 respectively. f4 .O. f 6 The following is the multiplication table. inverse 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 -1 = -1 1 1 2 2 2 1 = 1 2 S forms a group. f 1 f f 1 1 f f 2 2 f f 3 3 f f 4 4 f f 5 5 f f 6 6 f f f f 2 3 4 5 f f f f 2 3 4 5 f f f f 1 5 6 3 f f f f 4 1 2 6 f f f f 3 6 5 1 f f f f 6 2 1 4 f f f f 5 4 3 2 f 6 f 6 f 4 f 5 f 2 f 3 f 1 . associative law can be easily verified. ie S3 = {} f .52 KSOU Algebraic Structures fog = 1 1 2 4 3 2 4 3 for convenience f o g is written as gf 1 ie f o g = 3 2 3 2 1 3 4 3 4 4 1 4 2 o 1 2 2 1 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 4 1 1 1 = 1 1 2 4 2 4 3 2 3 2 4 3 4 3 & gf = 1 2 1 3 = the composite function is also called product function. Eg. f 2 .

b 2. ×) forms an abelian group. 3 4 5 identity e = f 1 f1-1 = f1 .{o}.{o such that a× 1 a =1= 1 a ×a inverse exists for all elements R. 4 3 Examples (1) Show that the set R. S forms a group. For any three elements a.{o}.{o} with B.O.{o} then there exists 1} a R .{o}. a * b R. Let a a R.{o}.{o} R. b .1 = f6 inverse of all elements exists. f4. c (a × b)× c = a ×( b × c) (–3 ×4) ×5 = –12 ×5 = –60.1 = f4 & f6. Identity element is 1. but it is not an abelian group 3 Q f f 3 4 = f but f f = f 6 4 3 2 f f 3 4 f f . ×forms a group. a ×1 = a= 1 × a.1 = f3 . ( R. ) 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 0 2 2 3 4 0 1 3 3 4 0 1 2 4 4 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 . –3 ×(4 ×5) = –3 ×20 = –60.BTC113 It can be seen from the table that closure law is satisfied. 2 ×3 = 6 closure law is satisfied. R. (2) Show that ( Z5 . associative law is satisfied. ie.{o}. R.{o} R.1 = f2 f3. 3 R.1 = f5 f5.{o} Solution : For any elements a. f2. For associative law Consider ( f3 f4 ) f5 = f6 f 5 = f3 f ( f f ) = f f = f 3 4 5 3 1 3 (f f )f 3 4 5 = f ( f f ) hence associative law is satisfied. ) forms an abelian group. 5 5 Solution : Let us construct table for (Z 5 .

3. 2 (2 ie 2 5 5 (3 3) 5 5 5 4) = 2 4=0 5 5 5 2=4 4=4 5 (3 4 ) = (2 3) 5 4 associative law can be versified. 4. 2. 5 ) forms a group and it can be seen from the table that it forms an abelian group. R as x * y = 1 + xy. identity element is 0. If Ris the set of real numbers and *is a binary operation defined on . (2 2 5 5 3) (3 5 5 4 =1 4) = 2 5 5 4 =4 2 =4 associate law is satisfied. Solution : The following in the relevant table for elements 5 1 1 2 3 4 2 2 4 1 3 3 3 1 4 2 4 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 From the above table it can be seen that closure law is satisfied. Commutativ e property a * b = b * a . inverse of 0 is 0 inverse of 1 is 4 inverse of 2 is 3 inverse of 3 is 2 inverse of 4 is 1 (Z . 4} with B. (3) Show that G= {1.54 KSOU Algebraic Structures From the above table it can be easily seen that closure law is satisfied. Show that * is commutative but not associative.O. 5 5 a ) is an abelian group. multiplication mod 5 ie 5 is an abelian group. a. identity is 1. y R x * y = 1 + xy . further it can be seen from the table that for any two element a . b R x. b b =b 5 Z 5 a ( Z5 . 5 5 ) form a group. inverse of 1 is 1 inverse of 2 is 3 inverse of 3 is 2 inverse of 4 is 4 (G .

BTC115 y * x = 1 + yx x* y = y * x

Associativ e property ( x * y ) * z = x * ( y * z ) LHS )= (1 + xy ) * z = P * z = 1 + pz = 1 + (1 + xy z = 1 + z + xyz RHS )= x * (1+ yz ) = x * Q = 1 + xQ = 1 + x (1 + yz = 1 + x + xyz LHS RHS * is not a associativ e a * b = a - b where a , b I is not a group

5. Show that set of integers with
a *b = a - b ( a * b) * c I

closure axiom is satisfied I, a, b I.

a * ( b * c ), a * b = a - b

LHS = ( a - b ) * c = a - b - c RHS = a * ( b - c ) = a - b + c ( I , *) is not a group. associativ e axiom is not satisfied

When one of the axiom is not satisfied, it is not a group. Hence, we need not have to check the rest of the axioms. 6. In a group
(G 2 , *), a * b = ab . Find the identity element, inverse of 4 and solve 4 *x = 5

To find e : a * e = a = e * a a *e = ae 2 a * a-1 = e = a- 1 * a a * a-1 = 2 4 4 4* x = 5 4x 2 =5 x= 10 4 = 5 2 aa - 1 2 4- 1 = = 1. inverse of 4 is 1. =2 a- 1 = 4 a =a e = 2 i.e. identity element is 2.

7. Prove that G = {} cos

G = {} cos + i sin + i sin is real

is real is an abelian group under multiplication

Let x, y , z be any three elements of G .
Take x = cos a + i sin a , y = cos ß + i sin ß , z = cos where a , ß , are real numbers. G Q ( a + ß ) is real + i sin .

i)

xy = (cos a + i sin a )(cos ß + i sin ß ) = cos( a + ß ) + i sin( a + ß )

Closure axiom is satisfied ii)
(xy ) z = [(cos a + i sin a )(cos ß + i sin ß )](cos = {cos( a + ß ) + i sin( a + ß )}(cos + i sin )

+ i sin )

= cos{( a + ß ) + } + i sin{( a + ß ) + } = cos{ a + ( ß + )} + i sin{ a + ( ß + )}

= x( yz) Q multiplication is associative on R iii)
1 = cos 0 + i sin 0 G is the identity element

Associative axiom is satisfied.

56 KSOU Algebraic Structures iv) v)

( cos

+ i sin

)(cos

- i sin ) = 1

cos

- i sin

is the multiplica tive inverse of cos

+ i sin

.

xy = (cos

+ i sin a )(cos ß + i sin ß )

= cos( a + ß ) + i sin( a + ß ) = cos( ß + a ) + i sin( ß + a ) Q is commutativ e on R = yx

Commutative law is satisfied. So all the axioms are satisfied. Hence, G is an abelian group under multiplication. 8. Show that the cube roots of unity form an abelian group under multiplication We know that the cube roots of unity are 1}, . 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2

and

2.

Let G = {1, ,

2

here

3

=1
3

1

&

4

=

·

=

.

1

i) All the entries in the table are the same as the elements of the set. This means the closure law is satisfied. ii) 1 Consider 1· ( · (1 · ) · 1· ( ·
2 2 2

) =1 · 1 = =1
2

=
2

·

) = (1 · )·

. Associativ e law is satisfied.

iii) The row heading 1 is the same as the topmost row. 1 is the identity element. iv) Inverse of 1 is 1, inverse of Every element has a inverse. v) The table is symmetrical about the principal diagonal commutative law holds good. So Gis an abelian group under multiplication. is
2

and inverse of

2

is

.

9.

Show ,that the four matrices

1 0

0 1

,

- 1 0

0 1

1 0

0 - 1

and

- 1 0

0 - 1

form an abelian group under matrix

multiplication.
1 Take 0 0 1 = I, 1 0 0 1 = A, 1 0 0 - 1 = B, - 1 0 0 -1 = C ; G = {1, A , B , C }

IA = AI = A, IB = BI = B, IC = CI = C
- 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 - 1 = - 1+ 0 0+0 0+0 0- 1 = - 1 0 0 -1 =C

AB =

Similarly, it can be shown that

BA = C , AC = CA = B , BC = CB = A , A · A = I etc.

BTC117 The composition table is . I A B C I I A B C A A I C B B B C I A C C B A I

i) The entries in the table are the same as the elements of the set ii) iii)
A ( BC ) = A ( A ) = I ; ( AB ) C = (C ) C = I

G.

Closure law is satisfied.

Associative law is satisfied.

Iis the identity element. I, A are , Brespectively I, A is ,a B,group C . under G matrix multiplication

iv) Inverses of

( G , ·) is a group.

v) Since the entries on either side of the leading diagonal are symmetric, 10. If every element of a group Given a - 1 = a, we knowthat, a, b a, b G G , ( ab )- 1 = b- 1 a - 1
ab = ba ,

( G , ·) is an abelian group.

Ghas its own inverse, show that Gis abelian (1) (2)
a, b G

from (1), Using a - 1 these = a, in b -1 (2), = b and (ab )- 1 = ab. the commutative law is satisfied, so Gis abelian. 11. In a group . (G , ·) if ( Prove ab )2 = that a2 b2 , (ab )2 = ( ab )( ab) = (aa )( bb)
a[ b ( ab )] = a [a ( bb )] using L.C.L. b (ab ) = a ( bb ) (ba ) b = (ab ) b using RCL ba = ab

a, b

G

(G , ·) is abelian and conversely.

it is abelian

Conversely If ab = ba pre operating by awe get,
a ( ab ) = a ( ba ) ( a · a ) b = ( ab ) a

post operating by b we get [( a · a ) · b ] = [( ab )a ]b

( a · a)( b · b ) = ( ab )( ab)

a 2 b2 = ( ab )2

12. Given
0

Q , the set of non zero rational numbers is a multiplicative group andH = 2 n n
0

{}

Z , show that His a subgroup

of Q under multiplication.
H =

{}{ } 2 n Z
n

= ... 2- 2 , 2 - 1 , 20 , 21 .....

i) ii)

2m , 2n

H , 2m · 2 n = 2m+ n
r

H

closure law is satisfied z (2 m+ n )2 r = 2m (2n +r Associativ e law is satisfied.

m (2 2 ·ie 2n ) 2r = 2m ·(2n ·

),

m , n, r

2( m+ n)+ r = 2 m+ (n + r ) i.e. 2m+n+ r = 2m +n+r iii) 2 iv)
0

is the identity element 2m ; there exist 2- m such that 2m · 2- m = 20 His a group under multiplication and H Inverse of 2m is 2- m .
Q
0

ie His a subgroup of Q under multiplication.
0

2. 2. find a.3b + ab whether * is commutative and associative. In the group of non zero integers mod 5. 10. a * b = a2 . 5. b R .}. Which of the following operations on the given set are binary (1) on (2) (3) 3.a * b = a + b + 5 find the identity element. show that *is both commutative and associative. 7. 2. a b (5) a * b = 2. show that *is associative. 11. If 15. a. 6} w.4 b N. solve the equation 3 S= {1. an operation * is defined by a * b = a + b . G. b Q + . .58 KSOU Algebraic Structures Exercise 1. R. 9. If x. In a group of integers. 3. 14. Q+ . a. b G . show that *is not a binary operation of Z.1.. In a group () -1 . on the set of real numbers. 8. z are any three elements of a group G . a * b = a + b . S= {1. On the set of real numbers. a . a 2 + b 2 . On the set of real numbers. a * b = *is defined by a * b = a + b . Show that *is associative. 18. 4. 4. 3} under multiplication (mod 4) is not a group. If If f = 1 1 2 2 3 3 and g = 1 2 2 3 3 1 are permutatio ns in S3 . a * b = on R . 1 3 2 4 3 1 4 2 and g = 1 2 2 3 3 1 4 4 ab 7 find gf . x= 5 in S. If the binary operation *on the set Z is defined by .t. 3. If I . Show that 12. . R . If *is defined by a * b = *is defined by a * b = . find ( xyz)–1 . If f = 13. 16. Why the set of rationals does not form a group w. Find the identity and inverse of 2. a * b = 2 aexamine .t.1 b -1 6.. multiplication ? 5. Find the multiplicative inverse of 4. ab 4 . If N= {1. The binary operation *is defined by a * b = ab 2 . find f o g . Find the identity element. y. *is defined by . the set of integers. multiplication (mod 7). show that *is associative. On the set of positive rational numbers 20.4 b on R. a * b = 3 a .b 2 ab *is given by a * b = a b . 17. binary operation 19. which of the following are binary operation of (1 ) a * b = a + 2 b (2) a * b = 3 a .r.. on set of rational numbers.ab . Find the identity element and the inverse of 8.r. In the set of rationals except 1.1.

Vector from A to B is denoted by AB and vector from B to Ais denoted by BA. then OA + AC = OC by triangl e law B but AC = OB (parallel vectors) OC = OA + OB = a + b Note : . volume. force. Scalar : A physical quantity which has only magnitude and no direction is called a 'Scalar'. weight etc. temperature etc. A B Scalar multiplication of a vector Let be a scalar and a a vector then is same as that of a if a represents a vector whose magnitude is times the magnitude of a and the direction is negative.OA & BA = OA . Eg. Eg. Ais the initial point and B the terminal point. Vectors are represented by directed line segments. Co-initial vectors : Vectors having the same initial point are called co-initial vectors. Coplanar vectors : Vectors in the same plane are called 'coplanar vectors'. Parallel vectors : Vectors having same direction but different initial points are called 'parallel vectors'. C Triangle Law for addition of vectors Let AB & BC represents two vectors then AC represents AB + BC ie a + b b A Parallelogram Law Let OA = a & OB = b a B Complete the parallelogram OACB . If = 0 it represents a null vector denoted by is positive but opposite to that of a if '0 ' ie a null vector is a vector of magnitude zero but its direction is arbitrary. Let AB be the line segment. A vector whose magnitude is 1 is called a unit vector and a unit vector in the direction of a is written as a a or a or a (readas a cap) a Like and unlike vectors Vectors having same direction are called 'like vectors' and those having the opposite direction are called 'unlike vectors'.BTC119 Vectors and Scalars Vector : A physical quantity which has both direction and magnitude is called a 'Vector'. Velocity.OB C b O a A . density. acceleration. AB can also be represented by a . For AB . speed. The length of AB is magnitude of the vector denoted as AB or a or simply a. mass.AB = OB .

a Position vectors (i) Let P be a point in a plane where Ois the origin and OX & OY are co- Y ordinate axes. ()() (iii) Set of vectors V.A plane vector is an ordered pair of real numbers and the distance between O& P is the magnitude of . OY & OZ Z Then OA = x i . OP is called position vectors of P . with binary operation vector addition will form a 'Group' . j & k be unit vectors in the direction of OX . y. OY & OZ are co-ordinate axes. y) y OQ i Let i represents & j unit vectors in the direction of Then OQ = xi . a + b = b + a (ii) Vector addition is associative ie a + b + c = a + b + c. j P (x. y .OP (ii) Let P be a point in three dimensional space whereOX. then OQ = x & QP = y OX &OY .a is . QP = y j x X OP = OQ + QP = xi + y j OP = x2 + y2 Note :. The identity being 0 (null vector) and inverse of . OB = y j . Draw PQ r to OX . QP = z k OQ = OA + OB (by parallelog ram law) = xi + yj OP = OQ + QP (by triang le law) i = xi + y j + z k k P (x. z ) be the co-ordinates of P .z ) j OB Y A OP = x2 + y2 + z 2 Q This position vector denoted by r ie OP = r OP of the point P is usually X unit vecto r in the direction of OP is given by xi + y j + z k x2 + y 2 + z 2 . Let ( x. Let i .60 KSOU Algebraic Structures Properties (i) Vector addition is commutative ie . Draw PQ r to the plane XOY & QA & QB parallel to OY & OX respectives to meet OX at A & OY at B.

OP = x i + y j + z k .x i . Let n represent a unit vector in n is a × b and . ie ONis r to the plane OAB .x ) 2 + ( y .MCA 11 .Mathematics SVT 61 Let P ( x1 .z1 ) k OY 1 and unit vector in the direction of PQ is (x .y j .a1 b3 ) j + ( a1 b2 .y ) j + (z . Then ab sin r to both OA & OB .x1 ) i + ( y 2 . Vector product of two vectors If a = a1 i + a 2 j + a3 k .b × a is a null vector.y1 ) j + ( z2 . denoted as a × b also known as cross product. z 2 ) be any two points in 3-space to f . hence two vectors are said to be parallel or coincident if .z )2 2 1 2 1 2 1 Scalar product of two vectors X 1 1 2 2 3 3 If a = a1 i + a 2 j + a3 k and b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k are two non-zero vectors. a · b = 0 Let ON represent a line which is the direction of ON. then a vector ( a2 b3 . ind PQ from the triangle OPQ OP + PQ = OQ PQ = OQ .x )i + (y . a · b = ab cos 90 ° = 0 hence two vectors are said to be 'orthogonal' if . z1 ) & P ( x2 . then a b + a b + a b is defined as 'scalar product' of two vectors a & b . denoted as a · b also known as 'dot product'. a · b = ab when 0° = ab OA a = 90 °.y )2 + ( z . y2 .ab sin n is b × a if = 0 °. b3 j a2 b2 k a3 = . then sin =0 a × b = 0 (null vector) a × b or . b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k are two non-zero vectors. y 1 . 2 z ) P ( x1 .z k 2 2 2 1 1 1 Z Q ( x2 . 1 z ) = ( x2 .z )k 2 1 2 1 2 ( x . y1 .(a 2 b3 b3 a3 b2 ) i ie a × b = a1 b 1 Geometrical Meaning of a · b and a × b Let OA = a & let OB = b and AOB = B b then a · b = ab cos where a = a & b = b when cos = 0° . y2 .a3 b2 ) i + ( a3 b1 .a2 b1 ) k i ie a1 b 1 j a2 b2 i k a3 is defined as 'vector product'of two vector a & b.

k.i .j. 1 2 Also area of the parallelogram whose diagonals are d & d is 1 2 d ×d 1 2 . Area of parallelogram whose co-terminus edges are a & b is given by a × b le and therefore area of OAB = 1 2 a×b . Projection of b upon a B . Draw BD a ·b ab r Let OA = a . cos = A a from the le OBD cos = OD OB = OD = b cos = b· a·b ab = a a · b = a ·b further area of parallelogram whose adjacent sides areOA & OB is given by OA · BD = ab sin Q BD OB = sin but a × b = ab sin . OA a B b O a -n b × a = .62 KSOU Algebraic Structures Note :N B n b a × b = ab sin n represent anti . j & k i × j = k. i × k = . k × j = .clockwise rotation. j × k = i & j × i = .ab sin n represent clockwise rotation. b OD OD b Since a · b = ab cos . OB = b & A OB = to OA then OD isthe projection of b upon a . A N also for unit vectors i . k × i = j.

