Private Pension Plan Bulletin

Abstract of 1999 Form 5500 Annual Reports

U.S. Department of Labor
Employee Benefits Security
Administration
Number 12, Summer 2004

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Private Pension Plan Bulletin
Abstract of 1999 Form 5500 Annual Reports
Number 12, Summer 2004
U.S. Department of Labor
Elaine Chao, Secretary
Employee Benefits Security Administration
Office of Policy and Research

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Figures
A1
Distribution of Pension Plans and
Participants
by type of plan, 1999 ....................................... 13

Introduction ................................................................ 1
Highlights.................................................................... 3
SECTION A: SUMMARY

A2
Tables
A1
Number of Pension Plans, Total Participants,
Active Participants Assets, Contributions, and
Benefits
by type of plan, 1999 ......................................... 7
A2

A3

A4

A5

A6

Distribution of Assets
by method of funding, 1999 ............................. 14

SECTION B: Plans and Participants
Tables
B1. Distribution of Pension Plans
by number of participants, 1999....................... 17

Number of Participants in Pension Plans
by type of plan entity, type of plan, and type of
participant, 1999 ................................................ 8

B2.

Distribution of Pensions Plans
by amount of assets, 1999............................... 18

Balance Sheet of Pension Plans
by type of plan, 1999 ......................................... 9

B3.

Distribution of Pension Plans
by industry, 1999 ............................................. 19

Income Statement of Pension Plans
by type of plan, 1999 ....................................... 10

B4.

Distribution of Participants
by number of participants, 1999....................... 20

Amount of Assets in Pension Plans
by type of plan and method of funding, 1999... 11

B5.

Distribution of Participants
by amount of assets, 1999............................... 21

B6.

Distribution of Participants
by industry, 1999 ............................................. 22

Collective Bargaining Status of Pension
Plans, Participants and Assets
by type of plan, 1999 ....................................... 12

i

B7.

by type of plan, 1999 ....................................... 36

Distribution of Active Participants
by type of plan, 1999 ....................................... 23

B8.

Number of Plans
by type of plan and method of funding, 1999... 24

B9.

Number of Participants
by type of plan and method of funding, 1999... 25

C7.

Percentage Distribution of Assets in
Defined Benefit Plans with 100 or More
Participants
by type of asset and size of plan, 1999............ 38

C8.

Percentage Distribution of Assets in
Defined Contribution Plans with 100 or
More Participants
by type of assets and size of plan, 1999.......... 39

C9.

Income Statement of Pension Plans with 100
or More Participants
by type of plan, 1999 ....................................... 40

SECTION C: FINANCIAL
Tables
C1. Distribution of Assets
by number of participants, 1999 ...................... 29
C2.

C3.

C4.

Distribution of Assets
by asset size, 1999.......................................... 30

C10. Income Statement of Single Employer
Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1999 ....................................... 42

Distribution of Assets
by industry, 1999 ............................................. 31

C11. Income Statement of Multiemployer Pension
Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1999 ....................................... 44

Balance Sheet of Pension Plans with 100
or More Participants
by type of plan, 1999 ...................................... 32

C5.

Balance Sheet of Single Employer Pension
Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1999 ....................................... 34

C6.

Balance Sheet of Multiemployer Pension
Plans with 100 or More Participants

C12. Percentage Distribution of Income of Defined
Benefit Plans with 100 or More Participants
by source of income and size of plan, 1999..... 46
C13. Percentage Distribution of Income of Defined
Contribution Plans with 100 or More
Participants

ii

by source of income and size of plan, 1999 .... 47

D5.

Number of Active Participants in 401(k) Type
Plans
by number of participants and primary or
supplemental status, 1999 ............................... 58

D6.

Number of 401(k) Type Plans, and Active
Participants
by size of plan and extent of participant
direction of investments, 1999 ......................... 59

D7.

Balance Sheet of 401(k) Type Plans
by extent of participant direction of
investments, 1999............................................ 60

D8.

Income Statement of 401(k) Type Plans
by extent of participant direction of
investments, 1999............................................ 61

D9.

Balance Sheet of 401(k) Type Plans with 100 or
More Participants
by extent of participant direction of
investments, 1999............................................ 62

Figures
C1. Average Assets per Participant
by plan size, 1999............................................ 48
C2.

Distribution of Pension Plans, Participants
and Assets
by plan size, 1999............................................ 49

SECTION D: DEFINED CONTRIBUTION PLANS
Tables
D1. Balance Sheet of Defined Contribution Plans
with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1999 ....................................... 53
D2.

D3.

D4.

Income Statement of Defined Contribution
Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1999 ....................................... 54
Number of 401(k) Type Plans, Participants,
Active Participants, Assets, Contributions,
and Benefits
by type of plan, 1999 ....................................... 56

D10. Income Statement of 401(k) Type Plans
with 100 or More Participants
by extent of participant direction of
investments, 1999............................................ 64

Number of 401(k)( Type Plans
by number of participants and primary or
supplemental status, 1999............................... 57

D11. Number of Employee Stock Ownership Plans
(ESOPs), Total Participants, Active
Participants, Assets, Contributions, and Benefits

iii

by type of plan, 1980-1999 .............................. 75

by type of plan, 1999 ....................................... 66
D12. Number of Employee Stock Ownership
Plans (ESOPs), Total Participants, Active
Participants, Assets, Contributions,
and Benefits
by type of ESOP, 1999 .................................... 67
D13. Number of Employee Stock Ownership Plans
(ESOPs)
by number of participants and
primary or supplemental status, 1999.............. 68
D14. Balance Sheet of Employee Stock Ownership
Plans (ESOPs) with 100 or More Participants
by leveraged status, 1999 ............................... 69
D15. Income Statement of Employee Stock Ownership
Plans (ESOPs) with 100 or More Participants
by leverage status, 1999 ................................. 70
D16

Number of Defined Contribution Plans,
Participants, Active Participants, Assets,
Contributions, and Benefits
by 401(k) and ESOP status, 1999 ................... 72

E2.

Number of Pension Plans with Fewer than
100 Participants
by type of plan, 1980-1999 .............................. 76

E3.

Number of Pension Plans with 100 or More
Participants
by type of plan, 1980-1999 .............................. 77

E4.

Estimated Private Wage and Salary Worker
Participation Rates under Defined Benefit
and Defined Contribution Plans,
1980-1999........................................................ 78

E5.

Number of Participants in Pension Plans
by type of plan, 1980-1999 .............................. 79

E6.

Number of Participants in Pension Plans
with Fewer Than 100 Participants
by type of plan, 1980-1999 .............................. 80

E7.

Number of Participants in Pension Plans
with 100 of More Participants
by type of plan, 1980-1999 .............................. 81

E8.

Number of Active Participants in Pension Plans
by type of plan, 1980-1999 .............................. 82

E9.

Number of Active Participants in Pension Plans
with Fewer than 100 Participants

SECTION E: HISTORICAL TABLES
Tables
E1.
Number of Pension Plans

iv

E18. Pension Plan Benefits Disbursed from
Plans with Fewer than 100 Participants
by type of plan, 1980-1999 .............................. 92

by type of plan, 1980-1999 .............................. 83
E10. Number of Active Participants in Pension
Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1980-1999 .............................. 84

E19. Pension Plan Benefits Disbursed From
Plans with 100 or More Participants
By type of plan, 1980-1999 .............................. 93

E11. Pension Plan Assets
by type of plan, 1980-1999 .............................. 85

E20. Number of 401(k) Type Plans, Participants,
Assets, Contributions and Benefit Payments,
1984-1999........................................................ 94

E12. Pension Plan Assets of Plans with Fewer
than 100 Participants
by type of plan, 1980-1999 .............................. 86

E21. Aggregate Rates of Return Earned by Private
Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants,
1985-1999........................................................ 95

E13. Pension Plan Assets of Plans with 100 or
More Participants
by type of plan, 1980-1999 .............................. 87

E22. Aggregate Investment Performance of Private
Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants,
1985-1999........................................................ 96

E14. Pension Plan Contributions
by type of plan,1980-1999 ............................... 88

E23. Aggregate Rates of Return Earned by
Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs)
and 401(k) Plans with 100 or More
Participants,
1990-1999........................................................ 97

E15. Pension Plan Contributions to Plans with
Fewer than 100 Participants
by type of plan, 1980-1999 .............................. 89
E16. Pension Plan Contributions to Plans with
100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1980-1999 .............................. 90

Figures
E1.
Number of Pension Plans,
1980-1999........................................................ 98

E17. Pension Plan Benefits Disbursed
by type of plan, 1980-1999 .............................. 91

E2.

v

Number of Defined Contribution Plans,

E11. Assets per Participant
by type of plan, 1975-1999 ............................ 108
E12. Pension Plan Contributions and Benefits,
1980-1999...................................................... 109

1984-1999 ....................................................... 99
E3.

Number of Defined Contribution Plans and
401(k) Plans,
1984-1999 ..................................................... 100

E4.

Number of 401(k) Plans and Active
Participants,
1984-1999 ..................................................... 101

E5.

E6

E13. Rates of Return,
by type of plan, 1985-1999 ............................ 110
E14. Rates of Return for Single and Multiemployer
Plans,
1985-1999...................................................... 111

Number of 401(k) Plans and Average Number
Of Active Participants Per Plan,
1984-1999 ..................................................... 102

E15. Rates of Return for 401(k) Type Plans,
1990-1999...................................................... 112

Pension Plan Active Participants,
1980-1999 ..................................................... 103

E7.

Participants per Plan,
by type of plan 1975-1999 ............................. 104

E8.

Ratio of Active to Retired Participants in
Defined Benefit Plans,
1978-1999 ..................................................... 105

E9.

Pension Coverage of Wage and Salary
Workers,
1980-1999 ..................................................... 106

E16. Rates of Return for ESOPs
by type of ESOP, 1990-1999 ......................... 113

E10. Pension Plan Assets,
1980-1999 ..................................................... 107

vi

INTRODUCTION
into active, retired, and separated vested participants not yet in
pay status. Prior year forms required small plans to report only
the total number of participants. Tables in prior Bulletins
showing the number of active, retired and separated vested
participants relied on imputations to estimate participation within
these categories for small plans. The data available on the new
Form indicate that the imputations were overstating the number
of active participants and consequently understating the number
of retired and separated vested participants in small plans.
Historical data on active participants in Tables E4, E8, E9, and
E20 have therefore been revised based on the 1999 data.

This is the twelfth edition of the Private Pension Plan Bulletin.
The universe for the Bulletins consists of all private pension plans
for which a Form 5500 has been filed with the Department of Labor
in accordance with Title I of the Employee Retirement Income
Security Act of 1974 (ERISA). The universe for this particular
Bulletin Is limited to plans that must file a Form 5500 with a
reporting period ending no earlier than December 31, 1999 and no
later than December 30, 2000. These plans may be defined
benefit or defined contribution plans. They generally cover private
wage and salary employees and are sponsored either by
employers or jointly by employers and unions.

Detailed asset lines such as those reporting corporate stock and
corporate debt instruments show amounts held directly by
pension plans. These lines do not include assets that pension
plans hold indirectly through such investment arrangements as
master trust investment accounts, common / collective trusts,
pooled separate accounts, 103-12 investment entities,
registered investment companies, and insurance company
general accounts. Assets held through such investment
arrangements have their own line items on Form 5500 Schedule
H and in the tables of this publication. Similarly, line items for
earnings on investments show earnings on investments held
directly by pension plans and do not include earnings on
investments held through the types of investment arrangements
listed above.

The 1999 Form 5500 was substantially revised from previous
years. One major change has been the elimination of the 5500
C/R Form for plans with fewer than 100 participants. All plans now
file the same basic Form 5500, although small plans are permitted
to file a less detailed financial schedule (Schedule I) than large
plans (Schedule H). Financial tables in the Bulletin that present
data for all plans are based on the limited number of categories
available on the Schedule I, while financial tables for plans with
100 or more participants show the more detailed line items
provided on the Schedule H.
The revised form no longer includes information on the vested
status of active participants, but some new items have been added
that are useful in describing the changing nature of the private
pension system. Additions to the Form include a code for
identifying cash balance plans, and new distinction between
defined contribution plans that permit participants to direct
investment of only employee contributions and plans that permit
participants to direct investment of both employee and employer
contributions.
A new requirement for small plans is a classification of participants

1

Key findings from the 1999 filings are summarized in the
Highlights on pages 3 and 4. The tabulations are organized
into five sections. Section A contains summary data on plans,
participants, assets, income and expenses. Section B contains
more detailed data on plans and participants, showing
distributions by different size measures, industry, type of plan,
and method of funding. Section C contains balance sheets and
income statements for the major types of pension plans. Section

D contains detailed data on defined contribution plans. Section E
contains historical data from 1980 to 1999. This edition contains
new information on cash balance plans and on participant direction
of plan investments.
This publication was prepared by Helen Lawrence, David
McCarthy, Daniel Beller, Steve Donahue, and Phyllis Fernandez
of the Office of Policy and Research (Joseph Piacentini, Acting
Director).
Although this Bulletin is not copyrighted, proper
acknowledgment would be appreciated. The recommended
citation is:
United States Department of Labor, Employee Benefits
Security Administration. Abstract of 1999 Form 5500
Annual Reports. Private Pension Plan Bulletin, No. 12,
Summer 2004, Washington, DC.

