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MS - 1 Management Functions and Behavior Coverage : All Blocks

What are the essential components of an effective MIS and why? Describe the MIS of an organization, nown to yo! or yo! are familiar with, giving detailed description and critically eval!ate its effectiveness. "riefly describe the organization, yo! are referring to.

Sol!tion# $omponents of a mar eting information system % mar eting information system &MIS' is intended to bring together disparate items of data into a coherent body of information. %n MIS is, as will shortly be seen, more than raw data or information s!itable for the p!rposes of decision ma ing. %n MIS also provides methods for interpreting the information the MIS provides. Moreover, as (otler)s1 definition says, an MIS is more than a system of data collection or a set of information technologies# *% mar eting information system is a contin!ing and interacting str!ct!re of people, e+!ipment and proced!res to gather, sort, analyse, eval!ate, and distrib!te pertinent, timely and acc!rate information for !se by mar eting decision ma ers to improve their mar eting planning, implementation, and control*. ,ig!re below describes the ma-or components of an MIS, the environmental factors monitored by the system and the types of mar eting decision which the MIS see s to !nderpin.

The marketing information systems and its subsystems

.he e/planation of this model of an MIS begins with a description of each of its fo!r main constit!ent parts# the internal reporting systems, mar eting research system, mar eting intelligence system and mar eting models. It is s!ggested that whilst the MIS varies in its degree of sophistication 0 with many in the ind!strialised co!ntries being comp!terised and few in the developing co!ntries being so 0 a f!lly fledged MIS sho!ld have these components, the methods &and technologies' of collection, storing, retrieving and processing data notwithstanding. Internal reporting systems# %ll enterprises which have been in operation for any period of time nave a wealth of information. 1owever, this information often remains !nder0!tilised beca!se it is compartmentalised, either in the form of an individ!al entreprene!r or in the f!nctional departments of larger b!sinesses. .hat is, information is !s!ally categorised according to its nat!re so that there are, for e/ample, financial, prod!ction, manpower, mar eting, stoc holding and logistical data. 2ften the entreprene!r, or vario!s personnel wor ing in the f!nctional departments holding these pieces of data, do not see how it co!ld help decision ma ers in other f!nctional areas. Similarly, decision ma ers can fail to appreciate how information from other f!nctional areas might help them and therefore do not re+!est it. .he internal records that are of immediate val!e to mar eting decisions are# orders received, stoc holdings and sales invoices. .hese are b!t a few of the internal records that can be !sed by mar eting managers, b!t even this small set of records is capable of generating a great deal of information 333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333 3333

State and e"#lain the im#ortance of Mission$ %ision$ &b'ectives$ and Strategy in the functioning of an organi(ation! Find out these statements of a fe) organi(ations and e"#lain their significance! *o) do they hel# you understand about these organi(ations+ ,escribe )ith brief details of the organi(ation you are referring to!

Sol!tion# Setting of organizational ob-ectives is the starting point of managerial actions. %n organization4s end res!lts for which an organization strives is termed as 5mission6, p!rpose, ob-ective, goal, target etc. Many times these terms are !sed interchangeably as all these denote end res!lts. MISSI27 S.%.8M87.S % Mission Statement defines the organization)s p!rpose and primary ob-ectives. Its prime f!nction is internal 9 to define the ey meas!re or meas!res of the organization4s s!ccess 9 and its prime a!dience is the leadership team and stoc holders. Mission statements are the starting points of an organisation4s strategic planning and goal setting process. .hey foc!s attention and ass!re that internal and e/ternal sta eholders !nderstand what the organization is attempting to accomplish. MISSI27 %7D :;<:2S8 Mission and p!rpose are !sed interchangeably, tho!gh at theoretical level, there is a difference between two. Mission has e/ternal orientation and relates the organization to the society in which it operates. % mission statement helps the organization to lin its activities to the needs of the society and legitimize its e/istence. :!rpose is also e/ternally foc!sed b!t it relates to that segment of the society to which it serves= it defines the b!siness which the instit!tion will !nderta e. Dimensions of Mission statements# %ccording to "art, the strongest organizational impact occ!rs when mission statements contain > essential dimensions. (ey val!es and beliefs Distinctive competence Desired competitive position $ompetitive strategy $ompelling goal?vision Specific c!stomers served and prod!cts or services offered $oncern for satisfying m!ltiple sta eholders %ccording to @ern McAinis, a mission sho!ld# Define what the company is Define what the company aspires to be