Vector Triple Product If a . b & c are coplanar. c is [ a b c ]= b [ a b c ]= 0 a1 1 a2 b2 c2 a3 b3 c3 c1 If then the vectors a .MCA 11 . b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k & c = c1 i + c2 j + c3 k Then a · (b or × c) ( a × b ) · c is called 'Scalar Triple Product' both on computation gives a1 b2 c3 . Geometrical Meaning of [a b c ] N Consider a parallelopiped whose co-terminus edges are OA . OB .a1 b3 c1 + a 2 b3 c1 .a ·b c also ()()() () ()() a × b × c = a ·c b - b·c a . c are three non-zero vectors then a × b × c = a · c b . b . OP = b×c b×c ·a = () a· b× c b× c O Volume of parallelopiped = area of parallelogram × OP = b×c a · b ×c b×c = a· b× c = () () [abc ] Volume of parallelopiped whose coterminus edges are given by a .Mathematics SVT 63 Scalar Triple Product Let a = a1 i + a2 j + a 3 k .a3 b2 c1 a 1 which is b 1 c1 a2 b2 c2 a3 b3 c3 ( a × b) ·c Thus a · ( b or × c) which is 'Scalar Triple Product' which is usually denoted as [ a b c ]also called 'Box-Product'.a2 b1 c3 + a3 b1 c2 . b . b . OC ie a . c Area of parallelogram OBDC is b × c Let OP be the projection of OA ie a upon ON which is r P to A a c C b B D the plane OBDC .

Solution : Projection of a + c on b = ()() a + c ·b b = 5i .2 k .64 KSOU Algebraic Structures Examples 1.8 k ) · ( 7 i .b i.4 k are perpendicu lar to each other.3 16 + 9 + 9 4 + 1 +1 = 2 34 6 9.j .a ·b .4 +15 = 2.j .3 j + 3 k and b = 2 i + j .8 k ) = 0 5.e.32) + k(. a & b are perpendicu lar to each other.8=0 . b = 8i . 5). 3) find a · b . Solution : 11 a · b = . If a = 2 i + j + k and b = i . ( )()()() a+ b · a +b = a .2.7 k ) = 35 + 0 + 56 = 91 3. () 6. b = 2i + j . If a = ( 2 . Find the projection of a = i + 3 j + 5 k on b = .3 j + 3 k · i . Solution : Given a+b = a. If a + b = a . ß = 3i . If a = i + 2 j .2 j + 2 k and c = 3i .b · a . 6. Find the cosine of the angle between ve ctors a = 4 i . b = (.j .3i + j + k .4 = 0 4.j + 4 k.j + k i Solution : a × b = 9 8 10. Find the cross product of vectors a = 9i .k Solution : cos = a· b a b = 8.1 4 = i (. a = i + 2 j + 2 k and b = 2i + j .3 k . 2 a · b = 0 a · a + a · b + b · a + b · b = a · a .3 +3+ 5 9 +1 +1 = 5 11 .2 k then find a × b .j(9 .3.k -1 1 If .b · a + b · b a·b = 0 a is perpendicu lar to b. j k . ()() Solution : a · b = 6 .m.m = -2 Solution : (3 i + m j + k ) · ( 2i . 7. find 2 a + ß · a + 2 ß ()() Solution : 2a + ß · a + 2 ß = ( 5i + 3 j .2 j + 2k 1+4 + 4 ()() = 5 + 6 + 6 17 = 3 3 8.4 j + 2 k . Solution : Projection of a on b = a· b b = .b Squaring both the sides.2 . Find m such that 3 i + m j + k and 2 i . find the projection of a + c on b .9 + 8) = 3i + 23 j .k .b .2 j . Prove that the vectors a = 3i .1 + 4 ) .8 k are orthogonal . Show that a and b are orthogonal to each other.

j (2 . c are non zero vectors prove that a × b + c + b × c + a + c × a + b = 0 Prove that 2 a + b × a + 2 b = 3 a × b Solution : a × b + a × c + b × c + b × a + c × a + c × b = a × b + a × c + b × c . 14.3 j + k a =i i Solution : a × b = 1 j 1 k 1 = i (2 + 3 ) .Mathematics SVT 65 ˆ i Solution : a × b = 1 2 a ×b = ˆ j 2 ˆ k ˆ(1 .3 2 52 + 52 1 +1 + 1 4 + 9 + 4 sin = = 5 2 3 17 15.14 j . a × b = 52 + 52 . If a .3 . Find the unit vecto r perpendicu lar to the pair of vectors i Solution : Vector perpendicular to a & b is a × b = 6 3 n= a×b a×b 12.j (.6iˆ + 6 ˆ ˆ 2 = iˆ( . ()()() 13.2) + k(.2 ) . 2 .10 + 3 ) .a × b .ˆ j (.b × c = 0.2 j + k and b = i .1) + k (.2 1 k 1 = i (4 .2 .1) .a × c .7i .a × b or a × b = b × c Similarly c × a = b × c a ×b = b × c = c× a ()() [] a×a = 0 a × b = c× a 16. b .MCA 11 .2 1 = i (.3 ) + k (6 + 6) = 3i +15 j +12 k . If a + b + c = 0.5 k .7k 1 .4 . Find the area of the triangle whose sides are a = 3 i5 .4 ) + k j .j(15 .9 + 2) = .3 . = 3i +15 j +12k 9 + 225 +144 = 3 i + 15 j + 12 k 378 j .2) = 5 i .2 ()()() ()()()() ()() () Solution : 2 a + b × a + 2b = 2 a × a + 4 a × b + b × a + 2 b × b = 4 a × b + b × a = 3 a × b . then show that a × b = b × c = c × a Solution : Given a + b + c = 0 a × a + b + c = a × a + a ×b + a × c = 0 Q a × b = .4 ) = .3k 1 .2 36 + 36 + 9 = 81 = 9 a = 6 i2 .2 j + k and b = 3 i + j k 11.12 .a ×c Similarly b × a = c × b or c × b = .3 j + k 1 2 a ×b Solution : A = i j k 5 a × b = 3 . Find the sine of the angle between th evectors 2 + j + k and b = 2 i .

Evaluate [] i .1 = 1(1) + 1(.OA = 3i .15 = -1 .units Position v ectors of the points A .2 = i (0 .3 j + 4k.k .10k 1 .units. .12 . Find the area of a parallelog ram whose i j k .2 k .2 j + k .4 j .j (4) + k (. c = 3i = 5 j + k . 49 +196 + 49 2 = 294 2 sq.j.5 k.9) + 3(1.j + k ) = 2 i . b = i + 2 j + 3 k and c = 3i + j . Find the scalar tri ple product of vectors a = 2 i .66 KSOU Algebraic Structures area = 17.j + k . AC = OC .2) + k (.units 2 adjacent sides are a = 3 i + 2 j .1 = i (6 + 2 ) .j + k ) = i + 2 j . 20. i AB × AC = 1 2 area = j 2 -1 k .1) = 10 i .1 . 2 i + j .k ) .3 4 d1 × d 2 = 100 + 100 + 100 . 1 2 d1 × d 2 = 1 2 300 sq.( i .j . Solution : a · b × c = 1 3 21.2) = 8i . Solution : AB = OB .units = 5 3 sq.10 . k .3 ) +1( . 1 4 + 16 + 25 = 2 18.2 j + k. j . 0 45 sq.j(12 .10 . Find the area of a parallelog ram whose 1 2 d1 × d 2 2 = i . B and C are respective ly i .i 1 -1 1 0 0 .OA = ( 2 i + j .k and 3i .j + k .j + 3 k .1) + 0 = 0 1 Solution : 0 -1 22.10 j + 4k 3 180 sq.9 .k .( i . Find the volume of parallelopiped whose coterminus edges are a = i .2i .1 2 1 3 3 = 2( 35 2 .4 j + 5 k .10 j .1 .units diagonals are d = 3 i + j + 2 k and d 1 Solution : a × b = 3 2 1 2 A = 64 + 100 + 16 = 19.j(9 + 1) + k( 6 .6 ) = .k and b = i + 2 j + 3k . Find the area of triangle ABC. Solution : A = i d1 × d2 = 3 j 1 k 2 = i ( 4 + 6) .4 ) = . () 2 . b = 2 i .

5 = 8 .8i .3c + 2 b Find the unit vecto r in the direction of a + b + c where a = i + 4 j + 2 k . Position v ectors are A . 5a + 3 3 b + 4 c . OB = . c = i + j . 8. If a = 2 i + 3 j and b = .Mathematics SVT 67 Solution : a · b × c = 2 3 23. AB in terms of 2.OA = .4 + 25) +1( 2 .4. 1).OA = . 3 ) and b = (2.2 k and c = . 4) are orthogonal. b = 2i . Find the values of such that i .i + 4 j + 3 k . b and 2 a .66 = 0 3 Exercise 1 . find a × b .j + 3 k Consider AB · AC × AD = . b = 3i . 9 . –5.2 4 -1 3 = .13 + 2 = 10 cubic units .3 j + k and i + j + 2k may be orthogonal . find (i) 2 b . If a = (1 .4i .c + 2 a (ii) 2 a . 9. 6. If a and b are unit vecto r show that the vectors a + b and a . . 4) are coplanar.1). .2 j + k .. If a = 3i . 24.3 4). C (3.3k and b = i .3 j . 11. Solution : a b c = 1 [] 2 -3 2 -1 4 -1=0 2 i. 2.2i + 3 j . AC = OC .8 =0 5 = 8. 4 ) and D (. b = (1.b are orthogonal . 7. .1.1.1.4. OD = .OA = .15) +1(. Show that AB || CD and AB = 3 2 CD 3. 1.2i + 2 j + 6 k . . . . .i + 2 j .4i + 4 j + 4 k AB = OB .4(12 + 3) + 6 (. Find if the vectors () 1 -1 1 . C and D are 2 a + 4c . B .2 3 b + c and 2 a + c respective ly.1 . A.MCA 11 . Solution : OA = 4 i + 5 j + k .3 j . 5.1) and c = ( . C and D are coplanar. . Show that the points A (4. B .j .k . Show that the vectors (–1.4 5 = 1(. OC = 3 i + 9 j + 4 k .e. 2) are coplanar. Find the projection of b on a .1 . Express vectors BC . AC . 3) and (2. 1). B and C are respective ly a .60 + 126 .5 1 a = ( 2.3 b. 10. () . 4. 2(4 . find a · b .4 -6 . 2.1) + 3(2 + ) + 4(. 5.8 A. The position vectors of the points a and b.6 j .2 ) = 0 6 +6 +3 .2(1 + 32) = .10 + 12) = 21 . Find the projection of a on b where a = i + 2 j . 4 .3 + 24) .2 k .4 j . B ( 0.3k and b = . AD = OD . If a = 2 i + j .

4 k respectively form a right-angled triangle. Show that points 16. 18. Show that points 17. i + 3 j .2k are coplanar. 2 j + k and j + 3 k . 1) and C (–1. –2.4 j . 30. c = i + 2 j + k .1. find m . A(3. 2. find the unit vecto r in the direction of a + b + c . 3) & c = (3. 1. Find a × b × c and a × b × c . –2) and D(1. . 1). 23. 4. 2. b = (1. b = i + 2 j + k .j + 2 k . 2i . 20.j + k .3 j . ()() . A(1.2. Show that vect ors 2i .2 j + 4 k . a = i . 2 i + xj . –1). 13.3 k and 3i .1. 21. 4 ) and c = (2 . 3). . B(1. 2). Find the cosine of the angle between th evectors Find the sine of the angle between th evectors Find the unit vecto r perpendicu lar tothe vectors a = i + j + k and b = 2i + 3 j .68 KSOU Algebraic Structures 12. Find the area of the triangle whose vertices are i . 1) form a triangle.4 j . find x. Show that points A.2 k . 3.5 k and 3 i . i + 2 j . 15. 1. 6) are coplanar. 22. 4.2 k . If a = (2 . B(1. –6. m ) and a × b is a null vector. 28. 1. Prove that 2 a + 3 b × a + 4b = 5 a × b ()()() Find the area of the triangle whose 2 sides represente d by a = i .2 j + k . If a = (2 . Find the volume of the parallelopiped whose co-terminal edges are represented by a = 2i . 4).3 j + 4k . If the vectors i + 2 j + 5 k .2 k and b = i .3 j + 4 k . Show that cos sin f i + sin j + cos f k is a unit vecto r.2 . 4). B(7. 26. b = 2i + j + k . 3 ) and b = (8 . 29. 14.3 j + k and 3i + j . 3). . –1. b = i + 2 j . C (3. If a = (1. Find the scalar tri ple product of.5 k are coplanar.2 k . 19. 1. Show that points 25.k and c = 3i + j + 2 k . Find the area of parallelog ram whose diagonals are a = 3 i + j . 24. b = (. 27. . 3). A(2. B and C whose position v ectors are 2i + j + k . –2) are collinear. –2. 3i + j + 2 k and 2i . C (2.7).10 k and 3i + 9 j .

1 approaches 2.1 x.99 . for x = 1.9 .001 1. x .0001 f ( x) = 2 It can be seen from the above values that as xapproaches 1.001 2.1 x 1 x . x.9 1.01 2. x. Let us consider the values of f ( x) as xapproaches 1 x2 .1 as x approaches 1"which can be written as lim 2 or Lt = .1 .1 x2 .a = na n .BCA 21 / IMCA 21 / Mathematics SVT 65 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Limits of functions Consider y = f ( x) = x2 . lim f ( x) f ( x) x a lim 0 = provided lim g ( x) lim g ( x) x a g ( x) x a x a Standard Limits (1) lim x a xn . f ( x ) = 1.1 x .999 1.1 x-1 the function is defined for all values of xexcept for x = 1.1 x2 .01 1.99 1.1 1.0001 2.1 = 0 0 which is indeterminate.1 This value 2 is called "Limit of x .1 2 In general the limit of a function f( x) as xapproaches a is denoted as l and which is written as lim or f (x) = l x a x Lt f ( x ) = l a Properties (1) (2) lim [] f ( x) ± g ( x) = lim f ( x) ± lim g( x) x a x a x a lim [] f ( x) g ( x) x a = lim f ( x ) lim g ( x )where in particularlim kf ( x) = k · lim f ( x) x a x a x a x a kis a contant (3) .1 x 1 x.a n x.999 1.

x ) x = lim x 0 ax .(.sin x .(x+ a x .1 x = e 2 < e < 3 or lim (1 + x x 0 1 x =e (4) lim x 0 = log e a ( a > 0) in particular lim x 0 ex .3 x + 4 2- 4 x2 = 2 .log e b = log e a b .( b x .1 =1 (8) lim(1 + ) ax ) x 0 b x 1 ab = lim (1 + ax x 0 ax = eab (9) + 3 lim 1 n n 8 n + 3 = lim 1 n n 8 n 3 3 = e3 (10) lim(1 .cos 2 2 = lim 0 2 sin 2 2 =2 tan 3 x (7) lim x 0 tan 3 x .0+ 4 = 3 4 (2) 3 + x lim (dividing Nr & Dr by x2 ) 3= lim 2 2 x 8 3x + 2 x + 1 x 8 3+ + x 2 x2 .lim x 0 bx . Examples (1) lim x 0 x2 + 4 x + 3 x2 .(x+ a lim = lim = lim 5 5 5 5 5 x -a x +a x -a x + a x .a )6 5 .1 3.2 (11) lim x 0 a x .2 x) x 0 1 x = lim (1.(x7 + a7 x .x x .a x .2 x) x 0 - 1 2x -2 = e.x x = log e a .x ) .70 KSOU Differential Calculus (2) lim 0 sin = 1 ( in radians) also lim 0 n tan =1 (3) n + 1 lim 1 ) n 8 ax .3 4 x-3 = 4 (3 )3 = 108 (4) x7 .(x7 + a 7 lim x 0 a)7 a) a) a) 5 = 7( .bx x = lim x 0 (a x .5 x + 4 = 0 +0 +3 0 .0 + 0 = 2 1 3 + 0+ 0 x2 (3) lim x 3 x4 .a ) 4 = 7 5 a2 (5) sin 7 x x = lim x 0 sin 7 x x ×7 = 1× 7 = 7 (6) lim 0 1 .81 x.3 = lim x 3 x4 .1 x = 1.1 = (dividing Nr & Dr by x ) = lim x 0 x 3sin x x 3.x 3 x .

f (a ) exists andthey are equal.Mathematics SVT 71 2x .MCA 11 .1 is not continuous at x = 1 Q lim x 1 x2 . Solution : While finding the limit of a function f( x) as xapproaches a.h) + 7 = 19 x 4h 0 h 0 RHL at x = 4 is lim f ( x) = lim f (4 + h) = lim 4(4 + h) + 3 = 19 x 4+ h 0 h 0 and f ( 4) = 19 The function is continuous at x = 4 sin x (3) Examine the continuity of f ( x) = for x x 2 for x = 0 0 at x = 0.1 x. x 0 If these donot happen then the function is said to be not continuous or discontinuous. where as it is continuous at all other values of x .1 x-1 = 2 exists but f (0 ) = 0 0 donot exists.1 (12) 2 lim = lim x = = loge 1 x 0 sin x x 0 sin x x Continuity of a function A function f ( x) is saidto be continuous at x = a if lim f ( x ) = f (a ) x a A function f ( x) is saidto be continuous if lim f ( x) exists. the limit is called 'Left Hand Limit' (LHL) and if xapproaches a from right hand side the limit is called 'Right Hand Limit' (RHL) and the limit of the function is said to exists if both LHL & RHL exists and are equal. if we consider the limit of the function as xapproaches a from left hand side. A function f( x ) is said to be continuous in an interval if it is continuous at all points in the interval. but f ( 0 ) = 2 The function is discontinu ous at x = 0. Solution : lim x 0 sin x x = 1. for convenience LHL & RHL are denoted as )lim f ( x)and and further lim f ( x x x ah 0 x a+ h 0 ax a+ LHL = lim f ( x) = lim f ( a .4 for 0 < x = 1 (4) Examine the continuity of the function f ( x ) = 4 x2 .2 x for 1 < x < 2 4 x + 4 for x = 2 at x =1 and x = 2. 5 x .h) = lim 3(4 . (2) Discuss the continuity of function f ( x) = 4 x + 3 for x = 4 3 x + 7 for < 4 at x = 4. .1 log e 2 2x .h) & RHL = lim f ( x) = lim f ( a + h) For the given problem LHL at x = 4 is lim f ( x ) = lim f (4 . Examples (1) f (x) = x2 .

x . LHL = lim f ( 2 . To find the derivates of xn . log x .4 = 12 h 0 h 0 RHL = lim f (2 + h) = lim 4(2 + h) + 4 = 12 h 0 h 0 and f (2) = 4 × 2 + 4 = 12 lim 2 f ( x) = f ( ) x 2 The function is continuous at x = 2 . Differentiability of a function A function f ( x ) is said to be differenti able at a point a if lim h 0 f ( a + h) .a x dx = lim a x dx 0 (a dx .h) . cos x and a constant Cwith respect to x . A function f ( x ) is said to be differenti able at x if lim dx 0 dx exists andthe derivative is denoted as f '( x).2( 2 . ax .log e x dx x = lim dx 0 1 x dx · x log dx x = lim dx 0 1 x + · log 1 dx x dx = 1 x log e e = 1 x . y = f ( x ) = x = .4 = 1 x 1h 0 h 0 RHL = lim f (1 + h ) = lim 4(1 + h )2 .A function which is differentiable is always continuous but the converse is not always true.f ( a ) h f ( x + dx ) .1 d dx 9 () x = x 9 4 Eg.h) = 16 . sin x .2(1 + h ) = 4 . e (1) Let y = xn . If y = f ( x). eg.5 (iii) 9 4 -1 = 9 4 x4 5 4 () x 5 3 =- 5 3 x- 5 3 -1 = - 5 3 x- 8 3 ( v) d dx () x = 2 1 x dx (2) Let y = log e x then dy dx +x = lim dx 0 log e ( x + d x ) . (i) () () x =7x 7 6 = . LHL = lim f ( x) = lim f (1 .1) dx = a x log e a ( a > ) in particular d dx (e x ) = e x . at x = 2 . the derivative is denoted by dy dx or f '( x ) Note :.h ) = lim 5 (1 . [d xis called the increment in x which is very very small].4 x.72 KSOU Differential Calculus at x = 1. ( ii ) d dx x4 = nx n . d dx (iv) d dy dx = lim dx 0 ( x + dx )n . (3) Let y = ax dy dx = lim 0 dx 0 a x +d x .x n x + dx .x for x < 0 x for x = 0 is continuous for all xbut not differentiable at x = 0.h ) = lim 4( 2 .2 = 2 h 0 h 0 LHL RHL at x = 1 The function is discontinuous at x = 1.h) 2 .f ( x ) exists and the derivative is denoted as f '( a ).

dv & d y respective ly.MCA 11 . dx 2 (6) Let ( y =c a constant) dy dx = lim dx 0 c.sin( x + 0 ) ·1 = . v & y be du . dy du dv = lim + lim d x d x 0 dx dx 0 dx .sin x sin x cos x constant zero Rules for differentiation I Sum Rule If & y = u + v whose u v are functions of x then to find dy dx Give a small increment dx to x . Then y + dy = u + d u + v + dv Subtracting y + d y .cos x dx + = lim .sin x dx 2 cos x + dx + x 2 sin x + dx .c dx =0 Thus derivative of a constant is zero.y = u + du + v + dv .1 1 x a x loge a cos x .u .x 2 = lim cos dx 0 = lim dx 0 + dx x dx 2 sin · dx 2 = cos( x + 0 ) ·1 = sin x. Thus we have the following standard derivatives Function y = f ( x ) Derivative xn log x a x nxn .Mathematics SVT 73 (4) Let y = sin x dy dx = lim dx 0 sin( x + d x ) . dx 2 (5) Let y = cos x dy dx = lim dx 0 cos( x + d x ) . let the correspond ing increments in u .v divide through out by dx then take limits on both sides as d x Then lim dx 0 ie dy = du + d v dy d u dv = + dx dx dx 0.sin x.sin x dx 0 dx 2 sin · dx 2 = .