2

HIGHLIGHTS FROM THE 1999 FORM 5500 REPORTS
Other findings from Form 5500 series reports for 1999 plan years
are summarized below.

Over the past 25 years, as the private pension system has shifted
from defined benefit (DB) plans toward 401(k) type defined
contribution (DC) plans, the financing of benefits has shifted from
employers to participants. A milestone was reached in 1999 when
total participant contributions for the first time exceeded total
employer contributions to pension plans. In 1978, when legislation
was enacted authorizing 401(k) type plans that allow employees to
contribute on a pre-tax basis, 29 percent of contributions to DC
plans, and only 11 percent of total contributions to all DB and DC
pension plans were contributed by participants. In 1999, 60
percent of contributions to DC plans and 51 percent of
contributions to all plans were made by participants. Among
401(k) type plans, 70 percent of contributions came from
participants.
Along with the increased burden on employees to contribute
toward their retirement benefits has come increased control over
the investment of their DC plan accounts. Almost 70 percent of
401(k) plan participants direct the investment of their entire
account balances, with an additional 17 percent are able to direct
the investment of a portion of the assets in their account.
While DB plans are still financed almost entirely by employers,
there has been a movement in recent years to convert traditional
DB plans to cash balance plans that contain many features similar
to DC plans. A cash balance plan is a defined benefit plan that
defines the benefit in terms that are more characteristic of a
defined contribution plan. In 1999, there were about 1,300 cash
balance plans. While making up only 3 percent of all DB plans,
cash balance plans tend to be above average in size and covered
15 percent of all DB plan participants and held 20 percent of all DB
plan assets.

3

The decades long shift from DB to DC plans continued in
1999, with the number of DB plans declining from 56,000 in
1998 to 50,000 in 1999 and the number of DC plans
increasing from 674,000 to 683,000.

There was little change in the number of active participants
from 1998 to 1999, with the total active participant count
increasing marginally from 72.8 million to 73.0 million. The
number of active participants in DB plans decreased by
about 1 percent to 22.6 million and the number of active
participants in DC plans increased about 1 percent to 50.4
million.

An estimated 14 percent of all private wage and salary
workers are covered by both a DB and DC plan, an
additional 7 percent are covered only by a single DB plan,
and 29 percent have only DC plan coverage. The
remainder are not covered by any plan.

Most workers with dual pension coverage are concentrated
in large manufacturing, communications, and utility
industries firms. Total participants in plans covering workers
in these industries are about evenly divided between DB
and DC plans. (Unpublished data).

Workers with coverage only under a DB plan are most likely
to be enrolled in multiemployer Taft-Hartley plans that are
administered by a joint board of trustees, half of whom are
appointed by contributing employers and half by unions.
These plans most commonly cover employees in small and

to $185.9 billion.

mid-sized unionized firms in construction and
transportation industries. Only 11 percent of all pension
plan participants are covered by multiemployer plans but
these plans cover 65 percent of all participants employed in
construction, and 28 percent of all participants employed in
transportation. Among DB plan participants, 92 percent of
those employed in construction, and 51 percent of those
employed in transportation are in multiemployer plans.
(Unpublished data).

Most workers with DC plan coverage are employed in small
firms, primarily in service industries where 73 percent of all
participants are in DC plans, wholesale trade, with 75
percent of total participants covered by DC plans, and retail
trade, with 69 percent of total participants participating in
DC plans. (Unpublished data).

The extraordinary growth rate of 401(k) type plans
continued in 1999, with the number of plans increasing
from 301,000 to 335,000 and the number of active
participants increasing from 36.8 million to 38.6 million.
401(k) type plans now provide primary or supplemental
plan coverage to over 70 percent of all pension covered
workers.

Pension plan assets increased 10% from $4.0 trillion in
1998 to $4.4 trillion in 1999. DB plan assets increased by
6% to $2.1 trillion, while DC plan assets grew by 13% to
almost $2.4 trillion.

Assets held in 401(k) type plans increased by 16% to $1.8
trillion. Over three-quarters of all DC plan assets are now
in 401(k) type plans.

Contributions to pension plans increased by 7% in 1999 to
$215.8 billion. DB plan contributions decreased by 14% to
$30.0 billion, while DC plan contributions increased by 11%

4

Benefit payouts from DB plans have long exceeded
contributions, and now benefits paid out by DC plans also
exceed DC plan contributions. In 1999, pension plans
disbursed $314.5 billion in benefits to retirees, survivors,
and terminating employees, including $119.4 billion from DB
plans and $195.1 billion from DC plans.

Overall, pensions disbursed $98.7 billion more than they
received in contributions. DB plans disbursed $89.4 billion
more than they collected in contributions, while DC plans
disbursed $9.2 billion more than they received in
contributions.
As a result, the increase in assets
experienced by plans resulted solely from investment
returns. Given that overall pension plan assets grew by
about $400 billion, this means that plans earned nearly $500
billion in investment and other income.

The aggregate rate of return for all plans with 100 or more
participants in 1999 was 13.2 % (investment earnings and
appreciation). DC plans achieved a 12.5 % rate of return
during 1999 compared to 13.8 % for defined benefit plans.

The aggregate rate of return was 13.6 % for single employer
plans compared to 10.2% for multiemployer plans. Single
employer plans tend to invest a higher percentage of their
assets in stocks than multiemployer plans and generally
achieve higher rates of return during years when the stock
market performs well.

The aggregate rate of return for 401(k) type plans in 1999
was 12.8 %.

SECTION A: SUMMARY

Table A1. Number of Pension Plans, Total Participants, Active Participants,
Assets, Contributions, and Benefits
by type of plan, 1999

Type of Plan
Total
Defined Benefit
Cash balance
Other defined benefit
Defined Contribution
Profit sharing and thrift-savings plans
Stock bonus plans
Target benefit plans
Money purchase plans
Annuity-403(b)(1)
Custodial account-403(b)7
IRAs or annuities (Code 408)
Other defined contribution plans

Number of
Plans 1/
732,995
49,895
1,324
48,571
683,100
563,006
2,974
5,122
92,246
13,232
1,578
595
4,346

Total
Participants
(thousands) 2/
101,794
41,427
6,175
35,252
60,368
52,132
2,238
208
4,576
116
18
5
1,075

Active
Total
Total Assets
Total Benefits
Participants
Contributions
(millions) 4/
(millions) 6/
(thousands) 3/
(millions) 5/
73,020
$4,407,805
$215,827
$314,512
22,630
2,057,539
29,958
119,375
3,555
405,232
2,701
25,890
19,075
1,652,307
27,258
93,484
50,390
2,350,266
185,869
195,138
43,659
2,067,985
168,383
172,181
1,801
81,102
4,450
6,299
177
10,671
559
839
3,765
160,056
10,584
12,907
104
1,106
150
87
15
316
33
41
5
79
5
4
864
28,952
1,705
2,779

1/ Excludes plans covering only one participant.
2/ Includes active, retired, and separated vested participants not yet in pay status. The number of participants also includes double counting
of workers in more than one plan.
3/ Active participants include any workers currently in employment covered by a plan and who are earning or retaining credited service under
a plan. Active participants also include nonvested former employees who have not yet incurred a break in service.
4/ Total asset amounts shown exclude funds held by life insurance companies under allocated group insurance contracts for payment of
retirement benefits. These excluded funds make up roughly 10 to 15 percent of total pension fund assets.
5/ Includes both employer and employee contributions.
6/ Amounts shown include both benefits paid directly from trust funds and premium payments made by plans to insurance carriers.
Amounts exclude benefits paid directly by insurance carriers.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

7

Table A2. Number of Participants in Pension Plans
by type of plan entity, type of plan, and type of participant, 1999
(numbers in thousands)

Type of Participant
Active participants 3/
Retired or separated
participants receiving
benefits
Separated participants with
vested right to benefits
Total Participants
Beneficiaries 4/
Total participants and
beneficiaries

Total

Total Plans
Defined
Benefit

Defined
Contribution

Single Employer Plans 1/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

Total

Multiemployer Plans 2/
Defined
Defined
Benefit
Contribution

73,020

22,630

50,390

66,419

17,975

48,444

6,601

4,655

1,946

10,170

9,348

822

7,718

6,954

764

2,452

2,395

57

18,604

9,448

9,156

16,447

7,537

8,911

2,156

1,911

245

101,794

41,427

60,368

90,585

32,466

58,119

11,210

8,961

2,249

1,528

1,430

98

1,140

1,048

92

388

382

6

103,321

42,857

60,465

91,724

33,514

58,210

11,598

9,343

2,255

1/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
2/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
3/ Plans with less than 100 participants are required to provide only the total participant count. For these plans, which cover approximately 10 percent of all
participants, the distribution of active, retired, and separated vested participants was assumed to be the same as for larger plans in each column.
4/ Deceased participants whose beneficiaries are receiving or are entitled to receive benefits.
NOTE: Excludes plans covering only one participant.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

8

TABLE A3. Balance Sheet of Pension Plans
by type of plan, 1999
(amounts in millions)
Total

Defined Benefit

Defined
Contribution

Partnership/joint venture interests
Employer real property
Real estate (excl employer real property)
Employer securities
Participant loans
Loans (other than to participants)
Other investments 1/
TOTAL ASSETS

16,947
5,218
9,809
315,128
30,864
7,482
4,022,357
4,407,805

14,388
60
8,108
14,614
563
4,202
2,015,606
2,057,539

2,559
5,158
1,701
300,515
30,301
3,280
2,006,752
2,350,266

TOTAL LIABILITIES
NET ASSETS

66,084
4,341,722

34,285
2,023,254

31,798
2,318,468

Type of Asset or Liability

1/ This table summarizes assets that appear on both the Schedule H (for plans with 100 or more participants) and Schedule I (for
plans with fewer than 100 participants). All asset items that appear on the more detailed Schedule H but not the Schedule I
are grouped under "Other investments".
NOTE: Total asset amounts shown exclude funds held by life insurance companies under group insurance contracts for
payment of retirement benefits. These excluded funds make up roughly 10 to 15 percent of total pension fund assets.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

9

TABLE A4. Income Statement of Pension Plans
by type of plan, 1999
(amounts in millions)
Income and Expenses 1/

Total

Defined
Benefit

Defined
Contribution

INCOME
Employer contributions
Participant contributions
Contributions from others (including rollovers)
Noncash contributions
All other income
TOTAL INCOME

96,566
103,379
14,729
1,154
541,694
757,522

28,581
702
607
69
260,429
290,388

67,985
102,677
14,122
1,085
281,265
467,134

EXPENSES
Total benefit payments
Corrective distributions
Deemed distribution of participant loans
Other expenses
TOTAL EXPENSES

314,512
325
992
12,172
328,001

119,375
20
0
7,031
126,426

195,138
305
992
5,141
201,575

NET INCOME

429,521

163,962

265,559

1/ This table summarizes income and expenses that appear on both the Schedule H (for plans with 100 or more participants) and
Schedule I (for plans with fewer than 100 participants). All income and expense items that appear on the more detailed Schedule H
but not the Schedule I are grouped under "All other income" or "Other expenses".
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

10

Table A5. Amount of Assets in Pension Plans
by type of plan and method of funding, 1999
(amounts in millions)
Total Plans
Method of Funding

Total

Defined
Benefit

Single Employer Plans 1/
Defined
Contribution

Defined
Benefit

Total

Defined
Contribution

Multiemployer Plans 2/
Total

Defined
Benefit

Defined
Contribution

Funding arrangement for investment of assets
Total
Insurance
Section 412(i) ins.
Trust

Trust and insurance
Not determinable

$4,407,805 $2,057,539
73,014
24,898
2,079
139
2,889,953 1,330,113
1,437,660
702,191
5,100
199

$2,350,266 $4,008,220 $1,697,424
48,116
71,282
23,434
1,940
2,072
133
1,559,840 2,665,381 1,131,405
735,469 1,264,385
542,254
4,901
5,099
199

$2,310,797
47,849
1,940
1,533,976
722,132
4,901

$399,585
1,732
7
224,572
173,275
1

$360,116
1,464
7
198,708
159,937
-

$39,470
267
25,864
13,338
1

$2,350,266 $4,008,220 $1,697,424
45,299
80,220
35,055
1,732
1,881
149
1,871,233 3,117,425 1,279,717
427,560
804,064
382,313
0
0
-

$2,310,797
45,164
1,732
1,837,708
421,750
0

$399,585
2,186
309,966
87,433
-

$360,116
2,051
276,441
81,624
-

$39,470
134
33,525
5,809
-

Funding arrangement for payment of benefits
Total
Insurance
Section 412(i) ins.
Trust
Trust and insurance
Not determinable

$4,407,805 $2,057,539
82,405
37,106
1,881
149
3,427,390 1,556,158
891,497
463,937
0
-

1/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
2/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
- Missing data.
SOURCE: Form 5500 series reports filed for plan years beginning in 1999.

