Structural and Physical Aspects of Civil Engineering, 2013

1
Use Computer Fluid Dynamics in the Process of Forced Flow Filling,
Earthquake and Dam Breaking Disaster of Waste Water Reservoirs
Ioan Sorin Leoveanu
1,a
, Kamila Kotrasová
2,b
Eva Kormaníková
2,c

1
Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Eroilor no. 29, 500036
Brasov, Romania
2
Technical University of Košice, Civil Engineering Faculty, Vysokoškolská 4, 04200 Košice,
Slovakia
a
leoveanui@yahoo.co.uk,
b
kamila.kotrasova@tuke.sk,
c
eva.kormanikova@tuke.sk

Keywords: Computer Fluid Dynamics, waste reservoirs, filling processes, earthquake

Abstract. The papers scope consists in using the computational fluid dynamics for the simulation
of some situation that occurs in the management of waste reservoirs processes. The processes of
filling that waste reservoirs made currently with large water debits or in flood regime may induce a
particularly dynamics pressure on the dam walls and a particularly distribution of fluid flow inside
them. On the other hand, when the disasters like earthquake occur, the fluid dynamics and the
induced pressures on the dam walls become extremely important for safety estimation of critical
components. The dam break case is extremely important in management of safety buildings area in
the neighboring of the reservoirs too. Solutions of that important civil engineering problems was
obtained using the classical fluid flow equations in the regime of free surface flow for diverse
boundary configurations using an original program based on MAC method.
Introduction
One of the effects of the global heating process consists in the local climate changes. These changes
become more and more dramatically. In this sense, the necessity to anticipate these effects is needed
and become a factor of biggest importance. The statistical models predictability in these cases can
generate wrong estimations because these models were established based on long time
measurements processes and possible extreme disasters, like quickly floods, earth quakes or dam
break, needed a very long time analysis. In this paper the numerical modelling of fluid flow, based
on CFD was used. For a specifically case of flood produced inside a flood area protection dam for a
restricted area of interest is presented in Figure 1. The sources of water consist of a little spring that
has a basin of accumulation in an area of hills. The flood protection consists in a reservoir with a
large area protected by a normal dam. In the paper the process was analyzed based of an exceptional
rain that fills the protection area until the dam is flooded. The analyzed situation is possible if the
rain water quantity drop on m
2
represents more that the maximum rain process known in the last 50
years, but the time of rain is half that the maximum known situation. The water fluxes and time of
applications are giving in Table 1 and induces a huge debit in the inner area of inputting in the
waste reservoir. The section from the accumulation water is represented in the Figure 1.



Figure 1 The empty waste reservoir area (dimensions are in [m])


2
Table 1 Considerate data in the analysis

Water speed
U
in
[m/s]
Maximum water
column height h
y

[m]
Rain
quantity
q
m
[l/m
2
]
Rain duration
T
[min]
Annual average 0.5 0.5 20 60
Maximum
values
0.8 2 80 60
Analyzed 1.06 18.6 120 20
Numerical Analysis
In this paper is analyzed the fluid filling process of waste reservoirs with general domain geometry,
the establishing of the pressure distribution dynamics on the dam and the domain of reservoirs. The
analysis uses the constitutive Navier-Stokes system of differential equations and heat flow equation
inside the liquid. The fluid dynamics inside the waste area of filling water domain loaded by an
earthquake with high magnitude acceleration spectra was studied. In this case the earth movement
processes imposed by quake modify the equilibrium of fluid, the fluid speed, shape and pressure
change in accordance with the external loads. The geometry and system of loading acting on the
liquid volume stored in the waste reservoir is getting in the Figure 1. The shape of free surface of
liquid was modeled using marker and cell method (MAC) in accord with the Marangoni flow. The
resulting maps pressures on the walls are in accord with the complex moving fluid conditions. The
governing equations of fluid, considered in the present work, were solved in the specifically work
hypothesis:
l) The flow is 2-D, incompressible, and laminar.
2) Each thermal property of incompressible fluid is constant.
3) The walls deformations are small and the structure move between the earthquakes with the
instant acceleration of the quake.
4) The time computed effects of the quake on the tank is double
5) The heat dissipation and the turbulent indices are calculated only in the fluid control volume.
Then the general differential equation for conservative lows can be given as
( )
( )
S
x x x x x
v
x
v
t
j j i i j
j
i
i
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
I +
|
|
.
|

