S u m m a r y Ta b l e o f C o n t e n t s

Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi About the Authors Preface
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxix
Chapter One Being a Member of Congress
............................................1

Chapter Two Pressures on Congress: Campaigns and Elections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Chapter Three Pressures on Congress: Constituents, Media, President, and Courts Chapter Four Pressures on Congress: Lobbying and Congressional Ethics

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

Chapter Five Supporting Congress: Allowances and Staff Chapter Six Supporting Congress: The Capitol Complex Chapter Seven Organizing Congress: Members, Leaders, and Committees

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

Chapter Eight Legislating in Congress: Legislative Process

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243

Chapter Nine Legislating in Congress: Federal Budget Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 Chapter Ten Legislating in Congress: Special Procedures and Considerations

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371

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Chapter Eleven Congressional Documents: Overview, Legislation, and Laws

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447

Chapter Twelve Congressional Documents: Committee, Chamber, Party, and Administrative Publications Chapter Thirteen Legislative Research: Private and Government Information Providers Chapter Fourteen Legislative Research: How to Monitor and Research Congress

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541

Chapter Fifteen Putting It All Together: A Working Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563 Back of the Book

Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615 Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625 Table of Web Sites
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645

Principal Index Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 655 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 657

iv

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Ta b l e o f C o n t e n t s
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi About the Authors Preface
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxix
Chapter One Being a Member of Congress

............................................1

§ 1.00 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 § 1.10 Who . . . Gets . . . What! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 § 1.20 Congress, the Political Institution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 § 1.30 A Member of Congress as Politician, Policymaker, and Parliamentarian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 § 1.40 Obligations and Perquisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 § 1.50 Ever-Changing and Unpredictable Schedules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.51 Example of a Senior House Member’s Daily Schedule 1.52 Example of a Freshman House Member’s Daily Schedule 1.53 Excerpt from House’s Daily Schedule (GOP Source) 1.54 Excerpt from House’s Daily Schedule (Democratic Source) 1.55 Floor Discussion of Schedule Changes § 1.60 Family Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 § 1.70 Staying in Congress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Chapter Two Pressures on Congress: Campaigns and Elections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
§ 2.00 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 § 2.10 Campaigns and Elections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.11 2008 Congressional Election Information 2.12 Members’ Support for Candidates 2.13 Reapportionment and Redistricting § 2.20 Election Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 2.21 Federal Election Commission Web Site

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Chapter Three Pressures on Congress: Constituents, Media, President, and Courts

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

§ 3.00 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 § 3.10 Constituency Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3.11 Example of Constituent Outreach 3.12 Example of Member’s Newsletter 3.13 Example of Privacy Act Release Form 3.14 Constituent Service Reflected in Member’s Newsletter 3.15 Case Work Outreach 3.16 “Pork Barrel Politics” 3.17 Tips for Contacting Members of Congress 3.18 Addressing Correspondence to Members of Congress 3.19 Constituent Outreach Meetings 3.110 Advertising Constituents’ Access to a Member 3.111 Example of Community Holiday Event 3.112 Constituent Services and Courtesies § 3.20 Media Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 3.21 Member’s Web Site 3.22 Media Galleries 3.23 Sample Senate Press Release 3.24 Media Guidance for a Major Committee Hearing § 3.30 Executive-Branch Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 3.31 Members of Congress Who Served as President 3.32 Former Members of Congress Appointed by President Bush to Executive Positions 3.33 White House Legislative Affairs 3.34 Presidential Support for His Party’s Members 3.35 State of the Union Address § 3.40 Judicial-Branch Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Chapter Four Pressures on Congress: Lobbying and Congressional Ethics

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

§ 4.00 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 § 4.10 Lobbying Pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 4.11 Grass-roots Training 4.12 Example of Grass-roots Campaign 4.13 Meeting Tips for a Lobbyist
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§ 4.20 Lobbying Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 4.21 Resources on Lobbying 4.22 Lobbying Disclosure Form § 4.30 Congressional Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 4.31 House Financial Disclosure Form