74 KSOU Differential Calculus

ie

dy dx

=

du dx

+

dv dx dy dx = du dx + dv dx dw dx dy dx = d dx ( x6 ) + d dx (sin x ) d dx (cos x )

Note : - If y = u + v - w then

Eg.

(1) If y = x 6 + sin x - cos x then

= 6 x5 + cos x - (- sin x) = 6 x5 + cos x + sin x.
( 2) If y = 3x - log x + c then dy dx = 3x log 3 e

1 x

e

+ 0.

II Product Rule
If y = uv where u & v are functions of xthen to find dy dx .

Give a small increment d xto x, let the correspond ing increments in u , v & y be d u , d v & d y respective ly. then y + dy = ( u + d u )( v + dv ) = uv + u d v + v du + du · d v

d y = y + d y - y = udv + v du + du · d v
divide through out by d x ,

dy dv du dv =u + v + du · dx dx dx dx take limit on both sides as dx
then lim lim
dx
0

0, du ·
0

dy dv du = u lim + v lim + dx dx 0 d x d x 0 dx dx
dv dx + v du dx + v du dx +o dv dx

dv dx

ie

dy dx

=u

ie

dy dx

=u

dv dx

Note (1) If y = kv where k is a constant dy dx dw dx

then dv dx

dy dx + vw

= k du dx

dv dx

(2 ), If y = uvw then
3 2

= uv

+ uw

Eg. (1) If y = x
3 2

sin x then

dy dx
3 2 x

=x
1 2

3 2

d dx

(sin x) + sin x

d dx

x

3 2

= x

cos x + sin x ·

( 2) 8 If y = 8 cos x then

dy dx

=-

sin x dy dx d dx d dx d dx

( 3) If y = e x sin x · log x then 1 x

= e x sin x

(log x ) + e x log x ·

(sin x) + sin x · log x

( ex )

= e x sin x ·

+ e x log x · cos x + sin x · log x · e x .

MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 75 III Quotient Rule
If y = u v where u & v are functions of x then to find dy dx .

Give a small increment dx to x , let the correspond ing increments in u , v & y be d u , dv & dy respective ly. then y + d y = u + du v + dv u + du v +dv u v = v (u + du ) - u ( v + d v ) v ( v + dv ) = vu + v d u - uv - u dv v (v + dv )

dy =

divide through out by dx

du dv -u dx dx = dx v (v + dv ) dy v
take limit on both sides as d x 0

du dv -u dx dx ie lim = lim d x 0 dx d x 0 v (v + d v ) dy v
v = du dx v2 - u dv dx

ie

dy dx

This rule can be easily remembered in the following manner
If y = u v Then dy dx Note : - If y = k v Eg. (1) If y = tan x = sin x cos x cos x d dx (sin x) - sin x
2

=

Nr Dr

(say)

=

Dr ( derivative of Nr ) - Nr (derivative of Dr ) ( Dr ) 2 k is a constant then dy dx =k dv v 2 dx

where

d dx

dy then cos = dx =

(cos x )

x = cos 2 x + sin 2 x cos 2 x = 1 cos 2 x = sec 2 x .

cos x · cos x - sin x (- sin x ) cos
2

x dy dx = sec 2 x.

If y = tan x, then cos x sin x

( 2) If y = cot x =

dy sin x ( - sin x ) - cos x (cos x ) then sin = 2 x dx = - sin 2 x - cos 2 x sin 2 x = - 1 sin 2 x = - cosec
2

x.

76 KSOU Differential Calculus

If y = cot x , then

dy dx

- cosec

2

x.

( 3) 1 If y = sec x = cos x then dy dx =1 cos 2 x =1 d · (cos x) cos 2 x dx 1 cos x dy dx (sin x ) = 1 sin x · = sec x tan x. cos x cos x

( - sin x ) =

If y = sec x , then

= sec x tan x.

( 4) 1 If y = cosec x = sin x then dy dx =1 sin 2 x · cos x

=-

1 cos x · = - cosec x · cot x. sin x sin x dy dx = - cosec x ·cot x.

If y = cosec x , then

IV Chain Rule or function of a function rule
If , y = f ( u ) where u = g ( x ) to find dy dx lim
dx
0

consider

dy d y du = × dx du d x

dy dy du = lim × dx dx 0 du dx
= dy du dy dy du dv · also if y = f ( x ), u = g ( v ) & v = h ( x ) then = · · du dx dx du dv dx

ie

dy dx

Eg. ) (1) If y = (ax2 + bx + c n then put u = ax2 + bx + c
y = un dy du u = ax 2 + bx + c du dx dy dx = dy du · = ( ax 2 + bx + c ) n ( 2 ax + b ). du dx = 2 ax + b = nu n- 1

( 2) 7 If y = log( x3 - 2 x2 + )
then dy dx = 1 ( x3 - 2 x2 + 7 ) × d dx ( x3 - 2 x2 + 7 ) = 3 x2 - 4 x x3 - 2 x2 + 7

( 3) 3 If y = sin( 2x 2 + 4x - )
then dy dx = cos( 3 2 x2 + 4 x - 3 )( 4 x + 4) = 4( x + 1 ) cos( 2 x2 + 4 x )

= = = .MCA 11 .1 )2 x ( x +1) 2 2 = sec2 x2 . then = sinh x cosh x cosh 2 = cosh x cosh x .x2 + 1) ( x2 +1)2 × Derivative of Hyperbolic functions (1) If y = sinh x.x = (cosh x) = dx dx dx 2 sinh x cosh x = ex + e. ( 4) If y = coth x = dy dx d dx cosh x sinh x then = cosh x sinh x sinh 2 x .1 sinh 2 x = sinh x sinh x .sinh x sinh x cosh 2 x = x .e.cosh 2 x sinh 2 x . then dy dx = d dx (sinh x) = d +ex dx 2 e.cosh x cosh x sinh 2 x 1 cosh x .Mathematics SVT 77 (4) If y = tan x2 .x 2 = cosh x.1 = sec 2 dx x2 + 1 dx x2 +1 = sec2 x2 .x = e x . = sech 2 x .1 x +1 2 × 2x( x2 +1 . (5 ) If y = sech x = then dy dx = d dx 1 cosh x = - 1 d cosh 2 x dx (cosh x ) = .1 x 2 +1 4x ( x2 +1)2 2 × ( x2 +1)(2 x) .sech x tanh x.( x2 .x = sinh x .1 x +1 = sec2 x2 . sech x cosh x .ex e.1 cosh 2 x · sinh x = -1 sinh x · = .cosech 2 x.1 d x2 . 2 (3 ) If y = tanh x = dy dx d dx . ( 2) If y = cosh x.sinh 2 x = 1 cosh 2 x cosh 2 x .1 x2 + 1 then dy x2 . then dy d d .

dy dt = 3a sin 2 t cos t dy dx = dy dt dx dt = 3 a sin2 t cos t . y = a sin 3 t .1 sinh x · cosh x sinh x = .r.3a cos 2 t sin t = . Parametric functions are also denoted as x = f ( ).cosech x · coth x. find dx dt Solution : x = a cos 3 t . y = a sin 3 t .y cos x =0 = .2 ax .(ax + hy ) hx + by = . = Implicit Functions Function of the type f ( x.78 KSOU Differential Calculus (6 ) If y = cosech x = dy dx -1 sinh 2 x -1 1 sinh x . (1) If ax2 + 2 hxy + by 2 = 0 + dy then 2 ax + 2 h x dx ie ( 2 hx + 2 by ) dy dx Eg. consider dx dt dy dx = dy dt dy d dx d dy dx or dx d & dy d (1) If x = a cos 3 t .2( ax + hy ) 2( hx + by ) = (2) If x sin y + y sin x = 10 differentiating w. where t is the paramter. To & find dy dx treat y as a function of x use chain rule. isthe parameter. dy dx then = dy dt dx dt or . dy dx y + 2 by dy dx =0 = .2 hy .sin y . y = g ( t ) taken together is called Parametric function. Eg. y ) = 0 is called Implicit function. d then =- (sinh x) sinh 2 x dx ·cosh x = .(sin y + y cos x ) ( x cos y + sin x ) Parametric functions Functions of the type x = f ( t ). y = f ( )where To & find dy dx Eg. = .tan t .t.3 a cos 2 t sin t . x x cos y dy dx ie ( x cos y + sin x ) dy dx dy dx + sin y + y cos x + sin x dy dx = .

3 sin Differentiation using Logarithms If y = f ( x)g ( x ) use logarithms on both sides log y = log f ( x) g ( x) = g ( x) log f ( x) differentiating w. find .t.sin x ) cos x + sec 2 x log cos x = (cos x) tan x [ .cot .r.tan 2 x + sec 2 x log cos x] = tan x 1( .12 sin 2 cos cos cos ) ) = .MCA 11 .tan 2 x + sec 2 x log cos x ] .4 sin 3 ) & y = a (3sin + 12 cos 2 . find dy dx Solution : = dy d dx d = 3 cos = a (3 cos a ( .4 cos 3 sin ) ) ). (1) Find dy dx Solution : log y = x log x 1 dy y dx ie dy dx = x· 1 x + log x · 1 = g ( x) 1 f ( x) = f ( x) g ( x ) + g ( x ) f '( x ) f (x) if y = xx g ' ( x ) log f ( x) f '( x ) + g '( x ) log f ( x ) = g ( x ) f ' ( x) f (x) + g '( x ) log f ( x) = x x [1 + log x ] dy dx (2) If y = xs i n x + (cos x ) ta n x . Solution : Let y = u + v where u = xsin x & v = (cos x)tan x log u = sin x log x 1 du u dx ie du dx = sin x x +sin x x cos x log x + cos x log x = xs i n x v = (cos x) tanx log v = tan x log cos x 1 dv v dx dv dx dy dx = du dx + dv dx = xsi n x + sin x x cos x log x + (cos x ) t an x [ . x 1 dy y dx dy dx Eg.Mathematics SVT 79 (2) If x = a (3 cos dy dx .3 sin (1 + 4 sin (1 + 4 sin .

1 x ) = (tan .1 Derivatives of inverse hyperbolic functions (1)) d dx (sinh. y = e x 9.1 x 15.1 x ) = dx x 1+ x2 for x < 1 (6 ) Exercise Find dy dx of the following 1. y = cosec x .1 x .1 (6 ) (cosec .x2 1 1 + x2 .1 x) = for x > 1 (3 ) ( 4) (coth .1 1 + x2 for x < 1 (3 ) (5 ) d dx d dx (sec.1 x) = for x > 1 x x2 .1 x) = dx x 1 .1 x) = dx d dx d dx (tanh .1 x) = 1 x x2 .1 x + cosec .80 KSOU Differential Calculus Derivatives of inverse Trigonometric functions (1) d 1 (sin -1 x) = dx 1 .1 for | x | > 1 . 8.1 y = ax 2 + bx + c 2 .1 x ) = for x < 1 (2) -1 1. y = x+ 1 x.1 x 12. 6.1 x 11.tan x + x5 14. y = sec. y = loge cos x y = ( 2 x + 3) 2 y = (3 x + 5) 1/ 3 7.1 x) = dx d dx ( 4) d dx (cot .1 x) = for x >1 (5 ) d -1 (sech. y = sin x · sin. y = log e (3 x + 2) 5.x2 d (cos . 10. y = sin x + log e x + x2 + e x 13.x2 . y = x2 + a 2 4. y = sinh xsinh. y = sinh.1 x = 1 1+ x 2 1 x -1 1 1 . y = x2 e x 3.1 for x <1 2 x (2) d (cosh.1 x2 .x2 d -1 (cosech.

x2 ) cos . y = 50 . y = 4 sinh t 39. x = a cos 4 t .cos x 1 + cos x 29 .ax 28 .1 y = 0 37. x2 / 3 + y 2 / 3 = a 2 /3 41 .1 x loge x 3 x . x = log e sec t .1 1+ x 1. y = sin n x · sin nx . y = ( x 22 .Mathematics SVT 81 16. y = sin xy 48. x = a 1 + cos t 67 . x = at 2 . x = loge sec t . y = 57. y = (1 + x2 ) sin x 20. x2 + y2 = a2 40 . y = e -e x .1) 61. x = 4 cosh t . y = x cos xy 47. y = 5x3 cosh x cosech x 56. y sin x + x sin y = 0 62.x 1+ x 35 . y = (1 .sin t) 64 .1 x+a 1 . y = log e sin x 31 . x = a cos t .1 63 .1 1. y = (log x x) l og e x 68 . y = (sin x )ta n x . y = a sin4 t 65 . sin . y = 53.x3 1 . y = sin x ·sin 2 x 25 . y = 18. y = tan. y = tan2 t 46. y = ( x . xy = c 2 36 . y = log e ( x2 tan x) 32 .1 x ) ta n x 69 . y = 21. y = 2at 42 . y = ( x + a )( x + b )( x + c ) 26 .x 34 . y = 23 .cos t 60. y = sin . y= a 1 .sin x 2 51.x x 45.3x2 e x + e- 49. y = ex x 2 17. y = tan . y = (sin x ) si n x 70 . y = x2 + ex 1 .1 x 54. y = (sin . y = e s in h x 30 . y = sec. y = x+3 sec x x. e x + y = e x + e y . sin( x + y ) = log e ( x + y ) (cos t . y = ( x +1 )e log e x ·cosec x xex 1 + cos x x3 ex cos -1 2 x 44. y = (1 + x2 )tan-1 x 19. x = t. y = b sin t 43. y = 1 t 38.1 58. y = (1+ x2 ) tan x cos . y = tan 2 t 66 .1 ( x . y = tan . x = et (cos t + sin t).1 2x 1 + x2 27 . y x2 + x + 1 x +1)2 ( x + 2) 5 ex + 4 loge x x = e x (sin x + cos x) e x + e2 24 . y = 52.1 x + sin .1 x 33 .1 55. y = tan .1)2 cosec. y = 1 .MCA 11 . y = et 59.x loge x x2 + 1 x -1 1 + sin x 1 .

dn y dx n In general n t h derivative is denoted as or f ( n) ( x ) or yn or D n y . 2 d2 y dx 2 2 1 +1 + 2× p 4 = 1+ p .t. show that d2 y dx 2 = .r.t.4a 2 y3 dx 3. + If x = a cos t log tan t 2 & y = a sin t .sin t + dt 1 t sec2 1 2 2 tan 2 1 .1 x at x = 1. = f '( x ) is also a function of x. x 2y dy dx = 4a dy dx = 2a y again differenti ating w. hence further derivative s can be obtained.4a y3 Solution : y2 = 4ax differenti ating w.1 x · ( 2 x ) = 1 + 2 x tan .1 x . The third derivative is denoted by d3 y dx 3 or f ''' ( x ) or y 3 or D 3 y . d2 y dx 2 = 0 + 2x× + 2 tan . Examples 1.82 KSOU Differential Calculus Successive Differentiation If y = f ( x )then dy dx The second derivative is denoted by d2 y dx 2 or f ''( x ) or y 2 or D 2 y . then show that d2 y dx2 = sin t a cos 4 t + Solution : x = cos t log tan t 2 dx = a .1 x dy dx = (1 + x2 ) × 1 1 + x2 1 1 + x2 = x= 1 + tan . x d2 y dx 2 = - 2 a dy y 2 =- 2a y 2 2a y = . 2. If y = (1 + x 2 ) tan .r. If y 2 = 4 ax .1 x find d2 y dx 2 at x = 1 Solution : y = (1 + x2 ) tan.

sin2 t 1 sin t = a cos 2 t sin t y = a sin t .cos ) ). y = b (1 . = b sin {} a · 2 sin 2 ( .cos dy d = b · 2 sin( 2) cos( 2) 2) = b a cot( ) ) find d2 y dx 2 Solution : = a (1 .cos ).sin t 1 t t t 2 2 tan cos 2 sin cos 2 2 2 2 1 sin t =a +.sin t + = a . = d dy d dy dt 1 sec 2 t = = sec 2 t × = dx dx dt dx dx dx dt a cos 2 t sin t sin t a cos 4 t d2 y dx 2 2x = If y = sin 2 x.sin t + 1 1 + = a . If x = a ( .MCA 11 .sin dx d dy dx = b sin 2 a (1 .b 2 sin( bx + c ) + ab cos( bx + c ) + ae a x {} b cos( bx + c ) + a sin( bx + c) {} = eax 2ab cos( bx + c ) + ( a2 . =x 2 + (2 2log e x +1) = 3+ loge x x d2 y dx 2 If y = e ax ·sin( bx + c ) find dy dx dy dx d2 y dx 2 = e ax Solution : = e a x · cos( bx + c ) · b + sin( bx + c ) · ae a x {} b cos( bx + c ) + a sin( bx + c ) = e ax .b 2 ) sin( bx + c ) 7. = cos 2 x · 2 = 2 cos 2 x d2 y dx 2 If y = x2 log e x find dy dx 1 x Solution : = x2 · + log e 1 x · 2 x = x (2 log e x + ) d2 y dx 2 6. dy dx dy dt dx dt dy dt = a cos t a cos t a cos 2 = = × sin t = tan t t d2 y dx2 d2 y dx 2 4. find dy Solution sin : = 2 sin x cos x = dx d2 y dx 2 5.Mathematics SVT 83 = a .