11

Table A6. Collective Bargaining Status of Pension Plans, Participants, and Assets
by type of plan, 1999
Total Plans
Collective
Bargaining Status
TOTAL

Collective bargaining
plans
Noncollectively
bargained plans

Defined Benefit

Defined Contribution

Total
Total
Total
Total Assets
Total Assets Number
Total Assets Number
Number
Participants
Participants
Participants
(millions) 1/
(millions) 1/ of Plans
(millions) 1/ of Plans
of Plans
(thousands)
(thousands)
(thousands)
732,995
101,792
$4,407,805
49,895
41,425
$2,057,539 683,100
60,367
$2,350,266
13,617

24,573

1,255,286

6,229

16,955

920,296

7,388

7,618

334,989

719,377

77,219

3,152,520

43,665

24,470

1,137,243

675,712

52,749

2,015,277

1/ Asset amounts shown exclude funds held by life insurance companies under allocated insurance contracts for payment of retirement benefits. These
excluded funds make up roughly 10 to 15 percent of total pension fund assets.
NOTE: Some collectively bargained plans cover nonbargaining unit employees under a separate non-negotiated benefit structure.
SOURCE: Form 5500 series reports filed for plan years beginning in 1999.

12

Figure A1. Distribution of Pension Plans and Participants
by type of plan, 1999
Defined Contribution
69%

Defined Contribution
93%

Defined Benefit

7%

Defined Benefit 31%

Active Participants

Plans
Reference: Table A1.
Source: Form 5500 series reports filed for plan years beginning in 1999.

13

Figure A2. Distribution of Assets
by method of funding, 1999

Trust
66%

Trust
78%

Insurance
1%
Trust and
Insurance
33%

Trust and
Insurance
20%

Funding Arrangement for
Payment of Benefits

Funding Arrangement for
Investment of Assets
Reference: Table A5.
Source: Form 5500 series reports filed for plan years beginning in 1999.

14

Insurance
2%

SECTION B: PLANS AND PARTICIPANTS

Table B1. Distribution of Pension Plans
by number of participants, 1999
Total Plans
Number of
Participants
Total

Total

Defined
Benefit

Single Employer Plans 1/
Defined
Contribution

Defined
Benefit

Total

Multiemployer Plans 2/

Defined
Contribution

Total

Defined
Benefit

Defined
Cotnribution

732,995

49,895

683,100

729,983

48,168

681,815

3,011

1,727

1,285

48,227

3,871

44,355

48,122

3,809

44,314

105

63

42

300,568

20,353

280,215

300,564

20,353

280,211

4

-

4

166,233

5,088

161,145

166,206

5,088

161,119

27

-

27

25-49

92,549

3,252

89,296

92,466

3,226

89,240

82

26

57

50-99

56,025

3,132

52,893

55,952

3,099

52,853

73

33

40

100-249

35,781

4,340

31,441

35,398

4,164

31,234

383

176

207

250-499

13,959

2,920

11,040

13,508

2,657

10,851

452

263

188

500-999

8,176

2,320

5,856

7,610

1,996

5,614

566

324

242

1,000-2,499

6,073

2,205

3,869

5,435

1,836

3,599

638

368

270

2,500-4,999

2,518

1,020

1,498

2,204

828

1,377

314

193

121

5,000-9,999

1,433

651

782

1,249

524

726

183

127

56

10,000-19,999

781

380

401

685

299

386

96

81

15

20,000-49,999

477

253

224

417

207

210

60

46

14

50,000 or more

195

110

85

165

83

82

30

28

2

None or not
reported
2-9
10-24

1/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
2/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
- Missing data.

NOTE: Excludes plans covering only one participant.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

17

Table B2. Distribution of Pension Plans
by amount of assets, 1999
Total Plans
Amount of
Assets
Total
None or not
reported
$1-24K
25-49K
50-99K
100-249K
250-499k
500-999K
1-2.49M
2.5-4.9M
5-9.9M
10-24.9M
25-49.9M
50-74.9M
75-99.9M
100-149.9M
150-199.9M
200-249.9M
250-499.9M
500-999.9M
1-2.49B
2.5B or more

Total

Defined
Benefit

Single Employer Plans 1/
Defined
Contribution

Defined
Benefit

Total

Defined
Contribution

Multiemployer Plans 2/
Total

Defined
Benefit

Defined
Contribution

732,995

49,895

683,100

729,983

48,168

681,815

3,011

1,727

1,285

60,113
34,534
35,712
61,148
119,151
113,337
113,147
108,828
41,057
20,744
12,977
4,924
1,984
1,014
1,148
659
401
939
551
401
227

5,509
372
684
2,287
5,705
6,220
7,263
8,020
3,695
2,650
2,670
1,595
745
460
487
262
177
464
284
217
128

54,604
34,162
35,027
58,861
113,446
107,117
105,884
100,808
37,362
18,093
10,307
3,328
1,239
554
662
396
224
475
268
185
99

59,963
34,522
35,680
61,138
119,118
113,294
113,050
108,599
40,845
20,394
12,464
4,525
1,766
867
1,000
566
344
800
498
343
209

5,440
367
683
2,283
5,698
6,213
7,235
7,947
3,622
2,487
2,384
1,332
594
343
371
193
132
339
234
161
110

54,523
34,155
34,997
58,855
113,420
107,082
105,815
100,652
37,222
17,907
10,080
3,193
1,172
523
629
373
212
462
264
181
99

150
12
31
10
32
43
97
229
212
350
513
399
218
148
148
93
57
139
54
59
18

69
5
1
4
6
8
28
73
73
164
285
264
151
117
115
69
45
126
50
55
18

81
7
30
6
26
35
69
156
139
186
227
135
67
31
33
24
12
13
4
4
-

1/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
2/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
- Missing data.
NOTE: Excludes plans covering only one participant. The letters K, M, and B denote thousands, millions, and billions, respectively.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

18

Table B3. Distribution of Pension Plans
by industry, 1999
Total Plans
Industry
Total
Total
Agriculture
Mining
Construction
Manufacturing
Transportation
Communications and
information
Utilities
Wholesale trade
Retail trade
Finance, insurance &
real estate
Services
Misc. organizations 3/
Industry not reported

Defined
Benefit

Single Employer Plans 1/
Defined
Contribution

Total

Defined
Benefit

Multiemployer Plans 2/

Defined
Contribution

Total

Defined
Benefit

Defined
Contribution

732,995
10,654
3,332
57,068
95,160
13,274

683,100
9,798
2,927
53,923
84,061
12,440

49,895
856
405
3,145
11,099
835

729,983
10,641
3,325
55,490
94,923
13,065

681,815
9,797
2,923
53,147
83,983
12,381

48,168
844
402
2,343
10,940
684

3,011
13
7
1,578
237
210

1,285
1
4
776
78
59

1,727
12
4
802
159
151

12,424
2,685
48,481
53,985

11,535
2,254
45,512
51,375

889
431
2,969
2,610

12,377
2,682
48,429
53,903

11,520
2,250
45,496
51,361

857
431
2,933
2,542

47
4
52
82

15
4
16
14

32
36
68

64,783
353,716
12,271
5,161

57,975
335,453
10,781
5,066

6,808
18,263
1,490
95

64,359
353,450
12,217
5,124

57,801
335,361
10,757
5,038

6,558
18,089
1,459
86

424
266
54
37

174
92
24
28

250
174
31
9

1/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
2/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
3/ Religious, grantmaking, civic, professional, labor, and similar organizations.
- Missing data.
Note: Industry classifications are now based on principal business activity code used in the North American Industry Classification System. Therefore, the results in this table may not be
directly comparable with previous years.
NOTE: Excludes plans covering only one participant.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

19

Table B4. Distribution of Participants*
by number of participants, 1999
(numbers in thousands)
Total Plans
Number of
Participants
Total
2-9
10-24
25-49
50-99
100-249
250-499
500-999
1,000-2,499
2,500-4,999
5,000-9,999
10,000-19,999
20,000-49,999
50,000 or more

Total
101,794
1,416
2,591
3,223
3,874
5,509
4,873
5,704
9,402
8,728
10,000
10,776
14,436
21,262

Defined
Benefit
41,427
83
78
118
218
706
1,045
1,646
3,460
3,527
4,556
5,195
7,755
13,041

Single Employer Plans 1/
Defined
Contribution
60,368
1,333
2,514
3,105
3,655
4,803
3,828
4,057
5,942
5,202
5,444
5,582
6,681
8,222

Defined
Benefit

Total
90,585
1,416
2,591
3,220
3,868
5,444
4,707
5,297
8,383
7,667
8,736
9,436
12,638
17,181

32,466
83
78
117
216
674
947
1,413
2,867
2,878
3,666
4,067
6,352
9,108

Multiemployer Plans 2/

Defined
Contribution
58,119
1,333
2,514
3,103
3,653
4,769
3,759
3,884
5,516
4,789
5,070
5,369
6,286
8,073

1/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
2/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
3/ Less than 500 participants.
- Missing data.
* Includes separated vested and retired participants and excludes beneficiaries.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

20

Total
11,210
3/
3/
3
5
65
166
406
1,019
1,061
1,264
1,340
1,798
4,082

Defined
Benefit
8,961
1
3
31
97
233
593
648
890
1,128
1,403
3,933

Defined
Contribution
2,249
3/
3/
2
3
34
69
173
426
413
374
212
395
149

Table B5. Distribution of Participants
by amount of assets, 1999
(numbers in thousands)
Total
Number of
Participants
Total
None or not
reported
$1-24K
25-49K
50-99K
100-249K
250-499k
500-999K
1-2.49M
2.5-4.9M
5-9.9M
10-24.9M
25-49.9M
50-74.9M
75-99.9M
100-149.9M
150-199.9M
200-249.9M
250-499.9M
500-999.9M
1-2.49B
2.5B or more

Total

Defined
Benefit

Single Employer Plans 1/
Defined
Contribution

Defined
Benefit

Total

Multiemployer Plans 2/

Defined
Contribution

Total

Defined
Benefit

Defined
Contribution

101,794

41,427

60,368

90,585

32,466

58,119

11,210

8,961

2,249

1,607
346
377
774
1,984
2,337
3,164
5,316
4,509
4,806
7,348
6,369
4,092
2,706
4,458
3,273
2,268
7,971
8,061
12,150
17,877

478
7
5
21
73
96
198
508
645
941
1,950
2,260
1,648
1,291
2,068
1,319
1,021
4,209
4,276
6,962
11,451

1,129
339
372
753
1,912
2,241
2,966
4,808
3,864
3,864
5,398
4,109
2,444
1,416
2,391
1,954
1,247
3,762
3,785
5,188
6,426

1,581
345
376
772
1,973
2,322
3,141
5,184
4,404
4,523
6,753
5,723
3,623
2,292
3,987
2,803
1,978
6,595
7,207
10,098
14,905

465
6
5
20
69
94
195
480
619
858
1,706
1,934
1,376
1,013
1,746
1,063
802
2,977
3,514
5,043
8,479

1,116
339
371
752
1,904
2,228
2,946
4,704
3,784
3,665
5,047
3,789
2,246
1,278
2,241
1,740
1,176
3,618
3,693
5,055
6,426

26
1
2
2
11
15
23
132
106
282
595
646
469
415
471
470
289
1,376
854
2,052
2,972

14
3/
3/
1
3
2
2
29
26
83
244
326
271
277
321
256
219
1,232
761
1,919
2,972

13
1
2
1
7
13
21
103
80
199
351
320
198
138
150
214
71
144
92
132
-

1/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
2/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
3/ Less than 500 participants.
- Missing data.
NOTES: Excludes plans covering only one participant. The M, and B denote thousands, millions, and billions, respectively.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

21

Table B6. Distribution of Participants
by industry, 1999
(numbers in thousands)
Total
Industry
Total
Agriculture
Mining
Construction
Manufacturing
Transportation
Communications
and information
Utilities
Wholesale trade
Retail trade
Finance,
insurance & real
estate
Services
Misc.
organizations 3/
Industry not
reported

