List of Muhammad's Wives and Concubines

According to Anas ibn Malik, the Prophet Muhammad used to visit all eleven of his wives in one night; but he could manage this, as he had the sexual prowess of thirty men.[1] The historian Al-Tabari calculated that Muhammad married a total of fifteen women, though only ever eleven at one time; and two of these marriages were never consummated.[2] This tally of fifteen does not include at least four concubines. According to Merriam-Webster, a concubine is “a woman with whom a man cohabits without being married”, and has a “social status in a household below that of a wife.”[3] All of Muhammad’s concubines were his slaves. AlTabari also excludes from the fifteen several other women with whom Muhammad had some kind of marriage contract but who, due to legal technicalities, never became full wives. It is fairly certain, however, that none of these unions was ever consummated. They were the cultural equivalent of a broken engagement. Finally, there were several other women whom Muhammad wished to marry, or whom he was invited to marry, but for various reasons he did not.


1 Lists 1.1 Wives and Concubines 1.2 Engagements and Broken Contracts 1.3 Refused Proposals 2 See Also 3 References
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The following lists of women in Muhammad’s life are based on the Islamic sources. Because there were so many women, some of whom had only a very brief association with him, it is possible that this number still falls short of the real total.

Wives and Concubines
No. Name Status Date Details She was a wealthy merchant from Mecca who employed the 24year-old Muhammad and then proposed marriage. She was the mother of six of his children and a key character in the earliest development of Islam. Notable Early Sources

Khadijah Married 1 bint Khuwaylid

July 595.

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Ibn Ishaq[4] Ibn Hisham[5] Al-Tabari[6] Ibn Sa'd[7]

She was Muhammad's only wife as long as she lived. She died in April 620. She was a tanner who had been an early convert to Islam. Muhammad married her at a time when he was unpopular and bankrupt. He considered divorcing her Married, when, as the oldest and though Sawda bint plainest of his wives with May 620. 2 Zam'a (described as "fat and limited very slow"), she no rights. longer attracted him, but she persuaded him to keep her in the house in exchange for never sleeping with her again (she gave up her turn to Aisha). She was the daughter of Muhammad's best friend and head evangelist Abu Bakr. Muhammad selected the six-year-old Contracted Aisha in preference to her May 620 but teenaged sister, and she Aisha bint first remained his favourite Married 3 Abi Bakr consummated wife. She contributed a in April or major body of May 623. information to Islamic law and history. The paedophilic aspect of this relationship has institutionalised such marriages within Islam. She was the daughter of Muhammad's wealthy friend Umar. Hafsa was the custodian of the Hafsa bint January or Married autograph-text of the 4 Umar February 625. Qur'an, which was actually somewhat different from the standard Qur'an of today. Zaynab bint February or She was a middle-class Married 5 Khuzayma March 625. widow known as "Mother

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Bukhari[8] Ibn Ishaq[9] Ibn Hisham[10] Al-Tabari[11] Ibn Sa'd[12]

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Ibn Ishaq[13] Ibn Hisham[14] Al-Tabari[15] Ibn Sa'd[16]

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Ibn Ishaq[17] Ibn Hisham[18] Al-Tabari[19] Ibn Sa'd[20]

Ibn Hisham[21]

Hind (Umm Salama) Married 6 bint Abi Umayya

April 626.


Zaynab bint Married Jahsh

March 627.

Rayhana 8 bint Zayd ibn Amr

Sexual slavery

May 627.

of the Poor" because of her commitment to charity work. She died in October 625. An attractive widow with four young children, Hind had been rejected by her aristocratic family in Mecca because they were so hostile to Islam. Her tact and practical wisdom sometimes mitigated Muhammad's cruelties. She was a notable teacher of Islamic law and a partisan of Ali. An early convert to Islam, Zaynab was the wife of Muhammad's adopted son Zayd ibn Harithah. She was also the Prophet's biological cousin. When Muhammad became infatuated with Zaynab, Zayd was pressured into a divorce. To justify marrying her, Muhammad announced new revelations that (1) an adopted son did not count as a real son, so Zaynab was not his daughter-inlaw, and (2) as a prophet, he was allowed more than the standard four wives. Zaynab excelled at leather-crafts. Her first husband was one of the 600-900 Qurayza men whom Muhammad beheaded in April 627. He enslaved all the women and selected Rayhana for himself because she was the most beautiful. When she refused to marry him, he kept her as a concubine instead. She died shortly

