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United States Department of the Interior National Park Service If you are not using the automated system supporting this report process, please fill out this form and return it to the appropriate park. All or some of the information you provide may become available to the public.

OMB # 1024-0236 Exp.Date 02/28/2014 Form No. 10-226

eporting !ear"

Park" #o$ave National Preserve

Select the type of permit this report addresses" Scientific Study Science %ducation Activity *ffice Phone" +,-./01.00/2

Name of principal investigator or responsible official" &Dr. #s. #r. #rs.' (irst name" Paul #ailing address" Paul De )ey Department of Nematology University of 3alifornia iverside iverside 3A +0,0Additional scientific study investigators 6first name, last name7" Irma 8andingan De )ey9 :ames ;ald<in9 #anuel #undo9 *leksandr =olovachov9 Steve Nadler9 8iago Pereira )ast name" De )ey

*ffice (A4" *ffice %mail"

Pro$ect 8itle 6ma>imum ?22 characters7" %>panded survey of freeliving and plant.parasitic nematodes from the #o$ave National Preserve Park.assigned Study or Activity @" #*:A.220?A Park.assigned Permit @" #*:A.02-2.S3I.222? Permit Start Date" :an 02, 02-2 Permit %>piration Date" Dec ?-, 02-2

Scientific Study Starting Date" :an 02,02-2 (or either a Scientific Study or a Science %ducation Activity, the status is 6select one7" BBBB 3ompleted 6for a study, check only if all specimens are cataloged7 BB4B 3ontinuing BBBB Suspended BBBB 8erminated before completion

%stimated Scientific Study %nding Date" Dec ?-,02-? (or a Scientific Study that is completed, please check each of the follo<ing that applies" B4B A final report has been provided to the park or <ill be provided to the park <ithin the ne>t t<o years BBB 3opies of field notes, data files, photos, or other study records, as agreed, have been provided to the park BBB All collected and retained specimens and retained material originating from such specimens have been cataloged into the NPS catalog system and NPS has processed loan agreements as needed %ducation BBB *ther BBB

Activity 8ype 6select one7"

esearch B4B

Inventory B4B

#onitoring BBB

Sub$ectCDiscipline 6ma>imum A2 characters7" Nematode diversity and ecology

Purpose of Scientific Study or Science %ducation Activity during the reporting year 6ma>imum D222 characters7" #ost soil nematodes have a non.parasitic life style and constitute an essential part of soil food <ebs. ;ecause of their abundance and diversity, this group is increasingly used to study the impact of anthropogenic changes such as acidification, eutrophication, eco.fragmentation and soil pollution. Physical, chemical and biological indicators can all be used to estimate the condition of a soil, but biological indicators are particularly important because they are integrative" they reflect the combined overall impact of physical andCor chemical changes in a soil. (urthermore, indigenous soil organisms should be preferred to other test organisms because the diversity and condition of indigenous soil organisms reflects both acute and chronic effects of soil disturbances. In particular, chronic effects are difficult to assess <hen standard test organisms are used. Nematode communities are generally accepted to be highly indicative of soil and sediment health as they offer multiple advantages for assessing a range of parameters reflecting the Euality of terrestrial, fresh<ater and marine ecosystems" nematode diversity is high, a single soil sample usually contains bet<een 02 and A2 different species9 nematode density may vary bet<een 0. 02 million individuals per sEuare meter9 the duration of the life cycle of nematodes is highly diverse, ranging from a fe< days to several years9 nematode species are highly variable in their sensitivity to soil disturbances9 and they are a trophically heterogeneous group. ;ecause of the <ide range of ecological reEuirements and behaviors e>hibited by nematodes, and because the ma$ority of species spend their entire lives in soils, their abundance and diversity usually correlate strongly <ith important environmental parameters. 8hey are therefore directly relevant to bioassessment of ecosystem health of desert habitats, including monitoring of the belo<ground effects of climate change and increased 3*0 concentrations, as <ell as the specific conseEuences of disturbances due to e.g. pollution, fire, ground<ater depletion, salinification, invasion by alien plant species, changes in land use, as <ell as local or global climate changes. Among nematodes, the clade 8ylenchina stands out in ecological diversity by feeding mechanisms that e>tend from microbes to predationCparasitism of diverse plants and animals, as <ell as habitat adaptations that allo< them to thrive in environments ranging from humid clima> forests to arid deserts as <ell as marginal polar or alpine soils. 8he ma$ority of 8ylenchina are grossly understudied and the result is a pronounced lack of meaningful systematic, biogeographical, ecological and evolutionary conte>t. Fe propose to e>pand on our prior e>ploratory <ork in southern 3alifornia by collecting soil samples from multiple locations in the #o$ave National Preserve, e>tracting and identifying kno<n and ne< species of 8ylenchina, conducting phylogenetic analyses to establish their relationships to related nematodes from other deserts and non.desert environments, and compiling a first species list for the #NP focusing on this particular group of nematodes. 8he results from this <ork <ill primarily be of immediate value as fundamental science contributing to baseline kno<ledge of biodiversity in #NP, but they <ill also have relevance for tracking future changes in soil ecosystems <ithin the preserve as <ell as in surrounding environments in 3alifornia. Fe e>pect to encounter multiple ne< species, as <ell as establishing ne< records for kno<n species described previously from 3alifornia, from other states <ithin the US, or from other countries and continents.