Single Employer Plans 1/

Defined
Benefit

Total

Defined
Contribution

Defined
Benefit

Total

Multiemployer Plans 2/

Defined
Contribution

Defined
Benefit

Total

Defined
Contribution

101,794
621
765
6,117
33,050
5,330

41,427
230
335
2,941
16,212
2,624

60,368
391
430
3,176
16,838
2,706

90,585
569
762
2,154
31,661
3,844

32,466
180
333
237
14,902
1,294

58,119
389
429
1,916
16,759
2,550

11,210
52
3
3,963
1,389
1,486

8,961
51
1
2,703
1,310
1,330

2,249
2
1
1,260
79
156

5,167
1,852
3,651
10,472

2,429
990
924
3,287

2,739
862
2,727
7,184

5,015
1,850
3,467
9,041

2,328
990
766
1,973

2,687
860
2,701
7,067

152
2
184
1,431

101
159
1,314

51
2
25
117

10,242
22,849

4,403
6,144

5,839
16,705

8,856
21,819

3,361
5,281

5,495
16,538

1,385
1,030

1,042
863

344
167

1,372

864

508

1,263

790

473

108

74

35

305

43

263

280

29

252

25

14

11

1/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
2/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
3/ Religious, grantmaking, civic, professional, labor, and similar organizations.
- Missing data.
NOTE: Excludes plans covering only one participant. The letters K, M, and B denote thousands, millions, and billions, respectively.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

22

Table B7. Distribution of Active Participants
by type of plan, 1999 1/
(numbers in thousands)
Type of Plan
Total
Defined benefit
Defined contribution
Profit sharing and thrift-savings plans
Stock bonus plans
Target benefit plans
Money purchase plans
Annuity-403(b)(1)
Custodial account-403(b)7
IRAs or annuities (Code 408)
Other defined contribution plans

Total Plans

Single Employer Plans 2/

73,020
22,630
50,390
43,659
1,801
177
3,765
104
15
5
864

Multiemployer Plans 3/

66,419
17,975
48,444
43,019
1,801
171
2,596
97
15
4
740

1/ Active participants include any workers currently in employment covered by a plan and who are earning or retaining credited service under a plan.
Active participants also include any nonvested former employees who have not yet incurred a break in service.
2/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
3/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
- Missing data.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

23

6,601
4,655
1,946
640
6
1,169
7
0
1
124

Table B8. Number of Plans
by type of plan and method of funding, 1999
Total Plans
Method of Funding

Total

Defined
Benefit

Single Employer Plans 1/
Defined
Contribution

Total

Defined
Benefit

Multiemployer Plans 2/

Defined
Contribution

Total

Defined
Benefit

Defined
Contribution

Funding arrangement for investment of assets
Total
Insurance
Section 412(i) ins.
Trust
Trust and insurance
Not determinable

732,995
53,738
2,140
499,177
152,922
25,018

49,895
3,607
605
36,473
8,529
681

683,100
50,131
1,536
462,703
144,393
24,337

729,983
53,685
2,139
497,002
152,194
24,964

48,168
3,574
603
35,224
8,087
681

681,815
50,111
1,536
461,778
144,107
24,282

3,011
53
1
2,175
728
54

1,727
33
1
1,250
442
-

1,285
20
925
286
54

683,100
50,650
1,716
480,190
125,525
25,019

729,983
54,297
2,294
515,411
132,194
25,786

48,168
3,670
578
36,254
6,844
822

681,815
50,627
1,716
479,158
125,350
24,965

3,011
64
2,487
405
54

1,727
41
1,456
230
-

1,285
24
1,032
175
54

Funding arrangement for payment of benefits
Total
Insurance
Section 412(i) ins.
Trust
Trust and insurance
Not determinable

732,995
54,362
2,294
517,899
132,599
25,841

49,895
3,711
578
37,709
7,074
822

1/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
2/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
- Missing data.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

24

Table B9. Number of Participants
by type of plan and method of funding, 1999
(numbers in thousands)
Total Plans
Method of Funding

Total

Defined
Benefit

Single Employer Plans 1/
Total

Defined
Benefit

60,368
2,463
17
40,414
17,257
217

90,585
3,147
25
60,795
26,388
229

32,466
695
8
22,047
9,701
15

60,368
2,524
17
46,227
11,383
217

90,585
3,422
25
69,343
17,566
229

32,466
911
8
25,075
6,458
15

Defined
Contribution

Multiemployer Plans 2/
Total

Defined
Benefit

58,119
2,452
17
38,748
16,688
214

11,210
75
6,856
4,275
3

8,961
64
5,191
3,706
-

2,249
11
1,666
569
3

58,119
2,511
17
44,268
11,108
214

11,210
119
9,015
2,072
3

8,961
106
7,057
1,798
-

2,249
13
1,958
275
3

Defined
Contribution

Defined
Contribution

Funding arrangement for investment of assets
Total
Insurance
Section 412(I) ins.
Trust
Trust and insurance
Not determinable

101,794
3,222
25
67,652
30,663
232

41,427
759
8
27,238
13,407
15

Funding arrangement for payment of benefits
Total
Insurance
Section 412(i) ins.
Trust
Trust and insurance
Not determinable

101,794
3,541
25
78,358
19,638
232

41,427
1,017
8
32,131
8,255
15

1/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
2/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

- Missing data.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

25

SECTION C: FINANCIAL

Table C1. Distribution of Assets
by number of participants, 1999
(amounts in millions)
Number of
Participants
Total
None or not
reported
2-9
10-24
25-49
50-99
100-249
250-499
500-999
1,000-2,499
2,500-4,999
5,000-9,999
10,000-19,999
20,000-49,999
50,000 or more

$4,407,805

Total Plans
Defined
Benefit
$2,057,539

Defined
Contribution
$2,350,266

8,849
142,548
120,223
108,630
108,615
155,996
136,762
172,427
309,446
303,565
404,709
524,784
648,079
1,263,173

4,825
12,640
3,913
3,751
6,568
20,164
30,448
55,020
122,034
133,379
206,031
260,068
357,652
841,047

4,024
129,908
116,311
104,879
102,047
135,832
106,314
117,407
187,412
170,186
198,677
264,716
290,427
422,126

Total

Single Employer Plans 1/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution
$4,008,220
$1,697,424
$2,310,797
8,703
142,548
120,222
108,452
108,495
153,887
130,904
157,220
272,145
262,818
357,853
468,827
589,121
1,127,025

4,744
12,640
3,913
3,722
6,493
18,756
26,146
43,192
94,003
102,273
163,389
206,826
304,889
706,438

3,959
129,908
116,309
104,729
102,002
135,131
104,758
114,028
178,143
160,546
194,464
262,000
284,232
420,587

1/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
2/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
3/ Less than $500,000.
- Missing data.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

29

Multiemployer Plans 2/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution
$399,585
$360,116
$39,470
146
3/
1
179
120
2,108
5,859
15,207
37,301
40,747
46,856
55,957
58,958
136,148

80
29
75
1,408
4,302
11,829
28,032
31,106
42,643
53,241
52,763
134,608

65
3/
1
150
44
701
1,556
3,378
9,270
9,641
4,213
2,716
6,195
1,539

Table C2. Distribution of Assets
by asset size, 1999
(amounts in millions)
Total Plans
Amount of
Assets
Total
Less than 0
$1-24K
25-49K
50-99K
100-249K
250-499k
500-999K
1-2.49M
2.5-4.9M
5-9.9M
10-24.9M
25-49.9M
50-74.9M
75-99.9M
100-149.9M
150-<199.9M
200-249.9M
250-499.9M
500-999.9M
1-2.49B
2.5B or more

Total
$4,407,805
-3
450
1,319
4,520
20,186
41,269
80,823
168,877
142,213
144,279
198,937
172,410
121,270
87,185
139,949
114,199
89,521
328,840
385,259
606,540
1,559,765

Defined
Benefit
$2,059,862
*/
5
27
171
978
2,275
5,326
12,437
13,063
18,684
42,593
56,493
45,832
39,792
59,520
45,716
39,722
163,832
199,971
326,157
984,947

Single Employer Plans 1/
Defined
Contribution
$2,350,266
-3
445
1,293
4,349
19,208
38,993
75,497
156,440
129,151
125,595
156,344
115,917
75,438
47,392
80,428
68,483
49,799
165,007
185,288
280,383
574,818

Defined
Benefit

Total
$4,008,220
-3
450
1,318
4,519
20,180
41,252
80,746
168,501
141,399
141,753
190,528
158,343
107,847
74,449
121,789
97,826
76,981
279,486
348,631
519,615
1,432,610

$1,697,424
*/
5
27
171
977
2,272
5,302
12,314
12,789
17,495
37,862
47,219
36,499
29,620
45,384
33,514
29,856
119,001
165,807
243,520
857,792

Defined
Contribution
$2,310,797
-3
445
1,291
4,348
19,203
38,980
75,444
156,187
128,610
124,258
152,666
111,124
71,348
44,829
76,406
64,312
47,126
160,485
182,825
276,095
574,818

1/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
2/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
3/ Less than $500,000.
*/ Absolute value less than $500,000.

- Missing data.
NOTE: Excludes plans covering only one participant. The letters K, M, and B denote thousands, millions, and billions, respectively.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

30

Multiemployer Plans 2/
Total
$399,585
3/
1
1
6
16
77
376
814
2,525
8,409
14,067
13,423
12,736
18,159
16,373
12,540
49,354
36,628
86,925
127,155

Defined
Benefit
$360,166
3/
3/
3/
1
3
23
123
274
1,189
4,730
9,274
9,333
10,173
14,137
12,202
9,866
44,832
34,164
82,637
127,155

Defined
Contribution
$39,470
3/
1
3/
5
13
54
253
541
1,337
3,678
4,793
4,090
2,563
4,023
4,171
2,673
4,522
2,464
4,288
-

Table C3. Distribution of Assets
by industry, 1999
(amounts in millions)
Total Plans
Industry
Total
Agriculture
Mining
Construction
Manufacturing
Transportation
Communications
and information
Utilities
Wholesale trade
Retail trade
Finance, insurance
& real estate
Services
Tax-exempt
organizations
Industry not
reported

Single Employer Plans 1/

Multiemployer Plans 2/

Total

Defined
Benefit

Defined
Contribution

Total

Defined
Benefit

Defined
Contribution

Total

Defined
Benefit

Defined
Contribution

$4,407,805

$2,057,539

$2,350,266

$4,008,220

$1,697,424

$2,310,797

$399,585

$360,116

$39,470

14,480
41,917
227,576
1,812,345
214,531

4,979
16,923
140,986
934,550
135,743

9,502
24,994
86,590
877,795
78,788

13,012
41,900
68,123
1,779,480
139,218

3,782
16,917
7,551
902,335
63,178

9,231
24,983
60,572
877,146
76,040

1,468
17
159,453
32,865
75,313

1,197
6
133,435
32,216
72,565

271
11
26,018
649
2,748

356,849
174,375
124,163
173,038

214,088
105,807
25,688
54,953

142,761
68,567
98,475
118,085

352,210
174,343
121,119
142,178

209,637
105,807
22,798
24,728

142,573
68,536
98,321
117,449

4,639
31
3,044
30,861

4,451
2,890
30,225

188
31
154
636

459,977
763,241

202,306
196,433

257,671
566,807

402,220
733,055

150,223
168,690

251,997
564,364

57,757
30,186

52,083
27,743

5,674
2,443

37,940

23,605

14,336

34,270

20,432

13,838

3,671

3,173

498

7,374

1,478

5,896

7,094

1,346

5,748

280

132

148

1/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
2/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
- Missing data.
Note: Industry classifications are now based on principal business activity code used in the North American Industry Classification System. Therefore, the results in this table may not be
may not be directly comparable.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

31

TABLE C4. Balance Sheet of Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1999
(amounts in millions)
Type of Asset or Liability

Total

Defined
Benefit

Defined
Contribution

ASSETS
Total noninterest-bearing cash
Employer contributions receivable
Participant contributions receivable
Other receivables
Interest-bearing cash
U. S. Government securities
Corporate debt instruments: Preferred
Corporate debt instruments: All other
Preferred stock
Common stock
Partnership/joint venture interests
Real estate (except employer real property)
Loans (other than to participants)
Participant loans
Assets in common/collective trusts
Assets in pooled separate accounts

$3,694
22,879
1,913
24,685
67,753
133,198
45,488
75,266
10,148
458,432
15,240
8,401
5,884
27,661
330,374
124,884

32

$1,663
8,532
63
19,243
27,507
113,193
40,031
64,464
2,380
366,963
14,265
7,980
4,046
491
211,832
52,183

$2,030
14,347
1,850
5,442
40,246
20,004
5,458
10,802
7,768
91,469
975
421
1,838
27,170
118,542
72,700
(continued...)

