Q1.

While such a new paint would have significant impact on the emissions of each car and house owners, this doesn’t’ stop the production of cars, nor the construction of buildings. Both of these processes use finite resources and with a rapidly increasing demand that correlates to the growth in population. Some theorists such as P.R Ehrlich propose that population will regulate itself through starvation, and in his earlier work controversy proposed that richer countries allow third world developing nations to either adopt birth control themselves or face starvation. However, a significant amount of more people than was predicted by Ehrlich now live on this Planet and it appears that population is not the only issue. The distribution of wealth or resource consumption, essentially making central and periphery production zones, the former the Western nations, and the later the Third and Developing worlds. <Globalisation, world trade of goods, resources, technology and cultural exchange has ‘shrunk’ the world scale > Would probably be bought up. However, some suggest that this might occur when we reach peak oil…etc As most economists acknowledge that there is a scarcity of resources, such as oil, there is a theory in place called Hubbert’s theory of Peak oil. Suggested that upon the extracting the last oil from the Earth, humanity will turn to its alternatives for energy sourcing. This ideology could be seen as technologically deterministic, suggesting that our technological advancements will be the saving grace of our current actions, and in many ways embodies the entire human exemptionalist paradigm. Furthermore, while there might be a significant demand for such a product, this doesn’t guarantee that it will be adopted. Due an unregulated marketplace that cannot conceive of the local environment as anything but an ‘externality’ to trade, let the alone the biosphere, there would probably remain strong competition that would see a reduction in cost of other forms of car and building construction, therefore reducing the cost for the consumer. Such a design would indicate a significant and positive shift, but to ‘roll out’ such a program would likely be inhinbited by those with vested interest. This was seen in the case of electric cars designs that were bought and destroyed by those with existing interests in current production, regardless of it’s environment impact. For such a project to take place, it would need to intersect with a shift from widespread privatised industries and private ownership. It would require both existing corporations to envisage their position under common ownership and relinquish what they hold to be their right to control a means of production due to their current power and wealth.

or simply instrumentalizes nature for it’s production. where virtue would be strived for. and perhaps it’s purpose. For example. which subsequently impacts the environment. Such an ecological citizenship acknowledges that the impact some have. Engineering. If there’s time: What may occur however in such an Ecological Citizenship is that while behaviour or activity that impact’s nature becomes stigmatized. This critique suggests that just because we may be ‘causally’ related with the environment. as has been carried out in recent years. Therefore. Dobson responds to this by highlighting that justice would be the currency that is traded. and that ecological citizenship simultaneously produced through the circumstances of scarcity and inequality. buildings that require further electrical connections and similar services place further straight on our ecosystems. A critique that was levelled at is that ecological citizenship would only be adopted by those who are oppressed and those who are currently unequal (2006). Therefore. Furthermore. understood as a key funding source for universities in Australia encourages a significant amount of frequent International travel. it would have to envisage it’s operation scheme. This is a reasonable call. aggressively marketing to overseas students and to open new positions would be seen as a positive in the fiscal growth for Swinburne. the administration would have to re-envisage their business model which incorporates spatial growth as an aspiration endeavour and redirect its focus from it’s current expansion and dependencies if they prove to be environmentally unsustainable. if the university is dependent on such expansion. the construction of new buildings that require finite resources. As an ecological citizen. students would actively investigate the sustainability and potentiality of their area of study. However. While each student would be ‘self’ responsible for actively adjusting their behaviour and consumption. to examine in such an industry supports ecological justice. especially when might envisage those with power unwilling to relinquish it.e the richer nations. With this in mind to implement such at the micro level of Swinburne University would be a challenging endeavour under current management. on par with the currently endeavour we see for individual gain. participation in a democratic process but with an emphasis towards justice and the virtue of reducing the foot print one leaves upon the ecology. but might not have any apparent impact of the rich consumer. In many aspects. While environemental citizenship can be understood through the lens of rights and responsibilities for the individual. effects the poorer nations and the exploited. not to fall towards authoritarian regulation. and ecological citizen would have to reconceive themselves beyond the restrictions of nation states. those that typify a liberal citizenship. Furthermore. e.Q2. the students. local and globally. such rigorous overseas recruitment. the individual and the corporation wont necessary act in the interest of environment. i. equal in the pursuit for Ecological and social justice would have to examine their consumption practices and potentially their career pursuits. individuals who have not internalized the purpose and values of one’s Ecological . Therefore. as an Ecological citizen.g.

