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DESIGN CALCULATION
FOR
HCl STORAGE TANK
(2500 X 4300mm(T/T) L) BASED ON BS-4994-1987























Rev Date Revision Description Prepared by:
1 15-06-2011
a. Design Data Operating Pressure and Temperature
ERM
b. Tank Capacity 26m
3
to 25m
3

c. Nozzle Loading onto N1 & N9
d. Live load on Platform 1000Pa to 2500 Pa
e. Inclusion of Handrail Design
2 28-07-2011 Cage(Truss) web members rearrangement ERM

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FRP TANK DESIGN BASED ON BS 4994 (1987)


A) Design Data

Shape of tank: Cylindrical, horizontal, dish end. (0.30 Semi-Ellipse)
Di = 2500mm .
L: 4300mm (T/T)
Fluid handle: HCl, 9.9% concentration
Specific gravity: 1.05
Operating temperature: Ambient.
Design temperature: 20
0
C(min) to 60
0
C(max)
Operating pressure: 0.015 barg (0.0015MPa)
Design pressure: 0.34barg (0.034MPa)
Design vacuum: -0.05barg (-0.005MPa)

B) Material Data

I. Material Properties:
Type of resin: Isopthalac resin.

Ultimate tensile unit Strength, UTUS = 200 N/mm (CSM)
= 250 N/mm (WR)
= 500 N/mm (Unidirectional Filament)
Unit modulus = 14,000 N/mm (CSM)
= 16,000 N/mm (WR)
= 28,000 N/mm (Unidirectional Filament)

Maximum allowable strain, c = 0.2%. (Clause 9.2.4)

Note: Material strengths were based from minimum values provided in the
BS 4994: 1987 Table 5.


C) Design Factor

K= 3 x k1 x k2 x k3 x k4 x k5 (EQ 1)

where:

3: represents a constant which allows for the reduction of
material strength caused by long term loading.

k1: Handwork : 1.5

k2: Without thermoplastic lining: 1.6
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k3: Heat distortion temperature of resin: 1.0

k4: Cyclic loading: 1.1

k5: Without post cure: 1.5

K=3 x 1.5 x 1.6 x 1.0 x 1.1 x 1.5 = 11.88



D) Design Unit Loading

1. Design unit loading, UZ

a) Determine the Load limited allowable unit loading, uL.
u
L
=
K
u
(EQ 2)
where u is UTUS from Table 5.

u
L,CSM
=
88 . 11
200
= 16.84 N/mm per kg/m2 glass.

u
L,WR
=
88 . 11
250
= 21.04 N/mm per kg/m2 glass.
u
L,FW
=
88 . 11
500
= 42.09N/mm per kg/m2 glass.


b) Allowable strain, c = 0.2%

c) Strain limited allowable unit loading, uS.

u
S
= Xz c (EQ. 3)
where Xz is the unit modulus from Table 5.

u
S,CSM
= 14,000 x 0.2/100 = 28.0 N/mm per kg/m2 glass.

u
S,WR
= 16,000 x 0.2/100 = 32.0 N/mm per kg/m2 glass.

u
S,FW
= 28,000 x 0.2/100 = 56.0 N/mm per kg/m2 glass.




d) Design unit loading Uz.
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Since UL < US, then the strain for each layer concerned shall be
determined. (clause 9.2.6 b)

c =
Z
L
X
u
(EQ. 4)

c
CSM
=
000 , 14
84 . 16
x 100

= 0.12%

c
WR
=
000 , 16
04 . 21
x 100

= 0.13%


c
FW
=
000 , 28
09 . 42
x 100

= 0.15%

Therefore, the allowable strain, cd = 0.12%. (Least of the two
values)

The Design unit loading for each layer, uZ, shall be determined
from the formula below:

u
Z
= Xz cd (EQ. 5)

u
Z,CSM
= 14,000 x 0.12/100 = 16.8 N/mm per kg/m2 glass.

u
Z,WR
= 16,000 x 0.12/100 = 19.2 N/mm per kg/m2 glass.

u
Z,FW
= 28,000 x 0.12/100 = 33.6 N/mm per kg/m2 glass.

degrees) to the tank axis, the following formulas should be used:

In circumferential direction:

u
Z
= X c
d
F (EQ. 5a)

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In longitudinal direction:

u
Z
= X
X
c
d
F
X
(EQ. 5b)

From Table 7, filament at winding angle 65.

