This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
4.1! Potential and Potential Energy ............................................................................. 4-3! 4.2! Electric Potential in a Uniform Field ................................................................... 4-7! 4.3! Electric Potential due to Point Charges ............................................................... 4-8! 4.3.1 Potential Energy in a System of Charges ...................................................... 4-10! 4.4! Deriving Electric Field from the Electric Potential ........................................... 4-12! Example 4.4.1: Calculating Electric Field from Electric Potential ........................ 4-13! 4.5! Gradients and Equipotentials ............................................................................. 4-13! 4.5.1: Conductors and Equipotentials .................................................................... 4-16! 4.6! Continuous Symmetric Charge Distributions .................................................... 4-17! Example 4.61: Electric Potential Due to a Spherical Shell .................................... 4-17! Example 4.6.2 Conducting Spheres Connected by a Wire .................................... 4-19! 4.7! Continuous Non-Symmetric Charge Distributions ............................................ 4-20! Example 4.7.1: Uniformly Charged Rod ............................................................... 4-20! Example 4.7.2: Uniformly Charged Ring .............................................................. 4-22! Example 4.7.3: Uniformly Charged Disk .............................................................. 4-23! 4.8! Summary ............................................................................................................ 4-26! 4.9! Problem-Solving Strategy: Calculating Electric Potential ................................. 4-27! 4.10!Solved Problems ................................................................................................ 4-30! 4.10.1 Electric Potential Due to a System of Two Charges ................................... 4-30! 4.10.2 Electric Dipole Potential ............................................................................... 4-1! 4.10.3 Electric Potential of an Annulus ................................................................. 4-32! 4.10.4 Charge Moving Near a Charged Wire ........................................................ 4-33! 4.10.5! Electric Potential of a Uniformly Charged Sphere ................................... 4-35! 4.11!Conceptual Questions ........................................................................................ 4-36! 4.12!Additional Problems .......................................................................................... 4-36! 4.12.1 Cube ............................................................................................................ 4-36! 4.12.2 Three Charges ............................................................................................. 4-36! 4.12.3 Work Done on Charges ............................................................................... 4-37! 4.12.4 Calculating E from V .................................................................................. 4-37! 4.12.5 Electric Potential of a Rod .......................................................................... 4-38! 4.12.6 Electric Potential ......................................................................................... 4-38! 4-1
4.12.7 Calculating Electric Field from the Electric Potential ................................ 4-38! 4.12.8 Electric Potential and Electric Potential Energy ......................................... 4-39! 4.12.9. Electric Field, Potential and Energy .......................................................... 4-40! 4.12.10! P-N Junction.............................................................................................. 4-40! 4.12.11! Sphere with Non-Uniform Charge Distribution ....................................... 4-41! 4.12.12! Electric Potential Energy of a Solid Sphere .............................................. 4-41! 4.12.13! Calculating Electric Field from Electrical Potential ................................. 4-42!
4.1 Potential and Potential Energy In the introductory mechanics course, we have seen that force on a particle of mass m located at a distance r from Earth’s center due to the gravitational interaction between the particle and the Earth obeys an inverse-square law:
! Mm ˆ, Fg = !G 2 r r
ˆ is a unit vector where G = 6.67 ! 10" 11 N # m 2 /kg 2 is the gravitational constant and r pointing radially outward from the Earth. The Earth is assumed to be a uniform sphere of ! mass M. The corresponding gravitation field g , defined as the gravitation force per unit mass, is given by ! F GM ! ˆ. g= g =! 2 r (4.1.2) m r
! Notice that g is a function of M, the mass that creates the field, and r, the distance from the center of the Earth.
Figure 4.1.1 Consider moving a particle of mass m under the influence of gravity (Figure 4.1.1). The work done by gravity in moving m from A to B is
! ! WG = ) FG ! d s =
* GMm # GMm & " dr = % ( 2 $ r ' , +
# 1 1& = GMm % " ( . $ rB rA '
The result shows that WG is independent of the path taken; it depends only on the endpoints A and B.
! Near Earth’s surface, the gravitational field g is approximately constant, with a
magnitude g = GM / rE 2 ! 9.8m/s 2 , where rE is the radius of Earth. The work done by gravity in moving an object from height y A to y B (Figure 4.1.2) is
! yB ! Wg = " Fg ! d s = # " mg dy = # mg ( y B # y A ) .
Figure 4.1.2 Moving an object from A to B. The result again is independent of the path, and is only a function of the change in vertical height y B ! y A . In the examples above, if the object returns to its starting point, then the work done by the gravitation force on the object is zero along this closed path. Any force that satisfies this property for all closed paths is called a conservative force:
all closed paths
! ! F!d s = 0
When dealing with a conservative force, it is often convenient to introduce the concept of change in potential energy function, !U = U B " U A between any two points in space, A and B, B! ! !U = U B " U A = " $ F # d s = "W (4.1.6)
where W is the work done by the force on the object. In the case of gravity, W = Wg and from Eq. ((4.1.3)), the change in potential energy can be written as
1. as an object moves from the ground to a height h above the ground. we choose infinity to be the reference point." 1 1% U G ( rB ) ! U G ( rA ) = !GMm $ ! ' # rB rA & (4.1. B ! B! ! ! !VG = " $ (FG / m) # d s = " $ g # d s A A (4. where the gravitation field g is approximately constant.1. with units of energy. Let’s define the change in potential energy per mass between points A and B by !VG " VG ( rB ) # VG ( rA ) = U G ( rB ) # U G ( rA ) !U G " m m (4. Therefore the change in potential energy when two objects start off an infinite distance apart and end up a distance r apart is given by #1 1& GMm . corresponds to the negative of the work done by the gravitation force on the satellite as it moves from an infinite distance away to a distance r from the center of the Earth.1. The value of U G ( r ) depends on the choice that U G ( rP = ! ) = 0 . ! Let’s again consider a gravitation field g .11) 4-5 . (4. and the work done by gravity is Wg = ! mgh . the change in potential energy is !U g = + mgh .8) Thus we can define a potential energy function U G (r ) = ! GMm .9) When one object is much more massive for example the Earth and a satellite. r U ( " ) = 0.10) According to our definition. then the scalar quantity U G ( r ) .1.7) It is often convenient to choose a reference point P where U G ( rP ) is equal to zero. U G ( r ) ! U G ( " ) = !GMm % ! ( = ! r $ r "' (4. with U G ( rP = ! ) = 0 . the negative of the work done. In the gravitational case. However. ! Near Earth’s surface. the potential energy difference U G ( rB ) ! U G ( rA ) between two points is independent of the choice of reference point and by definition corresponds to a physical quantity.