Goffman described as a ‘Front’ and ‘Back’ stage in his Social Interactionism theory of Dramaturgy (1984). fauna and the biosphere that is self-regulating. In all practicality. In this work. life is interdependent and co-arising. I actively attempt to reconceived myself beyond any form of anthropocentrism. Such a disembodied can be seen as a continuity of Western philosophical dualism in which man is higher than the lowly forest from which he arose.Citizenship may create what E. and even though it’s origins were used to critique biological or genetic racism. a privileged Western country is based around a genealogy of thought that holds human life not necessary as the highest but rightfully dominant. In a similar light to complexity and emergence theories proposed by Biochemists such as Brian Goodwin and Mae Wan-Ho.Vico’s ‘New Science’. . yet ecologically damaging consumption within one’s backstage. something that can significantly reduce my environmental footprint. The NEP was a critique of the Human Exemptionalist Paradigm. In a similar fashion. I also believe I act in hypocrisy for continuing to consume dairy (sold in plastics) which contributes to both the domination of cattle. and often non-action that we make as humans living within a First World economy has a direct impact upon the consumption of finite resources and contributes to the increase of Global Warming and associated Environmental crisis. This however is challenging when the social environment in which we live. notable in the works of 18th century Italian theorist G. In relation to my own life choices. to suggest that one lives within the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) would propose that one has complete liberty and the right to live in and of themselves. and in many ways potentially deceiving others. ultimately feeds towards the meat industry and excessive waste. this position dualizes ‘man and nature’ in such a way that it potentially disembodies humanity. proponents of the NEP perceive culture and society as ‘emergent’ from the complexity of cooperating organisms in nature. in control of their own fate per say. Perhaps best understood as a social theory that holds culture as transcendent over the environment. we see that individuals manage their presentation of their self as an ideal to society as their ‘front’. In this circumstance of an Ecological Citizenship it may be a ‘social norm’ to recycle all produce and consume nothing that is detrimental to the environment. As wonderful as this position appears. animals. flora. Q3. while readjusting themselves ‘backstage’. Almost every action. while I have been vegetarian for many years. The HEP position arguably justifies the instrumentalisation of nature for human purpose. life that includes humans. The NEP conceives of humans as interdependent with the environment they emerge from. The theorists that originally coined the term in the 1970s highlighted that nature was only really seen as instrumental and talked of in terms of labour.