Chapter Five Supporting Congress: Allowances and Staff

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

§ 5.00 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 § 5.10 Pay and Allowances of Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 § 5.20 Salary, Earned Income, and Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 § 5.30 House Allowances for Staff, Office, and Other Expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 § 5.40 Senate Allowances for Staff, Office, and Other Expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 5.41 Senators’ Official Personnel and Office Expense Account § 5.50 Franking Privilege . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 § 5.60 Personal Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 5.61 Staff Salary Data 5.62 Congressional Staff Organizations § 5.70 Committee and Subcommittee Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 § 5.80 House of Representatives Committee Funding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 § 5.90 Senate Committee Funding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 § 5.100 Congressional Fellowships and Internships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 § 5.110 Administrative Offices of the House . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 5.111 Chaplains and Guest Chaplains 5.112 Selling Products and Services to Congress 5.113 Congressional Pages § 5.120 Administrative Offices of the Senate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 5.121 Architect of the Capitol 5.122 Office of the Attending Physician 5.123 Capitol Police § 5.130 Legislative-Branch Support Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 5.131 Requesting GAO Assistance § 5.140 Government Printing Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 § 5.150 Congressional Accountability Act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 § 5.160 General Services Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
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§ 5.170 Congressional Liaison Offices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 5.171 Liaison Offices on Capitol Hill 5.172 Duties of a Congressional Liaison Office 5.173 General Counsel Offices § 5.180 Office of Management and Budget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 § 5.190 Outside Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 5.191 Congressional Spouse Organizations

Chapter Six Supporting Congress: The Capitol Complex

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

§ 6.00 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 § 6.10 U.S. Capitol and Grounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 6.11 The Lantern and Flags 6.12 Current Projects at the Capitol 6.13 Statues in National Statuary Hall 6.14 Those Who Have Lain in State or in Honor in the Capitol Rotunda 6.15 Resources on the Capitol § 6.20 Guide to Public Buildings on Capitol Hill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 6.21 Capitol Hill Map 6.22 Capitol Security 6.23 The Capitol’s Second (Principal) Floor 6.24 House Office Buildings 6.25 Senate Office Buildings § 6.30 Bells and Lights: Senate and House Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

Chapter Seven Organizing Congress: Members, Leaders, and Committees

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

§ 7.00 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 7.01 Constitutional Provisions Related to the Composition and Organization of Congress § 7.10 Members of Congress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 7.11 Senate Classes 7.12 Membership Changes, 110th Congress, First Session 7.13 Party Switchers 7.14 Selected Characteristics of the 110th Congress 7.15 Senators in the 110th Congress Who Previously Served in the House of Representatives
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7.16 Former Governors Serving in the 110th Congress 7.17 Numbers of Former State and Local Elected Officials Serving in the 110th Congress 7.18 Members of Congress Who Subsequently Served on the Supreme Court 7.19 Former Judges Serving in the 110th Congress 7.110 Members of the 110th Congress Who Were Pages 7.111 Members of the 110th Congress Who Have Served as Congressional Staff 7.112 Vice Presidents Elected to Senate

§ 7.20 Terms and Sessions of Congress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 7.21 Terms of Congress 7.22 Lame-Duck Sessions of Congress, 1935–2006 7.23 Résumé of Congressional Activity, 109th Congress 7.24 Joint Meetings and Joint Sessions § 7.30 Early Organization Meetings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 7.31 Representative Early Organization Schedule: 108th Congress § 7.40 Party Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 7.41 Party Control of Congress, 80th through 110th Congresses 7.42 House Leadership Structure, 110th Congress 7.43 The Parties’ Whip Structures 7.44 Senate Leadership Structure, 110th Congress § 7.50 Committees and Subcommittees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 7.51 House and Joint Committee Ratios in the 110th Congress 7.52 Senate Committee Ratios in the 110th Congress 7.53 Member Press Release 7.54 Example of a Senior Committee Member’s Activities 7.55 House Committee Chairs and Ranking Minority Members and Their Tenure 7.56 House Committee Assignment Request Form 7.57 Categories of Committees in the House of Representatives 7.58 Senate Committee Chairs and Ranking Minority Members and Their Tenure 7.59 Categories of Committees in the Senate § 7.60 Informal Groups and Congressional Member Organizations (CMOs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 7.61 Selected Caucuses and Informal Groups § 7.70 Commissions and Boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
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Chapter Eight Legislating in Congress: Legislative Process

