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MULTISTOREY HOUSING

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CONTENTS:
TERMINOLOGY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… SITE ACCESS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… SITE AMENITY…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… VISUAL PRIVACY……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. SITE ANALYSIS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… BUILDING AMENITY…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… BUILDING CONFIGURATION……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. APARTMENT TYPOLOGY……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. APARTMENT BUILDDING TYPOLOGY………………………………………………………………………………………………….. SPATIAL HEIRACHY…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. LAYOUT OF UNIT……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. HVAC SYSTEMS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… FIREFIGHTING…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… GARBAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS……………………………………………………………………………… STAIRCASE, ELEVATORS…………………………………………………………………………………………….. SECURITY, PUBLIC HEALTH……………………………………………………………………………………………… STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS……………………………………………………………………………… BIBLIOGRAPHY………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 9 13 16 18 22 25 29 30 31 32 34

2 TERMINOLOGY: Detached home: A house built on its own land and surrounded by a garden. Semi-detached home: Two houses attached to each other and surrounded by a garden on three sides. Terraced houses: Several houses attached to each other with a small front section and a larger back garden, and usually located in suburban environments. Townhouse: Several houses attached to each other with a small back garden, usually located in urban environments. Loft apartments: An apartment created from the conversion of former industrial spaces. Loft apartments are known for their large adaptable open spaces and large floor to ceiling height. Two level apartments: A home over two levels with an internal stairway, which is stacked together with other apartments in an apartment building. Single level apartments: A home which is stacked together with other apartments in an apartment building. Penthouse: A house on a roof top which generally has a roof deck, if not a roof garden

Integrating ventilation grills or screening devices of car park openings into the facade design and landscape design.     Minimum roads Narrow roads (Generally limit the width of driveways to a maximum of six meters) Car park entry and access from secondary streets and lanes Screen garbage collection. loading and servicing areas visually away from the street SITE AMENITY: Safety: Visibility between entrances. where possible . Pedestrian Access: Separate and clearly distinguish between pedestrian access ways and vehicle access ways. Service vehicle access? It will be near the service loading and unloading and staff lockers and restrooms Design entries and associated circulation space of an adequate size to allow movement of furniture between public and private spaces.orienting living areas with views over public or communal open spaces.3 SITE PLANNING: SITE ACCESS Building entry: one main entrance or multiple entrances for separate access to apartments? Depends on whether ground floor is a retail or amenities floor. Parking option where parking is located above ground floor behind retail and amenities. Provide barrier free access to at least 20 percent of dwellings in the development. Vehicle Access: Ensure adequate separation distances between vehicular entries and street intersections. foyers and the street providing direct entry to ground level apartments from the street rather than through a common foyer Casual surveillance by: . Parking: In case of parking in basement we will have to provide a separate entrance and exit for cars also? Location will depend upon road position.

Re-entrant corner balconies are best used as a secondary outlook for an apartment. A balance has to be made between Surveillance and Visual Privacy. Locating circulation cores at the re-entrant (internal) corners of buildings can improve separation and privacy between apartments. . which provide oblique views of the street Providing casual views of common internal areas. Minimize opportunities for concealment by: avoiding blind or dark alcoves near lifts and stairwells. hallways. recreation areas and car parks. at the entrance and within indoor car parks. Use detailed site and building design elements to increase privacy without compromising access to light and air. and the public domain or communal open space. common areas and access routes through the development from the windows of rooms.4 using bay windows and balconies. such as lobbies and foyers. which protrude beyond the main facade and enable a wider angle of vision to the street using corner windows. along corridors and walkways Visual Privacy: Design building layouts to minimize direct overlooking of rooms and private open spaces adjacent to apartments by: separating communal open space. - Windows. particularly habitable rooms changing the level between ground floor apartments with their associated private open space. Design detailing may include: offset windows of apartments in new development and adjacent development windows Recessed balconies and/or vertical fins between Utilize pergolas or shading devises to limit overlooking of lower apartments or private open space. provide surveillance and make both the street and the apartment building more secure during the day and at night. balconies and front doors address the street.