TABLE C4. Balance Sheet of Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1999
(amounts in millions)
Type of Asset or Liability
Assets in master trusts
Assets in 103-12 investment entities
Assets in registered investment companies
Assets in insurance co. general accounts
Other general investments
Employer securities
Employer real property
Buildings and other property used by plan
Other or unspecified assets
TOTAL ASSETS
LIABILITIES
Benefit claims payable
Operating payables
Acquisition indebtedness
Other liabilities
TOTAL LIABILITIES
NET ASSETS

Total

Defined
Benefit

Defined
Contribution

1,356,113
9,893
701,218
93,060
69,384
308,526
5,136
224
19,486
3,918,940

919,932
4,362
98,359
20,390
30,950
14,524
59
217
2,213
2,025,843

436,181
5,531
602,859
72,670
38,434
294,003
5,077
7
17,274
1,893,097

4,138
8,950
13,521
32,699
59,308
3,859,633

854
7,979
1,832
19,529
30,194
1,995,649

3,284
971
11,689
13,170
29,114
1,863,984

SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

33

TABLE C5. Balance Sheet of Single Employer Pension Plans With 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1999
(amounts in millions)
Type of Asset or Liability

Total

Defined
Benefit

Defined
Contribution

ASSETS
Total noninterest-bearing cash
Employer contributions receivable
Participant contributions receivable
Other receivables
Interest-bearing cash
U. S. Government securities
Corporate debt instruments: Preferred
Corporate debt instruments: All other
Preferred stock
Common stock
Partnership/joint venture interests
Real estate (except employer real property)
Loans (other than to participants)
Participant loans
Assets in common/collective trusts
Assets in pooled separate accounts

$3,129
21,203
1,886
20,847
54,283
69,426
18,921
47,073
9,630
311,961
12,975
2,777
2,589
27,011
281,174
118501

34

$1,179
7,174
58
15,681
16,336
55,501
14,846
38,511
1,940
227,110
12,035
2,436
907
225
166,256
47442

$1,950
14,029
1,828
5,166
37,947
13,925
4,075
8,562
7,690
84,852
941
340
1,682
26,786
114,918
71059
(continued...)

TABLE C5. Balance Sheet of Single Employer Pension Plans With 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1999
(amounts in millions)
Type of Asset or Liability
Assets in master trusts
Assets in 103-12 investment entities
Assets in registered investment companies
Assets in insurance co. general accounts
Other general investments
Employer securities
Employer real property
Buildings and other property used by plan
Other or unspecified assets
TOTAL ASSETS
LIABILITIES
Benefit claims payable
Operating payables
Acquisition indebtedness
Other liabilities
TOTAL LIABILITIES
NET ASSETS

Total

Defined
Benefit

1,355,239
9,372
676,707
85,956
57,219
307,318
5,131
10
19,462
3,519,800

919,504
3,999
82,817
15,641
20,721
13,317
54
7
2,213
1,665,912

435,735
5,373
593,890
70,315
36,498
294,001
5,077
2
17,249
1,853,888

3,958
7,849
13,202
27,973
52,982
3,466,818

751
6,944
1,514
14,960
24,168
1,641,744

3,208
905
11,688
13,013
28,814
1,825,074

SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

35

Defined
Contribution

TABLE C6. Balance Sheet of Multiemployer Pension Plans
With 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1999
(amounts in millions)
Type of Asset or Liability

Total

Defined Benefit

$564
1,676
27
3,838
13,470
63,771
26,567
28,193
519
146,469
2,265
5,625
3,295
650
49,199
6,384

$484
1,358
5
3,563
11,171
57,692
25,184
25,953
440
139,853
2,231
5,544
3,139
266
45,576
4,741

Defined Contribution

ASSETS
Total noninterest-bearing cash
Employer contributions receivable
Participant contributions receivable
Other receivables
Interest-bearing cash
U. S. Government securities
Corporate debt instruments: Preferred
Corporate debt instruments: All other
Preferred stock
Common stock
Partnership/joint venture interests
Real estate (except employer real property)
Loans (other than to participants)
Participant loans
Assets in common/collective trusts
Assets in pooled separate accounts

$81
318
21
275
2,299
6,079
1,383
2,240
79
6,616
35
81
156
384
3,624
1,643
(continued...)

TABLE C6. Balance Sheet of Multiemployer Pension Plans
With 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1999
(amounts in millions)
Type of Asset or Liability
Assets in master trusts
Assets in 103-12 investment entities
Assets in registered investment companies
Assets in insurance co. general accounts
Other general investments
Employer securities
Employer real property
Buildings and other property used by plan
Other or unspecified assets
TOTAL ASSETS
LIABILITIES
Benefit claims payable
Operating payables
Acquisition indebtedness
Other liabilities
TOTAL LIABILITIES
NET ASSETS
1/ Less than $500,000.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

Total

Defined Benefit

Defined Contribution

874
521
24,511
7,103
12,165
1,208
5
214
25
399,140

427
363
15,542
4,749
10,229
1,206
5
210
1/
359,931

447
158
8,970
2,355
1,936
2
1/
5
25
39,209

179
1,102
319
4,726
6,326
392,814

103
1,035
318
4,570
6,026
353,905

76
66
1
156
300
38,909

Table C7. Percentage Distribution of Assets in Defined Benefit Plans
with 100 or More Participants
by type of asset and size of plan, 1999
Type of Asset
TOTAL ASSETS
Cash
Receivables
U. S. Government securities
Corporate debt instruments: Preferred
Corporate debt instruments: All other
Corporate stocks
Real estate (except employer real prop.)
Loans
Assets in common/collective trusts
Assets in pooled separate accounts
Assets in master trusts
Assets in registered investment companies
Assets in insurance co. general account
Employer securities
Other or unspecified investments

Total

$1-0.99M

$1.0M-9.9M

$10.0M249.9M

$250.0M999.9M

$1.0B or
More

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

1
1
6
2
3
18

8
9
3

2
2
8
2
4
23

2
2
6
2
4
22

1

2
4

4
3
6
1
3
14

1
5
2
3
16

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

10
3
45
5
1
1
3

6
6
16
20
10

8
10
18
20
7

8
4
30
12
2

1/

1/

1/

15

7

3

7
1
43
6
1
1
3

12
2
51
2
1
1
2

1/

1/ Less than 1 percent.
NOTES: The letters M and B in the column headings denote millions and billions respectively. Percentage distributions may not add up to 100 percent
because of rounding.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

Table C8. Percentage Distribution of Assets in Defined Contribution Plans
with 100 or More Participants
by type of asset and size of plan, 1999
Type of Asset
TOTAL ASSETS
Cash
Receivables
U. S. Government securities
Corporate debt instruments: Preferred
Corporate debt instruments: All other
Corporate stocks
Real estate (except employer real prop.)
Loans
Assets in common/collective trusts
Assets in pooled separate accounts
Assets in master trusts
Assets in registered investment companies
Assets in insurance co. general account
Employer securities
Other or unspecified investments

Total

$1-0.99M

$1.0M-9.9M

$10.0M249.9M

$250.0M999.9M

$1.0B or
More

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

2
1
1

4
3
1

3
2
1

3
2
2

2
1
1

2
1
1

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

1
5

1
2

1
4

1
6

1/

1/

4

6

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

2
6
4
23
32
4
16
4

1
3
24
1
27
4
3
27

2
6
19
1
41
5
4
12

2
8
7
9
47
4
8
3

2
7
2
24
37
4
14
3

1
5
1
35
18
4
23
3

1/ Less than 1 percent.
NOTES: The letters M and B in the column headings denote millions and billions respectively. Percentage distributions may not add up to 100 percent
because of rounding.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

39

Table C9. Income Statement of Pension Plans With 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1999
(amounts in millions)

Income and Expenses

Total

Defined
Benefit

Defined
Contribution

INCOME
Contributions received or receivable from:
Employers
Participants
Others (including rollovers)
Noncash contributions
Total contributions
Interest earnings:
Interest-bearing cash
U. S. Government securities
Corporate debt instruments
Non-participant loans
Participant loans
Other or unspecified interest
Total interest earnings
Dividends:
Peferred stock
Common stock
Total dividend income
Rents
Net gain (loss) on sale of assets
Unrealized appreciation:
Unrealized appreciation of real estate
Other unrealized appreciation
Total unrealized appreciation
Net invest. gain from common/col. trusts
Net invest. gain from pooled sep. accounts
Net invest. gain from master trusts
Net invest. gain from 103-12 investment entities
Net invest. gain from reg. investment companies
Other or unspecified income

TOTAL INCOME

$75,170
85,872
10,289
703
172,035

$26,606
689
505
3
27,803

$48,563
85,183
9,784
700
144,232

6,792
7,098
6,679
303
1,662
11,342
33,876

2,581
6,004
5,859
181
21
4,351
18,998

4,211
1,094
820
121
1,640
6,991
14,878

1,438
17,686
19,124
347
33,283

295
5,861
6,156
298
20,684

1,143
11,825
12,968
49
12,599

7,158
66,336
73,494
34,654
14,353
170,688
1,412
79,596
9,464

2,792
41,279
44,072
23,818
4,549
124,376
764
8,404
3,273

4,366
25,056
29,422
10,835
9,804
46,312
648
71,193
6,191

642,325

283,193

359,132
(continued...)

40

Table C9. Income Statement of Pension Plans With 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1999
(amounts in millions)
Income and Expenses

Total

Defined
Benefit

Defined
Contribution

EXPENSES
Benefit payments and payments to provide
benefits:
Direct benefit payments
Payments to insurance carriers for benefits
Other or unspecified benefits
Total benefit payments
Interest expense
Corrective distributions
Deemed distribution of partic. Loans
Administrative expenses:
Professional fees
Contract administrator fees
Investment advisory and management fees
Other or unspecifed admin. expenses
Total administrative expenses
Unspecified expenses

$254,528
1,449
2,762
258,739
1,739
178
976

$107,396
1,181
2,098
110,674
24
3
1/

$147,132
269
664
148,065
1,715
175
976

TOTAL EXPENSES

1,160
856
4,030
2,550
8,595
79
270,306

923
597
3,342
1,833
6,695
9
117,405

237
259
687
717
1,901
70
152,901

NET INCOME

372,019

165,787

206,231

1/ Less than $500,000.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

41

Table C10. Income Statement of Single Employer Pension Plans
with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1999
(amounts in millions)
Income and Expenses

Total

Defined
Benefit

Defined
Contribution

INCOME
Contributions received or receivable from:
Employers
Participants
Others (including rollovers)
Noncash contributions
Total contributions
Interest earnings:
Interest-bearing cash
U. S. Government securities
Corporate debt instruments
Non-participant loans
Participant loans
Other or unspecified interest
Total interest earnings
Dividends:
Peferred stock
Common stock
Total dividend income
Rents
Net gain (loss) on sale of assets
Unrealized appreciation:
Unrealized appreciation of real estate
Other unrealized appreciation
Total unrealized appreciation
Net invest. gain from common/col. trusts
Net invest. gain from pooled separate accounts
Net invest. gain from master trusts
Net invest. gain from 103-12 invest. entities
Net invest. gain from reg. invest. companies
Other or unspecified income

TOTAL INCOME

$60,739
85,440
10,199
703
157,082

$15,444
646
481
3
16,574

$45,295
84,794
9,718
700
140,508

5,776
3,363
3,382
166
1,619
9,715
24,020

1,692
2,639
2,799
56
3
2,973
10,162

4,084
724
583
110
1,617
6,741
13,858

1,401
15,598
16,999
136
24,403

264
3,918
4,181
88
12,060

1,138
11,680
12,818
47
12,343

6,353
58,466
64,820
29,430
13,924
170,634
1,307
77,701
9,174

1,998
33,589
35,588
18,879
4,255
124,342
736
7,262
3,035

4,355
24,877
29,233
10,550
9,669
46,292
571
70,440
6,139

589,631

237,162

352,468
(continued...)

42

Table C10. Income Statement of Single Employer Pension Plans
with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1999
(amounts in millions)
Income and Expenses

Total

Defined
Benefit

Defined
Contribution

EXPENSES
Benefit payments and payments to provide
benefits:
Direct benefit payments
Payments to insurance carriers for benefits
Other or unspecified benefits
Total benefit payments
Interest expense
Corrective distributions
Deemed distrib. of participant loans
Administrative expenses:
Professional fees
Contract administrator fees
Investment advisory and management fees
Other or unspecifed admin. expenses
Total administrative expenses
Unpecified expenses

$233,329
1,381
2,715
237,425
1,725
175
281

$88,145
1,117
2,078
91,341
10
1
1/

$145,183
263
637
146,084
1,715
174
281

TOTAL EXPENSES

905
654
2,907
2,005
6,471
76
246,154

702
423
2,309
1,345
4,778
9
96,139

204
231
599
660
1,693
67
150,015

NET INCOME

343,477

141,024

202,454

1/ Less than $500,000.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

43

Table C11. Income Statement of Multiemployer Employer Pension Plans
with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1999
(amounts in millions)
Income and Expenses

Defined
Benefit

Total

Defined
Contribution

INCOME
Contributions received or receivable from:
Employers
Participants
Others (including rollovers)
Noncash contributions
Total contributions
Interest earnings:
Interest-bearing cash
U. S. Government securities
Corporate debt instruments
Non-participant loans
Participant loans
Other or unspecified interest
Total interest earnings
Dividends:
Peferred stock
Common stock
Total dividend income
Rents
Net gain (loss) on sale of assets
Unrealized appreciation:
Unrealized appreciation of real estate
Other unrealized appreciation
Total unrealized appreciation
Net invest. gain from common/col. trusts
Net invest. gain from pooled separate accounts
Net invest. gain from master trusts
Net invest. gain from 103-12 invest. entities
Net invest. gain from reg. invest. companies
Other or unspecified income

$14,430
432
90

TOTAL INCOME

$11,162
42
24

1/

1/

14,952

11,228

$3,268
389
67
0
3,724

1,016
3,735
3,298
137
42
1,628
9,856

889
3,365
3,060
125
19
1,378
8,836

127
371
238
11
24
250
1,020

37
2,088
2,125
211
8,880

31
1,943
1,975
209
8,624

5
145
150
2
256

805
7,870
8,674
5,224
429
54
105
1,895
290

794
7,690
8,484
4,939
294
34
27
1,142
238

11
179
190
285
135
20
77
753
52

52,694

46,030

6,663
(continued...)