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Al-Tabari[22] Ibn Sa'd[23]

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Ibn Ishaq[24] Ibn Hisham[25] Al-Tabari[26] Ibn Sa'd[27]

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Ibn Ishaq[28] Ibn Hisham[29] Al-Tabari[30] Ibn Sa'd[31]

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Ibn Ishaq[32] Al-Tabari[33] Ibn Sa'd[34]

Juwayriyah Married 9 bint AlHarith

Ramlah (Umm Married 10 Habiba) bint Abi Sufyan


Safiyah bint Married Huyayy

before Muhammad in 632. The daughter of an Arab chief, she was taken prisoner when Muhammad attacked her tribe. Muhammad did not make a habit of marrying January 628. his war-captives, but Aisha claimed that Juwayriyah was so beautiful that men always fell in love with her at first sight. She was a daughter of Abu Sufyan, the Meccan chief who led the resistance against Muhammad, but she had been a teenaged convert to Islam. This marriage July 628 offset some of (following a Muhammad's political proxy wedding humiliation in the Treaty earlier in the of Hudaybiya by year) demonstrating that he could command the loyalty of his adversary's own daughter. Ramlah was devoted to Muhammad and quick to pick quarrels with people who were not. She was the beautiful daughter of a Jewish chief, Huyayy ibn Akhtab. Muhammad married her on the day he defeated the last Jewish tribe in Arabia, only hours after he had July 628. supervised the slaying of Kinana her second husband. His earlier victims had included her father, brother, first husband, three uncles and several cousins. This marriage was of no

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Ibn Ishaq[35] Ibn Hisham[36] Al-Tabari[37] Ibn Sa'd[38]

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Ibn Ishaq[39] Ibn Hisham[40] Al-Tabari[41] Ibn Sa'd[42]

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Ibn Ishaq[43] Ibn Hisham[44] Al-Tabari[45] Ibn Sa'd[46]





benefit to Safiyah's defeated tribe, who were banished from Arabia a few years later; its real political significance was that Safiyah's presence in Muhammad's household was an open demonstration that he had defeated the Jews. She was a middle-class widow from Mecca who proposed marriage to Maymunah Muhammad. A placid bint AlMarried February 629. woman who kept a very Harith tidy house, Maymunah was completely obsessed with rules and rituals. She was one of several slaves whom the Governor of Egypt sent as a present to Muhammad. Mariyah He kept her as a bint Sexual c. June 629. concubine despite the Shamoon slavery objections of his official al-Quptiya wives, who feared her beauty. Mariyah bore Muhammad a son, Ibrahim. Her family resisted the Muslim invasion of Mecca. Needing to appease the conqueror, they gave him the Mulayka beautiful Mulayka as a Divorced January 630. bint Kaab bride. When she realised that Muhammad's army had killed her father, she demanded a divorce, which he granted her. She died a few weeks later. She was the daughter of a minor chief who had Fatima alconverted to Islam. Aliya bint February or Muhammad divorced her Divorced Zabyan alMarch 630. after only a few weeks "because she peeked at Dahhak men in the mosque courtyard." Fatima had to

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Ibn Ishaq[47] Ibn Hisham[48] Al-Tabari[49] Ibn Sa'd[50]

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Ibn Ishaq[51] Al-Tabari[52] Ibn Sa'd[53]

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Al-Tabari[54] Ibn Sa'd[55]

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Al-Tabari[56] Ibn Sa'd[57]


Asma bint Al-Numan

17 Al-Jariya


Amra bint Yazid


Tukana alQuraziya

work for the rest of her life as a dung-collector, and she outlived all Muhammad's widows. She was a princess from Yemen whose family hoped the marriage alliance would ward off a military invasion from Medina. But Muhammad June or July Divorced divorced her before 630. consummation after Aisha tricked her into reciting the divorce formula. Asma later married a brother of Umm Salama. She was a domestic slave belonging to Zaynab bint Jahsh, who made Muhammad a present of Sexual After 627. her. She seems to have slavery been an "unofficial" concubine who did not have a regular turn on his roster. She was a Bedouin of no political importance. Muhammad divorced her Divorced c. 631. before consummation when he saw she had symptoms of leprosy. She was a member of the defeated Qurayza tribe whom Muhammad Unknown, but selected as one of his probably in the personal slaves. She Sexual last months of appears to have been slavery Muhammad's another "unofficial" life. concubine without a regular turn on the roster. After Muhammad's death, she married Abbas.