\
|
I = + +













∂ | |
|
| |
. (1)
The definitions of the letters, |, I and S are shown in the Table 2, where µ is the viscosity of the
fluid, g
x
and g
y
the gravitational acceleration, ì/(µ c) the heat diffusivity and v
x
, v
y
the fluid speed on
x, and y direction. The density and temperature of the fluid walls will have the same acceleration as
the walls cells.
Boundary Conditions. In accordance with the Figure 1, the fluid in contact with the walls will be
accelerating with the same acceleration that acts on the wall. In our case, with the consideration that
the walls are rigid and theirs deformations are neglected, the fluid in the cells near the solid states
cells will be affected by the accelerations of the earthquake, if that phenomenon takes place.

Table 2 The notation of the partial differential equation in Equation 1
¢
Γ S
Continuity µ 0 0
v
i
- velocity on x
i
direction

μ
i
x
i
g
x
+

∂φ

Moment
v
j
- velocity on x
j
direction

μ
j
x
j
g
x
+

∂φ

Energy T - temperature
c ρ
λ

q

3
Boundary Condition on Cells in Contact with the Walls. For fluid flow analysis, either the slip
wall condition or the no-slip wall condition is adopted [9, 10], according to the size of a cell and the
magnitude of velocity. When the walls move, the convection heat coefficient between fluid and
solid boundary is calculated, based on R
ex
and P
r
numbers in the fluid cells. The heat flow equation
is used only to calculate the fluid temperature distribution variation in the quake action. For water
and other liquids the temperature is not important and was neglected in the flood process. In the
cases of other fluids the heat dissipated by intern friction becomes important. The equations for
boundary domain in contact with solid walls become;
j v i u v
a v
y
p
v
y
v
u
x
v
t
v
a u
x
p
v
y
u
u
x
u
t
u
Y
X
 

· + · =
· + A +
c
c
÷
c
c
÷
c
c
÷ =
c
c
· + A +
c
c
÷
c
c
÷
c
c
÷ =
c
c
ρ μ ρ
ρ μ ρ
(2, 3, 4)
Where a
X
and a
Y
are the spectrum of earthquake accelerations transmitted to the walls. In
accordance with the 3) hypothesis, that accelerations will be take in calculus equal with the
earthquake accelerations.



Figure 2. The acceleration specters considerate in the problem modeling

The Free Boundary of the Fluid. On the free surface, the sum of tangential stresses must be zero
and the sum of normal stresses must be equal to the applied stresses or pressures. The tangential and
normal stress conditions are applied on free surface [7, 10]. Where v
i
, v
j
are the x
i
, x
j
components of
velocity; m and n are the unit vectors which refer to the local tangential and normal direction of the
surface, respectively.
The definition of φ follows the former expression, that is, φ
a
= (p
ext
)/ρ + γ
T
/R
m
.
Where, μ represents the kinematics viscosity; γ
T
is the surface tension function of temperature
gradients; p
ext
is the pressure of gas phase, the atmospheric pressure in this specifically case, R
m
is
the local mean radius of the free surface.
Tangential stress condition has following form

t
T
x
v
m n
x
v
x
v
m n m n
x
v
m n
T
j
j
x x
i
j
j
i
x x x x
i
i
x x
i j i j j i j i




2




) (


2 ¸ µ =
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + . (5)

Normal stress condition has following form

a
j
j
x x
i
j
j
i
x x
i
i
x x
x
v
m n
x
v
x
x
n n
x
v
m n
j j j i i i
φ μ =
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +


2






. (6)