F = 0.5, F
X
= 0.5

From Figure 3, we can obtain the Unit modulus for winding
angle 68
0
,

X = 18,000N/mm and X
X
= 4,400N/mm

Therefore,

(i) Circumferential u
Z
= X c
d
F (EQ 5a)

= 16000 x 0.12/100 x 0.5

= 9.60 N/mm per kg/m2 glass.

(ii) Longitudinal u
Z
= X
X
c
d
F
X


= 4400 x 0.12/100 x 0.5 (EQ 5b)

= 2.52 N/mm per kg/m2 glass.

Summary of Design unit loading:

For CSM, u
Z,CSM
= 16.8 N/mm per kg/m2 glass.

For WR, u
Z,WR
= 19.2 N/mm per kg/m2 glass.

For Filament Winding,

Circumferential u
Z
= 9.60 N/mm per kg/m2 glass.

Longitudinal u
Z
= 2.64 N/mm per kg/m2 glass.








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E) Design For Construction.

1) Tank Shell Design.
i) Circumferential unit load, Q

= pDi/2 (EQ 7)
SG of liquid = 1.05
P = 0.034N/mm
2

Di = 2500mm
Q

=
2
) 2500 ( 034 . 0
= 42.50N/mm
Use 8 layers of CSM as chemical barrier, 2 layer of WR and 4 layers of filament
roving as reinforced layer.

Check:
Circumferential U
LAM
= (8 x 0.45 x 16.8) + (2 x 0.80 x 19.2) + (4 x 1.1 x 9.60)
= 133.44N/mm > Q

------ OK!

ii) Longitudinal unit load, Q
x
=
4
pDi
+
2
4
Di
M
t
(EQ11)

Tank Empty Weight = 1,530 kg (FRP Tank)


Liquid Weight (full) = 1.05 x 1000kg/m
3
x 25m
3

= 26,250 kg

Total Operating Weight = 27,780 kg

W = 27,780kg x 9.81m/s
2

= 272,522N

Uniform load, w = 272,522N/5800mm
= 46.99N/mm

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39.71 kN-m
19.38 kN-m
39.71 kN-m
61.09 kN
50.29 kN
14.50 kN-m 14.50 kN-m
24.89 kN
24.88 kN
61.09 kN
50.29 kN
9.93 kN-m 9.93 kN-m
1300mm 1600mm 1600mm 1300mm

Pressure due to liquid, p = 0.034N/mm
2
:

Q =
4
pDi

2
4
Di
M
t


Q =
4
) 2500 ( 034 . 0

2
6
) 2500 (
) 10 71 . 39 ( 4
t
Nmm x

Qx = 29.34N/mm ; 13.16 N/mm
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Pressure due to vacuum, p = -0.005N/mm
2
:

Q =
4
pDi

2
4
Di
M
t

Q =
4
) 2500 ( 005 . 0

2
6
) 2500 (
) 10 71 . 39 ( 4
t
Nmm x

Qx = 4.96N/mm ; -11.21 N/mm


Using 8 layers of CSM, 2 layer of WR and 4 layers of filament roving,
U
LAMX
= (8 x0.45 x 16.8) + (2 x 0.80 x 19.2) + (4 x 1.1 x 2.64)
= 102.82N/mm > Qx -------- OK!

iii) Compressive unit load.
a) Due to Shear on saddle support:

Q
c
=
L
V
=
2500 360 / 120
380 , 111
x x
N
[


= 42.54 N/mm

b) Due to weight onto nozzle N1 and N9:
Q
c
=
4
pDi
;
where p is computed from 20kg over effective area supporting
nozzle (consider smaller area, so pressure is maximum)

since N1 is smaller with Diameter = 80mm, effective diameter
is 92mm;

Effective area =
4
92
2
x mm
= 6,648mm
2

Therefore p =
2
2
648 , 6
/ 81 . 9 20
mm
s m kgx
= 0.030 N/mm
2

Q
c
=
4
pDi
=
4
2500 030 . 0 x
=18.75 N/mm

Since compressive unit load due to saddle support (Qc= 42.54 N/mm) is
greater than Qc due to nozzles N1 and N9 and also greater than Qx due to vacuum,
therefore consider compressive load due to Shear on saddle supports.