8he National Park Service may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not reEuired to respond to, this collection of information unless it displays a currently valid *#; control number. 6InvestigatorsAnnual eport.doc9 revised --C0C-27 Page 1 of 2


United States Department of the Interior National Park Service If you are not using the automated system supporting this report process, please fill out this form and return it to the appropriate park. All or some of the information you provide may become available to the public.

OMB # 1024-0236 Exp.Date 02/28/2014 Form No. 10-226

(indings and status of Scientific Study 6including collections made and catalog status of retained specimens and retained material originating from such specimens7 or accomplishments of Science %ducation Activity during the reporting year 6ma>imum D222 characters7" 3ollections <ere made on #arch 0/th 02-2 at Lelso Dunes in presence of and on sites approved by park archeologist David Nichols, and again on #ay ?- st <ith approval by Dr. Nichols. 8he resulting material <as especially rich in desert specialiMed bacterial feeding nematodes of the family 3ephalobidae and for the Lelso location <e therefore concentrated on species identifications and descriptions for this particular group only. In total -, genera of 3ephalobidae <ere identified, corresponding to 0/ different species. *ne ne< genus <as encountered and has been published this year as 3hilobellus eremus ;ostrNm O =olovachov 02-0, along <ith a ne< species in the kno<n genus Stegelleta. Due to fortunate coincidence <e <ere provided <ith leftover soil from Dr. obert Kraham and Dr. Nicole PietrasiakPs geomorphic study site along the <estern alluvial fan of 3lark #ountains, and because of Dr. PietrasiakPs detailed analysis of abiotic soil surface factors and desert crust diversity, <e shifted our focus especially to conduct an ecological and biodiversity analysis of nematodes in this location. Fe e>tracted nematodes from about -22ml soil each from five different landforms <ithin 0 sEuare kilometer of an alluvial fan surface along the <estern piedmont of the 3lark #ountains. )andforms included three replicates each of bars, s<ales, desert pavements, shrub islands and disturbed surfaces <ith animal burro<s. At each of these fifteen sites soil <as available from Dr. PietrasiakPs collecting under an established shrub, as <ell as soil she took from fully e>posed interspaces at 0., m distance from that shrub. Nematodes <ere e>tracted Euantitatively using a mist chamber, mounted in slides and identified to genus <ith differential interference contrast microscopy. esulting data <ere analyMed <ith a variety of statistical methods to investigate possible correlations bet<een particular biotic and abiotic variables. A total of ?/ nematode genera <ere encountered. Individual samples contained bet<een 2 and -A genera, <hile individual genera occurred in - to 01 cores. (ungivorous and omnivorous trophic groups both segregated fairly clearly bet<een genera occurring primarily in s<ales or bars, <hile bacterivores did not sho< such a clear segregation. ;ased on nematode composition, each set of replicates among landforms did not cluster together particularly closely or mutually e>clusively, but three of the five landforms did separate more clearly from all others" s<ales versus bars versus desert pavements. #ost pairs of shrub versus interspace samples clustered <ith each other, unlike most types of desert crusts at the same site, <hich distinctly prefer interspaces over close pro>imity to shrubs. Fe conclude that some nematode genera tend to be more adapted to conditions in bars, <hile others are more clearly adapted to s<ales. SpecialiMation for any of the three other landforms is not apparent, and nematode communities are more often than not clearly similar bet<een ad$acent shade Mones of shrubs and e>posed interspaces. 8he genera Discolaimium, Aphelenchoides and Acrobeloides appear to associate <ith various crust types, <hile most other nematode genera did not sho< clear correlations <ith presence or type of crust. Species area curve analysis suggests that the appro>imate sEuare mile surface area covered by the studied sample sites represented a comple> spatial mosaic for nematode distribution, community composition and diversity, rather than a <ell delineated single habitat. In order to better understand the sub.surface environmental variables controlling or correlating <ith nematode diversity and distribution, <e <ill apply for a permit rene<al to revisit and resample these same sites for detailed physicochemical soil analysis. Publications to date" ;ostrNm S. O =olovachov *. 02-0. Description of 3hilodellus eremus gen. n., sp. n. and Stegelleta arenaria sp. n. 6 habditida" 3ephalobidae7 from Lelso Dunes, #o$ave National Preserve, 3alifornia, USA. :ournal of Nematode #orphology and Systematics -," 0-.?-.