44

Table C11. Income Statement of Multiemployer Pension Plans
With 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1999
(amounts in millions)
Income and Expenses

Total

Defined
Benefit

Defined
Contribution

EXPENSES
Benefit payments and payments to provide
benefits:
Direct benefit payments
Payments to insurance carriers for benefits
Other or unspecified benefits
Total benefit payments
Interest expense
Corrective distributions
Deemed distrib. of participant loans
Administrative expenses:
Professional fees
Contract administrator fees
Investment advisory and management fees
Other or unspecifed admin. expenses
Total administrative expenses
Unpecified expenses

$21,199
69
46
21,314
14
3
695

$19,251
63
20
19,334
14
2

221
174
1,034
488
1,917

TOTAL EXPENSES

254
202
1,122
545
2,124
2
24,152

21,267

33
28
89
57
207
2
2,886

NET INCOME

28,541

24,764

3,778

1/ Less than $500,000.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

45

1/

1/

$1,948
5
26
1,980
1/

1
695

Table C12. Percentage Distribution of Income of Defined Benefit Plans
with 100 or More Participants
by source of income and size of plan, 1999
Type of Income
TOTAL INCOME
Employer contributions
Participant contributions
Other or unspecified contributions
Total contributions
Interest on interest-bearing cash
Interest on U. S. Government securities
Interest on corporate debt instruments
Interest on non-participant loans
Interest on participant loans
Other or unspecified interest
Total interest earnings
Total dividends income
Net gain (loss) on sale of assets
Total unrealized appreciation
Net invest. gain from common/col. trusts
Net invest. gain from pooled sep. accounts
Net invest. gain from master trusts
Net invest. gain from registered invest. co.
Other or unspecified income

Total

$1-0.99M

$1.0M-9.9M

$10.0M249.9M

$250.0M999.9M

$1.0B or
More

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

9

35
1
1
36
3
2
1

19

11

6

1/

1/

1/

1/

1

10
1
2
2

43
1
2
46
2
3
2

19
2
3
3

12
1
3
3

1/
6

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

1/

2
7
2
7
16
8
2
44
3
2

6
13
1
7
21
1
1
4
3
2

4
10
3
6
6
4
6
14
11
5

2
10
4
10
11
6
3
26
8
2

2
8
3
10
15
6
1
40
4
1

1
5
2
6
17
10
1
49
1
1

1/
1/

1/ Less than 1 percent.
NOTES: The letters M and B in the column headings denote millions and billions respectively. Percentage distributions may not add up to 100 percent
because of rounding.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

46

1
2
2

Table C13. Percentage Distribution of Income of Defined Contribution Plans
with 100 or More Participants
by source of income and size of plan, 1999
Type of Income
TOTAL INCOME
Employer contributions
Participant contributions
Other or unspecified contributions
Total contributions
Interest on interest-bearing cash
Interest on U. S. Government securities
Interest on corporate debt instruments
Interest on non-participant loans
Interest on participant loans
Other or unspecified interest
Total interest earnings
Total dividends income
Net gain (loss) on sale of assets
Total unrealized appreciation
Net invest. gain from common/col. trusts
Net invest. gain from pooled sep. accounts
Net invest. gain from master trusts
Net invest. gain from registered invest. co.
Other or unspecified expenses

Total

$1-0.99M

$1.0M-9.9M

$10.0M249.9M

$250.0M999.9M

$1.0B or
More

100

100

100

100

100

100

14
24
3
40
1

21
49
5
75
1

16
31
5
53
1

16
24
3
43
1

14
23
4
41
1

10
22
2
34
1

1/
1/
1/
1/

1/
1/
1/
1/

1/
1/
1/
1/

1/
1/
1/
1/

1/
1/
1/
1/

1/
1/
1/
1/

2
4
4
4
8
3
3
13
20
2

1
2
1
1
-2
1
7
1/
7
8

1
3
1
1
3
2
10
1
20
6

2
4
3
3
6
3
4
5
28
2

2
4
4
4
6
3
1
12
24
1

2
4
5
5
13
3
1/
24
10
1

1/ Less than 1 percent.
NOTES: The letters M and B in the column headings denote millions and billions respectively. Percentage distributions may not add up to 100 percent
because of rounding.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

47

Figure C1. Average Assets per Participant
by plan size, 1999

Assets per Participant ($Thousands)

250

200

150

100

50

0
1

10

100

1,000

10,000

100,000

1,000,000

Number of Participants
Note: Each point shows the average assets per participant among plans within participation intervals just wide enough to include 100 or more plans.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.
48

Figure C2. Distribution of Pension Plans,
Participants, and Assets
by plan size, 1999
100

Percent of Total

80

Plans
60

Participants
Assets
40

20

0
1

10

100

1,000

10,000

100,000

1,000,000

Number of Participants
Note: Lines show percentage of plans, participants, and assets reported by plans having less than or equal to the number of participants shown on the horizontal axis.
Includes plans reporting 2 or more participants only.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

49

SECTION D: DEFINED CONTRIBUTION PLANS

Table D1. Balance Sheet of Defined Contribution Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1999
(amounts in millions)

Type of Asset or Liability

Total noninterest-bearing cash
Employer contrib. receivable
Participant contrib. receivable
Other receivables
Interest-bearing cash
U. S. Government securities
Corporate debt instruments: Preferred
Corporate debt instruments: All other
Preferred stock
Common stock
Partnership/joint venture interests
Real estate (except employer real prop.)
Loans (other than to participants)
Participant loans
Assets in common/collective trusts
Assets in pooled separate accounts
Assets in master trusts
Assets in 103-12 investment entities
Assets in registered investment comp.
Assets in ins. co. general account
Other general investments
Employer securities
Employer real property
Buildings and other prop. used by plan
Other or unspecified assets
TOTAL ASSETS
Benefit claims payable
Operating payables
Acquisition indebtedness
Other liabilities
TOTAL LIABILITIES
NET ASSETS

Total
Defined
Contribution
Plans
$2,030
14,347
1,850
5,442
40,246
20,004
5,458
10,802
7,768
91,469
975
421
1,838
27,170
118,542
72,700
436,181
5,531
602,859
72,670
38,434
294,003
5,077
7
17,274
1,893,097
3,284
971
11,689
13,170
29,114
1,863,984

Profit
Sharing and
Thrift Savings
Plans
$1,848
11,990
1,793
4,701
34,462
12,291
4,081
7,185
7,422
73,266
797
333
1,706
25,909
107,901
67,522
419,287
5,144
556,229
64,557
33,612
223,018
4,995
2
15,631
1,685,680
2,746
547
6,797
8,034
18,123
1,667,557

1/ Less than $500,000.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

53

Stock Bonus
Plans

$44
572
6
135
1,387
442
7
538
49
2,114
1
2
2
697
2,440
313
3,422
0
11,034
736
1,360
52,506
38
0
102
77,950
151
293
3,114
3,890
7,448
70,502

Target
Benefit
Plans
$2
44
3
13
138
145
26
96
1/

491
24
1
0
47
755
36
1,407
0
710
396
40
2,498
0
1/

34
6,907
96
2
0
4
102
6,804

Money
Purchase
Plans
$85
1,357
29
446
3,775
6,441
1,204
2,768
240
13,239
138
68
117
436
6,966
4,335
10,227
387
30,609
5,961
2,886
2,805
10
5
1,421
95,954
160
69
55
257
542
95,413

Other
Defined
Contribution
Plans
$51
385
18
146
483
685
139
216
58
2,359
15
18
12
81
479
495
1,838
0
4,278
1,018
536
13,175
34
1/

85
26,606
131
60
1,722
985
2,898
23,708

Table D2. Income Statement of Defined Contribution Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1999
(amounts in millions)

Type of Asset or Liability
INCOME
Contributions received or receivable from:
Employers
Participants
Others (including rollovers)
Noncash contributions
Total contributions
Interest earnings:
Interest-bearing cash
U. S. Government securities
Corporate debt instruments
Non-participant loans
Participant loans
Other or unspecified interest
Total interest earnings
Dividends:
Peferred stock
Common stock
Total dividend income
Rents
Net gain (loss) on sale of assets
Unrealized appreciation:
Unrealized appreciation of real estate
Other unrealized appreciation
Total unrealized appreciation
Net invest. gain from common/col. trusts
Net invest. gain from pooled sep. accounts
Net invest. gain from master trusts
Net invest. gain from 103-12 invest. entities
Net invest. gain from reg. invest. companies
Other or unspecified income
TOTAL INCOME

Total
Defined
Contribution
Plans

Profit
Sharing and
Thrift Savings
Plans

Stock Bonus
Target
Plans
Benefit Plans

Money
Purchase
Plans

Other
Defined
Contribution
Plans

$48,563
85,183
9,784
700
144,232

$38,498
82,451
9,448
593
130,991

$2,644
1,372
118
93
4,227

$188
178
2
0
368

$5,952
902
143
3
7,000

$1,281
281
74
11
1,647

4,211
1,094
820
121
1,640
6,991
14,878

3,816
597
564
104
1,577
6,313
12,971

73
13
4
9
33
141
273

29
6
6

256
441
223
7
27
492
1,447

37
37
23
1
3
39
140

1,143
11,825
12,968
49
12,599

744
9,871
10,614
46
10,190

274
1,166
1,440
1,379

37
37
0
45

77
522
599
2
813

49
228
277
2
171

4,366
25,056
29,422
10,835
9,804
46,312
648
71,193
6,191
359,132

2,557
21,494
24,050
9,888
9,174
44,479
561
65,922
5,186
324,072

1,587
2,361
3,949
58
56
234
1/
1087
421
13,125

308
308
429
5
153
0
164
6
1,563

120
1,601
1,721
421
522
1,311
86
3632
484
18,038

101
-708
-607
40
48
135
1/
388
94
2,334

1/

1/
1/

5
48
1/

1/

(continued...)

54

Table D2. Income Statement of Defined Contribution Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1999
(amounts in millions)

Type of Asset or Liability

Total
Defined
Contribution
Plans

Profit
Sharing and
Thrift Savings
Plans

Stock Bonus
Target
Plans
Benefit Plans

Money
Purchase
Plans

Other
Defined
Contribution
Plans

EXPENSES
Benefit payments and payments to provide
benefits:
Direct benefit payments
Payments to insurance carriers for benefits
Other or unspecified benefits
Total benefit payments
Interest expense
Corrective distributions
Deemed distrib. of participant loans
Administrative expenses:
Professional fees
Contract administrator fees
Investment advisory and management fees
Other or unspecifed admin. expenses
Total administrative expenses
Unpecified expenses

$147,132
$269
664
148,065
175
976
1,715

$132,705
$140
472
133,317
171
281
998

$5,438
$2
57
5,498

$464
1/
3
468

1/

1/

1/

1/

526

0

TOTAL EXPENSES

237
259
687
717
1,901
70
152,901

193
222
542
593
1,549
51
136,367

4
5
8
20
38
9
6,071

NET INCOME

206,231

187,705

7,053

1/ Less than $500,000.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

55

$6,248
$110
59
6,417
2
694
5

$2,276
$16
73
2,366
1

480

30
27
121
80
258
7
7,383

8
4
13
19
44
3
2,599

1,083

10,654

-264

2
1/

4
6
12
1/

1/

186

Table D3. Number of 401(k) Type Plans, Participants, Active Participants,
Assets, Contributions, and Benefits
by type of plan, 1999
Type of Plan

Number of
Plans 1/

TOTAL

Profit sharing and thrift-savings
Stock bonus
Target benefit
Money purchase
Annuity-403(b)(1)
Custodial account-403(b)7

335,121
333,713
322
115
898
58
14

Total
Participants
(thousands) 2/

Active
Participants
(thousands) 3/

46,203
45,183
628
95
284
8
5

38,619
37,769
516
84
241
5
4

Total Assets
(millions)
$1,790,256
1,737,101
38,381
3,579
10,848
173
175

Total
Contributions
(millions) 4/
$151,966
148,631
2,202
254
826
30
23

Total Benefits
(millions) 5/
$145,979
142,059
2,890
250
727
22
32

1/ Excludes plans covering only one participant.
2/ Includes active, retired and separated vested participants not yet in pay status. The number of participants also includes double counting of workers in more than one
plan.
3/ Active participants include any workers currently in employment covered by a plan and who are earning or retaining credited service under a plan. Active participants also
include nonvested former employees who have not yet incurred a break in service
4/ Includes both employer and employee contributions.
5/ Amounts shown include both benefits paid directly from trust funds and premium payments made by plans to insurance carriers. Amounts exclude benefits made directly
by insurance carriers.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