Optimize solar access to living spaces and associated private open spaces by orienting them to the north. design solutions include: .providing adequate building separation within the development and to adjacent buildings Select building types or layouts which respond to the streetscape while optimizing solar access. Zoning and Site elements: . as required. Where streets are to be edged and defined by buildings.align buildings to the street on east-west streets .positioning and orienting buildings to maximize north facing walls (within 30 degrees east and 20 degrees west of north) where possible .5 SITE ANALYSIS: Orientation: Plan the site to optimize solar access by: .use courtyards. to maximize sun access in winter and sun shading in summer. Detail building elements to modify environmental conditions. L-shaped configurations and increased setbacks to northern (side) boundaries on north-south streets.

minimizing the amount of party (shared) walls with other apartments.locating busy. the minimum preferred dimension in one direction is 4 metres (12 feet approx.using storage or circulation zones within an apartment to buffer noise from adjacent apartments.mechanical services or corridors and lobby areas .) BUILDING AMENITY: Acoustic Privacy: Acoustic privacy is a measure of sound insulation between apartments and between external and internal spaces. Quiet bedrooms are also located separate from main living areas. outlook and views by using design measures including: .Double glazing . This typical apartment floor plan locates living spaces away from noise sources. noisy areas next to each other and quieter areas next to other quiet areas. for example. such as on a podium or car park. living rooms with living rooms. laundry together. bedrooms with bedrooms . Design the internal apartment layout to separate noisier spaces from quieter spaces by: . kitchen .6 Open spaces: The minimum recommended area of private open space for each apartment at ground level or similar space on a structure.Operable screened balconies . bathroom. bedrooms Living. such as the lift and stairs.Continuous walls to ground level courtyards where they do not conflict with streetscape or other amenity requirements. Resolve conflicts between noise.grouping uses within an apartment-bedrooms with bedrooms and service areas like kitchen. dining. is 25m2. Designing for acoustic privacy relates to the location and separation of buildings within a development and the arrangement of apartments and internal spaces within apartments. Arrange apartments within a development to minimize noise transition between flats by: .

BUILDING CONFIGURATION: This optimal layout allows air flow directly from one side of the apartment to the other. This relates to the desired streetscape and topography of the site. Building depths. keeping living spaces together and sleeping spaces together.7 Natural Ventilation: Corner apartments can achieve effective natural ventilation. Good cross ventilation can be achieved with cross over apartments. maisonette apartments and semi-basement car parks. This layout works well in upper floor apartments. Twenty five percent (25%) of kitchens within a development should have access to natural ventilation. Grouping rooms with similar usage together. range from 10 to 18 meters. which support natural ventilation typically. Provide ground floor apartments with access to private open space. . This allows the apartment to be compartmentalized for efficient summer cooling or winter heating. Sixty percent (60%) of residential units should be naturally cross ventilated. preferably as a terrace or garden. for example. Natural ventilation in this corner apartment is drawn through windows having different orientation. Ground Floor Apartments: Optimize the number of ground floor apartments with separate entries and consider requiring an appropriate percentage of accessible units.

(Residential Flat Codes) The number of apartment units per floor accessible from a common lobby is limited to a maximum of nine. from a single core/corridor should be limited to eight. This includes all apartments served by corridors and balcony walkways that are accessed by either lift(s).8 Internal Circulation (Lobbies. stairs. In general. (Apartment Design Guidelines NZ) 60m is generally acceptable as the longest distance between a building entry or car space. lifts and corridors): Conventional practice locates single aspect units along a double loaded corridor. the number of units accessible. to the apartment building. Common circulation areas should achieve the folwing minimum dimensions: . Better practice uses multiple cores to support more dual aspect apartments with better daylight access and cross ventilation. stair(s) or directly from the street. where units are arranged off a double-loaded corridor.

9 APARTMENT TYPOLOGIES/ CLASSIFICATION OF APARTMENTS: Type of Mix of these types will be decided by the local area requirements and bylaws of the site. .

CORNER AND DUAL ASPECT .10 SINGLE ASPECT: CORNER ASPECT: Suitable for tower form MIX OF SINGLE.