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243

§ 8.00 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 8.01 Legislative Process Flowchart 8.02 House Rules Citations 8.03 Senate Rules Citations 8.04 Selected Procedures: House and Senate Rules § 8.10 Types of Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 8.11 Legislation Glossary § 8.20 Drafting and Introducing Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 8.21 House Cosponsorship Form 8.22 Sample “Dear Colleague” Letter § 8.30 Referral of Legislation to Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 8.31 Sample Jurisdictional Agreement 8.32 Sample of House Referral § 8.40 Committee Hearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 8.41 Committee Hearings Schedule 8.42 Keeping Up with House and Senate Committee Hearings 8.43 Sample Truth in Testimony Form 8.44 Celebrity Witnesses 8.45 Field Hearing Announcement § 8.50 Committee Markup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 8.51 Committee Markup and Reporting Glossary 8.52 Keeping Up with House and Senate Committee Markups § 8.60 Committee Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 8.61 Reading the Cover Page of a House Committee Report 8.62 House Committee Reports: Required Contents 8.63 Senate Committee Reports: Required Contents § 8.70 House Floor: Scheduling and Privilege . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 8.71 House Calendars 8.72 Daily Starting Times in the House § 8.80 House Floor: Methods of Consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 § 8.90 Rules Committee and Special Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 8.91 Special Rules Glossary 8.92 Announcement on Amendments Prior to a Rules Committee Meeting 8.93 Reading a Special Rule
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§ 8.100 Consideration of a Special Rule on the House Floor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 § 8.110 Committee of the Whole: Debate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 8.111 The Mace 8.112 House versus Committee of the Whole 8.113 Who Is Allowed on the House Floor? 8.114 Committee of the Whole and the House: Stages of Action § 8.120 Committee of the Whole: Amendment Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 8.121 Amendment Process Glossary 8.122 Basic House Amendment Tree 8.123 Keeping Up with the House Floor: Scheduling and Proceedings § 8.130 House Floor: Voting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 8.131 House Voting Glossary § 8.140 House Floor: Motion to Recommit and Final Passage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 8.141 Approval Terminology § 8.150 House and Senate Compared . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 8.151 Comparison of Selected House and Senate Procedures § 8.160 Senate Scheduling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 8.161 Keeping Up with the Senate Floor: Scheduling and Proceedings § 8.170 Legislative and Calendar Days; Morning Hour and Morning Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 § 8.180 Senate Calendars and Legislative and Executive Business before the Senate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 § 8.190 Holds, Clearance, and Unanimous Consent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 8.191 Who Is Allowed on the Senate Floor? § 8.200 Time Agreements and Motions to Proceed on the Senate Floor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 8.201 Example of a Senate Unanimous Consent Time Agreement 8.202 Comparing a House Special Rule and a Senate Time Agreement § 8.210 Consideration and Debate on the Senate Floor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 8.211 Longest Senate Filibusters § 8.220 Senate Amendment Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 § 8.230 Cloture in Senate Floor Proceedings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 8.231 Steps to Invoke Cloture 8.232 Senate Procedures under Cloture
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§ 8.240 Senate Floor: Motion to Reconsider and Final Passage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 § 8.250 Voting in the Senate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 § 8.260 Reconciling Differences between House-Passed and Senate-Passed Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 8.261 Reconciling Differences Glossary 8.262 Keeping Up with Reconciling House-Senate Differences § 8.270 Amendments between the Houses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 § 8.280 Conference Committees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 8.281 Size of Conference Committees 8.282 Authority of Conferees 8.283 Conference Signature Sheet § 8.290 Presidential Action on Enacted Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 8.291 Vetoes and Veto Overrides: Presidential Clout § 8.300 Publication of Public Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324

Chapter Nine Legislating in Congress: Federal Budget Process

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325

§ 9.00 Introduction: Congress’s “Power of the Purse” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 9.01 Congress’s Constitutional “Power of the Purse” 9.02 Federal Budgeting Concepts and Terminology § 9.10 Key Budget Process Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 9.11 Budget Enforcement Act Procedures § 9.20 The Budget Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 § 9.30 Budget Enforcement Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 § 9.40 Presidential Budget Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 9.41 Typical Executive Budget Process Timetable 9.42 Office of Management and Budget Publications 9.43 Volumes Containing and Explaining the President’s Annual Budget 9.44 Program and Financing Schedule in President’s Budget Appendix § 9.50 Congressional Budget Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 9.51 Congressional Budget Process Timetable 9.52 Completion Dates of Budget Resolutions 9.53 Congressional Budget Process Flowchart 9.54 Functional Categories in a Congressional Budget Resolution 9.55 Membership on the House and Senate Budget Committees
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§ 9.60 Spending, Revenue, and Debt-Limit Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 9.61 Budgeting for Direct and Guaranteed Loans § 9.70 Spending Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 9.71 Differences between Discretionary and Direct Spending § 9.80 Authorization and Appropriation Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 9.81 Limitations, Earmarks, and General Provisions 9.82 New Appropriations Subcommittee Organization 9.83 Sequence of Appropriations Measures through Congress 9.84 Examples of Appropriations Subcommittees’ Requirements for Member Requests § 9.90 Revenue Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 9.91 Tax Expenditures 9.92 Revenue Estimates § 9.100 Debt-Limit Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 § 9.110 Reconciliation Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 § 9.120 Implementation of the Budget by Executive Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 § 9.130 Apportionment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 § 9.140 Transfer and Reprogramming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 § 9.150 Impoundment: Deferrals and Rescissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 § 9.160 Budget Process Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

