Paintball and AirSoft | Ambush | Camouflage

Section Construction and Deployment

With the exception of the section all other troop formation consist of an uneven number. Section = 10 personnel Platoon = 3 Sections Company = 3 Platoons Regiment = 3 Companies The point of groupings of 3 allows for a 3 pronged assault on a static or mobile target, minimizing the targets ability to maneuver itself into a tactically offensive position. It has been proven repeatedly throughout history with dismal results that an assault conducted as a single force focusing on one point of attack generally fails with the exception of an assault with overpowering numbers and even then can prove to be an extremely costly exercise. Manipulating the defensive force to spread its numbers by assaulting from multiple directions and depleting its ability to concentrate firepower in one direction. Utilization of section deployment in an assault is not only about how best to attack a position / opposing force but how best to distribute and concentrate firepower. The section machine gunner / sniper will be deployed to high ground or a position of best advantage whilst the riflemen and grenadier will be divided into two equal groups to assault the flanks. As a defensive position is generally set around a central point it is this point that requires the attention of the machine gunner / sniper as it usually comprises of the command and communication element of the defensive force therefore it becomes the primary objective. 1

Without this element the structure and cohesion of the force will be in disarray and turning the battle from an assault on a force to a fight with individuals. As a sections sole purpose is to either attack or defend, it should be noted that troop duties and deployment change very little regardless of which role it it is employed in at the time. As an opposing force will employ very similar primary strategies ie: two groups flanking one group providing central assault it is quite common for a section only to deploy as two flanking groups. This tactic often has the disadvantage of no central control and allows the opposing force the opportunity for maneuverability dependent on direction of greatest threat and / or strategic advantage, example being that due to ground and cover may allow for minimal troops to defend adequately.

A section is comprised of: Section commander Radio operator Machine-gunner / sniper Grenadier Riflemen x 6 General layout of the section: Rifleman / scout Rifleman Rifleman Section commander Radio operator Machine-gunner / Sniper Rifleman / machine-gunners number two Grenadier Rifleman Rifleman 2

In the case of a non-military unit forming as an assault / defensive unit the structure and positioning of key personal should remain the same.

As control of the unit is of utmost importance often as not if the unit is of reduced numbers the commander / leader will adopt the role of radio operator also. The position of ' Rifleman / machine-gunners number two' may also be deleted and the grenadier employed primarily as another rifleman. The point of control by the commander / leader acting as radio operator, though the unit should all be in radio contact with each other it is quite often common practice to utilize a secondary frequency separate from the command frequency. In these situations there would be a section communication channel for the section / unit to converse separate from the overall task-force and a command channel. This would require the commander to be either very proficient at changing channel or the carrying of another radio so as to communicate with the command centre and the section separately. As one of the most critical points for an active unit is control and cohesion it is of utmost importance for all members to be equipped and proficient with both radio and hand-signals. Often as not the failure of an exercise can be directly attributed to a breakdown in communication. There are many areas in which a section / unit needs to be proficient and should be laid out and taught in separate training sessions. Section formations and movement Setting of an ambush position Setting up of a defensive position / harbor Communication and signals Camouflage and concealment

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Basic map reading and navigation Basic bush survival ie: health and hygiene, cooking etc... Basic stores and equipment Construction of a range card Personal support kit Personal deployment kit

When deploying non military personal in a tactical situation there are many points to consider for maximum utilization of manpower. It should be understood that the section commanders decisions are absolute, however a commanders decision based upon tactical situation and often as not 'ego' is often a recipe for a failed mission. For the acting commander it should be known that though they should have absolute control they also take the ultimate responsibility for the success / failure of the mission. Due to human nature troops will 'grumble' if unhappy with the current progression of training or mission, a good commander will take note and act upon this. It should be noted that shamming or bullying of non military personal will often as not create the reverse of the desired effect. Though ' bastardization ' may have been / be a valuable training aid within the military non military combatants rarely react favorably. Utilization of individuals strengths and skills in relation to a combat section formation. 4

A knowledge of individuals weaknesses / shortcomings, state of health, physical fitness, ability to comprehend and follow instructions etc....