A MIXTURE OF SINGLE. SINGLE ASPECT CAN BE USED FOR ONE BEDROOM APARTMENT AND CORNER ASPECT CAN BE USED IN TWO OR THREE BEDROOM APARTMENTS ROOM DEPTH AND CEILING HEIGHT STANDARDS: Dual aspect apartments with a maximum total depth of 24 m Single aspect apartments with a maximum depth of 10 m from a window . There should be enough space between two dual aspect apartments to enter sunlight.11 Dual Aspect apartments are not compatible with double loaded corridors.CORNER AND DUAL ASPECT WILL BE USED.

12 WIND PROTECTION: C .

13 COMPARISON OF APARTMENT BUILDING TYPOLOGIES: EXTERIOR CORRIDOR INTERIOR CORRIDOR .

14 MULTIPLE EXTERIOR ACCESSES MULTIPLE INTERIOR ACCESSES .

15 TOWER DIMENSIONS OF SITE WILL HELP US DECIDE THE CONFIGURATION OF BUILDING .

Streets. it can be done either through the presence and observation of local residents (self-organization) or organizations who deal with spaces. It can be a local small park. regardless of gender. Semi-public spaces are communal spaces which provide residents to get together neutrally and know each other.     Public Semi-Public Private Semi-Private PUBLIC SPACE: A social space that is open and accessible to all. It is accessible to everyone. SEMI-PUBLIC SPACE: It is a private space accessible to general public. race. but can be done by residents and people who use them. These spaces have no boundaries and restriction on entrance of public. Security of such spaces is an issue. ethnicity. it can be defined as a space open to the public but has a certain private character in it. is to be used primarily by the surrounding residents. Here. an open courtyard or any similar space. They are the reason of contact between residents. . age or socioeconomic level. including pavements are general public spaces. Sub-division and zoning of communal space is.16 SPATIAL HIERARCHY: Transition between public space and private space is through semi-private zones.

textures and variations etc. COMMUNAL OPEN SPACES: Communal open spaces are provided within the landscaped courtyards of blocks. private and semi-private spaces. where access is only limited by the residents or the concerned people. It can be in the form of landscaped areas. These are not private because these are shared but not accessible to outsiders. Roof gardens are satisfactory alternatives with fully considered climatic and safety factors. For example.17 SEMI-PRIVATE SPACES: A semi private space is a space that is accessed and controlled by residents and associated people. The height and orientation of adjoining blocks should permit sufficient sunlight to reach such spaces throughout the year. territory of an individual unit is a private space. PRIVATE OPEN SPACES: Private open space can be provided in the form of rear gardens. It is essential to clearly distinguish between the public. Private Open Space at ground floor level need s some boundaries for privacy and security. This area is completely distinguished from the above mentioned public and semi-public spaces. PRIVATE SPACES: In case of a multi-unit housing complex. these boundaries can be real barriers or perceived barriers like level differences. semi-public. . patios (ground floor) or balconies (upper level). usable outdoor space for families is preferable with a safer living environment. communal staircase in a residential building. hedges. COMMUNAL AND PRIVATE OPEN SPACES: ‘The job of buildings is to improve human relations: architecture must ease them. not make them worse’ -Ralph Erskine The provision of adequate and a well-designed communal and private open space for each apartment is crucial and in particular.

18 LAYOUT OF APPARTMENTS: The internal layout of an apartment establishes: Spatial arrangement of rooms Circulation between the rooms Degree of privacy for each room In addition it directly impacts the quality of residential amenity .4 10 80 11 89 21 90 16 121 33 124 24 .4 63. LAYOUT OF FLATS:       Studio apartment One bedroom cross through apartment Loft apartment One bedroom single aspect apartment Two bedroom apartment Three bedroom apartment APARTMENT TYPE STUDIO 1 BEDROOM CROSS THROUGH 1 BED ROOM LOFT 1 BEDROOM SINGLE ASPECT 2 BEDROOM CORNER 2 BEDROOM CROSS THROUGH 2 BEDROOM CROSS OVER 2 BEDROOM CORNER 3 BEDROOM AREA INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL AREA IN METER SQUARE 38.such as access to daylight and natural ventilation .5 6 50 8 62 9.acoustics and visual privacy and private open spaces.

an effort should be made to group all services. the ideal seldom being possible. The main units of accommodation are: .as it is rarely possible to allow perfect adjustment in all directions. Grouping of rooms: The question of aspect of individual rooms is invariably a problem. thus facilitating a concentration of drainage and plumbing which are relatively expensive items.19 1 BEDROOM 2 BEDROOM MASIONETTE APARTMENT/LOFT DESIGN OF FLAT UNITS: General: the principle of good entrance and approach should not be overshadowed by consideration of aspect . Planning principles must be exploited to full.