The two quantities are related as follows. represents the negative of the work done per unit charge by the electrostatic force when a test charge qt moves from points A to B.13) where qt is a test charge.12) Just like the gravitation field.6 ! 10"19 C)(1V) = 1.1. then the change in the potential energy of the object is !U = q!V . The terminology is unfortunate because it is very easy to mix-up ‘potential difference’ with ‘potential energy difference’. the distance from the center of the Earth. In addition.!VG is called the gravitation potential difference. it is also conservative. Physically !VG represents the negative of the work done per unit mass by gravity to move a particle from points A to B. Our treatment of electrostatics will be similar to gravitation because the electrostatic ! " force F e also obeys an inverse-square law.1. we define the electric potential difference between two points A and B as B ! B! ! ! !Ve = " $ (Fe / qt ) # d s = " $ E # d s .1. which is defined as the energy an electron acquires (or loses) when moving through a potential difference of one volt: 1eV = (1. Suppose an object with charge q is moved across a potential difference !V . From Eq.14) The SI unit of electric potential is volt [V] 1volt = 1 joule/coulomb (1 V= 1 J/C) .1. A more useful scale is electron volt [eV] . A A (4. the mass that creates the field.16) 4-6 . In the ! " ! presence of an electric field E . (4. electric potential difference should not be confused with electric potential energy.1. (4.15) When dealing with systems at the atomic or molecular scale. in analogy to the gravitational field g . a joule [J] often turns out to be too large as an energy unit. the gravitation potential difference depends only on the M. (4.6 ! 10"19 J .7). the gravitation potential difference between the points A and B is B ! B! ! ! !VG = " $ (FG / m) # d s = " $ g # d s A A (4. Again. and r. The potential difference !Ve . which we will now denote just by !V . (4.1.
1 (a) A charge q moving in the direction of a constant electric field E .1(a). Because q > 0. (a) (b) ! " Figure 4. for this motion !U < 0 .2.2 Potential difference in a uniform electric field 4-7 . The change in potential energy is ! U = U B " U A = " qEd .2. electric field lines always point from higher potential to lower. A A Therefore point B is at a lower potential compared to point A. the potential energy of a positive charge decreases as it moves along the direction of the electric field. depicted in Figure 4.1(b).2 Electric Potential in a Uniform Field ! " Consider a charge + q moving in the direction of a uniform electric field E = E ( ! ˆ j) .1) !V = VB " V A = " $ E # d s = " E $ ds = " Ed < 0 . ! " Because the path taken is parallel to E .2. In fact. (b) A ! mass m moving in the direction of a constant gravitation field g .2. The corresponding gravity analogy.4. the electric potential difference between points A and B is given by " " B! B (4. as shown in Figure 4.2. Figure 4. is that a mass m loses ! potential energy ( ! U = " mgd ) as it moves in the direction of the gravitation field g .
this means that no work is required when moving the charge from B to C.2.! " What happens if the path from A to B is not parallel to E . work is done by the field only along the segment AC that is parallel to the field lines. VB = VC .” A more complete discussion of equipotential will be given in Section 4.1 Potential difference between two points due to a point charge Q. all points along the straight line connecting B and C are on the same “equipotential line. Thus. Points B and C are at the same electric potential. the potential difference becomes " " ! " " B! !V = VB " V A = " $ E # d s = "E # s = " Es cos% = " Ey . as shown in Figure 4.2? In that case. Here we see once more that moving along the direction of the electric field E leads to a lower electric potential.3 Electric Potential due to Point Charges Next.2. let’s compute the potential difference ! between two points A and B due to a charge " ˆ is a unit vector +Q.2) Note that y increases downward in Figure ! " 4. one for each segment of the path: !V = !VCA + !VBC . (4. When moving from C ! " to B.3.2. the potential difference consists of two contributions.2.5.2. !VBC = 0 because the path is perpendicular to the direction of E . In fact.e. the same ! " result is obtained irrespective of the path taken. but instead at an angle !.3) When moving from A to C. A (4. Figure 4. The electric field produced by Q is E = (Q / 4!" 0 r 2 )ˆ r . the change in potential is !VCA = " Ey . Because !U = q!V .. i. where r pointing radially away from the location of the charge. 4-8 . What would the change in potential be if the path were A ! C ! B ? In this case. For the path A ! C ! B . 4. consistent with the fact that E is a conservative vector field.
we see that r ! V = VB " V A = " % B A B Q Q Q ' 1 1* ! ˆ r & d s = " dr = " ..3.3. it is often convenient to choose the reference point to be at infinity. In practice. V ( r ) .1) Once again. independent of the choice of path taken.2) With this choice of zero potential.! ˆ ! d s = ds cos" = dr . so that the electric potential at a point P becomes " " P! VP = ! $ E " d s . we introduce an electric potential function. As in the case of gravity.3.3. (4. and one may choose a reference point and set the potential there to be zero. the electric potential is the sum of potentials due to individual charges: V (r ) = qi q 1 = ke # i # 4!" 0 i ri i ri (4. # V (#) = 0 . % A 4#$ r 2 4#$ 0 ) 4#$ 0 r 2 ( rB rA + 0 (4.1.4) A summary of comparison between gravitation and electrostatics is tabulated below: 4-9 . the potential difference !V depends only on the endpoints. where r is the distance from the point-like charged object with charge Q: V (r ) = 1 Q . 4!" 0 r (4. which gives From Figure 4. by applying the superposition principle. only the difference in electrical potential is physically meaningful.3) When more than one point charge is present.3.
The charges are brought in from infinity and are at rest at the end of the process.3. The work done by the external agent (you). Wext = mgh > 0 .3. then ! U = "W = +Wext .Gravity Mass m ! Mm ˆ Gravitation force FG = !G 2 r r ! ! Gravitation field g = Fg / m B! ! Potential energy change ! U = " $ FG # d s A Electrostatics Charge q ! Qq ˆ Electric force Fe = ke 2 r r ! ! Electric field E = Fe / q ! ! Gravitational potential ! VG = " $ g # d s B A B! ! Electric Potential ! V = " $ E # d s A Potential energy change B! ! ! U = " $ Fe # d s A Potential function. Figure 4.3.1 Potential Energy in a System of Charges Suppose you lift a mass m through a height h. the change in potential energy of the system is the work that must be put in by an external agent to assemble the configuration. The change in the potential energy is therefore equal to the work that you do in lifting the mass. V ( ! ) = 0 : V = ke ! " | ! U | = qEd . (constant g ) GM r Potential function. If an electrostatic system of charges is assembled by an external agent. The work done by the gravitation field is negative. Let the potential due to q1 at a point P be V1 (Figure 4. 4-10 . Wg = ! mgh = !Wext . Let’s start with just two charges q1 and q2 that are infinitely far apart with potential energy U = 0 .2). ! U g = "Wg = +Wext = mgh . (constant E ) Q r 4.2 Two point charges separated by a distance r12 . That is. VG ( ! ) = 0 : VG = ! ! | ! U g | = mgd . is positive.