If y = sin( m sin .y] = ex differentiating w. y = 1 2 a sin 2 find d2 y dx 2 .1 Solution : = emsin x · dx 1 . 1 10.x2 Solution : y1 = cos( m sin.1 x Solution : (1 + x2 )[ y1 .r.y2 1 .x)2 y = 0 dy dx = ex · 1 1 + x2 + e x tan.x2 cross multiplying & squaring.2 x) = m2 (.2 x) y1 .x2 )2 y1 y2 + y1 (. y = a sin 3 find d2 y dx 2 ( 4) If x = a tan .2 ( x + 3 y )3 (3 ) If x = a cos 3 . we have 2 (1. x 2 (.2(1 .y1 ) + 2x( y1 .(1 + x2 .x) y1 + (1 . we get (1 .xy + m2 y = .r. then provethat (1 .x + x2 ) y1 + (1 .t.xy + m2 y = 0 1 m 1. If y = e x tan.x 2 ) y2 .84 KSOU Differential Calculus d2 y dx 2 =- b 1 d b 1 b cosec2 · · =cosec2 · =cosec4 ( a 2 2 dx 2a 2 a (1 2.xy1 .y) = ex (1 + x2 ) y2 .m2 y = 0 9.2 x) = m2 · 2 yy (1.x2 ) y 2 .x2 (1 . provethat (1+ x2 ) y2 .x2 ) y2 .r. If y = e m s i n-1 x . 8.cos ) 4a 2 ).x)2 y = 0 Exercise (1) If 4 x2 + 9 y 2 = 36 show that d2 y dx 2 =16 9 y2 ( 2) If x2 + 2 xy + 3 y 2 = 1 prove that d2 y dx 2 = .x2 ) y1 = m2 y 2 differentiating w.x2 ) · 2 y1 y2 + y1 1 Dividing throughou t by 2 y1 .t.2xy = (1 + x2 ) y1 .1 x . x (1 + x2 )( y2 .(1 + x2 ) y (1 + x2 ) y2 . then prove that (1 .y 2 ) 1 differentiating w.m 2 y = 0 1 dy m .1 x ).x2 ) y 2 = m 2 (1 .2 (1 + x2 .x2 ) y2 .xy .t.1 x) · y = 1 m 1.2 yy1 ) Dividing throughto ut by 2 y1 we get (1 0. x 2 (1.

y = a (sin - cos ) show that d2 y dx 2 = sec 3 a ( 6) If y = sin .n an If y = log( ax + b to find yn 1 ax + b ·a Solution : y1 = .1 a . provethat (1 .1) n n ! a n ( ax + b )n + 1 (.1 2 x.Mathematics SVT 85 (5 ) If x = a (cos + sin ).n)( ax + b .n (n +1) y = 0 If x = sin t. y = sin pt .n .xy1 + p 2 y = 0 If x2 + xy + y2 = 1. prove that ( x2 +1) y2 + xy .then find d2 y dx 2 d2 y dx 2 ( 10 ) If x = at 2 .n + )( ax + b )m.) ( . if m = .2ay1 + ( a 2 + b 2 ) y = 0 If y = ax + b x2 then b xn show that x2 y 2 + 2( xy1 . prove that m d y dx 2 + m2 y = 0 (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18 ) + If y = x + x2 1 .3) ie y n = 2 .y ) = 0 (19 ) If y = ax n +1 + then show that x2 y 2 = n ( n + 1) y ( 20 ) If x = a cos nt + b sin nt then show that d2 x dt 2 + n2 x = 0 nth derivative of Standard functions 1 .2)( . y2 = m( m .1.n an in particular .1)( ax + b )m . then provethat ( x + 2 y )3 y2 + 6 = 0 If y = eax sin bx provethat y2 . y = 2 at . we have yn = m( m 1 . provethat x2 y2 .MCA 11 .then find ( 11 ) 2 If x3 y 3 = a x .) If y = (ax + b m to find yn Solution : y1 = m( ax + b )m .then find d2 y dx 2 d2 y dx 2 (9 ) If y = a x . then find d y dx 2 2 (7) If y = x log e x .m2 y = 0 1 If y = axn +1 + bx . then find (12 ) If y = a cos mx + b sin mx .2 a2 differenti ating ntimes.1 ie y = 1 ax + b yn = (-L 1)( ).1)L ( m .then find d2 y dx 2 (8 ) If y = e 4 x · sec 3 x.x2 ) y2 .

1 an .) If y = sin( ax + b to find y n + Solution : y1 = a cos( ax + b ) = a sin ax + b again differenti ating w.t. b = r sin a then y1 = reax cos( bx + c) cos a .1 )n .) y n p · = a n sin ax + b + n 2 If y = cos( ax + b to find y n + ax + b Solution : y1 = . x + y 2 = . y n = a n cos p 2 6 .r. x simplifyin g. 5 .1 times ( . yn = mn (log a )n amx 4 .t.sin( bx + c ) sin a ] = reax cos( bx + c + a ) again & differenti ating w. x y1 = aeax cos( bx + c) . If y = amx to find yn 2 Solution :) y1 = amx · m(log a ) .beax sin( bx + c ) put a = r cos a .r.t.1 a n ( ax + b )n yn = ·a = 3. yn = r n e a x cos( bx + c + n a ) where r = a2 + b2 & a = tan .1)n .reax sin( bx + c )sin a = reax [cos( bx + c) cos a .a sin( ax + b ) = a cos p 2 again differenti ating w.r.) If y = eax cos(bx + c to find yn Solution : differenti atingw.r.86 KSOU Differential Calculus differenti )ating ( n .a 2 sin ax + b p 2 p · = a 2 cos ax + b + 2 2 · ax + b + n In general. x y 2 = a 2 cos + ax + b p 2 p 2 p · = a2 sin ax + b + 2 2 p 2 y 3 = a 3 cos · ax + b + 2 p · = a 3 sin ax + b + 3 2 In general.1 (ax + b ) n ( . we get y2 = r 2 e ax cos(bx + c + 2 a ) In general. y2 = a mx · m2 (log a Ingeneral.t.1 b a .

t.) differenti ating ntimes.2) n +1 ( .t.4) (Say) Solution : Let y = = multiplyin g throughou t by ( x 4 . x y1 = aeax sin( bx + c ) + beax cos( bx + c ) put a = r cos a .cos 2 x) 2 ie y = [cos 3 x + 3 cos x .2 v 2 + L L + nc n uv n where suffixes of u & v represent order of the derivative s of u & v .MCA 11 . Find the n t h derivative of 1 x2 . we get y2 = r 2 eax sin( bx + c + 2a ) In general. x simplifyin g.2 ) ( x . y n = r n e a x sin( bx + c + na ) where r = a 2 + b2 & a = tan . Statement of Leibmitz's Theorem on nth derivative of a product If u & v are functions of x.2)( x 1 = A( x 2 .1 b a 8.1) n n ! = ( x .r.6 x + 8 1 x2 . the nth derivative of the productuv is given by ( uv ) n = un v + nc1 u n .r.1 )n n ! + 2 ( x .) If y = eax sin( bx + c to find yn Solution : differenti ating w.Mathematics SVT 87 7 . 1 = A (.4) n +1 1 2. 1 = 2 B B= 1 1 2 + 2 y= (x 4.1 v2 + nc 2 un .6 x + 8 1 ( x .cos 3 x cos 2 x . b = r sin a then y1 = reax [sin( bx + c) cos a + cos(bx + c )sin a ] = reax sin( bx + c + a ) again differenti & ating w.4) + B ( x put x = 2.2) + B ( x . Examples 1.2) ) A= 1 2 1 2 put x = 4.4) = ) A ( x . we have y Find the n t h derivative of sin 2 x 3 n 1 2 ( .3cos 2 x cos x] 1+ 1 3 cos 3 x + 3 cos x (cos 5 x + cos x) (cos 3 x 8 2 2 18 cos 3 x + 3 cos x 1 2 cos 5 x 1 2 cos x 3 2 cos 3 x cos x ) 3 2 = cos x ) .2 )( x . cos x × cos 3 x + 3 cos x 4 Solution : Let y = sin 2 x cos 3 x = 1 8 = (1 .

cos 2 x ) y= 1 2 e 2x 1 2 e 2 x cos 2 x 1 2 = tan .1 5.1 1 = 1 2 Solution : y = differenti ating ntimes.3n + 1 2 6.n ie y n = (. we have y n = 8.3 xn .1 2 y n = ( uv )n = 2 x + nC 2 ( . x y = .88 KSOU Differential Calculus y = 1 cos 1 cos x .2 1 .1 [][] ( .3 xn . ( .1)n .1) nx n.cos 3 x 8 2 1 2 5x differenti ating ntimes.3 ·2 = n.2 [] n . If y = a cos(log x ) + b sin(log x) show that x2 yn+2 + (2n + 1)x yn +1 + ( n2 +1 ) yn = 0 Solution : Let y = a cos(log x ) + b sin(log x ) differenti ating w.1) 2 n + n ( n .1)n .1 + 16 + 4 n n tan . we have yn = 1 8 + cos x p 2 - 1 2 + · 3n cos 3 x n p 2 - 1 2 + ·5 n cos 5 x n p 2 3.1 xn · x2 + nC1 ( .a sin(log x) 1 1 x + b cos(log x) 1 x . If y = e 2 x sin 2 x to find yn 1 2 e 2 x (1 . we have n = () () 16 + 64 20 n n tan .t. using Leibnitz' s Theorem.2 n. If y = x2 log 3 x find yn Solution : y = x2 log 3 x Let u = log 3 x = log 3 + log x (. If y = e 4 x sin 5 x cos 3 x find yn 1 2 e 4 x [sin 8 x + sin 2 x ] ie y = 1 2 y e 4 x sin 8 x + 1 2 1 2 n Solution : y = 1 2 e 4 x sin 2 x + e 4 x sin 8 x 8 4 + e 4 x sin 2 x 1 2 1 2 + e 4 x sin 2 x 2 4 differenti ating ntimes.1) + (.1) n .1 2 2 y n = 2n .1 e 2 x 1 2 2n e 2 x - · r n e 2 x cos( 2 x + n . a = tan .1 ie y n = 1 2 () () 80 e n 4x sin( 8 x + n tan .1 xn .r.3 ( .1) = 2 1 xn .a ) where r = 4+4 = p 4 () 8 n cos · 2x + n p 2 4.1)) xn - 2 (.1 2) + n tan .2 n + n2 .1) n . v = x2 un = differenti ating ntimes.

2 ) .x 2 ) y1 differenti ating again w.( n2 .( 2 n + 1) xy n +1 .MCA 11 .2x ) = m2 2 yy1 dividing by 2 y1 . (1 .1) + n + 1] y n =0 ie x2 yn +2 + (2n +1 ) xyn +1 + (n2 + 1) yn = 0 7.1) yn +2 + (2 n +1) xyn +1 + ( n2 . If y = e m co s .m2 yn = 0 adding.(2 n +1) xyn +1 . prove that (1 .1 m = 2 x ie y1 m () () y 2 + 1 = 2 xy1 m .m2 y = 0 differenti ating w.xy n +1 + nC 1 y (. we have x2 y + nC 2 xy 1 n+2 n+ 1 n +1 + nC · 2 y 2 n + xy + nC · 1 y 1 n + yn = 0 adding. t.Mathematics SVT 89 ie xy1 = . (1 .x2 )2 y1 y2 + y12 (.b sin(log x ) = .(2 n + 1) xy n +1 . x y1 = em cos x · . If y1 m + y.x2 ) y n+ 2 .b sin(log x ) 1 x ie x y2 + xy1 = . x again xy2 + y1 = .x2 y1 = .y ie x2 y2 + xy1 + y = 0 differenti ating ntimes.t.r.2 x) + nC 2 y n (.r.( n2 + m 2 ) y = 0 n Solution : y = e differenti ating w.a cos(log x ) 2 1 x .1) n . n times using Leibnitz' s Theorem. (1 .t.m 1 . x2 y n+2 + ( 2 n + 1) xy n +1 + [ n ( n .xy1 .a cos(log x) .1 m = 2 x.1 m co s. x.n + n + m 2 ) y = 0 n ie (1 .( n2 + m2 ) yn = 0 8. provethat ( x2 . we have (1 . using Leibnitz' s Theorem.r.x2 ie 1.2 xy1 m + 1 = 0 1m 2 .x2 ) y2 .r.x 2 ) y n + 2 + nC1 yn + 1 ( .x 2 ) y n+2 .t.1 x x . x .m2 ) yn = 0 Solution : y1 m + y .a sin(log x ) + b cos(log x ) differenti ating w.x2 ) yn + 2 .my 2 = m2 y 2 squaring both sides (1 .

x + x 2 m. Findthe nth derivative of (i) sin3 x ( ii ) cos 3 x (iii ) sin 4 x cos 3x (iv ) sin 8 xsin 4x ( v ) cos 5x cos x. x ( x2 . ( x 2 .4 2 = x± x2 .1)n . prove that (1 .1) y2 + xy1 .1 x 1 ie x2 .x m x2 1 Exercise 1.1 ) yn +2 + 2 xyn +1 .1 Consider.1 x2 .90 KSOU Differential Calculus which is a quadratic equation in y1 m y1 m = 2x ± 4x 2 .r. provethat (1 .1 x ).m2 y = 0 n adding. 5.1 x .1 y = x + x2 m 1 y1 = m .1) y n + 2 + (2 n + 1 ) xy n +1 + ( n 2 . x x2 . Find the n t h derivative of 1 x2 . 3. provethat (x2 .x + x2 m-1 1 1+ 2x 2 x2 .r.t.(n 2 + a 2 ) y n = 0 1 6.n + n .1) yn + 2 + (2n +1) xyn +1 + ( n2 .1 = m.x x2 1 ie y = .(2 n + 1) xy n + .( n2 . we have 1 ( x2 .m2 ) yn = 0 If y = e a si n.t. y1 m = x + differenti ating w.x2 ) y n + 2 .1)2 y1 y2 + y12 (2 x) = 2m2 yy1 dividing throughou t by 2 y .m2 ) yn = 0 We obtain the same result if y1 m = .(2 n +1) xyn +1 .1) y12 = m2 y2 differenti ating w. 4.1 + x2 .n(n +1 ) yn = 0 .m 2 ) y n = 0 ie ( x2 . If y = ( x2 .m2 y = 0 differenti ating ntimes using Leibnitz' s Theorem ( x2 .1) y + nC y 2 x + nC 2 yn 2 n+ 2 1 n +1 + xyn + 1 + nC1 y n 1 .x2 ) yn+ 2 . Findthe nth derivative of (i) e3 x sin 2 x ( ii ) e2 x cos 2 x ( iii ) e x sin 5 xcos 2 x If y = sin( m sin .1 y1 = my Squaring both sides ( x2 .5 x + 6 2.

which is distance of P from O and isthe AOP measuredin anticlock direction.tan · r dr d dr from (2) p = r sin f 1 p 1 p 2 2 Comparing LHS & RHS. . It can be seen from the triangle p = r sin f OPQ that sin f = OQ OP = p r (2) rd dr To prove that tan f = (important result) dy dx If the Cartesian co . Let A O P = & OP = r which are called Polar co . It can be seen from the figure that = + T (1) Let OQ represent perpendicular from the poleOupon the tangent at P. it is denoted as p . r qy p j P (. we have tan f = r (3) = 1 r2 cosec 2 f = 1 r2 1 + cot 2 f = [] 1 r2 + 1 r2 dr rd 2 using (3) = 1 r 2 + r 1 4 dr d 2 (4) and obtain a relation between p & r for the curve.r sin using . Let P be any point on the curve. r )q r is called radiusvector. r = f () q then ) c o .ordinates of P are ( x .tan 1 .ordinates. y ) then x = r cos y = r sin and tan = tan = dy d dx d r cos = cos + sin dr d dr d . then angle made by the tangent with radius vectorOP is denoted as ie O PT = and angle made by the tangent with initial line OA is denoted by .MCA 11 . which is called using r = f ( ) & ( 4) we can eliminate Pedal Equation or ( p.ordinates of P are (r . Equation t o the curve is taken as r = f ( ) O A Q Let PT be the tangent to the curver = f ( ) at P.r 1 .Mathematics SVT 91 Polar Co-ordinates Let O be a fixed point and OA the initial line. r ) equation of the curve. (1) & dividing Nr & Dr of RHS by cos dr d we have r tan( + )= d dr d + tan ie tan tan + tan f tan f tan = +r d dr d dr 1.

(3) For the curve 2a r 2a r = 1 .1then f1 . d dr r dr d ( 2) .cos .f 2 = p 2 the two curves are said to intersect orthogonal ly.tan f 2 1 + tan f tan f 1 2 (5) T 2 T1 using the result in (3) we can find tan f 1 & tan f 2 and hence angle between two curves at the point of intersection can be found out. tan f = r d dr = r dr d = a (1 + cos .sin 2 2 2 = = . f = p 2 + p 6 +f = p 3 + p 2 + p 6 =p the tangent is parallel to the initial line.f 2 Now P f2 f1 f 1 -f 2 f -f tan () 1 2 = tan f 1 . If tan f = tan f then 1 2 f -f tan () 1 2 =0 ie f = f 1 2 the two curves touch each other at P .t. Solution : r = a (1 + cos differenti ating w. Show that the tangent t othe Cardiod r = a (1 + cos ) .cot 2 = tan +p 2 2 cos f = p 2 + 2 when & = p 3 . dr d = a (0 .sin ) ) at the point = p 3 is parallel to the initial line. Solution : r = ae differenti ating w. Examples (1) Show that in the equiangula r spiral r = ae co t a cot a thetangent is inclined at a constant angleto the radiusvector.t. Angle between tw o curves is given by f 1 .r. If tan f 1 tan f 2 = . dr d = ae cot a cot a = r cot a tan f = r = = r r cot a = tan a f = a hence the result. f 1 & f 2 bet the angles Let PT1 & PT 2 be the tangents to the two curves and let made by the tangents with the radius vectorOP .cos show that ( i ) f = p and ( ii ) p = a cosec 2 2 Solution : = 1 .r.92 KSOU Differential Calculus To find the angle between two curves r = g () q r = f( ) & r = g( ) r = f () q Let the two curves r = f ( ) & r = g ( ) intersect at P .a sin ) 2 cos 2 = .

tan 2 2 f =p2a 2 sin 2 2 2 a & p = r sin f = r sin p 2 = r sin 2 ie p = sin 2a · 2 1.MCA 11 .r.a sin ) (1 + cos .tan cos 2 ie tan f = . - 2 a dr r2 d = sin dr d = .cos .sin 2 sin2 = . .sin d = tan + 1 + = tan 1 .f 2 = - angle between tw o curves is p 4 (5 ) Prove that the curves r = a (1 + cos r = a (1+ cos ) ) & r = b (1 .sin ) tan f 1 = r = = = (1) .tan p 4 f2 = + p 4 + (2) p 4 from (1) & (2) f 1 .r 2 sin 2a Now tanf = r d r r = = dr dr .r.r 2 sin d 2a = tan p =- 2a r sin = 1. Let f 1 bethe angle made by the tangent at the point of intersecti on with radius vector tan f =r d dr = r dr d = 2 sin 2 cos = tan 1 f1 = for the curve r = sin dr d Let f 2 (1) + cos = cos .cos ) intersect at right angles.t. this curve tanf 2 = r d r sin + cos = = dr dr cos .Mathematics SVT 93 differenti ating w.sin bethe angle w.cos = sin 2 · = p = a cosec 2 2 sin (4 ) Find the angle between th e curves r = 2 sin dr d = cos & r = sin + cos . Solution : Consider dr d = .a sin d dr r dr d a (1 + cos . Solution : r = 2 sin 2 .sin 2 2 2 = .t.