Should become approach to the rooms.5 meter is considered absolute minimum. 6. It is not desirable to pass bedrooms and bathrooms to reach living rooms. Double bed rooms: 10 to 11 meter square is reasonable Single bed room: Single bed room should not be less than 8 meter square. Should form a distinct unit. Service: flat for 2 single person should . minimum 8 meter square each. Bathroom and bathroom accommodation should be cut off from the living room.20  Living room : Living room should be near the entrance of the flat. Main bed room: Master bed room should not be less than 12 meter square. Bedroom and bath rooms: Room sizes minimum and recommended:  A have a 2 single bedroom of recommended 9 meter square.

7 meter cube 3 or more person dwelling 2. Entrance hall: The principle rooms in the flat must be grouped round the entrance hall Immediately inside the front door. ELECTRIC SOCKETS: Kitchen Dinning Living area Bedroom 4 1 3 2 Bed sitting room in family dwelling 3 COMPARRISON OF DIFFERENT LAYOUTS OF APPARTMENTS: STUDIO APARTMENTS: The studio apartments are suitable for bachelors as they have no privacy issues. No entrance halls are in low rental types and small flats Low rental types or small flats: The low rental type of flats are built in large blocks and build on invariably central corridor system. Good usage of single space Less material utilization. Everything is accommodated in a single space. Room by room commentary on room area standards:  Washrooms: 1 wc for 1 to 3 person dwelling 2 wc for 5 persons dwelling  Linen storage: 1 to 3 person dwelling 0.21 The service between kitchen and dining room should not cross the main corridor or hall . Maximum flats are served by central core (lifts and stairs).3 meter cube SPACE HEATING: Internal temperature should be maintained to 21 degree centigrade if external temperature is minus 1 degree.4 meter cube 4 or more person dwelling 0. .6 meter cube  Kitchen: 1 to 2 person dwelling 1.

LOCATING MAIN LIVING ADJECENT TO THE OPEN SPACE. PLACING THE KITCHEN AND BATHS TOWARD THE EXTERNAL FACE OF THE BUILDING THERE BY MAXIMISES THE NUMBER OF ROOMS. and many different reasons for choosing them. They are mostly used in mid to high-rise buildings. and are more appropriate for low to mid-rise buildings – those that have 6 floors or less. which are structures with 5-7+ floors. KITCHEN SHOULD BE PLACED AS SUCH SO THAT IT DOES NOT COME IN THE MAIN CIRCULATION PATTERN OF THE APARTMENT.       HVAC SYSTEMS: There are many different types of HVAC systems that can be chosen for a residential development. therefore.22 MAISONETTE APARTMENTS: Less in square meters or floor area Has double heighted living. The maintenance of . Decentralized systems provide separate heating and cooling equipment for each unit. PROVIDING PRIVATE OPEN SPACES IN THE FORM OF BALCONIES AND TERRACES. Systems breakdown into two major categories:   Centralized Systems De-centralized Systems Centralized systems feed the heating and cooling for the entire building from one centrally located mechanical area. the energy costs must be included in any rental or condo fee calculation. UTILIZING FLEXIBLE ROOM SIZES CIRCULATION THROUGH STAIRS AND CORRIDORS SHOUL D DESIGNED EFFECIENTLY SO THAT FLOOR SPACES ARE INCREASED. PROVIDING FOR A RANGE OF ACTIVITIES AND PRIVACY LEVELS BETWWEN DIFFERENT SPACES WITHIN THE APPARTMENT. A major drawback of centralized systems is that usage cannot readily be individually metered. These systems are more expensive to install and are usually more sophisticated to operate and maintain. are less expensive to install initially. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS OF APARTMENTS:  ACCOMODATION OF A VARIETY OF FURNITURE ARRANGEMENTS. CORNER APPARTMENTS: Maximum ventilation and day light is achieved  Number of rooms depends upon the requirements of the users and the number of family members.