4!" 0 i =1 j =1 rij j>i (4. the work required is q # q q & W3 = q3 V1 + V2 = 3 % 1 + 2 ( . Alternatively.6) 4!" 0 $ r13 r23 ' ( ) Figure 4.3. 4!" 0 % r13 r23 ( $ r12 ' (4. we have that U12 = W2 = q2V1 = 1 q1q2 . On the other hand. where r12 is the distance measured from q1 to P.3 A system of three point charges. we have U= 1 N N qi q j ## .8) where the constraint j > i is placed to avoid double counting each pair. one may count each pair twice and divide the result by 2. 4!" 0 r12 (4.3. This leads to 4-11 . positive work must be done to overcome the electrostatic repulsion and the change in the potential energy of the system is positive. The potential energy of this configuration is then U = W2 + W3 = 1 # q1q2 q1q3 q2 q3 & + + = U12 + U13 + U 23 . then U12 < 0 due to the attractive force between the charges.5) If q1 and q2 have the same sign. Because V1 = q1 / 4!" 0 r12 . (4. To add a third charge q3 to the system (Figure 4. U12 > 0 .3. Generalizing to a system of N charges.3.7) The equation shows that the total potential energy is simply the sum of the contributions from distinct pairs.3).The work W2 done by an external agent in bringing the second charge q2 from infinity to P is then W2 = q2V1 .3. if the signs are opposite.3.
4. dV = ( Ex ˆ i + Eyˆ j + Ez k i + dy ˆ j + dz k) x y z (4. then 4-12 . (4. ! V / ! y . 4.2) We define directional derivatives ! V / ! x .4.3. % "y "z ( $ "x ' (4.4.5) ! " "V ˆ "V ˆ & ˆ = ! # "V ˆ E = Ex ˆ i + Eyˆ j + Ez k i+ j+ k = !) V .6) The differential operator. Ez = ! . operates on a scalar quantity (electric potential) and results ! " in a vector quantity (electric field).% 1 N N qi q j 1 N ' 1 N q j U= $ $ = 2 $ qi ' 4!" $ r 8!" 0 i =1 j =1 rij i =1 0 j =1 ij & j#i j#i ( N * = 1 q V (r ) . E = Ex ˆ i + Eyˆ j + Ez k ˆ !)( dx ˆ ˆ = E dx + E dy + E dz .3. Ey = ! . say x.4. with !V / !x > 0 . the negative sign implies that if V increases as a positive charge moves along some direction.2) we established the relation between E and V. Mathematically. Physically. i i * 2$ i =1 ) (4.3) Ex = ! "V "V "V . !x !y !z (4.4) By introducing a differential quantity called the del (gradient) operator !" the electric field can be written as # ˆ # ˆ # ˆ i+ j+ k #x #y #z (4.9) ! where V ( ri ) .4 Deriving Electric Field from the Electric Potential ! " In Eq. ! . the following differential form is obtained: ! " " dV = !E " d s .1) ! " ˆ . and therefore ˆ and d ! s = dx ˆ i + dyˆ j + dz k In Cartesian coordinates. the quantity in the parenthesis is the potential at ri (location of qi ) due to all the other charges. and ! V / ! z such that dV = Therefore !V !V !V dx + dy + dz . (4. "x "y "z (4.4.4. we can think of E as the negative of the gradient of the electric potential V . If we consider two points that ! are separated by a small distance d s .
1 below. (4. y. B and C are constants. i. y ) . the electric potential due to a point charge q is V ( r ) = q / 4!" 0 r . then the resulting electric field is ˆ .1: Calculating Electric Field from Electric Potential Suppose the electric potential due to a certain charge distribution can be written in Cartesian Coordinates as V ( x. E = Er r ! known. If V ( r ) is a function of the radial distance r. The curves characterized by constant V ( x. dV = ! Er dr . In this case.4.7) For example. If the charge distribution possesses spherical ! symmetry. In the case of gravity.4) "V = !2 Axy 2 ! Byz "x "V Ey = ! = !2 Ax 2 y ! Bxz "y "V Ez = ! = ! Bxy "z Ex = ! ! ˆ. Example 4. i ! (2 Ax 2 y + Bxz ) ˆ j ! Bxy k Therefore. the electric field is E = ( !2 Axy 2 ! Byz ) ˆ 4. y ) are called equipotential curves. 4-13 . the electric field is simply E = ( q / 4!" 0 r 2 )ˆ r. What is the associated electric field? Solution: The electric field can be found by using Eq.4. Using the ! " above formula. then E may be obtained as ! " " dV % ˆ = !$ ˆ E = Er r r # dr ' & (4.e. Examples of equipotential curves are depicted in Figure 4. if the gravitational potential increases when a mass is lifted a distance h. z ) = Ax 2 y 2 + Bxyz where A ..! " there is a non-vanishing component of E in the opposite direction Ex = !"V / "x < 0 .5.5 Gradients and Equipotentials Suppose a system in two dimensions has an electric potential V ( x. the gravitational force must be downward.4.
y.5. y + dy ) ? Write the difference as dV = V ( x + dx .2) dV = $ i+ j ' ( dx ˆ i + dy ˆ j = () V ) ( d s = * E ( d s .2.5.2 Change in V when moving from one equipotential curve to another ! i + dyˆ j . Generalization to three dimensions is straightforward. z ) = constant are called equipotential ! " ! surfaces. Referring to Figure 4.1) Figure 4. we can show that the direction of E at a point is always perpendicular to the equipotential through that point.5.5. Because E = !" V . y ) be V ( x. y ) ) dx + dy "x "y "x "y $ ' (4. y ) . We can The displacement vector connecting the points is given by d s = dx ˆ rewrite dV as ! " " " !V ˆ !V ˆ % (4. We shall show this in two dimensions. y ) + dx + dy + ! ( ! V ( x .1 Equipotential curves In three dimensions.5. "V "V "V "V = % V ( x. surfaces such that V ( x. y + dy ) ! V ( x . y ) and a neighboring point P( x + dx . let the potential at a point P( x. y ) # & .Figure 4. !y & # !x ( ) 4-14 . What is the potential difference dV between P( x.