Non military personal often as not will not act upon orders / instructions with the single mindedness of a soldier, therefore it should be taken into consideration how best to keep troops motivated toward the objective.

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SECTION FORMATIONS

ARROW / WEDGE EXTENDED LINE SINGLE FILE STAGGERED FILE

Factors to consider for section formation: Direction of advance in relation to enemy positions. Expected enemy strength Terrain Level of squad skills Squad armament

Factors to consider when moving in formation:

Presenting the squad as a minimal target as possible. Allowing for best defensive / offensive use of section skills and numbers upon enemy contact. Maximum utilization of terrain for advancing / withdrawing squad. Allowing for best control of squad by the squad leader. Allowing for movement in relation to other ' friendly ' squads.

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As with the formation, spacing between squad members should be strictly adhered to. Often as not ranks will close unconsciously as the squad progresses, so members need to stay very aware of their position in relation to other squad members. As a standard average 5 - 10 meters, dependent on terrain, cover and position of opposing forces. The single most important factor with squad movement and formation is to ensure maximum survivability of squad members in the event of an encounter with an opposing force. The most useful / versatile formation being the staggered file as it generally offers the most protection while presenting the least target area yet keeps the squad in a controllable formation. Arrow / Wedge formation, its usefulness is in primarily open ground or areas of low / sparse vegetation. It allows for a controllable and maintainable formation whilst allowing squad members to spread out making them less of a target. Extended Line and Single File are generally only of value whilst moving in dense vegetation / jungle environment where full section contact is very minimal. Allows for reasonable section control in these environments and minimal ' displacement ' ( getting lost ) of squad members in areas of limited visibility.

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Assaulting a fixed position Factors to consider: Arcs of fire. Defensive strength. Fortification. Terrain. Assessing layout and quality of fortification will assist in determining enemy strength, skill and preparedness. Layout of fortifications will determine opposing forces arcs of fire. As the primary concern of an attacking squad is to achieve the objective with minimal casualties therefore assaulting to an angle that draws the least amount of defensive fire. Squad deployment during assault, concentrating maximum firepower on the first objective by most suited personal whilst from an altered angle remaining squad members move up to seize the position. Use of terrain to allow for maximum cover whilst moving on the objective, covering team to be positioned where they are able to suppress target whilst drawing minimum fire from alternate objectives. Assaulting squad to move rapidly and present themselves as a minimal target as possible. Whilst moving best utilize staggered movement / pepper potting / leapfrog in conjunction with cover to present the section as a minimal number of targets at any one point. 9

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Setting an ambush Firstly consider the type of ambush, the purpose. Weather it be a disruptive hit and run, intel gathering exercise or simply to acquire and dominate a strategic area. Factors to consider: Placement of the cutoff groups. Controllability of the kill zone. Cover for the ambushing squad and the lack of it for the opposing force. Most effective utilization and placement of squad firepower. Squad discipline.

When preparing for the ambush, squad discipline must be ensured as it can be responsible for the success or total failure. The only member of the squad that needs to see an advancing force is the initiator of the squad action, therefore members need to fully utilize cover and stay hidden. Opposing force is allowed to pass the squad to the point that they reach the initiator at which that person will open fire, this being the signal for the rest of the squad to emerge partially from cover to provide suppressing fire over pre-designated arcs to inflict maximum casualties. Cutoff Group 1 The initiator is typically the 'section machine-gunner' or member that will provide maximum ' rounds down range'. 11

Cutoff Group 2 The opposite end of the squad will normally be the grenadier, ensuring that maximum casualties are inflicted and inhibiting the attacking force from reinforcing besieged members. Kill-zone This will be the squad members in the middle ground, normally the riflemen, providing the firepower across their arcs to neutralize the body of the ambushed. The most important points: Initiator to wait for last possible moment before starting the fire-fight but not allow first person past. The rest of the squad must remain hidden until first shot is fired. Squad, including initiator to be very aware of ' arcs of fire '. The squad must not be positioned in such a way as to ' attract' friendly fire!. Cross fire is good but not at the possible risk of targeting own squad members. Ambushes are a very fast and decisive action therefore the formation is very important in providing maximum casualties in shortest space of time. 12

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Hand signals basics: Signaling by hand is not as much the signals themselves so much as how they are delivered / executed!. Crisp, clear and clean Pointing with open flat hand, not limp wave in the direction. Indicating with outstretched arm, hinging at elbow. Be deliberate and methodical with indicating. Number or finger indicating, palm toward person. Consider background to indication, Black gloved hand against black BDU's? Ensure other person has received message, watch for a moment before moving away.