Bimited to e/cl!de some vent!res "road eno!gh to allow for creative growth Disting!ish the company from all others Serve as framewor to eval!ate c!rrent activities Stated clearly so that it is !nderstood by all Developing a Mission Statement Str!ct!re of a mission statement .he following elements can be incl!ded in a mission statement. .heir se+!ence can be different. It is important, however, that some elements s!pporting the accomplishment of the mission be present and not -!st the mission as a *wish* or dream. :!rpose and val!es of the organization &prod!cts or services, mar et' or who are the organization)s primary *clients* &sta eholders' What are the responsibilities of the organization towards these *clients* What are the main ob-ectives s!pporting the company in accomplishing its mission % mission statement e/plains the company)s core p!rpose and val!es. 1. %t is most basic, the mission statement describes the overall p!rpose of the organization. C. If the organization elects to develop a vision statement before developing the mission statement, as 5Why does the image, the vision e/ist 0 what is it4s p!rpose?6 .his p!rpose is often the same as the mission. D. Developing a mission statement can be +!ic c!lt!re0specific, i.e., participants may !se methods ranging from highly analytical and rational to highly creative and divergent, e.g., foc!sed disc!ssions, divergent e/periences aro!nd daydreams, sharing stories, etc. .herefore, visit with the participants how they might li e to arrive at description of their organizational mission. E. When wording the mission statement, consider the organization)s prod!cts, services, mar ets, val!es, and concern for p!blic image, and maybe priorities of activities for s!rvival. F. $onsider any changes that may be needed in wording of the mission statement beca!se of any new s!ggested strategies d!ring a recent strategic planning process. G. 8ns!re that wording of the mission is to the e/tent that management and employees can infer some order of priorities in how prod!cts and services are delivered. >. When refining the mission, a !sef!l e/ercise is to add or delete a word from the mission to realize the change in scope of the mission statement and assess how concise is its wording. H. Does the mission statement incl!de s!fficient description that the statement clearly separates the mission of the organization from other organizations?

Mission Statements of Well (nown 8nterprises *.o solve !nsolved problems innovatively* 0Mary (ay $osmetics *.o ma e people happy.6 0 Walt Disney @ISI27 S.%.8M87.S @ision statements reflect the ideal image of the organization in the f!t!re. .hey create a focal point for strategic planning and are time bo!nd, with most vision statements pro-ected for a period of F to 1I years. .he vision statement comm!nicates both the p!rpose and val!es of the organization. ,or employees, it gives direction abo!t how they are e/pected to behave and inspires them to give their best. Shared with c!stomers, it shapes c!stomers4 !nderstanding of why they sho!ld wor with the organization. Developing a @ision Statement 1. .he vision statement incl!des vivid description of the organization as it effectively carries o!t its operations. C. Developing a vision statement can be +!ic c!lt!re0specific, i.e., participants may !se methods ranging from highly analytical and rational to highly creative and divergent, e.g., foc!sed disc!ssions, divergent e/periences aro!nd daydreams, sharing stories, etc. .herefore, visit with the participants how they might li e to arrive at description of their organizational vision. D. Developing the vision can be the most en-oyable part of planning, b!t the part where time easily gets away from yo!. E. 7ote that originally, the vision was a compelling description of the state and f!nction of the organization once it had implemented the strategic plan, i.e., a very attractive image toward which the organization was attracted and g!ided by the strategic plan. <ecently, the vision has become more of a motivational tool, too often incl!ding highly idealistic phrasing and activities which the organization cannot realistically aspire. @%B;8 S.%.8M87.S @al!e statements define the organisation4s basic philosophy, principles and ideals. .hey also set the ethical tone for the instit!tion. %n organisation4s val!es are evident in the statements that define the organization and the processes !sed to achieve its mission and vision. Developing a @al!es Statement 1. @al!es represent the core priorities in the organization4s c!lt!re, incl!ding what drives members4 priorities and how they tr!ly act in the organization, etc. @al!es are increasingly important in strategic planning. .hey often drive the intent and direction for 5organic6 planners. C. Developing a val!es statement can be +!ic c!lt!re0specific, i.e., participants may !se methods ranging from highly analytical and rational to highly creative and divergent, e.g., foc!sed disc!ssions, divergent e/periences aro!nd daydreams, sharing stories, etc. .herefore, visit with the participants how they might li e to arrive at description of their organizational val!es. D. 8stablish fo!r to si/ core val!es from which the organization wo!ld li e to operate. $onsider val!es of c!stomers, shareholders, employees and the comm!nity.