Chapter Ten Legislating in Congress: Special Procedures and Considerations

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371

§ 10.00 Introduction: Separation of Powers, Checks and Balances, and Federalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374 § 10.10 Congress and the Executive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376 § 10.20 Congress and the Executive: Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 10.21 Letter Opposing Legislation (from the General Counsel of the U.S. Department of Commerce) 10.22 Presidential Letter § 10.30 Congress and the Executive: Ratification of Treaties, and Foreign Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 § 10.40 Congress and the Executive: Rulemaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 10.41 Congressional Review of Agency Rulemaking § 10.50 Congress and the Executive: Appropriations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 10.51 Legislative Veto
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§ 10.60 Congress and the Executive: Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 10.61 Program Performance Information Resources § 10.70 Congress and the Executive: Oversight and Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 10.71 Examples of Oversight Letters 10.72 Executive Privilege 10.73 Legislative History 10.74 Hearings May Affect Public or Private Practices 10.75 Committee Investigations and Witness Protections 10.76 Example of Subpoena to Executive Branch Official 10.77 Seeking to Compel Testimony § 10.80 Congress and the Executive: Appointments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 10.81 Confirmation Procedure § 10.90 Congress and the Executive: Presidential Election and Succession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403 10.91 Electoral College 10.92 Presidential and Vice Presidential Succession § 10.100 Congress and the Executive: Impeachment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408 § 10.110 Congress and the Courts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 § 10.120 Congress and the Courts: Exercising Congressional Powers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 10.121 Nominations to Federal Courts 10.122 Gathering Information on a Judicial Nominee 10.123 Congressional Response to Court Decisions § 10.130 Congress and Foreign Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418 § 10.140 Congress and Foreign Policy: Declaring War and Committing Troops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418 § 10.150 Congress and Foreign Policy: Treaties and International Agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 10.151 Fast-Track Procedures § 10.160 Congress and Foreign Policy: Legislation, Appropriations, and Nominations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 § 10.170 Congress and Foreign Policy: Nonbinding Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 10.171 Letter to Foreign Leader § 10.180 Congress and Federalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 § 10.190 Congress and Federalism: Exercising Congressional Powers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431

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§ 10.200 Congress and Federalism: Financial Support for State and Local Governments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 10.201 States’ Washington Offices and State and Local Governments’ National Organizations 10.202 Unfunded Mandates § 10.210 Congress and Federalism: Amending the Constitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441 § 10.220 Congress and Federalism: Extending the Franchise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444

Chapter Eleven Congressional Documents: Overview, Legislation, and Laws

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447

§ 11.00 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449 § 11.10 Finding and Obtaining Congressional Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 11.11 THOMAS Web Site 11.12 GPO Access Web Site 11.13 House of Representatives Web Site 11.14 Senate Web Site 11.15 Recorded Congressional Information § 11.20 Legislation: Bills and Joint Resolutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 § 11.30 Legislation: Simple and Concurrent Resolutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460 § 11.40 Versions of Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461 § 11.50 Laws and Their Implementation by the Executive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464 11.51 Excerpt from a Public Law 11.52 Excerpt from the Statutes at Large 11.53 Excerpt from the U.S. Code

Chapter Twelve Congressional Documents: Committee, Chamber, Party, and Administrative Publications

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475

§ 12.00 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477 § 12.10 Committee Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477 12.11 Excerpt from a House Committee Calendar 12.12 Example of a Committee Print 12.13 Example of a House Legislative Activity Report