(6 ) Find the pedal equation of 2a r differenti ating w. r = cos Answer : Find the angle of intersecti on of the curves Show that the curves r = a (1 + sin p 2 ) & r = a (1 .cos ). dr d = b sin tan f 2 = r d dr = r dr d = b (1 .1 r2 4a r ie 1 p2 = 1 r2 + 1 +.1 the two curves intersect orthogonal ly. Findthe pedal equation of the curve r = a cos m Find the pedal equation of r = a Answer : pa m = rm +1 Answer : p2 (r 2 + a2 ) = r 4 .cos sin ) 1 . 4.t.sin 2 sin 2 . r = 2 sin 2 .sin 2 × = = =.r.94 KSOU Differential Calculus Consider r = b (1 .sin ) (1 .2a r 1 = 1 r2 + 1 4a2 + 4a 2 1.cos ) Ans : 2 a sin 3 2 2.cos 2 [] = + 1- . 3. r = a (1 . 5.sin sin 2a 1 r2 1 r2 1 4a 2 1 r4 dr d 2 = (1) 1 r2 1 r2 1 dr r2 1 4a2 d 2 Now = + = + = 1 r 2 + sin 2 4 a2 2 using (1) = + 1 .cos b sin ) = (1. Exercise 1. Forthe curve r2 = a2 sin 2 showthat =3 .cos sin ) (2) from (1) & (2) tan f 1 tan f 2 = (1 + cos .cos 2 . 6. Find the length of the perpendicu lar from the pole on the tangent t othe curve.4 a2 4 a2 r2 4a r = 1 r2 - 1 r2 + 1 ar = 1 ar p2 = ar which isthe requiredpedal equation. 2 a dr r2 d ie 1 dr r2 d 1 p 2 2a r = 1 + cos Solution : = 1 + cos = .sin m m ) intersect orthogonal ly.

g ( x ) or lim f ( x ) g ( x ) when it takes the forms x a x a 0 0 .2 cos 2 x 3 x2 . Examples (1) Evaluate lim x 1 log x x2 .Mathematics SVT 95 Indeterminate Forms While evaluating lim x a f ( x) g ( x) or lim [] f ( x) .3x + 2 = lim x 1 1 x = = -1 2x. g ( x ) = lim x a g ( x) g ( x) f ( x ) Consider ( lim f ( x ) g ( x ) = y x a say) log f ( x) 1 g ( x) then log y = lim log f ( x)g ( x ) = lim g ( x ) log f ( x ) = lim x a x a x a which is of the form 0 0 or 8 8 and hence L' Hospital' s rule can be applied.2 sin x + 4 sin 2 x 6x + 4 3 =1 again it is of the form 0 0 + 2 sin x = lim · 6 x x 0 4 sin 2 x 3 2x =2 6 ×1 + 4 3 × 1 Q lim 0 (2) Evaluate lim x 0 Solution : lim x 0 2 sin x .sin 2 x x3 This is of the form 0 0 2 cos x . 0 ° they are called Indeterminate forms and to evaluate such forms the following rule known as L' Hospital's Rule is used.3 x + 2 this is of the form 1 0 0 using L' Hospital' s rule Solution : lim x 1 log x x2 . 8 .3 2sin x .8 .g ( x) when it is of the form 8 . ¥ . then x a 1 Consider lim [] f ( x) x a 1 1 f ( x) which is of the form 0 0 & hence L' Hospital' s Rule can be applied.8 .MCA 11 . To evaluate lim [] f ( x) .3 2. 18 . L' Hospital's Rule If lim x a f (x) g ( x) is of the form f ''( x ) g ''( x) 0 0 or 8 8 then lim x a f ( x) g ( x) 8 8 = lim x a f ' ( x) g '( x ) again if this is of the form 0 0 or 8 8 then lim x a f ( x) g ( x) = lim x a whenever it is of the 0 0 or This rule can be applied.sin 2 x x3 = lim x 0 applying L' Hospital' s rule applying L' Hospital' s rule again = lim x 0 sin =1 = - 1 3 . 8 8 .

8 lim x 0 1 x ex 1 .8 log x = lim x 1 x.1 + xe x 0 0 using the rule again x which is again of the form ex e x + xe x + e x x x.x x2 tan x = lim x 0 Solution : lim x 0 tan x .1 1 log x log x x .1 = lim x 0 ( e x .1 3 x2 = 0 0 using the rule again = lim x 0 2 sec x · sec x tan x 6x 1 x 1 ex .x ( e x .1 x × 1 x = lim x 1 = lim x 1 x log x × 1 1 x +1 1 x2 1 2 x-1 log x + x .1 lim x 1 - x x.x x2 tan x tan x .1 log x = lim x 0 = 1 1 + 0 +1 = 1 2 (5 1) Evaluate lim x 1 - Solution : This of the form 8 .1) .1 = lim x 0 2 sec 2 x 6 × tan x x = 2 6 ×1= 1 3 (4) Evaluate lim x 0 Solution : This is of the form 8 .1) x which is of the form 0 0 using L' Hospital' s rule = lim x 0 ex .x x3 Q lim x 0 x tan x =1 This is of the form using L' Hospital' s rule = lim x 0 sec 2 x .1 is 0 0 form again applying the L' Hospital' s rule = lim x 1 = (6 ) Evaluate lim (tan x )cot p x 2 x .1 e .x x3 0 0 × x tan x = lim x 0 tan x .96 KSOU Differential Calculus (3 ) Evaluate lim x 0 tan x .x 1 x This is of the form 0 0 1 - using L' Hospital' s rule 1 x2 + x.

2 cos 2 x 3 x2 × 3 cos x .sin x x2 1 0 0 = lim x 0 sin x x sin x × x cos x .2 cos 2 x 3 x2 × 1 × 1 is of form 0 0 tan 2 x .MCA 11 .cos x 2x y=1 = lim x 0 = lim x 0 = 0 ie log y = 0 (8 ) If lim x 0 a sin x .sin x 2 = lim x 0 cos x .2 cos 2 x 3 tan 2 x · sec 2 x 0 0 limit exists if this is of the form a cos x .2 cos 2 x = 0 for x = 0 = lim x 0 a= 2 x2 × 1 sec 2 x = lim x 0 2 cos x . find the value of a and the limit.x sin x 2x .sin x x2 = 1 × lim x 0 x cos x .Mathematics SVT 97 Solution : This is of the form 8 0 Let y = lim (tan x ) cot x x p 2 log y = lim log(tan x ) cot p x 2 x = lim cot x log tan x = lim p x 2 x 2 log tan x tan x using L' Hospital' s rule p 1 · sec2 x 1 tan x = lim = lim = lim cot x = 0 2 x p p tan x p sec x x x 2 2 2 y =e =1 (7) Evaluate lim x 0 0 sin x x 1 x Solution : This is of the form 18 Let y = lim x 0 sin x x 1 x log y = lim x 0 1 x log sin x x 0 0 log = lim x 0 sin x x x This is of the form x = lim x 0 applying the L' Hospital' s rule × x cos x . 0 0 Solution : The given limit is of the form applying the L' Hospital' s rule = lim x 0 a cos x .sin 2 x tan 3 x is finite.x sin x .sin x x2 This is of the form again applying the L' Hospital' s rule .

1 log(1 + x) .2 sin x 6x + 4 3 × sin 2 x 2x = - 2 6 + 4 3 =- 1 3 + 4 3 =1 a = 2 and the limit is 1.e s i n x x .98 KSOU Differential Calculus using L' Hospital' s rule = lim x 0 .1 x2 1 sin 2 x 1 x (4) lim x 0 xex .cos x x sin x (2 ) lim x 0 ex .2 sin x + 4 sin 2 x 6x = lim x 0 . Exercise Evaluate the following (1) lim x 0 cosh x .sin x (3 ) lim x 0 e .log(1 + x) x2 1 sin x 1 (5 ) lim x 0 (6 ) lim x 0 1 x (7 ) lim (cos x ) x 0 x2 (8 ) lim ( x) 1 x 1 x 1 1 (9 ) lim (cot x ) l o g x x 0 (10 ) lim x 0 + ax + b x 3 1 e cx x Answers : (1) 1 (2) 1 (3) 2 (4) 3 2 (5 ) - 1 3 (6) 0 ( 7) (8) 1 e (9) 1 e (10 ) ( abc ) 1 3 .sin x .

r.t. y ) . y ) exists then it is called Partial derivative of z or f w.2x cos xy .2. (1) If z = x 2 + xy .y2 )(2x ) .x cos xy . y and denoted by or while obtaining the derivative differenti atethe given function w .y 2 2 () () x . y .y 2 then z x ( 2) If z = x 2 y .2xy(.2y x2 + y 2 y2 & z y = 1+ 1 () () x .y + 4x 2 2 2 2 2 2 × 2 2 x 2 y . y ) which is explicit function where x& yare independent variables and z a dependent variable.MCA 11 .f ( x.2 y ( y 2 + x2 ) x2 + y 2 2 = .2 y 3 . .t.cos xy ) (3 ) If z = tan .t.y 2 2 2 2 4 x2 y 2 2 2 × ( x2 .2 xy 2 + 4 xy 2 x . z 2 =1 & z =1 x y y x 2 2 Inexample (2) z y x = 2 x + x2 y sin xy .x sin xy then z x 2 xy x .Mathematics SVT 99 Partial Derivatives A function of two independent variables and a dependent variable is denoted as z = f ( x . .2 xy · 2 x x2 . z ) = C If lim dx 0 f ( x + dx . Eg.y 2 2 = 2x + y + 0 = 2 x + y & z y = x.2 x2 y x2 + y 2 2 = .y () () ()() x .sin xy & z y = x2 .y () () ()() x . x treating y as a constant and while finding z y differentiate the given function with respect to y . y) z x z x x z x y z y 2 & z y z are first order partial derivative s.f ( x .y 2 2 2 = 2 x3 + 2 xy2 x +y 2 2 2 = 2 x ( x2 + y 2 ) x +y 2 2 2 = 2x x2 + y 2 y 2 Successive derivatives For the function z = f ( x .y 2 4x y = () x .y + 4x 2 2 2 × 2 2 x3 y .2 y = 2 xy .r. x y y x In example (1) x = 2.4 x2 y x2 .1 then z x = 1+ 2 1 × 2 2 2 2 ( x2 . y + dy ) .y 2 ) 2 y . Implicit function is denoted by f ( x. treating xas a constant.x cos xy · y .y2 2 = () x . y = . z 2 x y y x y2 but in general z 2 = z .x cos xy · x = x2 (1 . the second order partial derivative s are 2 . z 2 .y 2 = . y 2 which are denoted as z 2 x z 2 y z 2 2 x2 .x cos xy & z x y = 2x + x2 y sin xy . z 2 .r.2 y 3 .2 y ) x2 . y ) dx f ( x . x and denoted by z y z x z x or f y f x If lim dy 0 dy exists then it is called Partial derivative of z or f w.

2 y 2 + 4 y2 x2 + y 2 2 = . ( 2) If x = f ( x + ct ) + f ( x . always 2 2 z z = x y y x Exercise (1) Find z x .2) + 2 y · 2 y y x 2 () () () x + y 2 2 2 2 2 2 = .y 2 ) x2 + y 2 2 and z = = ( x2 + y 2 ) 2 .2 x · 2 x x y () ()() x + y = 2 y 2 .by )then show that b (4) If u = x2 + y 2 then showthat x+ y y then showthat x u x u y 2 = 4 1- u x u y (5 ) If u = sin.2 x 2 .2y x +y 2x x x2 + y 2 2 2 = ( x2 + y 2 )( .1 2 2 u u = .2( x 2 .2 x2 x2 + y2 2 = . x y y x .100 KSOU Differential Calculus 2 z z = x y y x 2 2 In example (3) z = y .2( x 2 . z y 2 for z = log( x2 + y2 ) and showthat 2 2 z 2 x y z = z y x c is a constant.ct ) show that t z 2 = c2 z x z y where x2 +a = 2 abz (3) If z = e a x + by f ( ax .y 2 ) x2 + y 2 2 Thus in general.

cot 8. 5. 7.105 KSOU Matrix Theory INTEGRAL CALCULUS Given dy dx = f ( x ). Properties (1) (2) (3) [] f ( x) ± f ( x) dx = f ( x) dx ± ( x)dx ò Kf ( x )dx = K f ( x)dx where K is a constant 0 dx = c (a constant) Standard Integrals 1.1) Q c = xn n +1 dx n +1 d dx (log x + c ) = 1 x 2. Q 1 x dx = log e x + c 3. [] g ( x) + c = g '( x )when c is a constan t f ( x)dx = g ( x ) + c Thus integral of a function is not unique and two integrals always differ by a constant. 9.cosec x + c sinh x dx = cosh x + c cosh x dx = sinh x + c sech x x dx = . In the above notation f( x) is called 'Integrand' and further But d dx d dx [] g ( x) = f ( x ). log Q a x dx = ax +c log a d + ax dx a c = ax in particular e x dx = ex + c 4. 10 .sech x + c .the process of finding y is called 'Integration' and the resulting function is called 'Integral'. If g (x) is the integral then ) f ( x)dx = g ( x is the notation used to represent the process. 6.cos x + c cos x dx = sin x + c sec x tan x dx = sec x +1 cosec x x dx = . xn dx = x n+1 d + xn +1 + c ( n .tanh sin x dx = .

sech -1 x + c 18. sec x tan x = sec x tan x dx = dt .1 dx = -1 x + c or .t.cosh 1 x2 .coth cosech x 1 1 + x2 x dx = . Integration by substitution Consider f ( x ) dx put x = f ( t ) then dx dt = f '(t ) ie dx = f '( t ) dt f ( x) dx = f [] f (t ) f '( t ) dt now for the new integrand.dt dx ò tan x dx = or - dt t = .sin x = dt dx ie sin x dx = .cosesh x + c -1 12 .log t = .cos 1 1 .1 x + c 17. 1. then . ec x = t differenti ating w.r. 1 x 1.sinh 1 1 + x2 dx = -1 x +c 15 .log cos x = log sec x + c ò tan x dx = dt dx tan x sec x sec x dx x put s .cot dx = tan . we can use the standard forms.1 x + c or - x+ c 13 .x2 dx = .1 dx = -1 x+ c 16 .sec 1 x x2 .cosec. 1 x 1 + x2 dx = .x2 dx = sin.102 KSOU Integral Calculus 11 . ie. Examples 1. tan x dx = sin x cos x put cos x = t . we have to make a proper substitution so that the given integrand reduced to a standard one.cosech -1 x + c Methods of Integration There are two methods (1) Integration by substitution & (2) Integration by parts.1 x + c or - -1 x+ c 14 .

x cos x . The first one can also bewritten as Examples 1. one has to be taken as u& another dv dx then the RHS after evaluation gives the integral or if both functions have taken as u& v then the result is as follows uv dx = u v dx · du ò dx v dx dx uv' dx = uv u 'v dx any one form can be used depending on convenience.t. v ' = 1. dt t dx = log t = log sec x + c òcot x dx = cos x sin x put sin . 1 u'v dx = xex 1 · ex dx = xex . Integration by parts If u & v are functions of x. dt t x cos x = dt dx ie cos x dx = dt ò cot x dx = 3. 5. By definition of Integratio n uv = + dv u dx v du dx dx = du dx dv ò u dx + dx v du dx dx using property (1) d dx ( uv ) = u dv dx +v du dx dv ò u dx = uv dx v dx The result can be used as the standard result. u ' = x . 1 xex dx put u = v. Out of the two functions of the product.Mathematics SVT 103 òtan x dx = 2. v= x log x dx put u = log x . cosec = log t = log sin x + c tanh x dx = log cosh x + c coth x dx = log sinh x + c sec x dx = log(sec x + tan x) + c cosec x dx = log( x .ex + c . u ' = .cos x dx = . 4.x cos x + cos x dx = .xcos x + sin x + c x sin x dx = x sin x du - · sin x dx = .cot x) + c n [] f ([] x ) f '( x) dx = In general f ' ( x) dx = log f ( x) + c also f ( x) f ( x) n +1 + c(n n +1 .1) 2. v ' = ex .r.MCA 11 . 6. x=t differenti ating w. we know that. 1 3. v = ex xex dx = uv 2.

104 KSOU Integral Calculus uv 'dx = uv ie u 'v dx 1 · x dx = x log x x 1 1 . 1 = A(.a .x2 & (4) dx Ax 2 + Bx + C to evaluate(1) put x = at .a x+a .r. sin .x2 sin .1 x dx = x sin .a ) = 1 a log x.x dx = t dt t dt t2 1 .a ) + B( x + a ) put x = a. (2 ) dx x2 . (3 ) dx a 2 .x2 = .t.1 x - 1 1 . v ' = 1.1 x - Special Types of Integrals Type I (1) dx a 2 + x2 . u ' = .a 2 dx x2 .1 1 x2 .a 2 = 1 ( x + a )( x .a 2 = 1 2a = 1 B= 1 2a .2a ) + 0 .a (Say) multiply throughout by x 2 .1 t = 1 a -1 x a + c to evaluate(2) & (3) use partialfractions 1 x2 .a2 .a ) = A x+a + B x.x2 dx put 1 .a =1 2a log( 2 x +a)+ 1 2a log( x .a dx = 1 2a log dx x+ a x.x2 + c = 1· dt = t = 1 .1 x dx put u = sin .a x+a +c + 1 2a dx x. x .x dx 1 . dx = a dt dx a 2 + x2 = a dt a2 + a 2 t 2 = 1 tan dt a 1 + t2 = 1 a tan .x2 ò log 1 x dx = x log x - · dx = x log x .a2 1 = A( x .x 1 . 1 = 0 + B · 2 a put x = .1 x.x2 = t 2 differentiatingw.a 2 1 x2 .1 2a A= 2a + 2a x+ a x.2 x dx = 2 t dt .x + c 4. v =x sin .x2 x dx to evaluate .1 x dx = x sin .

x) + B( a + x ) put x = a .5) 2 .x) = 1 a log a+ x a.5 .x dx = 1 2a log( 2 a + x) 1 2a log( a . (2) or (3) and hence can be evaluated.x ) = A a+x + B a.2 x2 = dx ( x .4 AC 4 A2 - This integral will take any one of (1). 1 x2 .x log +c Ax 2 + Bx + c dx 1 = B C A x + x+ A A 2 G.a 2 = 1 (a + x )( a .x dx = 1 2a 1 2a dx 1 a+x a+x a.I. Examples (1) Evaluate dx 3 x2 .25 + 21 dx 6 .x (Say) multiplying throughout by a2 .22 = 1 2×2 log x.x2 .10 x + 21 (3) Evaluate . then 1 = A( a .x dx + 1 2a 1 a.3 x 1 + c 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 ( 2) Evaluate dx dx x2 .10 x + 21 = dx ( x .5) 2 .2 x.2 x + 4 = 1 3 x 2 dx 2 3 x+ 4 3 = 1 3 x 1 3 dx 2 = 4 9 + 4 3 1 3 x 1 3 2 dx + .2 x + 4 Solution : dx 3x 2 . A( 2 a ) + 0 A= 2 a + 2a a+x a.MCA 11 .7 x.x2 1 a 2 . 1 = 0 + B (2 a ) B= 1 2a 1 1 a2 .x2 to evaluate (4) dx = = 1 1 2a put x = .1 .5 + 2 = 1 4 log x.3 +c Solution : x2 .4 x .a .x2 1 a 2 . = 1 A dx + x B 2A 2 = B2 4 A2 + C A 1 A + x B 2A 2 dx B 2 .Mathematics SVT 105 next.4 + 12 9 - = 1 3 8 3 2 dx + x 1 3 2 = 1 3 2 2 3 2 dx 1 + x 3 2 = × tan 3 2 2 3 1 1 x-1 1 3 = 1 tan.