(or Scientific Studies 6not Science %ducation Activities7, do you still retain any specimens collected from the park or material originating from such specimens that have not been destroyed during analysisG !B4B NBB If H!esI, identify each institution and type of material <here the specimens or material originating from such specimens currently are housed" ?A vials <ith formalin preserved soil e>tracts in liEuid suspension and D22 microscopy slides <ith a total of D222 mounted nematode specimens are stored in my laboratory at the Department of Nematology, University of 3alifornia iverside. (unding specifically used in this park this reporting year that <as provided by NPS 6enter dollar amount7" J nCa (unding specifically used in this park this reporting year that <as provided by all sources 6enter dollar amount7" J ?+,2,, other

)ist any other U.S. Kovernment Agencies supporting this study or activity and the funding each provided this reporting year"

National Science Foundation Division of Environmental Biology Partnerships for Enhancing Expertise in Taxonomy program: !"#$%%

Paperwork Reductio Act State!e t" A federal agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not reEuired to respond to a collection of information unless it displays a valid *#; control number. Public reporting for this collection of information form is estimated to average 2.0, hours per response, including the time for revie<ing instructions, gathering and maintaining data, and completing and revie<ing the forms. Direct comments regarding this burden estimate or any aspect of this form to Dr. :ohn K. Dennis, Natural esources 6?-?2 #I;7, National Park Service, -/D+ 3 Street, N.F., Fashington, D3 020D2. Act Notice . not Scientific research, education collecting activities <ithin units of the unless National Parka System that may 8hePri#ac$ National Park Service may conduct or sponsor, and a person is and not reEuired to respond to, this collection of information it displays currently valid *#; controlparks number. 6InvestigatorsAnnual eport.doc9 Page 2 of 2 0.- 6Preservation impact invoke a permitting and reporting reEuirement per regulations at ?A 3(revised -.A --C0C-27 6Permits7, ?A 3( of Natural, 3ultural and Archeological esources7, and ?A 3( 0., 6 esearch Specimens7. 8he National Park Service collects information about permit applicants and permittees to administer and document research, collecting, and reporting activities <ithin parks. 8he information disclosed on this form is reEuired and may result in denial of permit applications if not