Radio procedure basics: Short and to the point. Clear speech. Limit 'movie' improvisation. Ensure serviceability of radio equipment, battery life etc... Team sub-channel option created for game-play. Take allocated channel and subtract 2 ?. 'potty' or 'foul' language is never to be used under any circumstances. 14

Coms are strictly for tactical squad control and should never be used for personal discussion or arguments.

Basic radio responses and calls. OVER = you have said your part and may be waiting for response. OUT= you have said your part and expect no response and / or end of discussion. SAY AGAIN / REPEAT LAST= you didn't understand or hear properly the last transmission and require it to be repeated. ROGER / COPY= you understood transmission and are complying with instructions.

These basic calls either follow or precede information but should be coupled with call-sign of intended recipient, e.g.: SHADOW -- SAY AGAIN -- OVER Information contained within the call should be kept minimal but with enough substance to inform recipient, e.g.; SHADOW -- MOVE TO GRID BRAVO THIRTEEN -- OVER When repeating a transmission to an individual consider the reasons as to why they may not understand you and asses your own procedure, e.g.: SHADOW -- MOVE TO GRID BRAVO THIRTEEN -- I SAY AGAIN -- GRID BRAVO ONE THREE – OVER 15

When repeating a message its not always necessary to repeat recipients call sign however precede it with 'I' e.g.: I SAY AGAIN -- MOVE TO -------------------

Standardized words and phrases create a ' second nature ' response to transmissions. SIT-REP= your position on field and situation / actions at that point. NOT: where you at, what are you doing, how far away are you, wheres the enemy at, are you where we are. MOVE TO= go to the instructed location / area. NOT: go to the, head over to, run/ walk/ crawl to or any directions involving 'potty' language. RE-GROUP= reform team on prior or appointed location. NOT: you lot come here, come here, every body back / over to me. HOLD POSITION= stay where you are. NOT: stay right there, wait up for a minute, dont go any further, stop for a minute etc etc Though many words and phrases may seem edited or over simplified the knowledge and consistent use of them creates a second nature use where if radio reception quality, an inability to speak clearly or other reasons inhibit clear communication the message will still be received and hopefully understood. 16

The intent of keeping transmissions short and to the point contributes considerably toward the message not being confused, missunderstood or lost due to too much information for anindividual to process. The less talking the more understanding! Speaking clearly. Speaking in an almost controlled mono tone voice (as you would with a child) with deliberate spacing between message components to increase message clarity. Personal disscusion / conversation should be kept to a minimum so as not to interfere with the given tactical situation. Use of movie improvisation should be also kept minimal. As funny as they can be they will inevitably lead to the undermining of good radio proceedure and could compromise a tactical situation. Vulgar or foul language should under no circumstances ever be employed as part of a 'transmission process', 'potty mouths' should never be condoned or tollerated by anyone transmitting or recieving on the same frequency and some form of disciplinary action should be taken.

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Basic Bush Skills

Basic bush skills become a necessity if a missions duration is extended further than just a few hours. The ability for an active combatant to be able to maintain themselves whilst on deployment is essential not only for themselves but the over all functionality of the unit as a whole. Cooking First aid Equipment and weapon maintenance Simple bush craft Accommodation / hoochie area and setup It should also be working knowledge not only of how to do certain things in the field but also what equipment and stores best suited to the tasks, not only to do the job but also functionality and ability to carry and maintain.

Cooking, Its not hard and fast as to what constitutes a ration pack but common sense dictates that it must: Constitute a meal at least twice daily Keep with out special packaging Be relatively nutritional Easily prepared Canned goods are of a great enough selection that a primary component of any meal can be chosen and carried in sufficient number to sustain for deployment duration. Other components should also include the addition of snack food, nut and fiber bars, sugar lollies, nuts etc..