1 x a = cosh. dx = a sinh d x +c a = .a2 2 put x = a cosh .a sin = sin .a2 to evaluate Ax2 G.x2 to evaluate dx a2 + x2 dx a2 + x2 = put x = a sinh .( x + 1) 8 3+ x 1.x 2 2 . (2) & (3) and hence can be evaluated.4 x .2 x2 = 1 2 = dx 3 .1 dx a2 + x2 to evaluate dx x -a dx x2 .a2 a sinh d a sinh = 1· d = = cosh .1 + a2 x a sinh2 a cosh d a cosh x a = = 1·d = = sinh. (2 ) dx a +x dx a2 .I.4 AC 4 A2 This will reduce to any one of (1).1 x a a -x dx 2 a2 . Examples (1) Evaluate dx 2 x .1 = dx a sinh d a2 cosh2 + Bx + C dx x2 + B A x+ C A = 1 A + x B 2A dx 2 = B 4 2 1 A + x B 2A dx 2 - A2 + C A - B 2 .5 x2 . (4 2 dx Ax + Bx + C to evaluate put x = a sin .a 2 2 .106 KSOU Integral Calculus Solution : dx 6 .x2 dx = 2 2 2 .x Typ e II (1) ) dx a . (3) dx x .( x + 1)2 1 log 1 2 + ( x + 1) 1 × log = 2 2× 2 2 .( x + 1 )2 + 1 = 1 2 +c dx 2 2 . dx = a cos d a cos d a .( x2 + 2 x ) = 1 2 dx 3 .1 x +c a 2 2 2 = a cos d a cos = 1· d = = sin . dx = a cosh d a cosh d a2 = sinh. = 1 A 2 2 +c dx x .

Mathematics SVT 107 Solution : 1 5 dx 2 5 x .2x + 5 = dx ( x .2 x + 5 (3 ) Evaluate dx 4 x2 . ie.4 + m = 6lx .x2 = 1 5 - dx x2 2 5 x = 1 5 1 5 2 dx x 1 5 2 = 1 5 xsin 1 -1 1 5 = 1 × sin .1 2 +c Solution : dx x2 .1 )2 = sinh .12x + 8 Solution : G.) + c 5 1 5 (2) Evaluate x2 dx .4l + m 6l = 2 l = 1 3 .1 (5 x .MCA 11 .4 x + 5 dx Solution :)Put 2 x + 3 = l(6 x . ò px + q Ax2 + Bx + C dx = l px + q Ax2 + Bx + C dx + m Ax2 dx + Bx + C = 2l Ax2 + Bx + C + m Ax2 dl + Bx + C the second integral in RHS is Type II and hence can be evaluated.I. Examples (1) Evaluate 2x + 3 3 x2 .1 )2 + 2 2 = dx 22 + ( x . = 1 4 dx x2 .1 x.8 4 = 1 2 x 3 2 dx 2 = 1 2 2 1 2 xcosh 3 -1 1 2 2 = 1 cosh .4 l + m = 3 ie m = 3 + 4 3 = 13 3 .1 (2 x 2 )+c Type III px + q Ax + Bx + C 2 dx and px + q Ax2 + Bx + C to evaluate put px + q = l (derivative 2 of Ax2 + Bx + C ) + m = l( Ax + B) + m where l & mare the constants to be found out by equating the co-efficients of corresponding terms on both sides.3 x + 2 = 1 2 x 3 2 dx 2 = 9 4 3 +2 1 2 x dx 3 2 2 - 9. . to solve for m & nfrom the equations 2 Al = p and lB + m = q then px + q Ax 2 + Bx + c dx = l 2 Ax + B Ax 2 + Bx + C dx + m dx Ax 2 + Bx + C = l · log( Ax 2 + Bx + C ) + m dx Ax 2 + Bx + C the second integral in RHS is Type I and hence can be evaluated.

) + c 1 2 2 Type IV dx a cos x + b sin x + c to evalute put tan x =t 2 2 dt then differentiatingw.4 3 x2 .5 3 x .sin 2 x 2 1 1 + t2 t2 1 + t2 1 .2 1 2 .( x2 .x2 .7 = l(3 .4 x + 5 = 1 3 log( 3 x2 .x .7 3x .x .x2 .5 3x .2 5 2 2 & 3l + m = .5 3 x . x 1 x dt sec 2 = 2 2 dx .2 + 1 1 × sin-3 2 x 3 2 = .7 m = .4 x + 5) + 13 9 x 2 3 2 dx 2 + 11 3 = 1 3 log(3 x .4 x + 5) + 13 9 x 2 dx 4 3 x+ 5 3 = 1 3 log( 3 x2 .2 + dx x 3 2 2 = .t. cos x = & sin x = .3x 2 + c 3 11 3 11 11 3 tan -1 (2) Evaluate 5x .2 dx Solution :)Put 5 x .x 2 .x2 .3 x ) 1 2 1 2 2 =- · 2 3 x .4 x + 5 dx + 13 3 dx 3 x2 .2 .22 dx + 1 2 dx .4 x + 5 dx = 1 3 6x .t2 1 + t2 = 2t 1 + t2 2t 1 + t2 when tan x 2 = t .7 .2 + 1 sin -1 (2 x .7 + 15 2 = 1 2 dx = - 5 2 3 .3l = .2l = 5 l =5 2 5x .108 KSOU Integral Calculus 2x + 3 3 x2 .7 3x.2 lx + 3 l + m .2 x + m = . dx = 2 dt 1 + t2 .4 x + 5) + 13 9 x 2 3 dx 2 = 4 9 + 5 3 1 3 log( 3 x2 .1 .2 + + 9 4 dx x 3 2 2 = .2x 3x .t2 1 + t2 ie dx = 2 dt sec 2 x 2 = 1+ tan 2 x 2 = 2 dt 1 + t2 & cos x = cos 2 x 2 = - = & sin x = 2 sin x 2 cos x 2 =2 t 1 + t2 × 1 1 + t2 1 .4 x + 5) + 2 13 9 × 3 11 x 2 3 = 1 log(3 x2 .x2 .4 x + 5 ) + 13 tan.r.

t 2 ) 1+t 2 = 2 dt 3(1 + t2 ) .2t + 7 3 dx 2 cos x .t ) 2t a +b +c (1 + t2 ) (1 + t2 ) 2 dt a(1 .1) .5 cos x = 1 4 2 tan log 2 x 2 x 2 -1 +c +1 (3 2 ) Evaluate x 2 dx 3 + sin x = t .1) 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 dx 2cos x .2 = 2 8 2 dt t 2 8 = 1 4 t2 - dt 1 2 2 = 1 4 × 1 2× 1 2 t log t + 1 1 2 = log 1 4 2 tan tan x 2 x 2 + 1 2 1 2 dx 3 tan .t 2 ) 3 × 2 t +5 1 + t2 1 + t2 2 dt 2(1 .t2 1 + t2 Solution : Put tan = t .a ) t2 + 2bt + a + c which is Type I and hence can be evaluated.1 )2 + 2 3 2 = 2 1 t -1 1 3 × tan.6 t + 5 (1 + t 2 ) = 2 dt 3t 2 .1 (t . = 1 + t2 = 2 (1 . then dx = 2 dt 1 + t2 .t2 1 + t2 & sin x = 2t 1 + t2 Solution : Put tan = 2 3 dt 7 ( t .t 2 ) = 2 dt 8 t2 .6 t + 7 = 2 3 dt t2 .5 cos x = 3- (1 + t 2 ) 5(1 .I.5(1 .MCA 11 . then dx = 2 dt 1 + t2 and sin x = 2t 1 + t2 Solution : Put tan . then dx = dx 3 .3 sin x + 5 ( 2) 5 Evaluate x 2 = 1 3 tan-1 32 tan x 2 1 +c 3- dx cos x 2 dt 1+ 2 dt t2 & cos x = 1 .Mathematics SVT 109 2 dt dx = a cos x + b sin x + c (1 + t2 ) = 2 (1 .t 2 ) .t 2 ) + 2 bt + c (1 + t2 ) = 2 dt ( c .1 = tan.3 sin x + 5 = t . Examples (1) Evaluate x 2 2 dt G. cos x = 1 .1 + 3 2 = 2 3 dt ( t .

sin x 4 sin x + cos x =5 17 1 · dx + 14 17 log( 4 sin x + cos x ) adding 17 l = .20 + 34 17 4 sin x + cos x 4 sin x + cos x x+ 14 17 = 14 17 dx + 14 17 4 cos x .2 sin x 4 sin x + cos x dx Solution : Put 3 cos x .2 l + 4m = 3 (1) (2) (1) × 4 (2)×1 16 l .1 3 5 3 t+ 2 3 = 2 tan.sin x) 4l .e sin x c sin x + e cos x dx = lx + m log( c sin x + e cos x) + c Examples Evaluate 3cos x .2 sin x 4 sin x + cos x 20 17 dx = - log(4 sin x + cos x ) + c .m = .efficients of sin x & cos x separately .8 l + 4m = 3 l=5 17 +2= 5 17 =5 17 . m = 4l + 2 = 3 cos x .4 m = .1 3t + 2 5 5 5 3 dx 2 = tan-1 3 + 2 sin x 5 3 tan 2 +c Typ e V a cos x + b sin x c sin x + e cos x dx Solution :to evaluate put a cos x + b sin x = l (Denominator) + m(derivative of denominator) ie a cos x + b sin x = l ( c sin x + e cos x) + m ( c cos x .110 KSOU Integral Calculus 2 dt dx 3 + 2 sin x = 1 + t2 = 4t 3+ 1 + t2 2 dt 3 (1 + t 2 ) + 4 t = 2 3 1+t dt 2 + 4 3 = t 2 3 + t 2 3 dt 2 - 4 9 +1 2 = 3 dt + t 2 3 + 2 + 5 3 x 2 5 2 2 1 = × tan. ie fromthe equations lc .e sin x ) where l & m are constantsto be foundout by equatingthe co .me = b & le + mc = a then a cos x + b sin x c sin x + e cos x dx = l c sin x + e cos x c sin x + e cos x dx + m c cos x .2 sin x = l (4 sin x + cos x) + m (4 cos x .5 from (1).

v ' = 1 2 1 ò x cosec 2 2 x 2 dx - cot x 2 dx (1) Consider x cosec 2 x dx x 2 x 2 cosec 2 .cos x dx = x 2 sin 2 x 2 2 sin dx - x 2 cos x 2 x 2 dx 2 sin 2 = 1 2 put u = x.cot .cos x x 1 .ex (1 + x) 2 dx = ex + (1 + x) ex (1 + x)2 dx dx = ex + (1 + x) ex (1 + x) 2 dx - ex (1 + x) 2 dx = ex +c 1+ x x .cos x dx Solution : x . u ' = f ( x).we have ò f ( x) e Examples (1)) Evaluate xex (1 + x)2 x dx = f ( x) e x - f '( x) e x dx + f '( x ) ex dx = f ( x) ex + c xex (1 + x 2 dx (1 + x) e ò x Solution : dx = (1 + x .sin x . v = .MCA 11 . v = e x f ( x) ex dx = f ( x) ex f '( x) ex dx substitutingthis in (1). v ' = ex .cos x dx - sin x 1 . u ' = 1.sin x ò dx = 1 . v ' = ex . u ' = .1 (1 + x )2 . v = ex put u = 1+ x ex ex dx = (1 + x) (1 + x) substituting in (1) xe2 (1 + x) ( 2) 1 Evaluate 2 .Mathematics SVT 111 Type VI f ( x) ex dx where f ( x) = f ( x ) + f '( x) Solution : f ( x) e ò x dx = f ( x) ex dx + f ' ( x) ex dx (1) Consider f ( x) ex dx put u = f ( x).1) ex (1 + x)2 dx = (1 + x)2 dx - ex (1 + x)2 dx = òe x 1+ x dx - ex (1 + x)2 dx (1) Consider 1 ex dx (1+ x) .

a 2 dx (4 ) Ax 2 + Bx + C dx Ax 2 + Bx + C dx .cos x dx = .sin x 1 . 2 = A(1 + 2 ) + 0 put x = 0.1 (sin 2 x ) + c x ( 2) 2 Evaluate x2 + 1 (x + 1)( x2 + ) x2 +1 = dx Solution : Let ( x + 1)( x2 + 2 ) A Bx + C + x + 1 x2 + 2 multiplyingthroughou t by ( x 2 +1)( x2 + ) 2 then x2 +1 = A( x 1 + 2) + ( Bx + C )( x + ) put x = . then sin x cos x dx = dt 1 dt = sin x cos x 1 + sin 4 dx = 2 1 + t2 1 2 tan.x cot x 2 +c Other examples (1) Evaluate sin x cos x 1 + sin 4 x dx Solution : Put sin22x = t.efficient of x2 on bothsides A+ B=1 B =1.A = 12 1 = 3 3 x2 + 1 ( x + 1)( x2 + 2 ) x2 +1 = 2 1 1 x3 +3 3 x + 1 x2 + 2 dx = 2 3 = 2 3 ( x +1)( x2 + 2) dx 1 + x +1 3 x.x cot x 2 + cot x 2 dx substituting in (1) x .x cot x 2 + cot x 2 dx cot x 2 dx = .1.x2 dx ( px + q (2) a2 + x2 dx (3) òx 2 .1 t = 1 2 tan .112 KSOU Integral Calculus 1 2 x cosec 2 x 2 dx = .1 x2 + 2 1 6 dx = 2 3 dx 1 + x +1 6 1 3 2 tan .1 2x x2 + 2 x 2 dx - 1 dx 3 x2 + 2 log( x + 1) + log( x2 + 2) - +c Type VII (1) (5 ) ) a2 . 1 = 2 A + C A= 2 3 C =1- 4 1 =3 3 Equating co .

a2 sin 2 a2 2 a2 2 · a cos d = ò a cos · a cos d = a2 2 · x a2 a2 cos 2 d = a2 2 (1 + cos 2 ) d = + a 2 sin 2 a2 × = 2 2 2 x a + a2 2 · x a -1 + x2 a 2 a2 sin 2 = a2 2 cos = + a2 · sin · 1 .1 x a -1 = a2 sinh cosh 2 x a a2 2 cosh .x2 dx = ( 2) To evaluate x a2 a 2 .1 cosh = a2 2 x2 a2 .a2 dx = x a2 x2 .a2 dx put x = a cosh x2 .a2 a2 2 cosh .Mathematics SVT 113 (1) To evaluate a 2 . then.x2 dx = a2 . This will take the form (1). then dx = a cosh d a 2 + x2 dx put x = a sinh a2 + x2 dx = òa a2 2 a2 2 2 + a2 sinh2 a2 2 · a cosh d = a2 2 a2 2 -1 a2 cosh 2 a2 2 d = sinh 2 2 + a2 2 · a2 2 = x a (1 + cosh 2 ) d a2 2 1+ = 1· d + a2 2 cosh 2 d = + · x a + x2 a 2 a2 2 = ×sinh cosh a2 2 x a x 2 = + sinh 1 + sinh 2 = sinh .1 x 2 - a2 x cosh.x2 + 2 sin 2 x +c a .1 + a 2 + x2 a2 + x2 dx = (3 ) To evaluate x a2 a 2 + x2 + 2 sinh 2 x +c a .sin2 2 a 2 . (5 ) ) To evaluate ( px + q Ax 2 + Bx + C dx put px + q = l (derivativeof 2 Ax2 + Bx + C ) + m = l ( Ax + B) + m where l & m are constants to be found out. then dx = a sinh d x2 . ) ( px + q ) Ax 2 + Bx + C dx = l ( 2 Ax + B ò Ax 2 + Bx + C dx + m Ax 2 + Bx + C .1) d = cosh 2 d - a2 a 2 sinh 2 a2 1·d = · 2 2 2 2 a2 2 cosh .a 2 dx = a2 2 a2 2 a 2 cosh2 .1 x a + a2 2 a2 .a2 2 cosh 2 A x +c a B A x+ C A dx . dx = a cos d òa 2 .1 1- sin .a2 · a sinh d = a sinh · a sinh d = a 2 sinh2 d = a2 2 (cosh 2 .x2 = sin .1 sinh .1 2 a x 2 x 2 .MCA 11 .x2 dx put x = a sin .1· = x2 .1 x a = cosh 2 . (2) or (3) and hence can be ( 4) To evaluate Ax 2 + Bx + C dx = x2 + evaluated.

be a x cos( bx + c ) (a 2 + b 2 ) S = e ax [] a sin( bx + c ) . (2) or (3) and hence can be evaluated.abC = . Type VIII dx ( px + q) Ax2 + Bx + C put px + q = 1 -1 1 -1 then p dx = dt & x = q t p t t2 dx ( px + q ) Ax2 + Bx + C = 1 t A -1 q p2 t 2 dt t2 -1 + q +C p t = A p2 2 . u ' = ae ax .b cos( bx + c ) .qt 2 ) + Ct 2 p This integral reduces to any one of Type II and hence can be solved. v = .aC = .cos( bx + c ) b S= + e a x cos( bx + c ) dx (1) bS = .aS aS + bC = eax sin( bx + c) Consider S = eax sin( bx + c) dx put u = e a x . v = e ax C = sin( bx + c ) b - a b e ax sin( bx + c ) dx bC = eax sin( bx + c ) .tq ) + B (t . Let C = eax cos( bx + c ) dx & S = eax sin( bx + c) dx Consider C = eax cos(bx + c ) dx sin( bx + c ) b put u = e a x .dt (1 . u ' = ae ax . v ' = sin( bx + c ). Type IX eax cos(bx + c) dx and eax sin( bx + c) dx To evaluatewe haveto use integration by parts.eaax cos( bx + c ) + aC ie bS .114 KSOU Integral Calculus = 2 l) 3 ( Ax 2 + Bx + C 3 2 +m A x2 + A x+ C A dx the second integral reduces to (1).e ax cos( bx + c ) b a b . v ' = cos( bx + c ).eax cos( bx + c) (1) × a (2) × b adding a S + abC = ae 2 ax (2) sin( bx + c ) b 2 S .