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§ 12.20 Floor Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483 12.21 Calendars of the United States House of Representatives and History of Legislation 12.22 Senate Calendar of Business 12.23 Senate Executive Calendar § 12.30 Congressional Rules and Precedents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488 § 12.40 Official Rules Publications of the House . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488 § 12.50 Official Rules Publications of the Senate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491 § 12.60 Other Congressional Sources of Information on Rules and Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492 12.61 Byrd and Dole Historical Documents § 12.70 Party Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495 § 12.80 Administrative Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497 12.81 Selected Congressional Documents about Members of Congress

Chapter Thirteen Legislative Research: Private and Government Information Providers

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503

§ 13.00 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505 § 13.10 Legislative-Branch Agencies and Offices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507 § 13.20 Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512 § 13.30 Information Sources: A Selective List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515 § 13.40 Web Search Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524 13.41 Search Engine Tips 13.42 Additional Search Tips 13.43 Email Alert and News Services § 13.50 Media, Policy, and Opinion on the Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528 13.51 Selected Media Web Sites 13.52 Selected Policy Institutes and Think Tanks 13.53 Selected Journals of Opinion 13.54 Selected Academic Journals § 13.60 For Further Reading: Books by and about Congress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532

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Chapter Fourteen Legislative Research: How to Monitor and Research Congress

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541

§ 14.00 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543 § 14.10 How to Follow Floor Proceedings in the House . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543 14.11 House Floor Plan 14.12 View of the Speaker’s Dais and Wall of the House 14.13 View of the Speaker’s Dais, Floor of the House, and Galleries § 14.20 How to Follow Floor Proceedings in the Senate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548 14.21 Senate Floor Plan 14.22 View of the Senate Rostrum, or Presiding Officer’s Dais § 14.30 How to Research Committees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553 § 14.40 How to Research Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557 § 14.50 Checklist of Jobs to Undertake in the Office: Tracking Legislative Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560

Chapter Fifteen Putting It All Together: A Working Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563
§ 15.00 Key Legislative Documents Depicting the History of Financial Services Modernization Legislation in the 106th Congress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565 § 15.01 Bill as Introduced in the House . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566 15.01a Bill as Introduced in the House § 15.02 Bill as Reported . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568 15.02a Bill as Reported § 15.03 Banking and Financial Services Committee Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572 15.03a Banking and Financial Services Committee Report § 15.04 Banking and Financial Services Committee Supplementary Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 574 15.04a Banking and Financial Services Committee Supplementary Report § 15.05 Commerce Committee Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576 15.05a Commerce Committee Report § 15.06 Special Rule from the Rules Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 580 15.06a Special Rule from the Rules Committee § 15.07 Rules Committee Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584 15.07a Rules Committee Report

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§ 15.08 Statement of Administration Policy (House) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586 15.08a Statement of Administration Policy (House) § 15.09 Legislation as Passed the House . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588 15.09a Legislation as Passed the House § 15.10 Legislation as Received in the Senate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 590 15.10a Legislation as Received in the Senate § 15.11 Legislation as Introduced in the Senate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 592 15.11a Legislation as Introduced in the Senate § 15.12 Senate Committee Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 594 15.12a Senate Committee Report § 15.13 Statement of Administration Policy (Senate) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596 15.13a Statement of Administration Policy (Senate) § 15.14 Legislation as Passed the Senate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 598 15.14a Legislation as Passed the Senate § 15.15 Legislation Received in the House from the Senate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599 15.15a Legislation Received in the House from the Senate § 15.16 Side-by-Side Comparative Print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 600 15.16a Side-by-Side Comparative Print § 15.17 Conference Chair’s Letter to Conferees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601 15.17a Conference Chair’s Letter to Conferees § 15.18 Conference Committee Amendment Proposed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602 15.18a Conference Committee Amendment Proposed § 15.19 Conference Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603 15.19a Conference Report § 15.20 Joint Explanatory Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604 15.20a Joint Explanatory Statement § 15.21 Special Rule from the Rules Committee for Consideration of the Conference Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606 15.21a Special Rule from the Rules Committee for Consideration of the Conference Report § 15.22 Enrolled Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610 15.22a Enrolled Measure § 15.23 Public Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 611 15.23a Public Law

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Back of the Book

Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615 Appendices
One: Representatives Room and Telephone Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625 Two: House Committees Room and Telephone Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633 Three: House Leadership Room and Telephone Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635 Four: Senators Room and Telephone Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637 Five: Senate Committees Room and Telephone Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639 Six: Senate Leadership Room and Telephone Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 641 Seven: Joint Committees Room and Telephone Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643

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Principal Index Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 655 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 657

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