Water source heat pump system: One of the most popular type of centralized system for mid-high rise residential buildings. service calls can be frequent occurrences.    Requires a room but in a smaller scale because of the use of two pipes. The advantage is the cost.  Offers Flexibility . It requires a mechanical room located in a penthouse or the ground floor. whether gas-fired or run by electricity. A great benefit of all decentralized systems is that they can be individually metered at the unit. They also tend to have a shorter life span than the centralized systems. except there are only two pipes to deliver EITHER hot OR chilled water. Types of Centralized Systems: There are three types    four-pipe vertical stacked fan coil unit. but because there is a system for every unit.23 these systems is relatively simple. The major components include     a boiler chiller cooling tower pumps. so long term maintenance and replacement costs should be considered in the overall analysis. One of greatest advantages of this system is that it allows the unit occupant to switch from heating to cooling at will. Because the system runs n four pipes.   The decentralized systems tend to be less sophisticated and significantly less costly to install initially than centralized systems. provide less comfort to the users. Hot and chilled water are distributed from the mechanical room to fan coils located inside the living units. These systems also tend to have a shorter life span than centralized systems. One item that must be addressed is that the major components of this system will require skilled maintenance staff on call to operate and maintain them. Less flexible and less efficient. Two-pipe vertical fan coil system: This system is similar to the four-pipe system described above. two-pipe vertical stacked fan coil units vertical stacked water source heat pumps Four-pipe vertical stacked fan coil system:  carries the highest initial cost     generally provides the highest degree of comfort control for the resident. that is less as compared to four pipe system.

gas fired furnace with an air conditioning coil (a-coil) and remote condenser self-contained packaged heat and A/C through the wall. Types Decentralized Systems: Decentralized HVAC systems are a common choice for low-rise residential buildings. Types Of Systems:  All-Air system    Central Plant system Air water system Induction system . noise isolation.  To avoid the large vertical ducts. Cooling tower can placed there. separate air handling units can be placed on each floor and only water circulates vertically.24   Simultaneously cooling and heating Low cost as compared to four pipe systems. This saves much energy because moving air great distances requires much power. especially when first cost is a factor. Central System with either two pipe coil system or water system can be used. Conclusion: For the High rise residential apartments of 5-7 storey.    fan coil units with integral pump.  The roof is the ideal location for fresh air intakes and heat rejection to the atmosphere.  The basement has the advantage of easy utility connections. The roof and basement are the usual choice for these central station systems. not being valuable rental area and the fact that structural loads are not a problem. AIR-CONDITIONING:  Most large multistory buildings use highly centralized air conditioning equipment.

Apartments. High-Rise Evolution: It was after World War II. In case of high rise building. hotels. when developers.25   Fan coil system Conclusion: Fan-coil units are most appropriate for air conditioning buildings with small zones (eg. This design concept allows for a completely unobstructed floor space providing an individual tenant or building owner versatility of floor layout that best meets their needs. It can also be a building that lacks practicable exterior access to the upper floors for fire operations. and or that which the fire service and each Incident Commander must depend upon the building's systems and components for fire suppression and smoke removal. The concept of compartmentalization was now being revolutionized into the open space design. FIREFIGHTING: A High-Rise building may be defined as any building above the reach of ladders. the following provision shall be made for safety of buildings from fire : At least one stair-case shall be provided as a fire staircase as defined in the National . In high-rise buildings built primarily of steel the columns at the core are connected to the columns at the exterior walls of the building by steel girders. architects and construction firms began to protest that the fire protection requirements were increasing the cost of construction beyond that which was reasonable and affordable. motels. hospitals and schools). These long girders eliminate the need for intermediate columns. In the earliest High-Rise structures built in the early 1900’s a single stairway often provided the only means of egress from the interior. condominiums.