E. 7otice any differences between the organization4s preferred val!es and its tr!e val!es &the val!es act!ally reflected by members4 behaviors in the organization'. F. Incorporate into the strategic plan, actions to align act!al behavior with preferred behaviors. 2"J8$.I@8S 2b-ectives are the ends toward which activity is aimed0they are the end res!lts to ward which activity is aimed. 52b-ectives are goals, aims or p!rposes that organizations wish over varying periods of time60 Mc,arland 5% managerial ob-ective is the intended goal that prescribes definite scope and s!ggests direction to the planning efforts of a manger60.erry and ,ran lin A;ID8BI78S ,2< 2"J8$.I@8 S8..I7A 2b-ectives M!st be clearly specified M!st be set ta ing into acco!nt the vario!s factors affecting their achievement Sho!ld be consistent with organizational mission Sho!ld be rational and realistic rather than idealistic Sho!ld be achievable b!t m!st provide challenge to those responsible for achievement Sho!ld start with 5to6 and be followed by an action verb Sho!ld be consistent over the period of time Sho!ld be periodically reviewed Sho!ld have hierarchy 2rganisational ob-ectives Sho!ld have social sanction %n organization may have m!ltiple ob-ectives $an be changed 7%.;<8 2, 2"J8$.I@8S 8ach organization or gro!p of individ!als have some ob-ectives 2b-ectives may be broad or they may be specifically mentioned 2b-ectives may be clearly defined 2b-ectives have hierarchy.

2rganisational ob-ectives have social sanction, that is, they are created within the social norms. %n organisation may have m!ltiple ob-ectives. 2rganisational ob-ectives can be changed .o define an organization .o provide directions for decision ma ing .o set standards of performance .o provide a basis for decentralization Integrate organization, gro!p and individ!al 333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333 3333 -! .hat are the essential com#onents /indicators/ ,eterminants of &rgani(ational Climate and &rganisational Culture+ Take e"am#le of t)o organi(ations$ list out the com#onent /indicators/ dimensions of their climate and culture and e"#lain their corres#onding #erceived ma'or focus$ )ith e"am#le! Briefly describe the organi(ations you are referring to! Solution: .his st!dy aimed to determine the dimensions of organizational climate within fo!r0 and five0star hotels and to assess whether these dimensions vary significantly across hotels. Jones and James4s climate s!rvey was shortened, modified to incorporate the psychometric improvements of <yder and So!they, and tailored for specific !se within hotels. .he s!rvey was administered to 1,EI1 employees from 1E hotels and provided a high inde/ of reliability &K 3 .LFL'. ,rom items representing DF a priori concepts, principal components analysis identified seven dimensions, which were labeled leader facilitation and s!pport= professional and organizational esprit= conflict and ambig!ity= reg!lations, organization, and press!re= -ob variety, challenge, and a!tonomy= -ob standards= and wor gro!p cooperation, friendliness, and warmth. ;nivariate analyses fo!nd each of the dimensions to vary significantly across the 1E hotels. In management literat!re there is often ambig!ity abo!t the two concepts 9 organisational c!lt!re and organisational climate. %s e/plained earlier, organisational c!lt!re is a macro phenomenon which refers to the patterns of beliefs, ass!mptions, val!es, and behaviors reflecting commonality in people wor ing together. 1owever, organisational climate is a micro phenomenon and reflects how employees in an organisation feel abo!t the characteristics and +!ality of c!lt!re li e morale, goodwill, employee relations, -ob satisfaction, commitmrnt at the organisational, department or !nit