5 cos 5x ) 29 1 2 e3 x dx + 1 2 + 1 2 e2 x (2 sin x .1)( x2 + 4 ) 4x +1 x2 .a2 C = . x -1 (1) sin .cos x) 5 1 2 × e3 x 3 +c 1 2 (3 cos 2x + 2 sin 2 x) 9+4 (2) e3x cos 2 x dx = e3 x (1 + cos 2 x) dx = 3x 3x e3 x cos 2x dx = + e3 x e e + (3 2cos 2 x + 2 sin x ) + c 6 26 Exercise Integrate the following w.2 x2 .x2 ( 2) 1 x cos 2 (log x ) (3 ) es i n x 1 .2 ( x + 1)2 ( x + 3) 4x+ 5 x2 + 22 x + 2 (6) x ( x .Mathematics SVT 115 eax [] a sin( bx + c) .r.x .b cos(bx + c ) ( a2 + b2 ) abS + b2 C = be ax sin( bx + c ) abS .1 (5) 3x .MCA 11 .2 x2 1 ( x + 1) x2 .ae a x cos( bx + c ) S= (1) × b (2 ) × a b sin( bx + c ) + a cos( bx + c ) subtractin g ( a 2 + b 2 ) C = e ax [] C= eax [] a cos( bx + c) + b sin( bx + c ) (a2 + b 2 ) Examples (1) e 2 x sin 3 x cos 2 x dx = 1 2 e 2 x [sin 5 x + sin x ] dx = 1 2 ò e 2x sin 5 x dx + 1 2 e2 x sin dx = 1 2 = 1 2 e 2x ( 2 sin 5 x .6 x + 18 ( 7) (8 ) (9 ) (10) (1 + x) (2 + x)2 ex (11) 1 2 + cos x .4 x .3 x + 2 (19) (20) (21) e2 x sin 4 x sin 2x (24) e4 x sin3 x (22) e2 x cos 3 x cos x (23) e3 x cos 3 x .1 (18) (2x .sin x 1 4 cos 2 x + 9 sin 2 x (12) 1 3 + 4 cos x (1 + sin x) (1 + cos x) ex (13) 2 sin x + 3 cos x 4 sin x + 5 cos x (14) (15) (16) 1 x( xn + 1) 1 ( x + 1) 2 x2 + 3x + 4 (17 ) 6 .5 ) x2 .1 x 1 .x2 (4) sec 2 x tan x(2 + tan x) x3 .t.

x2 dx = dt when x = 0 .g ( a ) is defined as Definite integral and denoted as a f ( x) dx ie If ò f ( x ) dx = g ( x )then b f ( x ) dx = g ( b ) .0= 2 2 2 4 ( 4) Evaluate 0 dx 4 + 3 cos x = t then dx = 2 dt 1 + t2 .3 =71 16 3 - 1 4 + 2 3 = 84 .g (a ) + c b ie g ( b ) .1 1 . t = sin.x 1 .2 x 2 + 3) dx = + x4 4 .1 1 = p p 2 1 (sin .64 .1 2x p dx = 0 2 t 2 dt = t3 3 0 2 = 1 p 3 2 3 = p3 24 02 (3 ) Evaluate dx + 2x+ 5 1 dx 1 Solution : 1 dx + 2x+ 5 x -12 dx = dx +1)2 +2 (x -1 2 = 1 2 tan.g ( a ) a b is called upper limit and a is called lower limit. cos x = 1 .1 x )2 1.2× 23 3 +3 2 - +1 4 - 2 3 1 3 = 4= 16 3 +6- 1 4 + 2 3 .tan.t2 1 + t2 Solution : Put tan x 2 when x = 0 . Examples 2 (1) Evaluate 1 ( x3 .1 1 .tan.2 x2 + 3 ) dx 2 Solution : 2 1 ( x3 .116 KSOU Integral Calculus Definite Integrals Let f ( x) be a function defined in the interval (a.3 + 8 12 = 25 12 ( 2 )) Evaluate 02 (sin .1 2 2 2 8= p 1 1 1p p tan.1 x 1.2× x3 3 3x 1 = · 24 4 .x 2 dx Solution sin : Put -1 x = t then 1 1 .1 0 = . b) and f ( x) dx = g ( x) + c The value of the integral at x = b minus the value of the integral at x = a ie [][] g (b) + c . t = tan0 = 0 when x = p .1 +x 1 2 = -1 1 2 tan. t = sin -1 0 = 0 when x = 1.1 1 +1 1 +. t = tan p =8 2 .

1 0 = 1 7 × p 2 = p 2 7 Properties of Definite Integrals b b 1.) a a f ( x ) dx = a a f ( x ) dx + c f ( x dx b where a < c < b b 4.1 8 - 1 7 tan.t ) 8 = 02 2 dt t2 + () 7 = 1 7 tan .Mathematics SVT 117 2 dt p 0 dx 4 + 3 cos x 8 = 0 4+ 1 + t2 = 3(1 .x ) = f ( x ) if f ( 2 a .1 t 7 8 0 = 1 7 tan.x ) dx p = 0 2 cos n x sin n x + cos n x dx p p 2I = 0 2 sinn x cos n x+ sinn x dx + 0 2 cos n x sin n x+ cosn x p dx = 0 2 (sin n x + cos n x ) (cos n x + sin n x) p dx = 0 2 1 · dx = x ] p 0 2 = p 2 I= p 4 p ( 2) Evaluate 0 x sin x 1 + sin x dx p 0 Solution : Let I = p 0 x sin x dx = 1 + sin x (p .MCA 11 . also 0 f ( x ) dx = 0 f ( a .x ) dx a a f ( x) dx = a f ( a + b .f ( x) Examples p (1) Evaluate 0 2 sin n x cos n x + sin n x dx -p 2 cos n p Solution : Let I = 0 2 sin n x cos n p sin n 2 x a n a x+ sin n dx = x 0 -p 2 x + sin -p 2 dx using x 0 f ( x) dx = 0 f ( a .x) a 0 f ( x ) dx = a 0 f ( a .x) dx using 1+ sin( p . 0 f ( x ) dx = 0 if f (2 a . a b f ( x ) dx = b c f ( x ) dx b 3 .x ) dx a 2 f ( x )d x 0 5.a f ( x ) dx = 0 a if f ( x ) is an even function if f ( x ) is an odd function 2a 2 0 f ( x ) dx 6.x ) sin(p . . a b f ( x) dx = a f ( y ) dy a 2.t 2 ) (1 + t 2 ) 8 02 2 dt 4 (1 + t 2 ) + 3 (1 .x) dx .x ) = .

2 ab (8) p .2 +p (3 ) Evaluate p 3 6 dx 1+ tan x -p 2 p Solution : Let I = p 3 6 cos x dx cos x + sin x p cos 3 x dx -p 2 using x b a = p 6 cos -p 2 f ( x ) dx = b a f ( a ..x ) sin x 1 + sin x p dx p 2I = 0 x sin x 1 + sin x p 0 dx + 0 (p .p 1 = p .sin x ) (1 + sin x )(1 .sin x) p 0 p 02 sin x .) 2 p .sin 2 x cos x pp ò sec x tan x dx .tan 0 + 0 0 = p [][][] .x) dx ( 5) 1 0 8 x tan.1.p 00 tan 2 x dx =p + sec x tan x - p 0 sec 2 x dx p 0 1 dx = p [][ sec ][] x .x ) sin x 1 + sin x dx = p p dx = 0 x sin x + ( p .1 x dx x dx ( x + 1)( x + 1) x dx sin x + cos x (6) 1 -1 p xe.p sec 0 . 4 p 2 2 log () 2 +1 (12 ) p 8 log 2 . ( 5) . 4 3 5 4 2 e p 8 log 2 (10 ) a (11) (7 ) p .x2 dx a 2 cos 2 x + b2 sin x f ( x) f ( x) + f ( 2a . (2) 1.. (4 ) log .x ) sin x 1 + sin x dx = p p dx = 0 p sin x 1 + sin x dx = p p 0 sin x 1 + sin x =p sin x(1 .118 KSOU Integral Calculus p ie I = 0 (p .tan p + p . (3) e . (6) .1+ p p I = (p 2.x dx -1 p 2 (7 ) 2 (8 ) 02 (9) 0 4 log( 1 + tan ) d 02 2a p (10) 0 (11 ) 0 2 1 (12 ) 02 log( 1 + x ) (1 + x ) dx Answers : (1) ( 9) p 1 7 p 1 2 .x ) dx x + sin p I = 3 sin x dx sin x + 3 p 6 p dx p p p 3 3 cos x + sin x dx sin x + cos x dx = 3 2I = cos x dx cos x + sin x cos x + cos x + sin x sin x p 6 p 6 dx = p 6 1 · dx = x p 6 = p 3 - p 6 = p 6 p I= 12 Exercise Evaluate the following p (1) 2 sin x 1 + cos x dx (2 ) e 1 p log x dx (3) 4 e t an x cos x dx 02 1 2 02 ( 4) dx 9 .tan x + x p = p sec p .

1 n.1) sin n .1 x cos x + ( n .sin n .1 x cos x + (n .(n .1) In = .sin2 x) dx = .2 In = n-1 I n n- 2 = n.1 xcos x + (n .sin n .sinn -1 xcos x + (n .3 2 × ×L L × ×1 if n is odd.5 × I = × × I n n .4 n-6 in general n.1 + I n n n.1) In .2 x cos 2 x dx = .1 x & v' = sin x.MCA 11 .2 .2 2 2 In = n.1 x · sin xdx put u = sinn.sin n -1 cos x + ( n .1) sinn x dx = .( n .2 x (1 .sinn .1 cos x + ( n .cos x In = .2 x dx .1) sinn .1) In In + ( n .1 x sin x n .Mathematics SVT 119 Reduction formulae I. n n.1) In .3 n.1) In.sinn .2 ie I n = .2 3 p Eg.cos x If I n = 0 2 sin n x dx then p I = n .2 n.2 n.3 1 p × ×L L × × if n is even.sin n . (1) I6 = 2 sin 6 x dx = 5 6 × 3 4 × 1 2 × p 2 8 = 5p 32 0 p ( 2) I = 5 0 2 sin 5 x dx = 4 5 × 2 3 ×1 = 15 p II.1 + I n n n p p 2 andfurtherif In = cos n x dx = 0 2 cos n 0 -p 2 x dx using a 0 f ( x) dx = a 0 f ( a .1 n I n.1 n.2 the ultimate integral is I0 or I1 according as n is even or odd If n is even I0 = 1 dx = x p If n is odd I1 = sin x dx = .1) sinn .1 xcos x n . u ' = (n . To obtain the reduction formula for In = ò sin p n x dx and hence to evaluate 0 2 sin n x dx Solution : In = sinn.1 n.x) dx .1)sin n -2 x cos x & v = .1 n. n n.4 n n .1 x cos x n 0 2 + n.sin n.1) In = .3 n.2 =0+ n-1 n I n. To obtain the reduction formula for In = cos n dx andto evaluate 0 2 cos n x dx Solution : using integratio n by parts as in Iwe obtain In = cos n.2 ie (1+ n .

120 KSOU Integral Calculus

p

=
0
p

2

sin n x dx which is I 6 7 7 8 4 5 5 6 2 3 3 4 16 35

Eg. (1)
0
p

2

cos 7 x dx =

×

×

×1= 1 2

(2 )
0

2

cos 8 x dx =

×

×

×

×

p
2

=

35 p 256

III.

To obtain the reduction formula for In =

tann x dx tan ò
n- 2

Solution : In = In =

tann - 2 x · tan2 x dx = tann - 2 x · (sec2 x - 1) dx = tann -1 x - In - 2 which isthe requiredformula. n- 1

x · sec2 x dx -

tann - 2 x dx

IV.

To obtain the reduction formula for In = cot n x dx cotn - 2 x · cot2 x dx = - cotn - 1 x - In - 2 n- 1

Solution : In = In =

ò cot

n- 2

x · (cosec 2 x - 1) dx = cotn - 2 x cosec 2 x dx -

cotn -

2

x dx

V.

To obtain the reduction formula for In = sec n x dx secn - 2 x ·
2

Solution :sec In =

x dx
3

put u = sec n - 2 x & v' = sec2 x , u ' = ( n - 2) secn In = sec n- 2 tan x -

x · sec x tan x & v = tan x

( n - 2) sec n - 2 x · tan2 x dx = secn - 2 x tan x - (n - 2) sec n - 2 (sec2 x - 1) dx

= secn - 2 x tan x - ( n - 2)sec sec n x dx + ( n - 2) In + ( n - 2) In = sec n - 2 x tan x + ( n - 2) I n - 2 (1 + n - 2) In = secn - 2 x tan x + (n - 2) In 2

ò

n- 2

x dx

secn - 2 x tan x n - 2 In = + I which isthe requiredreduction formula. n- 1 n- 1 n-2

VI.

To obtain the reduction formula for In = cosec n x dx cosecn - 2 x ·cosec 2 dx

Solution : In =

put u = cosecn - 2 x & v ' = cosec2 x, u' = - ( n - 2 )cosec n - 3 x · cosec x cot x & v = - cot x In = - cosec n - 2 xcot x (n - 2 )cosec n - 2 x · cot2 x dx = - cosec n - 2 x cot x - ( n - 2) cosecn - 2 x(cosec 2 x - 1) dx

= - cosec n - 2 x cot x - ( n - 2) cosec n x dx + (n - 2) cosec n - 2 x dx = - cosec n - 2 x cot x - (n - 2 )I n + (n - 2 ) In - 2

MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 121 ie In + (n - 2) In = - cosec n- 2 x cot x + (n - 2 )I n - 2 ie ( n - 1) In = - cosec n - 2 x cot x + ( n - 2 ) In - 2
ie In = - cosec
n- 2

x cot x

+

( n - 2) ( n - 1)

(n - 1)

In - 2 which

isthe required reduction formula.

p

VII. To obtain the reduction formula of Im n = , Solution : Im , n = sin m x cos n - 1 x · cos x dx

sin m x cos n x dx and hence to evaluate
0

2

sin m x cos n x dx

put u = sinm x cos n - 1 x & v' = cos x, u ' = m sinm - 1 x · cos n x - ( n - 1) sinm +1 x · cos n - 2 x & v = sin x Im , n = sinm x cos n - 1 x · sin x m sinm - 1 x cos n x - (n - 1)sinm +1 cos n - 2 x sin x dx
n- 2

()

= sin m+1 x cos n - 1 x - m sinm x cos n x dx + (n - 1) cos sin m+ 2 x · = sin m+1 x cos n - 1 x - mIm, n + (n - 1)cos sinm x(1 - cos 2 x)
n- 2

x dx

x dx

= sin m+1 x cos n - 1 x - mIm, n + (n - 1) (sinm x cos n - 2 x - sinm x cos n x) dx
= sin m 1 + 1 x cos n - 1 x - mI m , n + ( n - 1) Im , m ie I + mI + ( n - 1) I
2

- (n - ) Im , n

m,n

m, n

m,n

= sin m + 1 x cos xn - 1 x + (n - 1) I (n - 1) m+ n

m, n- 2

ie Im , n =

sin m + 1 x cos n - 1 x ( m + n)

+

I

m, n - 2

p

which is the required reduction formula, if Im , n =
p

2

sin m x cos n x dx

0

then Im , n =

sin m + 1 x cos n - 1 x ( m + n)
0

2

+

n-1 m +n

Im ,

n- 2

=0+

n-1 m+n

Im , n -

2

Im, n =

n- 1 I m + n m, n - 2

applying this reduction formula continuous ly, we have n- 1 m+n Im , n = n- 1 m+n n- 1 m+n × × × n- 3 m+ n- 2 n- 3 m+ n- 2 n- 3 m+ n- 2 ×L L × ×L L × ×L L × 2 m +3 1 m +2 1 m +2 × × × 1 m+1 m- 1 m m- 1 m × × m- 3 m- 2 m- 3 m- 2 ×L L × ×L L × 2 3 1 2 × × 1 if n is even & m is odd if n is odd & m odd or even

p
2

if n is even & m is even

Examples
p

(1)

I5

,5

=
0
p

2

sin 5 x cos 5 x dx =

4 10

×

2 8

×

1 6

=

1 60

( 2)

I6 , 5 =

2

sin 6 x cos 5 x dx =

4 11

×

2 9

×

1 7

=

8 693

0

122 KSOU Integral Calculus

p

(3 )

I7

,4

=
0
p

2

sin 7 x cos 4 x dx =

3 11

×

1 9

×

6 7 ×

× 1 8

4 5

×

2 3

× 1= 3 4 1 2

48 3465

( 4)

I6 , 6 =

2

sin 6 x cos 6 x dx = x9 1- x , dx = cos sin 9

5 12

×

3 10

×

5 6

×

×

×

p
2

=

5p 2048

0

1

(5 )

Evaluate
02

dx

Solution : put x = sin x9 1- x
2a

d

2 when x = 0,
d
p

=0
· cos cos

when x = 1,
d
p

=

p

1 02

p

dx =

2

· cos 1 - sin

=
0

2

sin 9

=
0

2

sin 9

d

=

8 9

×

6 7

×

4 5

×

2 3

×1=

128 315

02

( 6)

Evaluate
02

x 3 dx 2 ax - x
2a

2a

Solution :
02

x3 dx 2 ax - x

=
02

x3 dx a2 - ( x - a)

put x - a = a sin

, dx = a cos

d

when x = 0 , sin
p

=-1

=)3 · a cos
2 2

p 2
d

when x = 2 a , sin
p

=1
) 3 a cos d

=

p 2
p

G.I. =

2

( a + a sin
2
2

=

2

a 3 (1 + sin
2

-p

a - a sin
p
2

-p

a cos
p

= a3

2

(1 + sin 3
2

+ 3 sin

+ 3 sin 2

)d

-p

= a3

+

p

1d

+

ò
2

p

sin 3

d

+3

2

sin

d

3

2

sin 2

d

= a3

+

ò
2

p

p

+ 0+0

6
0

2

sin 2

d

-p

2

-p -

2

-p

p
2 2

-

p
2

= a3

×p 2

-

p
2

+ 6×

1 2

p
2

+ = a3 p

3p 2

=

5p 2

a3

Exercise
Evaluate the following
p

(1)
0

6

sin 5 3 d dx
7 2

p

(2 )
0 1

x sin 7 x dx

1

(3)
0 2

x4 1 - x2

()

3 2

dx

8

( 4)
02

() 1+ x

(5 )
0

x6

1 - x 2 dx

(6)
0

x2

5

2 - x dx

p

p
2

(7 )
p

cot 4 x dx

(8 )
p

2

p

cosec 5 x dx

(9)
0

sin 2

1 - cos 1 + cos

d

4

6

(10)

1 04

x7 1- x

dx

(11)

1 0 41

() +x

x3

dx

(12)

a 02

x7 dx a2 - x

2

8 16p 3p 8 5p 5p 3p - 8 11 3 3 8 2 , (2) , (3) , (4) , (5) , (6 ) , (7 ) , (8 ) + log 2 + 3 , (9) , 45 35 256 15 256 8 12 4 8 3 1 1 16 a7 , (11) , (12 ) 3 24 35