   Separate electric circuits for lift installation. There should be Provision of dry-powder fire extinguisher to the extent of two on each floor with a capacity of 5 kg in all the high rise buildings. In addition fire hydrant shall be connected with Booster Pump from the static supply maintained on site.26   Building Code. They may be controlled remotely or operated manually by dispatching members to the roof area of the atrium to open vent hatches. Which is best described as the vertical natural air movement through the arteries of the building caused by differences in temperatures and densities between the atmospheres both inside and outside the building.   The internal fire hydrants shall be installed as provided. They may be built of reinforced  concrete. Stack effect is responsible for the wide distribution of smoke and toxic gases in a High-Rise building fire. Stack effect: A natural phenomena associated with High Rise buildings is called "stack effect". . Lighting of passages corridors and stairs and for internal fire hydrant system shall be provided. VERTICAL ARTERIES: Vertical arteries include the shafts built for stairwells. utilities and the air handling systems. Every building having a height of more than 25 m shall be provided with diesel generators which can be utilized in case of failure of the electricity. Water Supply: Underground tank of the capacity of one lakh liters and two lakh liters for the buildings situated within the municipal limit and outside of the municipal limit respectively be invariably provided in all the high rise buildings. The controls to vent the space may not be automatic. elevators. Provided that this shall not be applicable if any two sides of a staircase are kept totally open to external open air space. They would be subject to smoke contamination from spaces that adjoin the large open space. The magnitude of stack effect is a function of: • Building height • Air tightness of exterior walls • Air leakage between floors • Temperature difference between inside air and outside air atriums : Atriums are also subject to the Stack effect. Water in the normal use tank should come only through the overflow of fire tank so provided. An external fire hydrant shall be provided within the confines of the site of the building and shall be connected with Municipal Water mains not less than 4" in diameter.

Stairwells Generally stairwells in High-Rise buildings are usually built into the core and may be supplemented with additional stairwells on the outer perimeter of the structure. Scissor Stairs These types of stairs consist of two separate sets of stairs. Return Stairs These stairs used in the majority of High-Rise buildings are similar to stairs found in conventional structures. Stairwells and exits in High-Rise buildings are not designed to handle the total occupant load simultaneously. They are referred to as "return type" and "scissor type". entry to. and exit from the stairwell is made at the same relative location on each floor level. In this type . In return type stairs. There are two different stair design types commonly used in High-Rise buildings. which cross each other within a common shaft.27   concrete block or tile gypsum board.

A caretaker takes garbage and recyclables from the interim storage area to a communal storage area. They are shafts for the supply and return of conditioned air in the HVAC system. These shafts are subject to the natural phenomena of stack effect. Pros:   Cons:   Simple and easy to use Encourages recycling through collocation of garbage Requires regular transfer of garbage and recycling from the interim storage area to the communal storage area. the stair access point for each set of stairs in the shaft is at opposite locations on adjacent floors Access Stairs Sometimes referred to as convenience or tenant stairs. plumbing and communication lines. Utility shafts They include chase ways for electric conduit. These open stairs provide quick assent or descent between floors. Fires originating in electric equipment are common to the fire service. Elevator shafts These shafts also provide an avenue for the extension of fire and smoke. The recommended ventilation rate for an entire dwelling is between 0. . Usually added as a convenience for an individual tenant who may occupy many floors and use of the exit stairwell with the fireproof selfclosing doors or use of elevators becomes time consuming.5 ACH HIGH RISE GARBAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS : Considerable care and consideration needs to be given to designing a waste management system for high-rise buildings. During construction they may be open for the height of the building prior to fire stopping or pouring of concrete once all conduits lines and plumbing are in place. which creates a draft of air towards the shaft. MECHANICAL VENTILATION:s As apartments are often relatively small spaces. it’s important to make sure you have provided adequate ventilation for health and comfort. Residents may clutter the interim storage area with bulky unwanted items that then need to be removed by a caretaker or cleaning staff. Different options can be considered for this which are as follow: Option 1: provide room for interim storage of garbage and recyclable on each floor in an interim storage area.5 ACH and 1. This draft will draw smoke and heat to the upper reaches of the shaft when subject to positive stack. they are not considered a means of egress.28 of stair arrangement.