level. It refers to the psychological enviornment in which behavio!r of organisational members occ!rs. It is a relatively persistent set of perceptions held by organisational members abo!t the organisational c!lt!re. %nother viewpoint abo!t climate is that vario!s variables get s!bs!med !nder the concept of climate, whereas has !ni+!e indicators li e symbols, rites, myths, and stories. Daniel Denison4s model &1LLI' asserts that organizational c!lt!re can be described by fo!r general dimensions 9 Mission, %daptability, Involvement and $onsistency. 8ach of these general dimensions is f!rther described by the following three s!b0dimensions# Mission 0 Strategic Direction and Intent, Aoals and 2b-ectives and @ision %daptability 0 $reating $hange, $!stomer ,oc!s and 2rganizational Bearning Involvement 0 8mpowerment, .eam 2rientation and $apability Development $onsistency 0 $ore @al!es, %greement, $oordination?Integration. .he :aradigm# What the organization is abo!t= what it does= its mission= its val!es. $ontrol Systems# .he processes in place to monitor what is going on. <ole c!lt!res wo!ld have vast r!leboo s. .here wo!ld be more reliance on individ!alism in a power c!lt!re. 2rganizational Str!ct!res# <eporting lines, hierarchies, and the way that wor flows thro!gh the b!siness. :ower Str!ct!res# Who ma es the decisions, how widely spread is power, and on what is power based? Symbols# .hese incl!de organizational logos and designs, b!t also e/tend to symbols of power s!ch as par ing spaces and e/ec!tive washrooms. <it!als and <o!tines# Management meetings, board reports and so on may become more habit!al than necessary. Stories and Myths# b!ild !p abo!t people and events, and convey a message abo!t what is val!ed within the organization. .hese elements may overlap. :ower str!ct!res may depend on control systems, which may e/ploit the very rit!als that generate stories which may not be tr!e. 333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333 3333


.hat are the element of an organi(ation structure$ and the factors influencing its choice+ Take e"am#le of t)o organi(ations and e"#lain )ith logic as to ho) are their structures suited to their re1uirements or influenced by the other factors!

Solution: 8lements of organizational str!ct!re give companies effective and efficient ways to r!n their b!sinesses, manage their employees and ens!re that tas s are completed. 8lements s!ch as wor










decentralization and formalization ma e !p organizational str!ct!re. 8ach element impacts how employees interact with each other to accomplish company goals and ob-ectives. Wor Specialization Wor specialization ens!res that each employee has a set of specific d!ties they)re e/pected to perform based on their wor e/perience, ed!cation and s ills. It prevents employees from being e/pected to perform tas s for which they have no previo!s e/perience or training. Departmentalization .he departmentalization element brea s down how -obs are gro!ped together to create departments. Departments are created based on the types of -obs employees perform, the prod!cts or brands they)re assigned to, geographical locations or c!stomer needs. $hain of $ommand In a company, each employee is e/pected to report to one manager, rather than to several. Mangers are responsible for assigning tas s, informing employees of e/pectations and deadlines and offering motivation. Managers are also available to answer -ob0related +!estions from employees and handle conflicts within their departments. 8mployees are responsible for completing d!ties assigned to them by their manager acc!rately and in a timely fashion. Span of $ontrol Span of control s!ggests how many employees each manager can handle within an organization. .his element of organizational str!ct!re also o!tlines the n!mber of mangers an organization needs, which is typically determined based on the n!mber of employees and departments a company has. $entralization and Decentralization In a centralized organization, all decisions are made by c0level managers s!ch as the chief e/ec!tive officer, chief operating officer and chief mar eting officer. $entralization leaves department managers with little to no inp!t. .his system is typical in larger, corporate organizations. % decentralized system affords all managers the opport!nity to give inp!t, while bigger decisions are still made by c0level managers. ,ormalization ,ormalization is the element that o!tlines employee roles within a wor place, as defined by the r!les and g!idelines developed by management. ,ormalization determines whether employees have to sign in and o!t !pon arriving and e/iting the office, fre+!ency and length of brea s, comp!ter !sage and dress code. Factors Affecting &rgani(ational Structure 2rganizational str!ct!re is the framewor companies !se to o!tline their a!thority and comm!nication processes. .he framewor !s!ally incl!des policies, r!les and responsibilities for each individ!al in