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Probably the most important component in any pack and is often taken for granted is water. Allowing for 2 3 liters to be consumed daily. Dehydration should be considered an extremely real danger and measures taken to safeguard against it. Suggested rations list: Canned watties spaghetti / stew x 2 Canned desert / fruit x2 muesli / fruit bars x6 sugar lollies, barley sugars etc...

Recommended utensils: mess tin set metal cup, recommended military ' cups canteen ' knife, fork, spoon, can opener it would be recommended that a spoon be considered part of essential kit. cooking implements, recommended would be hexamine cooker and associated tablets. fire starting device matches, flint but recommended cigarette lighter. Purpose and utilization of above stores and equipment in the above lists should be covered in basic training. Though it may appear to be a statement in the obvious the objective is not just to carry, cook and consume, more so to do it in the most practical and idiot friendly way. As there is often a great number of other kit items being carried into theatre ie: weapon, ammunition, sleeping kit, it is in the best interest of the individual troop to be familiar with how to ' streamline ' both their skills and stores as most that are unfamiliar with outdoor living and survival will inevitably pack and carry twice the kit necessary to achieve the objective. 19

Sleeping and Accommodation: An often overlooked and underestimated task by those unfamiliar with the outdoors or more to the point the outdoors with no luxuries including basic amenities. Recommended minimum kit: thermal mat sleeping bag bivvy bag light weight shelter: military hoochie / basha and associated components, poles, pegs etc... Though the kit itself is pretty self explanatory as to how to set up often as not for most, positioning, location and orientation for conditions is not therefore certain things should be taken into consideration when setting up individual sleeping area and section harbor. For the individual sleeping area choosing a position is essential in actually getting a nights sleep. A depression in the ground or space between grass clumps to lay a bed will minimize movement during sleep. Soft soil will aid in the driving of hoochie pegs and erection of shelter but may also be an indication of too much moisture / water in the ground Consider wind direction when erecting shelter and use natural foliage and cover to offer protection against the elements inclusive of wind and rain.

Unit harbor: The positioning of individual sleeping locations is not only dependent personal comfort but also on tactical strategies and situation. 20 An often overlooked consideration when forming a unit harbor is the tactical situation and location. The unit needs to be positioned in such a way as to

present a very minimal amount of troop exposure in the eventuality of an assault. Utilization of natural vegetation and features to make the direction of possible enemy contact more predictable and the position more defendable. Use of gun sentry through out the hours of darkness and dispersment of pyrotechnics, trip mines and flares and / or audible sensor alarms add to the security however an aware and proficient troop mentality of the tactical situation and options for position defense is the most crucial point. It is a known and acknowledged military fact that the most logical time of day for an assault, wether conducting or defending against is both sun up or sun down as the unique light conditions make clear vision difficult and with sun up there is the added bonus of the defending unit arising from sleep, therefore the most opportune time for attacking another position would be just prior to sun up. Military practice is that a 'stand to' a half hour before till a half hour after both sun rise and sun set. Working on the assumption of the opposing force following current military practice, to plan an assault would involve maneuvering a unit into assault positions at least an hour prior to sunrise to best utilize light conditions and hopefully catch the opposing force half asleep.

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Camouflage and Concealment The development of apt skills in the art of camouflage and concealment will undoubtedly give the individual and the unit as a whole an advantage for the execution of a mission, defense of a position and general contact conditions. Primary points to be noted: Shilloete Speed Shape Surroundings / Environment Shadows Engagement Extraction

Shilloete: When moving in an area that is directionally lit an individual should consider their outline form showing, Advancing over the crest of a ridge, day or night On night deployment advancing through an area of light Moving through open ground Speed: When moving it should be noted that the greatest give away is irregular motion and moving to fast will most often catch the attention of the opposition. Even when an opponent may be looking to the opposite direction sudden and fast movement will usually catch the perlifial attention of another thus revealing location. The simple answer is not to move faster than is required, particularly through open spaces unless there is an obvious threat. 22