56

Table D4. Number of 401(k) Type Plans
by number of participants and primary or supplemental status, 1999

Number of Participants

Total
None or not reported
2-9
10-24
25-49
50-99
100-249
250-499
500-999
1,000-2,499
2,500-4,999
5,000-9,999
10,000-19,999
20,000-49,999
50,000 or more

401(k) is Only Plan
Sponsored by
Employer

Total

335,121
11,958
69,238
99,771
68,498
42,202
25,002
8,678
4,504
2,968
1,123
602
324
184
69

301,282
10,955
62,572
91,908
63,156
38,394
21,546
6,752
3,202
1,810
561
253
117
47
9

SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

57

Employer
Sponsoring 401(k)
Plan Also Sponsors
Other Pension
Plan(s)
33,839
1,004
6,666
7,864
5,342
3,808
3,456
1,926
1,302
1,158
562
349
207
137
60

Table D5. Number of Active Participants in 401(k) Type Plans
by number of participants and primary or supplemental status, 1999
(numbers in thousands)

Number of Participants

Total
2-9
10-24
25-49
50-99
100-249
250-499
500-999
1,000-2,499
2,500-4,999
5,000-9,999
10,000-19,999
20,000-49,999
50,000 or more

401(k) is Only Plan
Sponsored by
Employer

Total

Employer
Sponsoring 401(k)
Plan Also Sponsors
Other Pension
Plan(s)

38,620

20,846

17,774

354

321

33

1,363

1,255

108

2,003

1,843

160

2,435

2,206

229

3,212

2,737

475

2,555

1,969

586

2,653

1,858

795

3,870

2,318

1,553

3,287

1,643

1,643

3,509

1,472

2,037

3,679

1,389

2,290

4,556
5,144

1,226
611

3,331
4,534

SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

58

TABLE D6. Number of 401(k) Type Plans and Active Participants
by size of plan and extent of participant direction of investments, 1999
Participant Directs
Participant Does
Investment of Portion
Not Direct Any
Of Assets 1/
Investments
Active
Active
Active
Active
Number of
Number of
Number of
Number of
Participants
Participants
Participants
Participants
Plans
Plans
Plans
Plans
(thousands)
(thousands)
(thousands)
(thousands)
Participant Directs All
Investments

Total

Number of
Participants

Total
None or not reported
2-9
10-24
25-49
50-99
100-249
250-499
500-999
1,000-2,499
2,500-4,999
5,000-9,999
10,000-19,999
20,000-49,999
50,000 or more

335,121

38,619

249,778

26,571

19,368

6,484

65,975

5,564

11,958
69,238
99,771
68,498
42,202
25,003
8,678
4,504
2,966
1,123
602
324
184
69

0
354
1,363
2,003
2,435
3,212
2,555
2,653
3,869
3,287
3,509
3,679
4,555
5,144

8,563
48,411
74,328
51,647
32,145
20,149
7,089
3,644
2,297
774
405
186
103
35

0
250
1,020
1,508
1,848
2,601
2,092
2,139
2,972
2,271
2,365
2,129
2,546
2,828

609
3,078
5,785
4,442
2,497
1,436
485
307
266
186
98
95
56
26

0
16
78
125
144
181
137
178
359
534
564
1,099
1,431
1,637

2,786
17,748
19,659
12,409
7,560
3,417
1,103
554
404
162
99
43
25
8

0
88
265
370
443
429
325
336
538
482
579
452
578
680

1/ Generally, the portion would consist of employee contributions.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

59

TABLE D7. Balance Sheet of 401(k) Type Plans
by extent of participant direction of investments, 1999
(amounts in millions)
Participant Directs
Investment of
Portion of Assets 1/

Participant Does
Not Direct Any
Investments

Total

Participant Directs
All Investments

Partnership/joint venture interests
Employer real property
Real estate (exc. employer real property)
Employer securities
Participant loans
Loans (other than to participants)
Other investments 2/
TOTAL ASSETS

$762
4,909
366
222,061
27,782
1,683
1,532,693
1,790,256

$417
3,736
201
77,459
17,351
1,025
945,276
1,045,465

$144
839
72
103,992
6,370
453
361,547
473,418

$201
334
92
40,610
4,060
205
225,870
271,374

TOTAL LIABILITIES
NET ASSETS

17,973
1,772,283

3,987
1,041,478

11,799
461,619

2,187
269,186

Type of Asset or Liability

1/ Generally, the portion would consist of employee contributions.
2/ This table summarizes assets that appear on both the Schedule H (for plans with 100 or more participants) and Schedule I (for plans with fewer than 100 participants). All
asset items that appear on the more detailed Schedule H but not the Schedule I are grouped under "Other investments".
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

60

TABLE D8. Income Statement of 401(k) Type Plans
by extent of participant direction of investments, 1999
(amounts in millions)

Income and Expenses

Total

Participant Directs
All Investments

Participant Directs
Investment of
Portion of Assets 1/

Participant Does
Not Direct Any
Investments

INCOME
Employer contributions
Participant contributions
Contributions from others (including rollovers)
Noncash contributions
All other income
TOTAL INCOME

$41,378
97,947
11,974
667
210,822
362,788

$26,555
64,790
8,883
199
142,999
243,425

$7,871
18,379
1,439
404
43,898
71,991

$6,951
14,778
1,652
64
23,926
47,372

EXPENSES
Total benefit payments
Corrective distributions
Deemed distrib. of partic. loans
Other of unspecified expenses
TOTAL EXPENSES

145,979
284
287
2,942
149,493

85,874
238
202
1,277
87,591

37,480
14
53
1,167
38,714

22,625
32
32
498
23,188

NET INCOME

213,295

155,834

33,277

24,184

1/ Generally, the portion would consist of employee contributions.
2/ This table summarizes income and expenses that appear on both the Schedule H (for plans with 100 or more participants) and Schedule I (for plans with fewer than 100
participants). All income and expense items that appear on the more detailed Schedule H but not the Schedule I are grouped under "All other income" or "Other expenses"
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

61

TABLE D9. Balance Sheet of 401(k) Type Plans with 100 or More Participants
by extent of participant direction of investments, 1999
(amounts in millions)

Type of Asset or Liability

Total

Participant Directs
All Investments

Participant Directs
Investment of Portion
of Assets 1/

Participant Does
Not Direct Any
Investments

ASSETS
Total noninterest-bearing cash
Employer contributions receivable
Participant contributions receivable
Other receivables
Interest-bearing cash
U. S. Government securities
Corporate debt instruments: Preferred
Corporate debt instruments: All other
Preferred stock
Common stock
Partnership/joint venture interests
Real estate (exc employer real property)
Loans (other than to participants)
Participant loans
Assets in common/collective trusts
Assets in pooled separate accounts

$1,408
8,652
1,763
4,375
31,117
9,312
3,579
5,729
5,729
60,916
393
205
1,498
25,519
103,270
64,891

$644
5,502
1,190
1,662
20,558
4,506
1,203
3,094
218
30,182
292
82
938
15,576
67,797
53,685

62

$101
2,108
357
1,780
5,307
2,502
2,074
1,371
5,390
17,875
67
56
426
6,221
21,834
5,104

$663
1,043
216
933
5,251
2,304
302
1,264
121
12,859
34
67
135
3,722
13,640
6,103
(continued...)

TABLE D9. Balance Sheet of 401(k) Type Plans with 100 or More Participants
by extent of participant direction of investments, 1999
(amounts in millions)

Type of Asset or Liability
Assets in master trusts
Assets in 103-12 investment entities
Assets in registered investment companies
Assets in insurance comp. general account
Other general investments
Employer securities
Employer real property
Buildings and other property used by plan
Other or unspecified assets
TOTAL ASSETS
LIABILITIES
Benefit claims payable
Operating payables
Acquisition indebtedness
Other liabilities
TOTAL LIABILITIES
NET ASSETS

Total

Participant Directs
Participant Directs
Investment of Portion
All Investments
of Assets 1/

$378,225
5,152
535,624
62,999
28,431
220,726
4,891
1
13,200
1,577,607

$190,543
3,888
355,834
34,644
13,294
77,188
3,732
1/

1/

1/

10,032
896,285

1,074
454,261

2,094
227,061

2,142
687
6,465
7,674
16,968
1,560,639

836
188
1,326
1,277
3,627
892,659

973
208
4,369
5,856
11,405
442,856

333
291
771
541
1,936
225,125

1/ Generally, the portion would consist of employee contributions.
2/ Less than $500,000.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

63

$160,742
594
89,947
13,778
11,416
103,301
839

Participant Does
Not Direct Any
Investments
$26,941
670
89,843
14,577
3,721
40,237
320

Table D10. Income Statement of 401(k) Type Plans with 100 or More Participants
by extent of participant direction of investments, 1999
(amounts in millions)

Income and Expenses

Total

Participant Directs
All Investments

Participant Directs
Investment of
Portion of Assets 1/

Participant Does
Not Direct Any
Investments

INCOME
Contributions received or receivable from:
Employers
Participants
Others (including rollovers)
Noncash contributions
Total contributions
Interest earnings:
Interest-bearing cash
U. S. Government securities
Corporate debt instruments
Non-participant loans
Participant loans
Other or unspecified interest
Total interest earnings
Dividends:
Peferred stock
Common stock
Total dividend income
Rents
Net gain (loss) on sale of assets
Unrealized appreciation:
Unrealized appreciation of real estate
Other unrealized appreciation
Total unrealized appreciation
Net invest. gain from common/col. trusts
Net invest. gain from pooled sep. accounts
Net invest. gain from master trusts
Net invest. gain from 103-12 invest. entities
Net invest. gain from reg. invest. companies
Other or unspecified income

TOTAL INCOME

$33,382
81,824
9,189
541
124,936

$21,073
52,483
6,784
127
80,468

$7,224
17,517
1,162
384
26,288

$5,085
11,823
1,242
29
18,180

3,561
414
406
99
1,545
5,661
11,687

2,127
208
250
43
995
3,499
7,123

856
91
86
37
372
1,174
2,616

578
114
70
19
178
988
1,948

690
10,007
10,697
38
10,179

173
4,822
4,995
10
4,504

431
3,008
3,439
2
2,194

86
2,177
2,263
27
3,481

4,269
17,594
21,863
9,680
8,946
38,157
497
64,207
5,045

566
20,161
20,727
6,855
7,550
19,499
335
45,984
2,851

184
1,114
1,298
1,833
668
16,643
67
11,257
1,084

3,519
-3,681
-163
992
728
2,016
96
6,966
1,110

305,933

200,900

67,389

37,643
(continued...)

64

Table D10. Income Statement of 401(k) Type Plans with 100 or More Participants
by extent of participant direction of investments, 1999
(amounts in millions)

Income and Expenses

Total

Participant Directs
All Investments

Participant Directs
Investment of
Portion of Assets 1/

Participant Does
Not Direct Any
Investments

EXPENSES
Benefit payments and payments to provide

benefits:
Direct benefit payments
Payments to insurance carriers for benefits
Other or unspecified benefits
Total benefit payments
Interest expense
Corrective distributions
Deemed distrib. of partic. loans
Administrative expenses:
Professional fees
Contract administrator fees
Investment advisory and management fees
Other or unspecifed admin. expenses
Total administrative expenses
Unpecified expenses

$122,902
113
315
123,331
169
272
1,004

$71,015
90
53
71,158
146
188
102

$35,032
16
82
35,131
11
53
796

$16,855
8
180
17,043
12
31
106

TOTAL EXPENSES

164
209
428
553
1,354
38
126,169

101
117
288
320
826
25
72,445

39
57
78
122
296
5
36,291

24
35
62
112
232
9
17,433

NET INCOME

179,764

128,455

31,098

20,211

1/ Generally, the portion would consist of employee contributions.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

65

Table D11. Number of Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs), Total
Participants, Active Participants, Assets, Contributions, and Benefits
by type of plan, 1999

Type of Plan

TOTAL

Profit sharing and thrift-savings
Stock bonus plans
Target benefit plans
Money purchase plans
Annuity-403(b)(1)
Other defined contribution plans

Number of
Plans 1/
7,242
2,296
2,610
3
175
1
2,158

Total
Participants
(thousands) 2/

Active
Participants
(thousands) 3/

8,956
6,265
1,805
93
37
8
747

7,217
5,050
1,448
83
29
4
603

Total Assets
(millions)
$502,019
411,762
66,103
3,805
1,193
152
19,004

Total
Contributions
(millions) 4/
$25,177
20,276
3,513
254
90
27
1,016

Total Benefits
(millions) 5/
$39,848
32,389
5,078
271
61
21
2,029

1/ Excludes plans covering only one participant.
2/ Includes active, retired, and separated vested participants not yet in pay status. The number of participants also includes double counting of workers in more than one
plan.
3/ Active participants include any workers currently in employment covered by a plan and who are earning or retaining credited service under a plan. Active participants also
include nonvested former employees who have not yet incurred a break in service.
4/ Includes both employer and employee contributions.
5/ Amounts shown include both benefits paid directly from trust funds and premium payments made by plans to insurance carriers. Amounts exclude benefits directly made
by insurance carriers.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