the organization. Several factors affect the organizational str!ct!re of a company. .hese factors can be internal or e/ternal. Small b!siness owners m!st be responsible for creating their companies organizational str!ct!re framewor . "!siness owners may !se a management cons!ltant or review information from the Small "!siness %dministration before setting !p their organizational str!ct!re. Size Size is many times the driving factor for a companyMrs+!o=s organizational str!ct!re. Smaller or home0based b!sinesses do not !s!ally have a vast str!ct!re beca!se the b!siness owner is !s!ally responsible for all tas s. Barger b!siness organizations !s!ally re+!ire a more intense framewor for their organizational str!ct!re. $ompanies with more employees !s!ally re+!ire more managers for s!pervising these individ!als. 1ighly specialized b!siness operations can also re+!ire a more formal organizational str!ct!re. Bife $ycle .he companyMrs+!o=s life cycle also plays an important part in the development of an organizational str!ct!re. "!siness owners attempting to grow and e/pand their companyMrs+!o=s operations !s!ally develop an organizational str!ct!re to o!tline their companyMrs+!o=s b!siness mission and goals. "!sinesses reaching pea performance !s!ally become more mechanical in their organizational str!ct!re. .his occ!rs as the chain of command increases from the b!siness owner down to frontline employees. Mat!re companies !s!ally foc!s on developing an organizational str!ct!re to improve efficiency and profitability. .hese improvements may be the res!lt of more competitors entering the economic mar etplace. Strategy "!siness strategies can also be a factor in a companyMrs+!o=s organizational str!ct!re development. 1igh0growth companies !s!ally have smaller organizational str!ct!res so they can react to changes in the b!siness environment +!ic er than other companies. "!siness owners may also be rel!ctant to give !p managerial control in b!siness operations. Small b!sinesses still loo ing to define their b!siness strategy often delay creating an organizational str!ct!re. "!siness owners are !s!ally more interested in setting b!siness strategies rather than developing and implementing an internal b!siness str!ct!re. "!siness 8nvironment .he e/ternal b!siness environment can also play an important part in a companyMrs+!o=s organizational str!ct!re. Dynamic environments with constantly changing cons!mer desires or behavior is often more t!rb!lent than stable environments. $ompanies attempting to meet cons!mer demand can str!ggle when creating an organizational str!ct!re in a dynamic environment. More time and capital can also be spent in dynamic environments attending to create and organizational str!ct!re. .his additional capital is !s!ally a negative