Shape: Being aware of an individuals shape in relation to surrounding objects. this is particularly important in an urban environment as it is built of primarily straight lines whereas the human shape is not therefore it is recommended that the use of smaller, irregular shaped objects in the field of operations should be fully utilized ie: Cars, shrubs, small out-buildings etc... Surroundings / Environment : Often as not, to much reliance is placed upon the use of camouflage materials, BDU's etc... without the consideration as to what pattern best hides the individuals shape in specific environments and theaters. The annogramme ' DPM ' stands for Disruptive / Disorderly Patterned Material. Though DPM equipment BDU's etc is designed with the intention of making detection more difficult dependent on the environment it was intended for it should not be considered the ultimate answer for concealment. It is designed to disrupt the natural human shape not as a viable substitute for a cloak of invisibility. The use of which pattern of DPM BDU's should be considered when considering the environment. The darker cam patterns are primarily for dense bush, jungle and close urban ie: tiger cam, tdu digital, black, etc Lighter cam patterns are intended for more open areas. Light browns and tan are most effective for large fields, desert and areas of sparse bush ie: multicam, desert tricolor, british desert dpm etc However some BDU cams and colors are relatively general purpose ie: US woodland, olive drab, NZ dpm etc.

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Construction of a Range Card The point of a range card is as its name suggests, a card depicting pre-established ranges to known points of orientation. These are drawn up by personnel manning fixed positions ie: machine-gun pits and forward observers to assist and provide extra targeting information to relieving troops and to provide targeting assistance during contact. Range cards can utilize an established map but often as not are a rough sketch depicting known points : particular trees, specific ground features and objects in the set field etc. The range card will depict features within a 180 degree arc and usually out to a range of 300 meters. They are not required to have exceptional detail however the drawn detail needs to make features and points easily identifiable for most troops. A range card can be drawn up on most materials, plastic, paper, part of a cardboard box etc.... Though its details need to be accurate for its functionality it is only as permanent as the position being occupied therefore retaining it after deploying to another site is dependent on the likelihood of returning to that position at a later time. Though a range card isn't an essential item or skill to master it is a very useful training aid in target acquisition, tactical deployment and range estimation and orientation. 24

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Personal Support Kit

In lieu of troops carrying full and comprehensive assortment of kits to cover any possible unforeseen event ie: First aid kit, Tool kit, Maintenance kit and spares etc.... a basic survival kit should be assembled. Pocket knife / Multi-tool Length of strong string Roll of electrical tape Small compass Cigarette lighter Sticky plasters / Medical tape Nurophen Plus or similar The intention of the kit is not to replace the other more comprehensive kits rather to enable troops to perform in a more self sufficient and self reliant way placing less responsibility on other unit members to retain combat integrity. A full first-aid kit would still be carried by the unit medic as would a tool kit by the designated armorer. In a non military unit the creation of a position such as QMS ' quarter master sergeant' to encompass the duties of medic, armorer, stores person etc. not necessarily to fulfill these duties, more so to ensure they are accounted for. Often as not this position would fall to the responsibility of the 2ic and delegated to qualified / apt' unit members. Though a survival kit isnt compulsory those that neglect to assemble and carry one should consider the outcome and inconveniance for themselves if a situation arises that they require the use of one of these items and the other unit members are unable or unwilling to assist. 26

Basic Bush Skills

Basic bush skills become a necessity if a missions duration is extended further than just a few hours. The ability for an active combatant to be able to maintain themselves whilst on deployment is essential not only for themselves but the over all functionality of the unit as a whole. Cooking First aid Equipment and weapon maintenance Simple bush craft Accommodation / hoochie area and setup It should also be working knowledge not only of how to do certain things in the field but also what equipment and stores best suited to the tasks, not only to do the job but also functionality and ability to carry and maintain.

Cooking, Its not hard and fast as to what constitutes a ration pack but common sense dictates that it must: Constitute a meal at least twice daily Keep with out special packaging Be relatively nutritional Easily prepared Canned goods are of a great enough selection that a primary component of any meal can be chosen and carried in sufficient number to sustain for deployment duration. Other components should also include the addition of snack food, nut and fiber bars, sugar lollies, nuts etc... 27

Probably the most important component in any pack and is often taken for granted is water. Allowing for 2 3 liters to be consumed daily. Dehydration should be considered an extremely real danger and measures taken to safeguard against it. Suggested rations list: Canned watties spaghetti / stew x 2 Canned desert / fruit x2 muesli / fruit bars x6 sugar lollies, barley sugars etc...