or even sabotage of commercial shipping vessels. The Sea Shepherd conservation society holds that direct action. The current aspiration of economics is growth and progress. Adopting a ‘deep ecological’ framework. This ‘Treadmill’ of consumption.S government. the NGO Rainforest Alliance. Due to this treadmill effect. a demand that is not a necessity goes in direct conflict with a deep ecological view point. Economic growth is conceived through Neoclassical economics as an increase of trade and supposedly wealth. Such actions suggest that human life is not substantially more important than animal or non-human life according to this position. rather than instrumental to human use. ‘exponential economic growth is incompatible with survival in a biosphere’. in an attempt to take more aggressive and ‘direct’ action against the systematic harvesting of marine life and whaling by corporations. which in turns means a further consumption of finite goods. The second movement is that of Rainforest Alliance. This proposes that all life has intrinsic value as it is codependent with a self-regulating biosphere. but is currently seen as necessary to sustain an increase in population and demand for jobs. As one of the more recent social movements to arise from the 20th century. Mostly operating in . According to the U. Gross Domestic Product. A Non-GovernmentOrganization that attempts to shift practices of land-owners worldwide towards sustainable ones. and to protect biodiversity in such areas. the only remaining option is interplanetary migration and resource hunting. that activity can only increase as demand and of course. there isn’t even the potential for understanding the dependencies of the environment that such ‘social’ phenomena such as trade occurs. Sea Shepherd may even fall under the Ecoterrorist category according for their ‘direct-action’ approach. Townsend. In words of K. two leading Environmental groups have become quite well known. one that is often vilified as a radical and dangerous movement. With the ecology holding no place within the scheme of trade except as material. The former is a breakaway from the environmental movement Greenpeace. population increase. Q5. measured as GDP. it must be noted that the environment does not factor into this theory but is rather seen as an ‘externality’ or sidelined concern for economics. This is not only been a long term aspiration. While it may be seem as an acceptable ambition that is mutually beneficial. the often controversial and newspaper headline grabbing Sea Sheperd and to contrast. This implies that overfishing and hunting marine life such as whales to feed a demand for it’s flesh. as is often presented in relation to unregulated trade.Q4. it becomes quite evident that if there is a correlation between increased economic trade or growth and the destruction or consumption of the environment then the Neoliberal model of economics in which we operate must change. This position dethrones mankind of the right to bestow of value upon nature and sees all life as meaningful.

It may be suggested that the women remain ‘embodied’ with their environment while the men are ‘disembodied’ from such a relation. and have been influenced by globalisation. South American and more mountainous areas of Asia such as the Himalayan region. with language around environmental destruction and global warming utilizing the likes of scientific. they are well recognized for their attempts to establish proper workers rights and wagers for coffee plantations and to offset all carbon emissions for their activities. Environmental Sociology Exam: Q6. Within African. they know that they will have to work hard and walk longer for water and food sources. such causes are associated with human activity. the socialization of gender is a key element to the behaviour and interaction one has with one’s environ. Already having to search for water sources. Furthermore. gathering water and other necessities. The women who collect water and perform more basic survival tasks with no formal employment in their village have historically protested. it has been accused of continuing to operate with the framework of the current institutionalized economic framework. With such a widespread movement to . An example can be found within the problem of deforestation. as seen in North India against deforestation and logging. Therefore. – Gender While it is often held to be a physical problem. the local cycles and the wider biosphere. which some ‘radicals’ may claim to be the heart of the crisis. such phenomena is situated within the social. as a manmade problem. The womenfolk of many of these villages either do not have a voice or say within their community decisions or are afraid of making their opinion heard. the Rainforest Alliance’s ‘tick of approval’ has been critiqued as being to easy to secure and does not necessarily guarantee ‘fair trade’. They therefore have a more intimate knowledge of the cycles of the environment. they aspire to ensure that there is no underpaid workers and that the practices are as sustainable as possible. As deforestation is detrimental to both the macro and micro environment. On the other hand the menfolk of the villages have adopted small amounts of trade with external groups. chemical and geographical language. This is noted to be a result from gendered work roles. akin to the Fair Trade logo. In majority of social structures. it becomes essential for the position and power of women to become prominent. The men gain insight into the systems of trade yet become disengaged from the process and relation with the forest. However. Unlike many other forestry areas and plantations in South American and it’s localities. engaging is business trade. This may include gathering or grazing for supplementary food sources. with the destruction of a forest. it has often been the male villagers who have supported such ‘progress’ as they have come to understand notions of trade. When the opportunity to increase financial or infrastructure within the village occurs from external interests at the cost the forest. it has been noted that women are more likely to be engaging in work that is within a forested area.third-world and developing countries.

clear and deforest ancient growth forest areas that are quintessential to global balance and health. allowing women to empower themselves through education may be one of the most essential ways to reshape our priorities. a movement that could be argued to be masculine. both in rural village areas and in the global economic sense. .

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