a family of planes perpendicular to the field lines. " ds & % (4. we also see that the change in potential dV attains a maximum when the gradient ! ! V is parallel to d s : ! dV $ max # = 'V . y ) . That is. this means that ! V always points in the direction of maximum rate of change ! of V with respect to the displacement d s . The properties of equipotential surfaces can be summarized as follows: (i) (ii) The electric field lines are perpendicular to the equipotentials and point from higher to lower potentials.5. (b) a point charge. From Eq. and (c) an electric dipole.5. (iii) The tangential component of the electric field along the equipotential surface is zero. In three dimensions they become equipotential surfaces. the equipotential surfaces produced by a point charge form a family of concentric spheres.5. In Figure 4. then dV = 0 because V is constant everywhere on ! " ! " " that curve. Each contour line on the map represents a fixed elevation above sea level.5. By symmetry. ! " Figure 4. E is perpendicular to the equipotential. and for constant electric field. (iv) No work is required to move a particle along an equipotential surface.3 Equipotential curves and electric field lines for (a) a constant E field.! If the displacement d s is along the tangent to the equipotential curve that passes through the point P with coordinates ( x .4).3) Physically. Mathematically it is 4-15 .8). (4. otherwise non-vanishing work would be done to move a charge from one point on the surface to the other.5. A useful analogy for equipotential curves is a topographic map (Figure 4. This implies that E ! d s along the equipotential curve.3 we illustrate some examples of equipotential curves.
5. (4) just outside the conductor. the electric field is normal to the surface. consider two points A and B on the surface of a conductor. these curves correspond to gravitational equipotentials. the potential difference is " " B! VB ! V A = ! # E " d s = 0 A 4-16 .1: Conductors and Equipotentials We already studies the basic properties of a conductor in Chapter 3 which we now summarized: (1) the electric field inside a conductor is zero.4 A topographic map 4. Since the gravitational potential near the surface of Earth is Vg = gz . y ) = constant . (2) any net charge must reside on the surface of the conductor.expressed as z = f ( x. (3) the tangential component of the electric field on the surface is zero. (5) the discontinuity in the normal component of the electric field across the surface of a conductor is proportional to the surface charge density Because the tangential component of the electric field on the surface of a conductor vanishes. Figure 4. Since the tangential component Et = 0.5. To verify this claim. this implies that the surface of a conductor in electrostatic equilibrium is an equipotential surface.
Solution: (a) In Example 3. (b) Calculate the potential energy of the system. we showed that the electric field for a spherical shell of is given by # Q ˆ.61: Electric Potential Due to a Spherical Shell Consider a metallic spherical shell of radius a and charge Q.6 Continuous Symmetric Charge Distributions We shall now calculate the electric potential difference between two points in space associated with a continuous symmetric distribution of charge in which we can first use Gauss’s Law to determine the electric field everywhere is space. " " B! VB ! V A = ! # E " d s . r < a.6. Example 4. Thus.13).1.1 A spherical shell of radius a and charge Q. 4.6.! ! because E is perpendicular to d s . Figure 4. (a) Find the electric potential everywhere. & The electric potential may be calculated by using Eq.3. A For r > a. points A and B are at the same potential with V A = VB . r > a ! % r E = $ 4!" 0 r 2 % 0. we have 4-17 . as shown in Figure 4. (4.1.
V (r ) ! V (") = ! & r " Q 1 Q Q dr% = = ke .4) Because V = Q / 4!" 0 a and We x t = U . = 4"# 0 a 8"# 0 a (4. On the other hand. (18.104.22.168) 4-18 .6. the total amount of work needed to charge the sphere to Q is Wext = (4.2. for r < a. $ 4!" 0 a ' Therefore. " 4$% r 2 4$% 0 a a 0 a (4.2 Electric potential as a function of r for a spherical conducting shell (b) The potential energy U can be thought of as the work that needs to be done to build up the system. the above expression simplified to U = (1 / 2)QV .6. Note that the potential V is constant inside a conductor.3) ! Q 0 dq q Q2 . The potential at the surface of the sphere is then V = q / 4!" 0 a .6. To charge up the sphere. The amount of work that must be done by an external agent to bring charge dq from infinity and deposit it on the sphere is # q & dWext = Vdq = % ( dq .2) A plot of the electric potential is shown in Figure 4. an external agent must bring charge from infinity and deposit it onto the surface of the sphere. 2 4#$ 0 r r 4#$ 0 r % (4. Figure 4.6.6. Suppose the charge accumulated on the sphere at some instant is q. the potential becomes V ( r ) ! V ( " ) = ! # Edr ! # 0 dr " a a r = !# Q 1 Q Q dr = = ke .1) where we have chosen V ( ! ) = 0 as our reference point.
Suppose two metal spheres with radii r1 and r2 are connected by a thin conducting wire. V= = 4!" 0 r1 4!" 0 r2 Therefore q1 q2 (4. for a point charge Q. The electric fields can be expressed as E1 = 1 q1 # 1 = .The result can be contrasted with the case of a point charge. Figure 4. the equipotential condition implies 1 q1 1 q2 .6.6. Divided the magnitudes of the electric fields yields E1 ! 1 r2 = = . E2 ! 2 r1 (4.6. The work required to bring a point charge Q from infinity to a point where the electric potential due to other charges is V is We x t = Q V .6) = .8) 4-19 .2 Conducting Spheres Connected by a Wire Why does lightning strike the tip of a lightning rod? Let’s try to answer that question.6.2 Two conducting spheres connected by a wire. as shown in Figure 4. Neglecting the effect of the wire that connects the two spheres. r1 r2 provided that the two spheres are very far apart so that the charge distributions on the surfaces of the conductors are uniform. respectively. 4!" 0 r12 " 0 E2 = 1 q2 # 2 . Suppose the charges on the spheres at equilibrium are q1 and q2 .6.3.7) where ! 1 and ! 2 are the surface charge densities on spheres 1 and 2.6. the potential energy is U = Q V . Therefore. Example 4. Charge will continue to flow until equilibrium is established such that both spheres are at the same potential V1 = V2 = V . = 4!" 0 r22 " 0 (4.