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Permissible compressive unit load
Qp =
FDo
tX
LAM
6 . 0
(EQ 13)
Qp =
) 14 2 2500 ( 4
) 4 1 . 1 400 , 4 2 80 . 0 000 , 16 8 45 . 0 000 , 14 )( 14 ( 6 . 0
x
x x x x x x
+
+ +

= 79.22N/mm > Qc ------- OK!

iv) Check minimum permissible thickness, t
m
, to prevent buckling due to
external pressure or vacuum:

L = 0.4 x 750 + 4300 = 4,900mm
D
o
= 2500+2x14 = 2,528mm
p
vacuum
= 0.005 N/mm
2

F = 4
E
LAM
=
14
4 10 . 1 400 , 4 2 80 . 0 000 , 16 8 45 . 0 000 , 14 x x x x x x
t
X
LAM
+ +
= (EQ14)
= 6,811.43




94 . 1
2528
900 , 4
= =
o
D
L
;

77 . 11
4 005 . 0
43 . 811 , 6
35 . 1 35 . 1
17 . 0
17 . 0
= |
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
x
x
pF
E
LAM
;

Since
o
D
L
<
17 . 0
35 . 1
|
|
.
|

\
|
pF
E
LAM
, then
t
m
=
40 . 0
4 . 0
|
|
.
|

\
|
o LAM
o
D
L
x
E
pF
D (EQ 16)

40 . 0
528 , 2
900 , 4
43 . 811 , 6
4 005 . 0 4 . 0
528 , 2 |
.
|

\
|
= x
x x


= 13.98mm < 14mm, OK!

Therefore, the proposed construction of 8 layers CSM, 2 layers WR and 4 layers
filament roving for shell is SAFE!



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2) Dish End Design.

i) Against internal pressure:
Assume
Di
t
s 0.005 and
Di
hi
= 0.3
Conservatively, use
Di
hi
=0.25 K
s
values from Table 11.
Use Ks = 1.30 for semi ellipsoidal dome.

Q

= 0.5pDi Ks (EQ 43)


= 0.5(0.034)(2500)(1.30)

Q

= 55.25 N/mm

But Q

> U
1
, M
1
, N
1
+ U
2
+ M
2
+ N
2
+
Using 11 layers of CSM + 3 layers of WR:

Qact = 16.8x0.45x11 + 19.2x0.80x3
= 129.24 N/mm > Q

= 55.26 N/mm ---------OK!




ii) Check minimum permissible thickness against buckling, t
m
:


LAM
o m
E
pF
R t 7 . 1 = (EQ 19)




But
e o o
K D R 5 . 0 = (EQ 46)
and Ke = 1.50 (from Figure 15, BS4994:1987)

896 , 1 50 . 1 528 , 2 5 . 0 = = x x R
o


E
LAM
=
14
3 80 . 0 000 , 16 11 45 . 0 000 , 14 x x x x
t
X
LAM
+
=
= 8,975

Therefore,

975 , 8
4 034 . 0
896 , 1 7 . 1 7 . 1
x
x
E
pF
R t
LAM
o m
= = =12.55 mm < 14mm, OK!
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764
2800
iii) Check against vacuum, p =-0.005 N/mm
2


Q

= 0.66pDi Ks (EQ 43)


= 0.66(0.005)(2500)(1.30)
= 10.725 N/mm < Qact, OK!


3) Mild Steel Saddle Support.














A. Check Legs for compression:

Total weight of tank, W = 272,522 N
Factor of safety = 2
Design weight of tank = 545,044 N
Load on each support set = 545,044 / 3
= 181,681 N

Using 4 numbers of C-Channel 150 x 75 x 6.5
Maximum compressive load that center Leg will carry:
= 66,617 N

Allowable compression stress = 0.6Fy
= 0.6 x 248
Fc = 148.8N/mm
2


Actual compression stress =
A
P

Where A = 2280mm
2
(C-Channel cross section)

oc =
A
P
=
2
2280
617 , 66
mm

= 29.22N/mm
2
< Fc ------- OK!

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B. Check Base against Compression:

Total Compressive force to carry = 181,681 N

Allowable compressive stress, Fc = 0.60Fy = 0.60x248MPa = 148.80 N/mm
2


Actual Compressive stress, oc =
A
P
=
mm mmx
N
10 2800
681 , 181
= 6.49N/mm
2
<Fc, OK!


4) Design of M/S Cage

2800
5800
1300 1600 1600 1300

A. Platform Beam support

FRP Grating, accessories loading = 150 Pa
Live Load = 2,500 Pa
=========
Total = 2,650 Pa = 0.00265 N/mm
2

Safety Factor = 2
Maximum distance between beams = 1,600 mm
Beam length, l = 2,800 mm

Design uniform load, w = 0.00265N/mm2 x 1,600mm x 2
w = 8.48 N/mm

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Max bending Moment, M =
8
2
wl
=
8
800 , 2 48 . 8
2
x
=8,310,400 N-mm
Sx
Reqd
=
Fy
M
66 . 0
=
MPa x
mm N
248 66 . 0
400 , 310 , 8
=50,772mm
3
= 50.77cm
3


Use C-channel 125x65x6.0mm Thk (Sx = 89.40cm
3
>Sx
Reqd
), is OK!