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Ibn Hisham[58] Al-Tabari[59] Ibn Sa'd[60]

Ibn alQayyim[61]

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Ibn Ishaq[62] Ibn Hisham[63] Al-Tabari[64] Ibn Sa'd[65]

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Majlisi[66] Ibn alQayyim.[67]

Engagements and Broken Contracts
No. Name Date Details Notable early sources

She was a poor widow with dependent children. She sent Muhammad a Ghaziya proposal of marriage, and he agreed to (Umm the contract. However, when he met her Early 627. 1 Sharik) bint in person, he saw that, although Jabir attractive, she was "old", and he divorced her immediately. She never remarried. She was a princess from the powerful Christian Taghlib tribe in northern Arabia. Her uncle arranged the Khawla Probably marriage, which was expected to be mid- or 2 bint politically advantageous on both sides. Hudhayl late-627. Muhammad signed the contract, but Khawla died on her journey to Medina, before they met in person. She was an aunt of Khawla bint Hudhayl (above). After Khawla's death, Probably the family tried to substitute Sharaf. In Sharaf bint mid- or one tradition, Sharaf also died before 3 Khalifa late-627. consummation. In another tradition, Muhammad changed his mind and broke off the contract. One of the first converts in Medina, Layla asked Muhammad to marry her so that her clan, the Zafar, would be the most closely allied to the Prophet. He agreed. However, Layla's family warned Layla bint After 627. her that she was too "jealous and whip4 al-Khutaym tongued" to adapt well to polygamy, which would cause political problems for the whole community. Under this pressure, Layla broke off the engagement. She was Muhammad's cousin. He saw her as a baby crawling around and Umm remarked, "If I am alive when she After grows up, I will marry her." He changed 5 Habib bint March 630. Al-Abbas his mind when he found out that her father had been his foster-brother and died soon afterwards. Sana alShe was the daughter of a Muslim c. April warrior who hoped to advance his 6 Nashat bint 630. Rifaa career by becoming Muhammad's

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Ibn Hisham[68] Al-Tabari[69] Ibn Sa'd[70]

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Al-Tabari[71] Ibn Sa'd[72]

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Al-Tabari[73] Ibn Sa'd[74]

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Al-Tabari[75] Ibn Sa'd[76]

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Ibn Ishaq.[77] Al-Tabari.[78] Ibn Sa'd.[79]

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Al-Tabari[80] Ibn Sa'd[81]

(Asma) ibn As-Salt








father-in-law. Muhammad signed the contract, but Sana died before the marriage could be consummated. She was the sister of Sana (above). After Sana died, their father tried to interest Muhammad in Umra. At first he Umra bint c. May agreed, but he later changed his mind, Rifaa 630. ostensibly because Rifaa boasted that Umra "has never known a day's illness in her life." Nothing is known about this woman Bint Jundub except that Muhammad contracted ibn Damra Unknown. marriage with her but divorced her of Janda’a before consummation. She proposed marriage to Muhammad, and he accepted. Her father informed him that she suffered from a serious Jamra bint disease, whereupon Muhammad broke c. 631 Al-Harith off the engagement. According to the Muslim chroniclers, her father arrived home only to find that she really had been afflicted with leprosy. She was from a Bedouin tribe who appeared friendly to Muhammad but who had also been friends of the Al-Shanba’ January Qurayza tribe. Al-Shanba’ insulted bint Amr 632. Muhammad on the first day by implying that he was not a true prophet, and he divorced her immediately. She was a cousin of Asma bint AlNuman, and the Yemenites sent her to Muhammad as a substitute bride. He Qutayla signed the marriage contract but he died (Habla) bint May 632. before Qutayla arrived in Medina. As Qays soon as she heard that he was dead, she apostated from Islam. Soon afterwards she married an Arab chief who was a leader in the Apostasy Wars. Muhammad said that Allah had wedded him in Heaven to the Virgin Mary, who was one of the four perfect women. The Mary, The Qur'an refers several times to Mary, mother of Afterlife. praising her chastity and affirming the Jesus virgin birth of Jesus. Muhammad said she lived in a beautiful jewelled palace in Paradise next to Khadijah's. Queen The Muhammad said that Allah had wedded Asiya of Afterlife. him in Heaven to Queen Asiya, who