The design of a lightning rod is based on this principle.7. r (22.214.171.124 Continuous Non-Symmetric Charge Distributions If the charge distribution is continuous.1.With the surface charge density being inversely proportional to the radius. a perpendicular distance y above the midpoint of the rod.0) . the electric field strength on the surface of a conductor is greatest at the sharpest point.2) Example 4. 4!" 0 r (4. while the field point P 4-20 . Taking infinity as our reference point with zero potential.7. Figure 4. as shown in Figure 4. 4.1 Continuous charge distribution Consider the charge distribution shown in Figure 4. we have that V= 1 4!" 0 # dq . Thus. we conclude that the regions with the smallest radii of curvature have the greatest ! . Solution: Consider a differential element of length dx ! that carries a charge dq = ! dx " .1: Uniformly Charged Rod Consider a non-conducting rod of length ! having a uniform charge density ! . The source element is located at ( x ! .7. the potential at a point P can be found by summing over the contributions from individual differential elements of charge dq . Find the electric potential at P .2.1) Summing over contributions from all the differential elements. Lighting strikes the tip. the electric potential at P due to dq is dV = 1 dq .7.
= 2 4!" 0 r 4!" 0 ( x $ + y 2 )1/ 2 Figure 4.3.is located on the y-axis at (0 . the total potential due to the entire rod is ! V= 4"# 0 & !/ 2 %!/ 2 ! = ln ' x$ + x$ 2 + y 2 * ) . as a function of y / ! is shown in Figure 4. The distance from dx ! to P is r = ( x ! 2 + y 2 )1/ 2 . A plot of V ( y ) / V0 . + !/ 2 %!/ 2 ' ( ! / 2) + ( ! / 2)2 + y 2 ! = ln ) 4"# 0 ) %( ! / 2) + ( ! / 2)2 + y 2 ( (4. y ) . . Its contribution to the potential is given by dV = 1 dq 1 # d x$ . Taking V to be zero at infinity. 4-21 .3) where we have used the integration formula dx ! 2 2 " x! 2 + y 2 = ln( x! + x! + y ) ..7.7.2 A non-conducting rod of length ! and uniform charge density ! .7. 2 2 ( + 4"# 0 x$ + y d x$ * . where V0 = ! / 4"# 0 .
y 0 ( % 1 + 1 + (2 y / !)2 ! *= ln ' 4"# 0 ' $ 1 + 1 + (2 y / !)2 * ) & ( * * ) (4.3 Electric potential along the axis that passes through the midpoint of a nonconducting rod.7.10. !2 / .7.2: Uniformly Charged Ring Consider a uniformly charged ring of radius R and charge density ! (Figure 4. In the limit ! ! y. " y 2$% 0 y ( ! / 2)2 + y 2 in agreement with the result obtained in Chapter 2. Eq. What is the electric potential at a distance z from the central axis? 4-22 . 2"# 0 . 2 2 1 = ln .7.7.2 y / ! 0 4"# 0 . Example 4.9). ! 2 / ! + ln . 1 . !/ ! ln . the potential becomes V= % ( ! / 2) + ! / 2 1 + (2 y / !)2 ! ln ' 4"# 0 ' $( ! / 2) + ! / 2 1 + (2 y / !)2 & .y 0 .4).Figure 4.4) = The corresponding electric field can be obtained as Ey = ! "V # !/2 = . (2. 2 1 4"# 0 .
What is the electric potential at a distance z from the central axis? 4-23 . The element carries a charge dq = ! d ! = ! R d# " . = 4!" 0 r 4!" 0 R 2 + z 2 The electric potential at P due to the entire ring is V = ! dV = 1 4"# 0 $R R +z 2 2 ! d& % = 4"# 1 2"$ R 0 R +z 2 2 = 1 4"# 0 Q R2 + z 2 . (126.96.36.199) where we have substituted Q = 2! R" for the total charge on the ring.7. 4"# 0 z From Eq.7. (2. (4.3: Uniformly Charged Disk Consider a uniformly charged disk of radius R and charge density ! lying in the xyplane (Figure 4. In the limit z >> R .6) in agreement with Eq.10. and its contribution to the electric potential at P is dV = 1 dq 1 # R d% $ .4) the z-component of the electric field may be obtained as Ez = ! "V " % 1 =! ' "z " z & 4#$ 0 ( 1 Qz = . * 2 2 3/ 2 R 2 + z 2 ) 4#$ 0 ( R + z ) Q (4.4 A non-conducting ring of radius R with uniform charge density ! .5).14). the potential approaches its “point-charge” limit: V! 1 Q . Example 4.Figure 4.4.7. Solution: Consider a small differential element d ! = R d" ! on the ring.
dV = = 4!" 0 r 4!" 0 r $ 2 + z 2 By summing over all the rings that make up the disk. the contribution to the electric potential at P is 1 dq 1 # (2! r $d r $ ) .7) In the limit | z | >> R . the potential due to a non-conducting charged disk is the same as that of a point charge Q. The field point P is located along the z -axis a distance z from the plane of the disk. 2z " % and the potential simplifies to the point-charge limit: V! " R2 1 " (% R 2 ) 1 Q .7. at large distance.7. Solution: Consider a circular ring of radius r ! and width dr ! . we have V= ! 4"# 0 % R 2" r $d r $ r $2 + z 2 0 = ! & r $2 + z 2 ) ( + ' * 2# 0 R = 0 ! & R2 + z 2 . 4-24 . A comparison of the electric potentials of the disk and a point charge is shown in Figure 4. $ = = 2# 0 2 | z | 4%# 0 | z | 4%# 0 | z | As expected. ! R2 $ R + z =| z | # 1 + 2 & z % " 2 2 1/ 2 ! $ R2 =| z | # 1 + 2 + ! & .5 A non-conducting disk of radius R and uniform charge density ". | z | ) ( +.7.Figure 4.6. Therefore. The charge on the ring is d q! = " d A! = " (2# r !d r ! ). we also see that the distance from a point on the ring to P is r = ( r ! 2 + z 2 )1/ 2 . ' * 2# 0 (4. From the figure.