B. Design of Truss Members

a. Truss self weight

Assuming members using L100x100x6mmT,
Mass per meter of member = 12.2kg/m x 9.81m/s
2

= 119.68 N/m

b. Handrails, and other accessories = 300Pa = 0.0003 N/mm
2

Uniform load onto Top Chord of truss,
w = 0.0003N/mm2 x 2800mm/2
= 0.42 N/mm

c. Loading from Platform beam support:

Reactions from beam support

P1 = 0.00265N/mm2 x 2(SF) x 650mm x 2800mm / 2 = 4,823 N
P2 = 0.00265N/mm2 x 2(SF) x 1450mm x 2,800mm / 2 = 10,759 N
P3 = 0.00265N/mm2 x 2(SF) x 1600mm x 2,800mm / 2 = 11,872 N

d. Tank assembly load

Saddle support weight = 2,000 N per support

Tank Empty weight = 1,530 kg
Uniform load from empty tank = 1,530x9.81/5,800mm
= 2.59 N/mm

Support Reactions for saddle (see Shear Diagram on p. 14)


R1 = 2,770 N + 3,370 N = 6,140 N
R2 = 1,370 N + 1,370 N = 2,740 N



Total load transferred to joints of truss:
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T1 = R1 + 2,000N = 8,140 N
T2 = R2 + 2,000N = 4,740 N

3.37 kN
2.77 kN
1.37 kN
1.37 kN
3.37 kN
2.77 kN
1300mm 1600mm 1600mm 1300mm

At Tank Operation:




















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SUPPORT REACTIONS:


JOINT FORCE-Y (kN)
2 12.01
3 26.01
4 12.01



MEMBER END FORCES

Unit: Force: kN

MEMBER JT AXIAL SHEAR-Y SHEAR-Z


1 1 2.58 -.02 .02
2 -2.58 .13 -.13

2 2 .00 .09 -.09
3 .00 .04 -.04

3 3 .00 .04 -.04
4 .00 .09 -.09

4 4 2.58 .13 -.13
5 -2.58 -.02 .02

5 6 .00 .16 -.16
7 .00 .33 -.33

6 7 -6.15 .32 -.31
8 6.15 .29 -.29

7 8 -6.15 .29 -.29
9 6.15 .32 -.32

8 9 -.01 .33 -.33
10 .01 .16 -.16

9 1 5.39 .00 .00
6 -5.06 .00 .00

10 2 11.69 .01 -.01
7 -11.36 -.01 .01

11 3 13.04 .00 .00
8 -12.70 .00 .00

12 4 11.69 -.01 .00
9 -11.36 .01 -.01


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13 5 5.39 .00 .00
10 -5.05 .00 .00

14 1 -5.95 .06 -.06
7 6.28 .05 -.05

15 3 7.34 .07 -.07
7 -7.01 .07 -.06

16 3 7.34 .07 -.07
9 -7.01 .07 -.06

17 5 -5.94 .06 -.05
9 6.28 .05 -.06

Maximum Axial Load = 12,700 N
Maximum Shear = 330 N

Check Member against Axial Load(Tension):

Cross-sectional area = 1,560mm
2

o
T
=
A
P
=
2
560 , 1
700 , 12
mm
N
= 8.14 N/mm
2

Allowable Tensile stress, f
T
= 0.60Fy
= 0.60 x 248 MPa = 148.80 N/mm
2
> o
T,
OK!

Check Member against Shear:
o
V
=
A
P
=
2
560 , 1
330
mm
N
= 0.21 N/mm2
Allowable ==Shear stress, f
V
= 0.40Fy
= 0.40 x 248 MPa = 99.20 N/mm
2
> o
V
, OK!

















