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Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division

The Addition Algorithm To add in any base – Step 1 – Add the digits in the “ones ”column to find the number of “1s”. • If the number is greater than or equal to the base. • If the number is less than the base place the number under the right hand column. 14 + 32 5 2+4=6 6>5 6 = 11 5 Place 1 under 4 + 2 and carry the 1 five to the “fives” column . The first digit indicates the number of the base in the sum so carry that digit to the “base” column and write the second digit under the right hand column. express the number as a base numeral.

– If the sum is greater than or equal to the base express the sum as a base numeral. Place 0 under the “five” column The sum is 101 5 .continued Step 2 • Add the digits in the “base” column. Carry the first digit to the “base squared” column and place the second digit under the “base” column. – If the sum is less than the base enter under the “base” column.Addition Algorithm . 14 + 32 5 1 1+1+3 = 5 5 = 10 5 Carry the 1 five to the 52 column. 1 Step 3 • Repeat this process to the end.

• 2 + 4 = 6 6 = 10 6 One 6 2 to carry. • 1+1+3=5<6→ no 62 to carry. 123 342 6 5056 . 0 to go in the 6 column.Example of Addition Find: 1 123 342 6 5 1 1 123 342 6 05 • 3 + 2 = 5 < 6 →no “6”s to carry.

– If the subtraction is possible enter the number under the “1”s column. • Continue in this manner through the problem . – If the subtraction is not possible borrow 1 of the groups of b in the minuend. b • Start at “1”s column. – The one b being borrowed is worth b in the “1”s column so add b to the digit in the minuend in the “1”s column .The Subtraction Algorithm Subtraction in any base.

• 2−4 = 2 • 3−1 = 2 . 1247 1 2 47 • Borrow 1 of the 5 4 9 5 35 2 12 47 2 2 57 “7”s in the minuend and add 7 to the 2 then subtract.A Subtraction Problem 4 9 352 35 2 • 2−4 can not do.

Another Subtraction Problem 1203 3425 1203 3425 1 1 5 0 1 5 6 12 0 3 3 4 25 11 1 2 03 3 4 25 3 1 15 .

– Carry groups of the base – Indent for each multiplication row – Add in the base .The Multiplication Algorithm To Multiply in any base • The multiplication algorithm is the same as in base 10. Things you need to remember.

Multiplying in Base 3 2011 2123 11022 2011 11022 12111023 Add in base 3 2011 2123 11022 2 x 2 = 4 = 11 3 2011 2123 11022 2011 Remember to indent 2011 2123 11022 2011 11022 .

5=56 11 245 26 5346 11 .Carrying in Multiplication 245 26 2 x 5 =10 =146 245 26 4 2 x 4 =8. 8 +1 =9 9 = 1 36 1 245 26 34 2 x 2 =4. 4 + 1 =5.

Things to remember – • Digits that are entered in the quotient are at first estimates. • Do all the multiplications on the side so that the digits used are not estimates. • Multiply and subtract in the base used in the problem.The Division Algorithm • To divide in any base – The division algorithm in any base is the same as in base 10. .

A Division Problem 2 45 132025 13 0 1 x 45 = 45 2 x 45 = 135 3 x 45 = 225 4 x 45 = 315 20 45 132025 13 02 0 x 45 =0 202 45 132025 13 02 0 13 2 Subtract in base 5 2023 45 132025 13 02 0 13 22 22 0 3 x 45 =225 .

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