The corresponding electric field at P can be obtained as: Ez = ! "V # = " z 2$ 0 % z ! ' | z | & ( *. The electric potential is measured in terms of V0 = Q / 4!" 0 R .7.7. 2 2 R +z ) z (4.8) This is the amount of work that needs to be done to bring a unit charge from infinity and place it at the center of the disk. 4-25 . and its value is Vc = !R Q R 1 2Q = $ = = 2V0 .9) which agrees with Eq.Figure 4. z = 0 . which is the electric field for an infinitely large non-conducting sheet.6 Comparison of the electric potentials of a non-conducting disk and a point charge. the above equation becomes Ez = ! / 2" 0 . 2 2" 0 # R 2" 0 4#" 0 R (4. In the limit R >> z . is finite. (2. Note that the electric potential at the center of the disk.7.10.18).
the electric potential is V= Qi 1 . the electric field may be obtained by taking the gradient of V . 4!" 0 r12 • From the electric potential V . the components may be written as 4-26 . without changing its kinetic energy. 4!" 0 r For a collection of charges.8 Summary • ! A force F is conservative if the line integral of the force around a closed loop vanishes: ! ! "F ! d s = 0. ! E = !"V . # 4!" 0 i ri • The potential energy associated with two point charges q1 and q2 separated by a distance r12 is U= 1 q1q2 . • The electric potential due to a point charge Q at a distance r away from the charge is V= 1 Q . A • • ! The electric potential difference !V between points A and B in an electric field E is given by B ! !U ! !V = VB " V A = = " $ E # ds .4. using the superposition principle. In Cartesian coordinates. A qt The quantity represents the amount of work done per unit charge to move a test charge qt from point A to B. ! " The change in potential energy associated with a conservative force F acting on an object as it moves from A to B is B! ! !U = U B " U A = " $ F # d s .
we use the following steps to complete the integration: (1) Start with dV = ke dq . r (2) Rewrite the charge element dq as $! dl & dq = %" dA & # dV ' (length) (area) (volume) depending on whether the charge is distributed over a length.Ex = ! • "V "V "V . (3) Substitute dq into the expression for dV . For the discrete distribution. electric potential is a scalar quantity. an area. "x "y "z The electric potential due to a continuous charge distribution is V= 1 4!" 0 # dq . r 4. we showed how electric potential could be calculated for both the discrete and continuous charge distributions. we apply the superposition principle and sum over individual contributions: q V = ke ! i . (4) Specify an appropriate coordinate system and express the differential element ( dl . Ez = ! .) 4-27 . i ri For the continuous distribution. Unlike electric field. we must evaluate the integral V = ke ! dq .9 Problem-Solving Strategy: Calculating Electric Potential In this chapter. r In analogy to the case of computing the electric field. Ey = ! . dA or dV ) and r in terms of the coordinates (see Table 2.1. or a volume.
Charged Rod Charged Ring Charged disk (6) Complete the integration to obtain V. In this limit.(5) Rewrite dV in terms of the integration variable. and falls off as 1/ r 2 . the field should behave as if the distribution were a point charge. 4-28 . ! Using the result obtained for V . Furthermore. one may calculate the electric field by E = !"V . choosing a point P that lies sufficiently far away from the charge distribution can readily check the accuracy of the result. Below we illustrate how the above methodologies can be employed to compute the electric potential for a line of charge. if the charge distribution is of finite extent. a ring of charge and a uniformly charged disk.
+ R! ( R + z 2 )1/ 2 (2% R! ) R +z Q 2 2 ! $ d# " V = k 2!" $ e %!/ 2 ' ( ! / 2) + ( ! / 2)2 + y 2 ! = ln ) 4"# 0 ) %( ! / 2) + ( ! / 2)2 + y 2 ( = ke = ke = 2 ke!" = 2 keQ R2 R +z 2 2 ( ( 0 r # dr # ( r # + z 2 )1/ 2 2 z 2 + R2 % | z | z 2 + R2 % | z | ) ) Derive E from V Ey = ! "V "y # !/2 = 2$% 0 y ( ! / 2)2 + y 2 Ez = ! keQz "V = "z ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 Ez = ! "V 2 keQ # z = ! % "z R2 $ | z | & ( z +R ' z 2 2 4-29 . .Figure (2) Express dq in terms of charge density (3) Substitute dq into expressio n for dV (4) Rewrite r and the differenti al element in terms of the appropriat e coordinat es (5) Rewrite dV dq = ! dx " dq = ! dl dq = ! dA dV = ke ! dx " r dV = ke ! dl r dV = ke ! dA r dx ! r = x! 2 + y 2 dl = R d" ! dA = 2! r " dr " r = R2 + z 2 r = r !2 + z 2 dV = ke ! d x" ( x " + y 2 )1/ 2 2 dV = ke V = ke ! R d# " ( R 2 + z 2 )1/ 2 2 dV = ke 2!" r # dr # ( r # 2 + z 2 )1/ 2 R (6) Integrate to get V V= ! 4"# 0 & !/ 2 d x$ x$ 2 + y 2 * .
Pointcharge limit for E Ey ! keQ y 2 y!" Ez ! keQ z2 z!R Ez ! keQ z2 z!R 4.10.10 Solved Problems 4.1 Electric Potential Due to a System of Two Charges Consider a system of two charges shown in Figure 4. 4-30 . Solution: The electric potential can be found by the superposition principle.1.10. = ! V0 | x / a ! 1| | x / a + 1| where V0 = q / 4!" 0 a .1 Electric dipole Find the electric potential at an arbitrary point on the x-axis and make a plot. 4!" 0 | x # a | 4!" 0 | x + a | 4!" 0 % | x # a | | x + a | ( The above expression may be rewritten as V ( x) 1 1 . At a point on the x-axis. we have V ( x) = 1 q 1 (# q) q $ 1 1 ' + = # & ). Figure 4.10.
2.2 Electric Dipole Potential Consider an electric dipole along the y-axis.Figure 4. the potential at P is given by V = !Vi = i 1 % q q $ 4"# 0 ' & r+ r$ ( *.2 The plot of the dimensionless electric potential as a function of x/a. then 4-31 .10. is depicted in Figure 4. as shown in the Figure 4. where the charges are located. and use V to derive the corresponding electric field.10. Find the electric potential V at a point P in the x-y plane.3. ) where r± 2 = r 2 + a 2 ! 2ra cos! . If we take the limit where r >> a.10.3 By superposition principle. 4.10. As can be seen from the graph. V ( x ) diverges at x / a = ±1 . Figure 4.10.