Recommended utensils: mess tin set metal cup, recommended military ' cups canteen ' knife, fork, spoon, can opener it would be recommended that a spoon be considered part of essential kit. cooking implements, recommended would be hexamine cooker and associated tablets. fire starting device matches, flint but recommended cigarette lighter. Purpose and utilization of above stores and equipment in the above lists should be covered in basic training. Though it may appear to be a statement in the obvious the objective is not just to carry, cook and consume, more so to do it in the most practical and idiot friendly way. As there is often a great number of other kit items being carried into theatre ie: weapon, ammunition, sleeping kit, it is in the best interest of the individual troop to be familiar with how to ' streamline ' both their skills and stores as most that are unfamiliar with outdoor living and survival will inevitably pack and carry twice the kit necessary to achieve the objective. 28

Sleeping and Accommodation: An often overlooked and underestimated task by those unfamiliar with the outdoors or more to the point the outdoors with no luxuries including basic amenities. Recommended minimum kit: thermal mat sleeping bag bivvy bag light weight shelter: military hoochie / basha and associated components, poles, pegs etc... Though the kit itself is pretty self explanatory as to how to set up often as not for most, positioning, location and orientation for conditions is not therefore certain things should be taken into consideration when setting up individual sleeping area and section harbor. For the individual sleeping area choosing a position is essential in actually getting a nights sleep. A depression in the ground or space between grass clumps to lay a bed will minimize movement during sleep. Soft soil will aid in the driving of hoochie pegs and erection of shelter but may also be an indication of too much moisture / water in the ground Consider wind direction when erecting shelter and use natural foliage and cover to offer protection against the elements inclusive of wind and rain.

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Unit harbor: The positioning of individual sleeping locations is not only dependent personal comfort but also on tactical strategies and situation. An often overlooked consideration when forming a unit harbor is the tactical situation and location. The unit needs to be positioned in such a way as to present a very minimal amount of troop exposure in the eventuality of an assault. Utilization of natural vegetation and features to make the direction of possible enemy contact more predictable and the position more defendable. Use of gun sentry through out the hours of darkness and dispersment of pyrotechnics, trip mines and flares and / or audible sensor alarms add to the security however an aware and proficient troop mentality of the tactical situation and options for position defense is the most crucial point. It is a known and acknowledged military fact that the most logical time of day for an assault, wether conducting or defending against is both sun up or sun down as the unique light conditions make clear vision difficult and with sun up there is the added bonus of the defending unit arising from sleep, therefore the most opportune time for attacking another position would be just prior to sun up. Military practice is that a 'stand to' a half hour before till a half hour after both sun rise and sun set. Working on the assumption of the opposing force following current military practice, to plan an assault would involve maneuvering a unit into assault positions at least an hour prior to sunrise to best utilize light conditions and hopefully catch the opposing force half asleep.

Health and Hygiene: Personal health and hygiene is considered by far an extremely important component the the well being and survival of a unit. 30

A simple fact is that the incapacitation of one unit member is the loss of another for support purposes also, therefore due to the possible neglect or ill equipped actions or the lack of by one unit member will cost the unit / section a minimum of two personnel, the ten man section now becomes eight, placing considerable strain on the units ability to complete even the simplest of missions. Simple factors to stay aware of: The consumption of non-contaminated water. Staying hydrated, Eating relatively healthy Getting enough sleep and rest. Development of good personal hygiene skills including: changing under clothes and socks regularly, washing regularly, especially areas areas prone to perspiration as this is a breeding ground for all forms of viruses and fungi. Ensuring that your section commander / team leader is aware of your physical condition should any issues arise, twists and sprains, fungal conditions, cuts etc... A good commander will stay aware of the physical and mental state of his troops whilst on deployment however often as not when asked most troops will attempt to convince their commander they are ok even knowing that their problems may develop to something more serious. Though a unit commander shares the responsibility of a members health and well-being it is only shared, ultimately 31

it is the responsibility of the individual to ensure they are in fit and fighting condition and thus ensuring they are not a liability to other members and the integrity of the unit and its ability to fulfill mission requirements.

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