Regular inspection of the waste room into which waste discharges is also required to ensure bins do not become overfull. Standards: .  Landing doors of lifts shall open to ventilated lobby & shall have a fire resistance of 1 hour. Option 2: install a chute system for garbage that leads to a central garbage room at the bottom of the building. Room for interim storage of recyclables is provided in an interim storage area (which also houses the garbage chute inlet hopper) on each floor.29    This system requires a degree of on-going management in transferring bins to and from the collection point on collection day.  Residents may clutter the interim storage area with bulky unwanted items that then need to be removed by a caretaker or cleaning staff.  Regular maintenance. Pros:     Cons:  Simple and easy to use Encourages recycling through collocation of garbage Monitor contamination No need to manually carry bags and bins to up and downstairs.  Lifts shall not be used as means of evacuation. Requires the regular transfer of recycling and bulky waste items (unsuitable for disposal in the chute) from the interim storage area to the communal storage area.  Chutes are not suitable to transfer recyclables or bulky items. Recycling bins could be contaminated if there is inadequate disposal capacity provided for garbage in each interim storage area Residents transporting recycling down main lifts and stairwells if there is no service lift in the building could affect amenity. However. This location minimises the length of ropes and optimizes efficiency.  The room should be ventilated.  Wherever possible the machine room should be sited above the lift shaft. Compacted waste may also get jammed in the base of the bins making it difficult to empty the contents. Design considerations:  Priority must be given to locating lifts centrally within a building to minimize horizontal travel distance.  In large buildings it is usual to provide a group of lifts near the main entrance and single lifts at the ends of the building. The chute can empty into a bulk bin. but the vent opening must not be over the equipment.  Recycling bins could be contaminated if bulky items or other items that cannot fit down chutes are placed in the recycling stream. modern offices and public buildings are provided with suitably designed lift installations.  The lift lobby must be wide enough to allow pedestrian traffic to circulate and pass through the lift area without causing congestion. there may also be a requirement for the chute to empty into a compactor. the compacted waste bins can become very heavy and increase occupational health and safety risks. ELEVATORS: To function efficiently and to provide access for the elderly and disabled.  Where chutes discharge into a compaction unit. including cleaning and unblocking chutes is likely to be required. keeping the interim storage areas and central garbage room clean etc. therefore two means of transferring materials in each development are required (the chute and manual methods).

1 can be used as a fire escape staircase. pressure mat and taut wiring  Acoustic.2 m² per person.  STAIRCASE: Design Considerations:  Every high rise building has minimum 2 number of Staircases.  For residential building width of staircases should be 1 m. vibration and inertia detectors  Ultrasonic and microwave detectors  Active infra-red detector  Passive infra-red detector  Lightning protection systems Intruder alarms:  Detects unauthorized entry into abuilding  Alarm components are an alarm bell or siren activated through a programmer from switches or activators.30    Minimum standard one lift per four storey.5m.  Out of 2 staircases. Minimum 1 lift capable of carrying minimum 8 persons weighing 545 kg. SECURITY SYSTEMS: Types of Security alarms:  Intruder alarms  Micro-switch and magnetic reed  Radio sensor. Power is from mains electricity with a battery back-up. . to 2 m.  Width of fire escape should be minimum 0. Floor space and lift car capacity can be estimated at 0.  Emergency staircases should be given. Minimum walking distance to access a lift 45 m due to 21 m vertical distance.75 meter.  Number of staircases shall be given as per the travel distances which are 22.  Width of staircases varies from 1 m.  We should have big windows on every floor of the staircase to avoid chimney effect in case of fire.  Emergency staircase should be wide open to outside serving as the safe evacuation. Shall be provided for every high rise building.

PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES: Problems:  Noise from the unclipped pipes.  There must be a seal between the soil and the vent pipe and the storage cistern. vibration and inertia detectors:  They are used mainly for protection against intruders in commercial and industrial premises. which activates the alarm circuit.  A sound receiver comprises a microphone. They transmit a radio signal from an integral battery power source. toilet cistern filling.  These detectors use highly sensitive ceramic infra-red receivers to recognise radiation from a moving body. The transmitter projects an invisible light beam at distances up to 300 m on to a photo-electric cell receiver. Wall-mounted detector units focus the radiation through a lens which contains curved facets to concentrate the radiation on to two sensors. almost always used to detect whether a human has moved in or out of the sensors range. Acoustic. toilet flushing or bath emptying etc. Radio sensor. Active infra-red detector:  These detectors are used as intrusion detectors by providing a path of radiation from the source to the sensor in a place where the path is likely to be interrupted by an intruder.  Warm water from cold taps  Freezing pipes  Affected water quality  Leaking pipes  Inconvenient access to own valves and pipes  Interference by others Solutions:  Incoming stop valve should be placed at low level. pressure mat and taut wiring:  General commercial applications to detect the presence of a person  Radio sensor these are surface mounted to windows and doors. This signal is picked up by a central control unit or receiver. It is the same concept and application as the automatic light switch used in a vehicle door recess.  Pipes routes should be through communal areas like corridors and stairwells  Personal spaces would be avoided.  Perfect insulation of pipes  Use of plastic pipes generate less noise than metal pipes  To minimize the impact of noise in pipes they should be routed through communal areas where the noise can dissipate more easily. .  Temperature should be below 20°C before it is delivered to the tap.31 Micro-switch and magnetic reed:  Reed switches and reed sensors find applications simple position sensing in doors  Micro-switch a small component which is easily located in door or window openings. Also included is a filter circuit which can be tuned to respond to specific sound frequencies such as that produced by breaking glass.  Properly clipped pipes will prevent the pipe knocking.  The system is based on a transmitter and receiver. Passive infra-red detector:  Allow you to sense motion. amplifier and an output relay. but it activates an alarm siren. Ultrasonic and microwave detectors:  the equipment is simply a sound emitter and a receiver containing a microphone and sound processor.

In the figure.ncrete 32 STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: The structural system of a high-rise building must resist both gravity and lateral loads. Core system C. which form all or part of the exterior walls and in many instances the interior walls as well. the lateral loads gradually dominate the structural design. Frame structure: Steel frames are combined with concrete walls and cores. The frame is perhaps the most adaptable structural form with . Bearing wall: A bearing wall structure is comprised of planar vertical elements. beams and floor slabs arranged to resist both horizontal and vertical loads. Bearing wall system B. Tube system. due to phenomena such as wind and earthquake. They resist both vertical and horizontal loads and are mainly made in concrete Core system: A core structure is comprised of load bearing walls arranged in a closed form where the vertical transportation systems are usually concentrated. As the height of the building increases. there is a central core from which floors are either suspended or cantilevered. Four overall groupings of structural systems for tall buildings may be identified as: A. A frame structure is usually made of columns. Frame system D. or with steel bracings and horizontal trusses. This arrangement allows flexibility in the use of the building space outside the core.

The various types of lateral load-resisting systems in the category of interior structures are: 1.33 regard to material and shape. A. Braced Hinged frames 3. Tube structure: Classification of Structural Systems for Tall Buildings: Structural systems for tall buildings can be divided into two broad categories. Interior Structures B. Exterior Structures can be classified as: 1. Outrigger structure Exterior Structures: If the major part of the lateral load-resisting system is located at the building perimeter. due to the many ways of combining structural elements in order to give adequate support to the given loading. This classification is based on the distribution of the components of the primary lateral loadresisting system over the building.Shear wall / Hinged frame 4. a system is categorized as an exterior structure. Shear wall ( or shear truss) 5. Exterior Structures Interior Structures: A system is categorized as an interior structure when the major part of the lateral load resisting system is located within the interior of the building. Moment-resisting frames ( Rigid Frames) 2.Tube .

Super Frames 5.Diagrid 3.Space Truss Structures 4.34     Framed Tube Braced Tub Bundled Tube Tube in Tube 2.Exo-skeleton .

pdf Design_Considerations_for_water_supplies_in_appartment_buildings_and_flats.pdf Time saver building types Residential Flat Code Architect’s Handbook Apartment Design Guidelines NZ Metric Handbook Defensible Space.pdf.pdf fire_safety_high_rise_building.com/archives/2001/04/a/index.35 BIBLIOGRAPHY: Building Services Handbook. Oscar Newman .triz-journal. fire_safety_high_rise_building. Building Services Handbook.htm.pdf http://www.