The amount of charge contained in dA is given by dq = ! dA = ! ( r ' d" ) dr ' . In spherical polar coordinates.10.4 An annulus of uniform charge density.3 Electric Potential of an Annulus Consider an annulus of uniform charge density ! .10. the where p = 2 aq ˆ gradient operator is ! " 1 " ˆ 1 " ˆ ˆ+ != r #+ $ "r r "# r sin # " $ Because the potential is now a function of both r and ! . Figure 4. 2 4!" 0 r r 4!" 0 r 4!" 0 r 2 ! j is the electric dipole moment. Using E = !"V .r + . 3 " r 2$% 0 r r " # 4$% 0 r 3 4. as shown in Figure 4.4. = = .10. 4-32 . we have ˆ . E# = ! = . E& = 0 .and ! components along the r Er = ! " V p cos# 1 "V p sin # = . Solution: Consider a small differential element dA at a distance r away from point P.&1/ 2 $ 1 1 1" 1 = " 1 + ( a / r )2 ! 2( a / r )cos! $ = ' 1 & ( a / r )2 ± ( a / r )cos! + " ( . the electric field will have ! ˆ -directions. # % r± r r# 2 % The dipole potential can be approximated as V= ( q % 1 1 1 # ( a / r )2 + ( a / r )cos$ # 1 + ( a / r )2 + ( a / r )cos$ + ! * ' 4!" 0 r & 2 2 ) " ˆ q 2 a cos$ p cos$ p. Find the electric potential at a point P along the symmetric axis.
7). Consider an infinitesimal charge element dq = ! dz " located at a distance z ' along the z-axis. % ( 2" 0 which agrees with the result of a non-conducting disk of radius R shown in Eq.. Its contribution to the electric potential at a point z > d is dV = ! dz ' . V ( ! ) = 0 .7. (b) What is the change in potential energy if an electron moves from z = 4 d to z = 3d ? (c) If the electron started out at rest at the point z = 4 d . the potential becomes V= ! $ 2 R + z 2 # | z |' & ). The rod carries a positive charge Q uniformly distributed along its length 2 d with charge density ! = Q / 2 d . let’s set the potential to be zero at infinity. 4. Notice that in the limit a ! 0 and b ! R .4 Charge Moving Near a Charged Wire A thin rod extends along the z -axis from z = ! d to z = d . 2# 0 ( where we have made used of the integral ! ds s s +z 2 2 = s2 + z 2 . (a) Calculate the electric potential at a point z > d along the z -axis. = 4!" 0 r 4!" 0 r '2 + z 2 Integrating over the entire annulus. (4. we obtain V= ! 4"# 0 %% a b 2" r ' dr ' d$ r '2 + z 2 0 = 2"! 4"# 0 % b a r ' ds r '2 + z 2 = ! ' 2 2 2 2 * ) b +z & a +z + . what is its velocity at z = 3d ? Solutions: (a) For simplicity. 4"# 0 z $ z ' 4-33 .Its contribution to the electric potential at P is dV = 1 dq 1 # r ' dr ' d$ .10.
4$% 0 ' 5 * Using the fact that the electric potential difference !V is equal to the change in potential energy per unit charge. = ln ( z $ z' 4"# 0 ' z $ d + * (b) Using the result derived in (a). ln ' = ln 4"# 0 & 4 d $ d * ) 4"# 0 ' & 3* ) Similarly. 4$% 0 ( ' 5* where q = ! e is the charge of the electron. the electrical potential at z = 3d is V ( z = 3d ) = % 3d + d ( ! ! ln ' = ln 2 . the electrical potential at z = 4 d is V ( z = 4d ) = % 4d + d ( % 5( ! ! . 2 By conservation of energy. we have !U = q!V = " | e | # & 6) ln + < 0 . we obtain V (z) = ! 4"# 0 % z$d z+d & z + d) dz' ! . the magnitude of the velocity at z = 3d is 4-34 . 4"# 0 & 3d $ d * ) 4"# 0 The electric potential difference between the two points is !V = V ( z = 3d ) " V ( z = 4 d ) = & 6) # ln ( + > 0 . the change in kinetic energy is !K = "!U = | e | # & 6) ln + > 0 . (c) If the electron starts out at rest at z = 4 d then the change in kinetic energy is !K = 1 mv f 2 . 4$% 0 ( ' 5* Thus.Integrating over the entire length of the rod.
5 Electric Potential of a Uniformly Charged Sphere An insulated solid sphere of radius a has a uniform charge density #. r > a r 2 ! % % 4!" 0 r E=$ % Qr r ˆ . 4!" 0 m & % 5( 4.10. Solution: Using Gauss’s law. On the other hand.6 Electric potential due to a uniformly charged sphere as a function of r.10.2) Figure 188.8.131.52. % 4!" 0 a 3 & The electric potential at P (indicated in Figure 4.10. the electric potential at P2 inside the sphere is given by 4-35 . r < a. 2 4#$ 0 r r 4#$ 0 r % (4.vf = 2 | e | # $ 6' ln ) .5) outside the sphere is 1 V1 ( r ) ! V ( " ) = ! & r " (4. we showed in Example 3.1) Q 1 Q Q dr% = = ke .5 Figure 4. Compute the electric potential everywhere.4 that the electric field due to the charge distribution is # Q ˆ.
at the corners of a cube of side a? 4.600 m.12 Additional Problems 4. ( + A plot of electric potential as a function of r is given in Figure 4. In what direction can a charge be displaced in this field without any external work being done on the charge? 3. uniformly charged sphere is zero. 4. each of magnitude q. The electric field inside a hollow. Does this imply that the potential is zero inside the sphere? 4. 2a ) a2 .6: 4.11 Conceptual Questions 1.1 Cube How much work is done to assemble eight identical point charges.12. Is it safe to stay in an automobile with a metal body during severe thunderstorm? Explain. A uniform electric field is parallel to the x-axis.2 Three Charges Three point-like objects with charges with q = 3.1. 4-36 .3) = ke Q' r2 * 3 ! . What is the difference between electric potential and electric potential energy? 2. Why are equipotential surfaces always perpendicular to electric field lines? 5. The distance between q and q1 is a = 0.12. as shown in the Figure 184.108.40.206.00 ! 10"18 C and q1 = 6 ! 10"6 C are placed on the x-axis.V2 ( r ) ! V ( " ) = ! # drE r > a ! # E r < a = ! # dr " a " a ( ) r ( ) a r Q Qr ! dr & r& # 2 a 4$% 0 r 4$% 0 a 3 = 1 Q 1 Q1 2 1 Q' r2 * 2 ! r ! a = 3 ! 4$% 0 a 4$% 0 a 3 2 8$% 0 a ) a2 . ( + ( ) (4.
y.0cm apart. and the z-components of the associated electric field.12. where a is a constant with dimensions of length. Find the x. y . An external agent moves the charges until they are r f = 5. (a) How much work is done by the electric field in moving the charges from r0 to rf ? Is the work positive or negative? (b) How much work is done by the external agent in moving the charges from r0 to rf ? Is the work positive or negative? (c) What is the potential energy of the initial state where the charges are r0 = 2. z ) = V0 ! E0 z + E0 a 3 z ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 .4 Calculating E from V Suppose in some region of space the electric potential is given by V ( x .0 µC initially are separated by a distance r0 = 2. 4-37 .0cm apart? (e) What is the change in potential energy from the initial state to the final state? 4.3 Work Done on Charges Two charges q1 = 3.0cm apart? (d) What is the potential energy of the final state where the charges are r f = 5.12.0cm .0 µC and q2 = !4.Figure 4.1 (a) What is the net force exerted on q by the other two charges q1? (b) What is the electric field at the origin due to the two charges q1? (c) What is the electric potential at the origin due to the two charges q1? 4.12.