Ibn Sa'd[82]

Ibn Sa'd[83]



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Al-Tabari[86] Ibn Sa'd[87]

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Qur'an[88] Bukhari[89] Muslim[90] Majlisi[91]

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Qur'an[92] Muslim[93]



Kulthum The bint Amram Afterlife.

was one of the four perfect women. The Qur'an tells how Asiya rescued the infant Moses from the evil Pharaoh, and how Pharaoh later tortured his wife to death for her monotheism. Muhammad said that Asiya's palace in Heaven was on the other side of Khadijah's. Muhammad originally believed that Maryam the sister of Moses and Maryam the mother of Jesus were one and the same. When he realised his mistake, he apparently over-corrected by deciding that Moses' sister was not even named Maryam. He renamed her Kulthum ("Chubby Cheeks") and said that Allah had wedded her to him in Heaven. He did not say that she was a perfect woman or that she lived next to Khadijah.

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Ibn Kathir[94] Majlisi[95]

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Qur'an[96] Muslim[97] Majlisi[98]

Refused Proposals
No. Name Date Details Muhammad proposed to his cousin Fakhita, but her father married her off to a wealthy Makhzumite poet. Nearly forty years later, after Muhammad conquered Mecca, Fakhita's husband fled rather than convert to Islam, causing an automatic divorce. Muhammad proposed to Fakhita again, but she refused, saying she could not be equally fair to a new husband and her young children. Notable early sources

Fakhita (Umm Hani) January 1 bint Abi 630; Talib c. 631

before 595;

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Ibn Ishaq[99] Al-Tabari[100] Ibn Sa'd[101]

“As Many 2 Wives as You Want”

Later still, Fakhita came to Muhammad, saying her children had grown up and she was finally ready to marry him; but he said she was too late. The chiefs of Mecca offered Muhammad "as many wives as you c.618-619. want in marriage," together with wealth, political power and the services of a competent exorcist, if



Habiba bint Sahl

4 Al-Ansariya

only he would stop insulting their gods. Muhammad refused this offer, which was made while Khadijah was still alive. Habiba was a prominent member of the Najjar clan in Medina. When the chief died with no obvious heir, Muhammad proposed to Habiba. His companions warned him that the women of Medina were not used to c. 623. polygamy and that the men were very jealous for the happiness of their daughters; if this marriage turned out badly, key citizens might withdraw their support from Islam. Muhammad retracted his proposal, but the Najjar clan made him their chief anyway. This unnamed woman proposed to Muhammad in Hafsa's presence. Hafsa decried the shame of a woman who would throw herself at a man, but Muhammad retorted, "She is better than you because she wanted me while you only find fault." He refused the proposal, but promised After 625. the woman a reward in Paradise for asking.

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Ibn Ishaq[103] Ibn Sa'd[104] Abu Dawud[105] Muwatta[106]


In fact several ansar women are said to have proposed to Muhammad; while this example is anonymous, it clearly refers to a woman who is distinct from Layla bint Khutaym. This is the same Khawla bint Hakim who arranged Muhammad's marriages to Aisha and Sawda. Her first husband was Hafsa's uncle, and Khawla bint their elder son fought at Badr. After After 627. 5 Hakim being widowed, Khawla asked Muhammad to marry her, but he refused without giving a reason. However, he found her a new husband the same day. Dubaa was a wealthy noblewoman to whom Muhammad sent a marriage Dubaa bint proposal when he heard about her After 627. 6 Amir beautiful long hair that filled a whole room when she sat down. But by the time she accepted him, he had been

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Ibn Ishaq[108] Bukhari[109] Ibn Sa'd[110] Ibn Kathir[111]