333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333 3333 2! .hy do grou#s get formed+ .hat are the stages of grou# formation+ 3"#lain the formation of a grou# and relate it to the stages )ith brief descri#tion of #ur#ose and structure of the grou#$ as you are a)are of! Also briefly describe the organi(ation$ if this grou# )as the #art of it! Solution: The formation of a grou# and relate it to the stages )ith brief descri#tion of #ur#ose and structure of the grou# mention belo): Stage 1: Forming In the ,orming stage, personal relations are characterized by dependence. Aro!p members rely on safe, patterned behavior and loo to the gro!p leader for g!idance and direction. Aro!p members have a desire for acceptance by the gro!p and a need to be now that the gro!p is safe. .hey set abo!t gathering impressions and data abo!t the similarities and differences among themand forming preferences for f!t!re s!bgro!ping. <!les of behavior seem to be to eep things simple and to avoid controversy. Serio!s topics and feelings are avoided. .he ma-or tas f!nctions also concern orientation. Members attempt to become oriented to the tas s as well as to one another. Disc!ssion centers aro!nd defining the scope of the tas , how to approach it, and similar concerns. .o grow from this stage to the ne/t, each member m!st relin+!ish the comfort of non0threatening topics and ris the possibility of conflict. Stage : Storming .he ne/t stage, called Storming, is characterized by competition and conflict in the personalrelations dimension an organization in the tas 0f!nctions dimension. %s the gro!p members attempt to organize for the tas , conflict inevitably res!lts in their personal relations. Individ!als have to bend and mold their feelings, ideas, attit!des, and beliefs to s!it the gro!p organization. "eca!se of *fear of e/pos!re* or *fear of fail!re,* there will be an increased desire for str!ct!ral clarification and commitment. %ltho!gh conflicts may or may not s!rface as gro!p iss!es, they do e/ist. N!estions will arise abo!t who is going to be responsible for what, what the r!les are, what the reward system is, and what criteria for eval!ation are. .hese reflect conflicts over leadership, str!ct!re, power, and a!thority. .here may be wide swings in members4 behavior based on emerging iss!es of competition and hostilities. "eca!se of the discomfort generated d!ring this stage, some members may remain completely silent while others attempt to dominate. In order to progress to the ne/t stage, gro!p members m!st move from a *testing and proving* mentality to a problem0solving mentality. .he most important trait in helping gro!ps to move on to the ne/t stage seems to be the ability to listen.

Stage -: 4orming In the 7orming stage, interpersonal relations are characterized by cohesion. Aro!p members are engaged in active ac nowledgment of all members4 contrib!tions, comm!nity b!ilding and maintenance, and solving of gro!p iss!es. Members are willing to change their preconceived ideas or opinions on the basis of facts presented by other members, and they actively as +!estions of one another. Beadership is shared, and cli+!es dissolve. When members begin to 1 now0and identify with0one another, the level of tr!st in their personal relations contrib!tes to the development of gro!p cohesion. It is d!ring this stage of development &ass!ming the gro!p gets this far' that people begin to e/perience a sense of gro!p belonging and a feeling of relief as a res!lt of resolving interpersonal conflicts. .he ma-or tas f!nction of stage three is the data flow between gro!p members# .hey share feelings and ideas, solicit and give feedbac to one another, and e/plore actions related to the tas . $reativity is high. If this stage of data flow and cohesion is attained by the gro!p members, their interactions are characterized by openness and sharing of information on both a personal and tas level. .hey feel good abo!t being part of an effective gro!p. .he ma-or drawbac of the norming stage is that members may begin to fear the inevitable f!t!re brea !p of the gro!p= they may resist change of any sort. Stage 0: 5erforming .he :erforming stage is not reached by all gro!ps. If gro!p members are able to evolve to stage fo!r, their capacity, range, and depth of personal relations e/pand to tr!e interdependence. In this stage, people can wor independently, in s!bgro!ps, or as a total !nit with e+!al facility. .heir roles and a!thorities dynamically ad-!st to the changing needs of the gro!p and individ!als. Stage fo!r is mar ed by interdependence in personal relations and problem solving in the realm of tas f!nctions. "y now, the gro!p sho!ld be most prod!ctive. Individ!al members have become self0ass!ring, and the need for gro!p approval is past. Members are both highly tas oriented and highly people oriented. .here is !nity# gro!p identity is complete, gro!p morale is high, and gro!p loyalty is intense. .he tas f!nction becomes gen!ine problem solving, leading toward optimal sol!tions and optim!m gro!p development. .here is s!pport for e/perimentation in solving problems and an emphasis on achievement. .he overall goal is prod!ctivity thro!gh problem solving and wor . Stage 2: Ad'ourning .he final stage, ad-o!rning, involves the termination of tas behaviors and disengagement from relationships. % planned concl!sion !s!ally incl!des recognition for participation and achievement and an opport!nity for members to say personal goodbyes. $oncl!ding a gro!p can create some

apprehension 0 in effect, a minor crisis. .he termination of the gro!p is a regressive movement from giving !p control to giving !p incl!sion in the gro!p. .he most effective interventions in this stage are those that facilitate tas termination and the disengagement process