2 (a) What are the dimensions of ! ? (b) Calculate the electric potential at A. 4.12. Find the electric field everywhere. 4.4.12. Sketch the electric field lines in the xz -plane.12. z ) = V0 exp( ! k | z |)cos kx .7 Calculating Electric Field from the Electric Potential Suppose that the electric potential varies along the x-axis as shown in Figure 4.2). 4-38 .5 Electric Potential of a Rod A rod of length L lies along the x-axis with its left end at the origin and has a nonuniform charge density ! = " x . where ! is a positive constant (Figure 4. Figure 4. (c) Calculate the electric potential at point B that lies along the perpendicular bisector of the rod a distance b above the x-axis.12.6 Electric Potential Suppose that the electric potential in some region of space is given by V ( x.3 below.12. y.12.
8 Electric Potential and Electric Potential Energy A right isosceles triangle of side a has charges q. 4. d.12.12.3 The potential does not vary in the y. 25 V/m in the interval ab. etc. (d) What sort of charge distributions would produce these kinds of changes in the potential? Where are they located? [Ans. as shown in Figure 4. +2q and $q arranged on its vertices.4.12. [Ans. sheets of charge extending in the yz-direction located at points b.] (b) its least absolute value.] (c) Plot Ex as a function of x. determine the intervals in which Ex has (a) its greatest absolute value. c. (b) 0 V/m in the interval cd. Of the intervals shown (ignore the behavior at the end points of the intervals). [Ans. Note again that a sheet of charge with charge per unit area " will always produce a jump in the normal component of the electric field of magnitude ! / " 0 ].Figure 4.or z-direction. along the x-axis. 4-39 .
] (b) What is the potential energy U of this configuration of three charges? What is the significance of the sign of your answer? [Ans. and y = !4 a .4 (a) What is the electric potential at point P. and z components of the electric field E at P? (c) What is the electric potential V at point P. +5Q. y. How much work must be done in this process? What is the significance of the sign of your answer? [Ans.] 4. ! q 2 / 4 2"# 0 a .9. the positive sign means that work was done by the agent who moved this charge in from infinity. q / 2!" 0 a .10 P-N Junction 4-40 .12. respectively. y = 0.] (c) A fourth charge with charge +3q is slowly moved in from infinity to point P. What are the x. the negative sign means that work was done on the agent who assembled these charges in moving them in from infinity.Figure 4. !5Q. (a) How much energy did it take to assemble these charges? ! (b) What are the x. +3q 2 / 2!" 0 a . and z components of the force F that is exerted on it by the other three charges? (e) How much work was done (by the external agent) in moving the fourth charge +Q from infinity to P? 4. taking V = 0 at infinity? (d) A fourth charge of ! +Q is brought to P from infinity. The point P is on the x-axis at x = 3a. assuming that V = 0 at infinity? [Ans. midway between the line connecting the +q and ! q charges.12.12. and +3Q are located on the y-axis at y = +4a. Electric Field. y. Potential and Energy Three charges.
the relative affinities of the materials cause electrons to migrate out of the N-type material across the junction to the P-type material. The adjacent P-type material lies in the range ! a < z < 0 and has uniform charge density ! "0 . The N-type material lies in the range 0 < z < a and has uniform charge density + !0 . Let us model this as two infinite slabs of charge. Thus: # + !0 % % ! ( x . the total charge on the sphere. This leaves behind a volume in the N-type material that is positively charged and creates a negatively charged volume in the P-type material.12. (a) Find the electric field everywhere. The point P1. 4. (b) Find the electric potential everywhere. both inside and outside the sphere. is located on a plane parallel to the slab a distance z1 > a from the center of the slab. Let r be the distance from the center of the sphere. 4-41 . (c) How much energy does it take to assemble this configuration of charge? (d) What is the electric potential difference between the center of the cylinder and a distance r inside the cylinder? Be sure to indicate where you have chosen your zero potential. z ) = ! ( z ) = $ " !0 % % &0 0 < z< a " a< z< 0 | z | > a. (a) Find the electric field everywhere.12. y .11 Sphere with Non-Uniform Charge Distribution A sphere made of insulating material of radius R has a charge density ! = ar where a is a constant. 4. Express your answer in terms of Q . both of thickness a with the junction lying on the plane z = 0 .When two slabs of N-type and P-type semiconductors are put in contact. is located on plane parallel to the slab a distance z2 < ! a from the center of the slab. (b) Find the potential difference between the points P1 and P2. both inside and outside the sphere.12 Electric Potential Energy of a Solid Sphere Calculate the electric potential energy of a solid sphere of radius R filled with charge of uniform density #. The point P2. Be sure to indicate where you have chosen your zero potential. .
The potential V in the region !1m < z < 1m is given in Volts by the expression V ( z ) = 15 ! 5z 2 . the electric potential varies linearly with z. The potential V does not depend on x or y.5 shows the variation of an electric potential V with distance z.13 Calculating Electric Field from Electrical Potential Figure 4.12.5 (a) Find an equation for the z-component of the electric field. Outside of this region.12. as indicated in the graph.12. 4-42 . in the region !1m < z < 1m . (b) What is Ez in the region z > 1 m? Be careful to indicate the sign of Ez ? (c) What is Ez in the region z < !1 m? Be careful to indicate the sign of Ez ? (d) This potential is due a slab of charge with constant charge per unit volume !0 . Where is this slab of charge located (give the z-coordinates that bound the slab)? What is the charge density !0 of the slab in C/m3? Be sure to give clearly both the sign and magnitude of !0 .4. Ez . Figure 4.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.