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During Lifting of Tank:


SUPPORT REACTIONS:


JOINT FORCE-Y (kN)
7 14.00
9 14.00


MEMBER END FORCES
Unit: Force: kN

MEMBER JT AXIAL SHEAR-Y SHEAR-Z

1 1 .38 .06 -.06
2 -.38 .05 -.05

2 2 .37 .05 -.05
3 -.37 .08 -.08

3 3 .37 .08 -.08
4 -.37 .05 -.05

4 4 .38 .05 -.05
5 -.38 .06 -.06

5 6 .02 .20 -.20
7 -.02 .30 -.30

6 7 .00 .32 -.32
8 .00 .29 -.29

7 8 .00 .29 -.29
9 .00 .32 -.32

8 9 .02 .30 -.30
10 -.02 .20 -.20

9 1 .62 -.01 .01
6 -.28 .01 -.01

10 2 -8.28 .00 .00
7 8.62 .00 .00

11 3 1.15 .00 .00
8 -.82 .00 .00

12 4 -8.28 .00 .00
9 8.62 .00 .00

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13 5 .62 .01 -.01
10 -.28 -.01 .01

14 1 -.80 .05 -.05
7 1.14 .06 -.06

15 3 -3.58 .07 -.07
7 3.92 .07 -.07

16 3 -3.58 .07 -.07
9 3.92 .07 -.07

17 5 -.80 .05 -.04
9 1.14 .06 -.07


Maximum Axial Load = 862 N
Maximum Shear = 320 N

Check Member against Axial Load(Tension):

Cross-sectional area = 1,560mm
2

o
T
=
A
P
=
2
560 , 1
862
mm
N
= 0.55 N/mm
2

Allowable Tensile stress, f
T
= 0.60Fy
= 0.60 x 248 MPa = 148.80 N/mm
2
> o
T,
OK!

Check Member against Shear:
o
V
=
A
P
=
2
560 , 1
3260
mm
N
= 0.20 N/mm2
Allowable =Shear stress, f
V
= 0.40Fy
= 0.40 x 248 MPa = 99.20 N/mm
2
> o
V
, OK!


C. Lifting Lugs Check

Plate Check

4 nos of Lifting Lugs to be weld connected to the Truss (Cage)

Total Weight of Empty tank c/w M/SCage, ladder, hand rails etc:

Empty Tank = 1,530 kg
M/S Cage = 2,300 kg
========
Total Lift Weight = 3,830 kg

Factor of Safety = 4
19 of 21

Design Loading per Lifting Lugs,
P = 3,830kg x 4 x 9.81m/s
2
/ 4 nos
= 37,572.30 N












Using 12mm thick M/S Plate(A36 steel, Fy = 248MPa)

a. Shear Stress Analysis

Allowable Shear of plate Fv = 0.40Fy
= 0.40(248)
= 99.20 N/mm
2


Actual Shear stress on plate =
A
P
=
12 ) 20 75 (
30 . 572 , 37


= 56.93 N/mm
2
< Fv --- OK!

b. Tensile Stress Analysis

Allowable Tensile of plate, Ft = 0.60Fy
= 0.60(248)
= 148.80 N/mm
2


Actual Tensile stress on plate =
A
P
=
12 ) 40 225 (
30 . 572 , 37

= 16.92 N/mm
2











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Welding Check

a. Total welding length of Lifting lug to base plate,

l
LL
= 2 x 225mm = 450mm

Effective length = 0.70 x 450 = 315mm

b. Total welding length of base plate to Cage,

l
BP
= 200 + 2x 100 + 100 = 500mm

Effective length = 0.70 x 500 = 350mm

Using E60 electrode(Fu = 414MPa), Fw = 0.38Fu = 157.32 N/mm
2


Since Fw of weld is higher than allowable shear capacity of plate, use
plates value to be conservative.

Therefore, Fw = Fv = 99.20 N/mm
2


Throat of weld = 0.70 x 6mm

Required length of weld =
xthroat f
P
w
=
) 6 70 . 0 ( 20 . 99
30 . 572 , 37
x x


= 90.18 mm < effective length both on base
plate and Lifting lugs, therefore, SAFE!


Since plate and weld check shows it can carry the weight, therefore
material provided are SAFE!











21 of 21

D. Handrail Design

Load applied to handrail = 0.75 kN/m

1000 1000 1000
1100
550
550
Check for Horizontal Rail:

M =
8
2
wL
=
8
1000 / 75 . 0
2
mm mmx N
= 93,750 N-mm

Sx
Reqd
=
fb
M
=
MPa x
Nmm
248 66 . 0
750 , 93
= 572.80 mm
3
= 0.57cm
3


Check for Vertical Rail:

M = P x L = (0.75N/mm x 1000mm) x 1100mm

= 825,000 N-mm

Sx
Reqd
=
fb
M
=
MPa x
Nmm
248 66 . 0
000 , 825
= 5040 mm
3
= 5.04cm
3


Use of |40mm x 4mm Thk CHS (Sx = 5.92cm
3
) is SAFE!