()

(10)

(9) & (10) are of order two and degree one where as (7) is of order two and degree two after removing the radicals. A differential equation having one dependent and more than one independent variable is called 'Partial Differential Equation'. Examples (1) Formthe differential equation by eliminatingthe constant a from x2 + y2 = a2 Solution : x2 + y2 = a 2 differenti . (4). In the examples given above (1).127 KSOU Matrix Theory DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS An equation which consists of one dependent variable and its derivatives with respect to one or more independent variables is called a 'Differential Equation'.2x dy +3y = 0 dx Order and Degree of a differential equation Order The order of the highest derivative occurring in a differential equation is called 'Order' of the differential equation. 4. x dx . . a d2 y dx 2 = 1+ dy dx 2 8.ating w.t. = 0 2 x .3y + 4 4 x. = 6. x we have 2x + 2 y dy =0 dx x dx + y dy = 0 which isthe differential equation. (6) & (8) are of order one and degree one.r.7 3x . Arbitrary constants are eliminated by differentiation. dy y =0 dx x ax dx + by dy = 0 dy dx 2x + 3y . (2).y + 4 3 2 2 2.y dx = 0 d2 y dx 2 3. d2 y dx2 . y dx + x dy = 0 9.4 dy dx +3y = 0 10. (3). dy dx = 7. (5). A differential equation of one dependent and one independent variable is called 'Ordinary Differential Equation'. Degree The highest degree of the highest order derivative occurring in a differential equation (after removing the radicals if any) is called 'Degree' of the differential equation. Formation of Differential Equation Differential equations are formed by eliminating the arbitrary constants. Examples of ordinary differential equation 1.6 y + 1 5. x2 d2 y dx 2 .

r.3a cos sin 3 x + 3b dx again . 1.r. Obtain the differenti al equation by eliminatin g ' a ' & ' b ' from y = a cos 3 x + b sin 3 x 3x x we have Solution sin : y = a cos 3 x + b differenti . ie.differenti ating w. 2.t.r.y2 + 1 .ating w.It can be seen from the above examples that the order of the differential equation depends on the number of arbitrary constants in the equation.9b sin 3 x = .x2 =0 Solution : divide throughou t by equation becomes integratin g + = Constant ie ie 1 . x we have again .9 y + 9y = 0which isthe required differenti al equation.t.differenti ating w.ex we have .t. Eg.x2 = .y 2 dx = 0 1 .y2 1 .t. d2 y dx 2 ie d2 y dx 2 3x x we have = . .y2 y2 + 1 .e x )sec2 y dy = 0 Solution :). Solution of equations of first order and first degree I.r. solution is obtained by integration ie òf ( x) dx + g ( y ) dy = Constant Eg.x2 y dy 1y dy 1 .x2 = C is the solution. d2 y dx 2 (3) dy =m dx x we have = 0 isthe required differenti al equation.C 1 . if arbitrary constant is one then order is one and if the arbitrary constants are two then the order is two.9 a cos 3 x .124 KSOU Differential Equations (2) Formthe differenti al equation by eliminatin g ' m ' & ' c ' from y = mx + c Solution : y = mx + c differentiatingw. Solve 3ex tan y dx + (1 . Note :. dy = . dividingthroughout by tan y (1 .x2 x dx 1 . Solve y 1 . Variable Separable If the given differenti al equation can be written as f ( x ) dx + g ( y ) dy = 0 then this type is called 'Variable separable' .x2 dy + x 1 .y2 x dx 1 .

a2 + a 2 u2 .e x dx + dy = Constant .u2 = dy dx = a2 given equation becomes ie u2 .a 2 = dx = a 2 .e x ) 3 = log C tan y = C (1 . 3. 3e x 1.y = u then 1 dy dx = du dx u2 1 ie 1 du dx du dx ie .Mathematics SVT 125 3 ex 1ex sec2 y tan y dx + dy = 0 sec2 y tan y integrating.ex )3 isthe solution.ex ) + log tan y = log C ie log tan y (1 .3 log(1 . Solve xy dy dx Solution : given equation is xy dy dx = (1 + x )( 1 + y ) = 1 + x + y + xy ie xy dy = (1 + x)(1 + y) dx dividethroughou t by x (1 + y) then y dy 1+ y 1+ y.a u+ a integratin g u + log = x+c .MCA 11 .a2 2 du = dx ie 1 + du = dx a2 2a u. Eg.1 1+ y ie 11 1+ y dy = +1 x = (1 + x ) dx x +1 x 1 dx x ie dy = dx integrating.log(1 + y) = log x + x + c isthe soluton Eg.u 2 du dx ie u 2 du u2 .a2 a2 u . 4. y .y )2 dy dx = a2 Solution : put x . Solve ( x .

Eg.we have log( v2 + 1) = log x + log c . y ) dy = 0where f ( x.x 2 given dy dx 2 y = 0when x= 0 Solution : given equation is = xe y · e - 2 x ie e - y dy = xe .y. Solve dy dx = xe y . the given equation reduces to variable separable form and hence can be solved.y = - +c 1 2 1 2 y when x = 0. To solve put y = vx then dy dx =v+x dv dx or dy = v dx + x dv by substituti ng this.a x. y ) are homogeneou s expression s in x & y of same degree is called a 'Homogeneou s Equation'.y +a = x+c ie a 2 log x. . 5.y + a 2 log x. Eg. y ) or f ( x . Homogeneous Equation Equation of the type dy dx = f ( x.x dx 1 2 ex2 integratin g.1= - +c c =- solution is .e - y =- e- x2 - 1 1 ie 2 e2 = e.a x. y ) f ( x. (1) Solve 2 xy dy dx Solution : put y = vx then dy dx given equation becomes =v +x dv dx + 2 x2 v v x dv dx = 3 x2 v 2 + x 2 = 3 y2 + x 2 dividethroughou t by x2 + then 2 v v x dv dx ie 2 v 2 + 2 vx dv dx dv dx ie 2 vx = v2 + 1 ie 2 v dv v2 + 1 = dx x = 3v2 + 1 = 3v 2 + 1 integrating. y = 0 1 2 .x + 2 II.126 KSOU Differential Equations ie x .e .y+a = y + c isthe solution. y ) dx + g ( x . y ) & g ( x.y .

Mathematics SVT 127 ie log + y2 x2 1 = log x + log c ie log ( y 2 + x2 ) x2 = log x + log c ie log ( y2 + x2 ) .MCA 11 . (2) Solve +1 e x y dx + e x y - 1 x y dy = 0 Solution : put x = vy then dx = v dy + y dv equation becomes (1 + ev )( v dy + y dv) + ev (1 .vev dy = 0 ie (v + vev + ev .ev ) dy + y (1 + ev ) dv = 0 ie (v + ev ) dy + y (1 + ev ) dv = 0 dividethroughou t by y (v + ev ) dy y + (1 + ev ) dv v + ev =0 integrating. log y + log( v + ev ) = log c ie log y (v + ev ) = log c ie y (v + ev ) = c y +x y ie x + ye x y e x y =c = c isthe solution Equations reducible to homogeneous equatins Give dy dx Case (i) If = a1 x + b1 y + c 1 a2 x + b2 y + c 2 a1 a2 Case (ii) If a1 a2 = b1 b2 b 1 b2 ah +b k +c = 0 & a h+b k +c =0 1 1 1 2 2 2 or ( a1 x + b1 y + c1 ) dx + ( a2 x + b2 y + c2 ) dy = 0 put a1 x + b1 y = t then it reduces to homogeneou s equation and hence can be solved.log x2 = log x + log c log ( y2 + x2 ) = 3 log x + log c = log cx3 solution is y 2 + x2 = cx3 Eg. . put x = X + h & y = Y + k where h & k are constants to be found out such that then given equationreducesto dY dX = a X+ bY 1 1 a2 X + b2 Y or ( a1 X + b1 Y ) dX + ( a2 X + b2 Y ) dY = 0which is homogeneou s and hence can be solved.v ) dy = 0 ie v dy + y dv + vev dy + ye v dv + ev dy .

2 v ) dX + (2 + v ) X dv = 0 ie (v2 . k = 3 .2l = 3 4 3 = 5 3 x+ c = 2 3 2 3 3t + 2 5 dt + ò 3t + 2 3 5 9 + dt 3t + 2 = 2 3 1 dt + 5 9 dt 2 t+ 3 = 2 3 t+ 5 9 + log t 2 3 x+c = 1 3 (x + y ) + 2 3 5 9 log x+ y 2 3 2 3 is the solution ie x+ c = y+ + log x + y Eg.1) dX + ( v + 2) X dv = 0 ie dX X + (v + 2 ) dv v2 .1 =0 .) dx Solution : put x = X + h.128 KSOU Differential Equations Eg. (1) Solve dy dx = x+y .1 2t + 3 = +1 = t . y = Y + k choose h & k such that 2h + k = 3 h +2k = 3 (1) × 2 ( 2) ×1 subtractin g 4 h+ 2k = 6 h + 2k = 3 3h = 3 h = 1.3 ) dy = ( x + 2 y .2 h = 3 .1= 3t + 2 2t + 3 t-1 2t + 3 Solution : put x + y = t then given equation becomes dt dx ie t.1 .1 + 2t + 3 2t + 3 = 2t + 3 3t + 2 dt = dx 2t + 3 3t + 2 integratin g dt = x + c put 2 )t + 3 = l (3 t + 2 + m = 3lt + 3l + m 3l = 2 l= 2 3 2l + m = 3 m = 3 .1 2x+ 2y + 3 1+ dy dx = dt dx dt dx . (2) Solve (2 3x + y .2 = 1 (2 2X + Y ) dY = ( X + Y ) dX (1) (2) The given equation reduces to put Y = vX then dY = v dX + X dv (2 2X + vX )(v dX + X dv ) = ( X + vX ) dX dividethroughout by X then (2 2+ v )v dX + 2 (2 + v ) X dv = (1 + v ) dX ( 2 v + v 2 .

1 log( v 2 . (1) Solve the equation dy dx + y tan x = cos x Solution : Comparingwith the standardequation P = tan x & Q = cos x P dx = tan x dx = log sec x e P dx = elog sec x = sec x . Q are function of y is also a linear equation and its solution is xe Pdy + Px = Q where P = Qe P dy dy + c Eg.x )3 = c2 ( y + x .X )3 = c2 (Y + X ) but X = x . III. log X + 1 2 ie log X + 1 2 (v + 2 ) dv v2 .2 ) isthe solution.Y2 X2 1 + 2 log X Y X = +1 log c ie 2 log X + log( Y 2 .2 log( Y + X ) = 2 log c ie log( Y + X ) + log( Y .X ) .1 = log c ie 2 log 2 X + log .1) + 2 × log Y v.2 log X + 2 log(Y .2 log( Y + X ) = 2 log c 3 log( Y 2 .X ) + 2 log( Y .1 1 2 = Constant ie log X + ò2 v dv = Constant v2 .log(Y + X ) = log c ie log (Y . Linear Equation (Leibnitz's Equation) Equation of the type dy dx To find the solution multiply both sides of the given equation by e then + dy dx ie dy dx ie d dx ye P dx Pdx P dx + Py = Q where P & Q are functions of x is called a 'Linear Equation'.X )3 = log c2 Y+X (Y .1 + 2 dv v2 .Mathematics SVT 129 integratin g.X ) . Py e Pdx = Qe Pdx e Pdx + yPe Pdx = Qe P dx = Qe P dx Pdx ye Note & :dx dy = Qe dx + c isthe requiredsolution.X ) .1. Y = y .MCA 11 .1 v+1 .1 ( y .X 2 ) .

1 y P dy = Qe P dy dy + c ie xe t an -1 y = e t an . (2) (1 + y 2 ) dx + ( x .1 = Q + Py = Qy n where P & Q are functions of x is called Bernoulli' s Equation. put = z ie y .n + ) Q where & P Q are functions of y .1 y = tan .n dy dx = dz dx 1 ie 1 dy y n dx dz = 1 dz (n .n + 1 = z differentiatingw.1 y = dy y2 + 1 + c = tan .e .n + 1) Pz = (.t an -1 x dx + c = 1 dx + c = x + c y ) dy = 0 Solution : dividethroughou t by (1+ y2 ) dy dx dy ie dx dy + y 2 + x . x ( -1n + ) y .t.1 y e- Solution is xe t an.r. Note : - + Px = Qx n is also Bernoulli' s equation.1 y dy + c ( y 2 + 1) ie xe t an .1 y =0 e .1 y + c Bernoulli's Equation The equation dy dx To find the solution divide by y n then 1 y n -1 1 dy yn dx + P yn .t an 2 -1 (1 + y ) x +1 y = y +1 Comparingwith standardequation P= 1 y +1 2 Q= e- tan 2 -1 y y +1 P dy = tan. whose solution is given by + (1 n + 1) Pz = ( .130 KSOU Differential Equations Solution is ye P dx = Qe P dx dx + c ie sec y sec x = cos x · Eg.n + 1) Q which is a linear equation and hence can be solved.1 y + c Solution is xet an.) (1 n + 1) dx + Pz = Q equation becomes (1n + ) dx ie dz dx dx dy dz dy + (.e- tan 2 .

x+ c Eg.sec x · x dx + c = .log( 1 + x ) 1 e P dx x) = e = e.1 dx + c = .Mathematics SVT 131 Eg. Q = .log(1+log 1+ x = 1 1+ x 1 ( + x) dx = e x dx = e x + c Solution is z · 1 1+ x y = (1 1+ x ) e x Solution sin is = ex + c 1+ x . (2) Solve dy dx - tan y (1 + x ) = (1 + x) e x sec y Solution :the given equation is cos y dy dx dy dx - sin y (1 + x ) dz dx = (1 + x) e x put sin then y = z. (1) Solve dy dx + y tan x = y 2 sec x Solution : dividethroughou t by y2 then 1 dy y 2 dx 1 y + 1 y 1 dy y 2 dx dz dx ie dz dx . Q = (1 + x ) e x 1 (1 + x ) dx = .sec x dz dx + tan x · z = sec x tan x = sec x put = zthen - = equation becomes which is linear where P = .tan x · z = .tan x.tan x dx = log cos x = e l og c os x = cos x Solution is cosz cos x = cos x y . cos y dz dx = z equation 1 1+ x P dx = - becomes - = (1 + x ) e x which is a linear equation w here 1+ x P =- .MCA 11 .x + c Solution is = .sec x P dx = ò e pdx .

Eg.b2 y ) dy = (.2 y + 3.2 y + 3) dx .y3 . consider M dx = ( x3 + xy2 .y2 2 4 =- - solution is 4 2 2 x4 4 - a2 x2 2 2 2 y4 4 - b2 y2 2 = c 4 ie x + 2 x y .y . N x = .xy2 .y2 · x2 2 .2 a x .2 M y = N x hence equation is exact M dx = (2 x3 .2 xy .a2 x. the equation is saidto 'Exact'if M y = N x and to find the solution Consider M dx y as a constant andtake N dy (1) (2) wherethe integration is donew.4 xy + 6 x = c Eg.a2 ) x dx + ( x2 .2 xy .y 3 .b2 y ) dy omittingthe terms which contain x y4 4 b 2 y2 2 + x2 . (1) Solve (2 x3 .2 b y = c 2 2 .132 KSOU Differential Equations IV. Exact Differential Equation Let M dx + N dy = 0 bethe differential equation where M & N are functions of x & y . N = . N = x2 y . (2) Solve ( x2 + y2 .t.x 0 · dy (omitting .2 xy + 3x = c 2 ie x4 .y 2 .( x2 y + 2 x) dy = 0 Solution : Comparingwith standardequation M = 2 x3 .r.2. N x equation is exact = 2 xy for solution.) the= terms which contain = Constant solution is x4 2 x2 y 2 2 .a2 x) dx = x4 4 + x2 y 2 2 - a 2 x2 2 (treating y as a constant) N dy = ( x2 y . xtreating herethe integration is donew.t.b2 ) y dy = 0 Solution : Comparingwith standardequation M = x3 + xy 2 .b2 y M y M y = N x = 2 xy .2 x M y = .xy2 . y omittingthe terms containing x in N then the soltuion is (1) + (2) is Constant.y3 .2 xy + 3x (1) 2 y 2 x dy N dy = ( .xy2 .x2 y .2 xy + 3 x = x4 2 - x2 y 2 2 x) .r.x2 y 2 .2 y + 3) dx = 2 · x4 4 .

3 y + 4 x2 e .y 2 = cy 3 ( 20 ) y ( x + log x) + x cos y = c .2 e 3 y + 8 x3 = c (3 ) y sin y = x 2 log x + c (4) y = tan x+ y 2 +c (5 ) ( x + 1)( 2 .8 x + 12 y ) = c (12) ( X 2 .y ) + 5 4 log( 7 .y ) dy dx dy dx (3 ) = x( 2 log x + 1) (sin y + y cos y ) dy dx ( 7) x dy .1 y .x (6 ) ( x + 1) (9 ) (11) x2 y dx .e y ) = c (7 ) y + x2 + y 2 = cx2 (8) y = 2 x tan.1) dy = 0 dy dx = 2y .2.t an -1 y (18 ) x2 y + xy .(5 x + 2 y . Y = y .tan y ) dx + ( x2 .1) dx + ( 3 y .4 y.2 = ce 2 s i n x + 2 sin x + 1 (16 ) x3 y 5 +5 2 cx 2 =1 (17 ) x = tan .e y ) = c (6) ( x +1)(1 .3 y (4 ) cos( x + y ) dy = dx (5 ) y .XY + Y 2 ) = c 2Y + 5 + 2Y - () () 5- 1 21 X 21 X 21 where X = x .6 y .y 2 3 3 (11) (2 x .2 xy if y = 2 when x =1 (13) x log x dy dx dy dx + y = (log x)2 (14 ) dy dx (15 ) + y cos x = y 3 sin 2 x (16 ) x dy dx + y = x3 y 6 (17) (19 ) (1 + y2 ) dx = (tan.2 x .3x+3 = x3 .1 + ce .2) dy = 0 (10) (12 ) ( 2x + 5 y + 1) dx .y dx = + = a y2 dy dx x2 + y 2 dx (8 ) dy dx = dy dx y x + sin y x + 1 = ey + y 2 (1 + x ) = 0 ( 2) dy dx = e 2 x .3 x2 y4 dy = 0 Answers (1) log x y 1 x 1 y =c (2 ) 3 e 2 x .x tan y + tan y = c (19 ) x2 .x tan2 y + sec 2 y ) dy = 0 + + y 1 1 x cos y dy + ( x + log x .( x3 + y3 ) dy = 0 ( 4 x .1 (cx) (9) x y 3 = 3 log cy (10) ( x + y)7 = c x .x ) dy 2x y 3 (18) ( 20 ) ( 2xy + y .1 y .3 (13) y log x = 1 3 (log x ) 3 + c (14 ) 2 y .x.MCA 11 .x sin y ) dy = 0 dx + y 2 .x2 + 1 = 4 e1- x2 (15) y .Mathematics SVT 133 Exercise Solve the following (1) x2 (1 .