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Al-Tabari[112] Ibn Sa'd[113]

advised that she was “elderly” (her grown-up son had been born from her third marriage) so he retracted his proposal before he had even met her. She was the sister of Muhammad’s wife Ramlah. Ramlah proposed Izza as a bride, "since, as I cannot be your Izza bint Abi After July only wife, I would like to share my 7 Sufyan 628. good fortune with my sister." But Muhammad said he could not marry two sisters concurrently. She was the daughter of Muhammad's wife Hind. Another wife, Ramlah, noticed that Muhammad admired Durrah and Durrah bint After July asked if he intended to marry her. He 8 Abi Salama 628. replied that he could not marry his stepdaughter; and besides, her father had been his foster-brother. On the day Muhammad died, Durrah was only six years old. She was Muhammad's cousin and said to be the prettiest girl in the family. Ali proposed her as a bride After while she was still a child, but Umama bint March Muhammad said that he could not 9 Hamza 630. marry her because her father had been his foster-brother. She later married his stepson, Salama ibn Abi Salama. She was a war-captive from Mesopotamia. Muhammad asked her to marry him, but when she said she Safiyah bint September wanted to return to her husband, he 10 Bashshama 630. allowed her family to ransom her. It is said that her family cursed her for placing her personal happiness above the political needs of the tribe.



Ibn Sa'd[116]

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Al-Tabari[117] Ibn Sa'd[118]

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1. ↑ Sahih Bukhari 1:5:268. See also Sahih Bukhari 7:62:142. 2. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, pp. 126-127. 3. ↑ Concubine – Merriam-Webster, accessed September 28, 2011 4. ↑ Guillaume/Ishaq 82-83, 106-107, 111, 113-114, 160-161, 191, 313-314. 5. ↑ Ibn Hisham note 918. 6. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, pp. 127-128; Al-Tabari, Vol. 39, pp. 3-4 7. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:9-12, 39, 151-152. 8. ↑ Sahih Bukhari 2:26:740. 9. ↑ Guillaume/Ishaq 148, 309, 530. 10. ↑ Ibn Hisham note 918. 11. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, pp. 128-130; Al-Tabari, Vol. 39, pp. 169-170. 12. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:39-42, 152. 13. ↑ Guillaume/Ishaq 116, 223, 279-280, 311, 457, 464-465, 468, 493-499, 522, 535536, 544, 649-650, 667, 678-688. 14. ↑ Ibn Hisham note 918. 15. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, pp. 128-131; Al-Tabari, Vol. 39, pp. 171-174. 16. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:43-56, 152. 17. ↑ Guillaume/Ishaq 218, 301, 679. 18. ↑ Ibn Hisham note 918. 19. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, pp. 131-132; Al-Tabari, Vol. 39, pp. 174-175. 20. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:56-60, 152. 21. ↑ Ibn Hisham note 918. 22. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, p. 138; Al-Tabari, Vol. 39, pp. 63-64. 23. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:82, 152. 24. ↑ Guillaume/Ishaq 146, 147, 150-153, 167-169, 213-214, 462, 529, 536, 546, 589, 680. 25. ↑ Ibn Hisham note 918. 26. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, p. 132; Al-Tabari, Vol. 39, pp. 175-177. 27. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:61-67, 152. 28. ↑ Guillaume/Ishaq 215, 495. 29. ↑ Ibn Hisham note 918. 30. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, p. 134; Al-Tabari, Vol. 39, pp. 180-182. 31. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:72-81, 152. 32. ↑ Guillaume/Ishaq 466. 33. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, pp. 137, 141; Al-Tabari, Vol. 39, pp. 164-165. 34. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:92-94, 153. 35. ↑ Guillaume/Ishaq 490-493. 36. ↑ Ibn Hisham note 918. 37. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, p. 133; Al-Tabari, Vol. 39, pp. 182-184. 38. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:83-85, 152. 39. ↑ Guillaume/Ishaq 146, 527-528, 529, 543.