4
Initial and Load Conditions. Because the problem is time dependent, the initial conditions
consist in imposing null speed value for v
x
and v
y
and the gas pressure equal with the atmospheric
pressure at sea level. The input water speed, in accord with the rain intensity and the geometry of
Figure 1 was considerate U
in
= 1.06 m/s and the maximum water height flood column were 18 m in
the case of all domain completely filled. The water temperature was considerate equal with 20
0
C.
The filling process time step was analyzed for 550 s but after the first 120 s the water flows over the
dam.
In the moment when the water level over the dam has 8m, we consider that an earthquake takes
place and all the fluid flow inside the reservoir is changed. That situation corresponds to an
approximate 68% filled capacity of the entire computed domain. The earthquake accelerations
spectra considerate in analyze are the same with the Vrancea earthquake from 4 March 1977,
presented in Figure 2. The accelerations were applied on the liquid/solid boundary interfaces cells
according with Figure 3h). The results are presented in Figure 6.
Solution and Results. As an example case we will assume the ground supported rectangular
endlessly tank with L = 250 m length and H = 20 m height and with domain configuration
according Figure 1. The filling process is represented in the Figure 3, Figure 4 and Figure 5.


a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

5

f)

g)

h)

Figure 3. The waste reservoir filling process - Fluid speed in x direction
a) 10 second from filling and 3.82% filling degree, b) 20 second from filling and 8.508% degree of
filling, c) 30 second from filling and 11.97% degree of filling, d) 40 second from filling and 16.74%
degree of filling, e) 60 second from filling and 26.95% degree of filling, f) 80 second from filling
and 36.49% degree of filling, g) 120 second from filling and 55.47% degree of filling, h) 150
second from filling and 68.05% degree of filling.


a)

b)

c)
6

d)

e)

Figure 4. The waste reservoir filling process - Fluid speed in y direction
a) 10 second from filling and 3.82% filling degree, b) 30 second from filling and 11.97% degree of
filling, c) 40 second from filling and 16.74% degree of filling, d) 80 second from filling and 36.49%
degree of filling, e) 150 second from filling and 68.05% degree of filling.




















Figure 5. The turbulences factor aspect in the process of filling the reservoirs.
a) 10 second, b) 100 second, c) 150 second


The Figure 3 presents the variation of speed on x direction, noted with u in the legend and Figure 4
the y speed of the fluid variation, noted with v in the legend. The vortexes formed in the flood
filling process can be estimated using the turbulence factor, determinate only in the fluid cells. The
aspects of that factor are presented in Figure 5.
The results of earthquake on the fluid dynamics are presented in Figure 6 for the u component of the
speed for some moments of earthquake process.



a)

b)

c)

7

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

Figure 6. The variation of speed on x direction in the earthquake process
a) 1 second from the earthquake beginning, b) 3 second, c) 6 second, d) 8 second, e) 10 second

Conclusions

- The CFD analysis of waste reservoirs presents a useful tool in the process of estimation the
safety work of hydro-technical structures and new modifications of building systems under
diverse loading situations cases.
- The earthquake induced analyzes of pressures, speeds and turbulence factors in the critical
process of flooding made possible the extremes loads estimations of the dam.
- In this way, the CFD analyze becoming a usefully verification in one unexpected case that
can generate a disaster.
- The flood input front that affect the analyzed domain can be affected by an earthquake of
high magnitude.
- That kind of analyze made the possibility of diverse disaster effects establishing. The dam
verification in the extremely conditions become in these analyze possible.
- The computer fluid dynamics gives a way to estimate the dam break effect in these critical
conditions and prevents the building constructions in the possible flooded area.
8
The current analysis was made using an original program writed in Microsoft Visual C/C++ and the
graphic presentation was done in Tecplot post-processing software of AMTEC Company.
Acknowledgement
This paper has been supported by the project VEGA 1/0201/11 Progressive methods for the solution
of structural elements made of composite and other new-age materials.
References
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In: Proceedings of 7-th European Conference. TRANSCOM 2007.
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[8] B. D. Nichols, C. W. Hirt, J. Computational Physics, 8 (197 l), 434.
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