40. ↑ Ibn Hisham note 918. 41. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, pp. 133-134; Al-Tabari, Vol. 39, pp. 177-180. 42. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:68-71, 153. 43. ↑ Guillaume/Ishaq 241-242, 511, 514-515, 516-517, 520. 44. ↑ Ibn Hisham note 918. 45. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, pp. 134-135; Al-Tabari, Vol. 39, pp. 184-185. 46. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:85-92, 153. 47. ↑ Guillaume/Ishaq 531, 679-680. 48. ↑ Ibn Hisham note 918. 49. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, p. 135; Al-Tabari, Vol. 39, pp. 185-186. 50. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:94-99, 153. 51. ↑ Guillaume/Ishaq 653. 52. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, pp. 137, 141; Al-Tabari, Vol. 39, pp. 193-195. 53. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:148-151. 54. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 39, p. 165. 55. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:106, 154. 56. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, p. 138; Al-Tabari, Vol. 39, pp. 186-188. Despite the confusion over the name, she is probably also the woman referred to in Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, pp. 136-137 and the “Fatima bint Shurayh” of Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, p. 139 57. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:100-101, 153. 58. ↑ Ibn Hisham note 918 (here he has apparently confused her with Amra bint Yazid). 59. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 39, pp. 188-191. She is mentioned in Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, pp. 128-130 but has apparently been partly confused with Amra bint Yazid. 60. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:101-105, 153. 61. ↑ Ibn al-Qayyim, Za’d al-Ma’ad 1:114. 62. ↑ Ibn Ishaq, cited in Guillaume, A. (1960). New Light on the Life of Muhammad, p. 55. Manchester: Manchester University Press 63. ↑ Ibn Hisham note 918 (here he has apparently confused her with Asma bint AlNuman). 64. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, p. 139; Al-Tabari, Vol. 39, pp. 187-188. 65. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:100-101. 66. ↑ Majlisi, Hayat al-Qulub 2:52. 67. ↑ Ibn al-Qayyim, Zaad al-Ma’ad 1:114. 68. ↑ Ibn Hisham note 918. 69. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, p. 139. 70. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:111-114. 71. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, p. 139; Al-Tabari, Vol. 39, p. 166 72. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:116. 73. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, p. 138. 74. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:116-117. 75. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, p. 139. 76. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:7, 108-109, 231. 77. ↑ Guillaume/Ishaq 311. 78. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, p. 140. 79. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:36. 80. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, pp. 135-136; Al-Tabari, Vol. 39, p. 166. 81. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:106-107. 82. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:107. 83. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:106. 84. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, pp. 140-141

85. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, p. 136. 86. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, pp. 138-139. 87. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:105. 88. ↑ Qur'an 3:33-51; Qur'an 19:16-40; Qur'an 21:91; Qur'an 66:12. 89. ↑ Sahih Bukhari 4:55:642. Sahih Bukhari 5:58:163. 90. ↑ Sahih Muslim 31:5965. 91. ↑ Majlisi, Hayat al-Qulub 2:26. 92. ↑ Qur'an 28:4-13; Qur'an 66:11. 93. ↑ Sahih Muslim 31:5966. 94. ↑ Ibn Kathir, Tafsir on Qur'an 66:11. 95. ↑ Majlisi, Hayat al-Qulub 2:26. 96. ↑ Qur'an 19:27-28. 97. ↑ Sahih Muslim 5:326. 98. ↑ Majlisi, Hayat al-Qulub 2:26. 99. ↑ Guillaume/Ishaq 181, 184, 404-405, 551-552, 557, 689. 100. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, p. 140; Al-Tabari, Vol. 39, pp. 170-171 101. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:109-110. 102. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 6, pp. 106-107. 103. ↑ Guillaume/Ishaq 235. 104. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:288-289. 105. ↑ Abu Dawud 12:2219 ; Abu Dawud 12:2220 ; Abu Dawud 12:2221 . 106. ↑ Al-Muwatta 20 10.31b. 107. ↑ Majlisi, Hayat al-Qulub 2:52. 108. ↑ Guillaume/Ishaq 590 109. ↑ Sahih Bukhari 7:62:24; Sahih Bukhari 7:62:58; Sahih Bukhari 7:62:63; Sahih Bukhari 7:62:66. 110. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:114. 111. ↑ Ibn Kathir, Tafsir on Qur'an 33:50. 112. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, p. 140 113. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:111. 114. ↑ Sahih Muslim 8:3412; Sahih Muslim 8:3413. 115. ↑ Sahih Muslim 8:3412; Sahih Muslim 8:3413. 116. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:115-116. 117. ↑ Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, p. 140 118. ↑ Bewley/Saad 8:109-111.

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