66

Table D12. Number of Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs), Total
Participants, Active Participants, Assets, Contributions, and Benefits
by type of ESOP, 1999
Type of Plan
TOTAL
Nonleveraged ESOPs
Leveraged ESOPs

Number of
Plans
7,242
4,247
2,996

Total
Participants
(thousands) 2/
8,956
5,376
3,579

Active
Participants
(thousands) 3/
7,217
4,345
2,872

Total Assets
(millions)
$502,019
239,708
262,311

Total
Contributions
(millions) 4/
$25,177
13,604
11,573

1/ Excludes plans covering only one participant.
2/ Includes active, retired, and separated vested participants not yet in pay status. The number of participants also includes double counting
of workers in more than one plan.
3/ Active participants include any workers currently in employment covered by a plan and who are earning or retaining credited service under
a plan. Active participants also include nonvested former employees who have not yet incurred a break in service.
4/ Includes both employer and employee contributions.
5/ Amounts shown include both benefits paid directly from trust funds and premium payments made by plans to insurance carriers.
Amounts exclude benefits directly made by insurance carriers.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

67

Total Benefits
(millions) 5/
$39,848
22,952
16,896

Table D13. Number of Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs)
by number of participants and primary or supplemental status, 1999

Number of Participants

Total
None or not reported
2-9
10-24
25-49
50-99
100-249
250-499
500-999
1,000-2,499
2,500-4,999
5,000-9,999
10,000-19,999
20,000-49,999
50,000 or more

ESOP is Only Plan
Sponsored by
Employer

Total

7,242
318
360
994
1,312
1,335
1,380
556
335
264
128
98
72
45
43

4,082
130
355
695
880
797
710
211
130
91
37
17
18
5
6

SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

68

Employer
Sponsoring ESOP
Plan Also Sponsors
Another Pension
Plan(s)
3,160
188
5
299
433
538
670
346
205
173
91
82
55
40
37

TABLE D14. Balance Sheet of Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs)
with 100 or More Participants
by leveraged status, 1999
(amounts in millions)
Type of Asset or Liability

Total

Nonleveraged
ESOPs

Leveraged
ESOPs

ASSETS
Total noninterest-bearing cash
Employer contributions receivable
Participant contributions receivable
Other receivables
Interest-bearing cash
U. S. Government securities
Corporate debt instruments: Preferred
Corporate debt instruments: All other
Preferred stock
Common stock
Partnership/joint venture interests
Real estate (exc employer real property)
Loans (other than to participants)
Participant loans
Assets in common/collective trusts
Assets in pooled separate accounts
Assets in master trusts
Assets in 103-12 investment entities
Assets in registered investment comp.
Assets in ins. co. general account
Other general investments
Employer securities
Employer real property
Buildings and other property used by plan
Other or unspecified assets
TOTAL ASSETS
LIABILITIES
Benefit claims payable
Operating payables
Acquisition indebtedness
Other liabilities
TOTAL LIABILITIES
NET ASSETS

$217
2,272
165
1,661
6,828
3,404
1,875
2,031
5,439
20,296
32
7
622
5,914
23,126
1,693
128,565
2,342
67,024
12,066
8,670
194,592
4,480
0
276
493,595

$152
1,361
90
1,158
4,317
2,011
283
562
5,386
11,540
30
5
90
3,266
7,959
585
56,718
2,052
35,919
4,623
3,202
93,694
168
0
179
235,351

$65
911
75
503
2,511
1,393
1,591
1,469
53
8,756
1
2
532
2,648
15,167
1,108
71,847
290
31,106
7,443
5,467
100,898
4,312
0
97
258,245

1,104
611
11,359
11,323
24,398
469,197

698
125
2,709
1,800
5,332
230,019

406
486
8,651
9,523
19,066
239,179

SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

69

Table D15. Income Statement of Employer Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs)
with 100 or More Participants
by leveraged status, 1999
(amounts in millions)
Income and Expenses

Total

Nonleveraged
ESOPs

Leveraged
ESOPs

INCOME
Contributions received or receivable from:
Employers
Participants
Others (including rollovers)
Noncash contributions
Total contributions
Interest earnings:
Interest-bearing cash
U. S. Government securities
Corporate debt instruments
Non-participant loans
Participant loans
Other or unspecified interest
Total interest earnings
Dividends:
Peferred stock
Common stock
Total dividend income
Rents
Net gain (loss) on sale of assets
Unrealized appreciation:
Unrealized appreciation of real estate
Other unrealized appreciation
Total unrealized appreciation

$8,785
14,707
799
437
24,728

$4,941
7,886
460
197
13,485

$3,844
6,821
339
240
11,243

824
110
83
21
396
884
2,318

488
76
51
9
222
470
1,317

336
34
32
11
174
414
1,001

766
4,913
5,679
1
3,237

344
2,213
2,557

422
2,701
3,122

1/

1/

2,683

554

1,120
5,212
6,333

1,178
4,083
5,261

-58
1,130
1,072
(continued...)

70

Table D15. Income Statement of Employer Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs)
with 100 or More Participants
by leveraged status, 1999
(amounts in millions)
Income and Expenses

Total

Net inv. gain from common/col. trusts
Net inv. gain from pooled sep. accounts
Net inv. gain from master trusts
Net inv. gain from 103-12 inv. entities
Net inv. gain from reg. Inv. companies
Other or unspecified income
TOTAL INCOME
EXPENSES
Benefit payments and payments to provide
benefits
Direct benefit payments
Payments to ins. carriers for benefits
Other or unspecified benefits
Total benefit payments
Interest expense
Corrective distributions
Deemed distrib. of partic. loans
Administrative expenses:
Professional fees
Contract administrator fees
Investment advisory and management fees
Other or unspecifed admin. expenses
Total administrative expenses
Unpecified expenses
TOTAL EXPENSES
NET INCOME
1/ Less than $500,000.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

71

Nonleveraged
ESOPs

Leveraged
ESOPs

$2,270
216
13,012
30
7,174
1,139
66,136

$1,135
79
4,190
11
4,436
361
35,516

$1,134
137
8,822
18
2,738
778
30,620

38,170
3
278
38,450
4
59
1,680

22,084
1
42
22,127
4
33
303

16,086
2
236
16,323
1/
27
1,377

38
49
64
128
279
18
40,491

21
20
23
48
112
4
22,583

17
29
41
80
168
14
17,909

25,645

12,933

12,711

TABLE D16. Number of Defined Contribution Plans, Participants,
Active Participants, Assets, Contributions, and Benefits
by 401(k) and ESOP status, 1999
401(k) / ESOP Status
TOTAL
401(k), not ESOP
ESOP, not 401(k)
401(k) and ESOP
Not 401(k), not ESOP

Number of
Plans 1/
683,100
333,884
6,006
1,236
341,973

Total
Participants
(thousands) 2/
60,368
40,555
3,307
5,648
10,857

Active
Participants
(thousands) 3/
50,390
34,165
2,763
4,454
9,008

Total Assets
(millions)
2,350,266
1,371,384
83,147
418,872
476,863

Total
Contributions
(millions) 4/
185,869
131,859
4,293
21,368
28,350

1/ Excludes plans covering only one participant.
2/ Includes active, retired, and separated vested participants not yet in pay status. The number of participants also includes double counting
of workers in more than one plan.
3/ Active participants include any workers currently in employment covered by a plan and who are earning or retaining credited:service under a
plan. Active participants also include nonvested former employees who have not yet incurred a break in service.
4/ Includes both employer and employee contributions.
5/ Amounts shown include both benefits paid directly from trust funds and premium payments made by plans to insurance carriers.
Amounts exclude benefits paid directly by insurance carriers.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for plan years beginning in 1999.

72

Total Benefits
(millions) 5/
195,138
113,570
7,038
33,820
40,711

SECTION E: HISTORICAL TABLES

Table E1. Number of Pension Plans
by type of plan, 1980-1999
Year

Total

Total Plans
Defined
Defined
Benefit
Contribution

Single Employer Plans 1/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

Multiemployer Plans 2/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

488,901
545,611
594,456
602,848
604,434

148,096
167,293
174,998
175,143
168,015

340,805
378,318
419,458
427,705
436,419

486,142
542,789
591,417
599,822
601,413

145,764
165,042
172,662
172,843
165,732

340,378
377,747
418,755
426,979
435,681

2,759
2,822
3,039
3,026
3,021

2,332
2,252
2,336
2,300
2,283

427
570
703
726
738

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

632,135
717,627
733,029
729,922
731,356

170,172
172,642
163,065
145,952
132,467

461,963
544,985
569,964
583,971
598,889

629,069
714,563
729,909
726,648
728,276

167,911
170,431
160,904
143,833
130,472

461,158
544,132
569,005
582,815
597,804

3,066
3,063
3,112
3,275
3,080

2,261
2,210
2,157
2,119
1,995

805
853
955
1,156
1,085

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

712,308
699,294
708,335
702,097
690,344

113,062
101,752
88,621
83,596
74,422

599,245
597,542
619,714
618,501
615,922

709,404
696,300
705,226
698,918
687,158

111,251
99,931
86,797
81,737
72,555

598,153
596,369
618,429
617,180
614,603

2,904
2,994
3,109
3,179
3,186

1,812
1,821
1,824
1,859
1,867

1,092
1,173
1,285
1,320
1,319

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

693,404
696,224
720,041
730,031
732,995

69,492
63,657
59,499
56,405
49,895

623,912
632,566
660,542
673,626
683,100

690,265
692,957
716,912
726,997
729,983

67,682
61,790
57,720
54,699
48,168

622,584
631,167
659,192
672,297
681,815

3,139
3,267
3,130
3,035
3,011

1,810
1,867
1,779
1,706
1,727

1,328
1,399
1,351
1,329
1,285

1/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
2/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for 1980-1999.

75

Table E2. Number of Pension Plans with Fewer Than 100 Participants
by type of plan, 1980-1999
Year

Total

Total Plans
Defined
Defined
Benefit
Contribution

Single Employer Plans 1/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

Multiemployer Plans 2/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

451,046
505,368
552,258
558,146
558,943

123,591
142,304
149,600
149,164
142,912

327,455
363,064
402,658
408,982
416,031

450,740
505,109
551,899
557,847
558,649

123,340
142,165
149,391
148,955
142,699

327,400
362,944
402,508
408,892
415,950

306
259
359
299
293

251
139
309
209
213

55
120
150
90
81

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

583,476
666,669
681,238
675,525
675,706

145,430
148,168
139,644
123,146
111,048

438,046
518,501
541,594
552,378
564,658

583,171
666,424
680,921
675,117
675,470

145,292
148,005
139,472
122,962
110,941

437,879
518,419
541,449
552,154
564,529

305
245
310
408
236

138
163
169
184
107

167
82
141
224
129

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

659,144
645,517
650,282
642,615
628,707

93,821
83,298
69,883
64,937
56,322

565,323
562,218
580,399
577,678
572,385

658,848
645,182
649,924
642,196
628,307

93,730
83,181
69,778
64,799
56,134

565,118
562,001
580,146
577,396
572,173

296
334
358
419
399

91
117
104
137
188

205
217
253
282
212

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

631,117
632,520
653,696
661,613
663,601

52,405
47,104
43,647
41,264
35,696

578,712
585,416
610,049
620,349
627,905

630,780
632,069
653,347
661,373
663,311

52,311
46,941
43,519
41,177
35,574

578,469
585,128
609,828
620,195
627,737

337
451
350
240
290

94
163
128
87
122

243
288
222
153
168

1/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
2/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for 1980-1999.

76

Table E3. Number of Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1980-1999
Year

Total

Total Plans
Defined
Defined
Benefit
Contribution

Single Employer Plans 1/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

Multiemployer Plans 2/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

37,855
40,243
42,198
44,702
45,491

24,505
24,989
25,398
25,979
25,103

13,350
15,254
16,800
18,723
20,388

35,402
37,680
39,518
41,975
42,763

22,424
22,877
23,271
23,888
23,033

12,978
14,803
16,247
18,087
19,731

2,453
2,563
2,680
2,727
2,728

2,081
2,113
2,127
2,091
2,070

372
450
553
636
657

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

48,658
50,958
51,791
54,397
55,650

24,742
24,474
23,421
22,805
21,419

23,917
26,484
28,370
31,593
34,231

45,897
48,139
48,988
51,530
52,807

22,619
22,426
21,432
20,870
19,531

23,279
25,713
27,556
30,661
33,275

2,761
2,818
2,802
2,867
2,844

2,123
2,047
1,988
1,935
1,888

638
771
814
932
956

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

53,164
53,777
58,053
59,482
61,638

19,242
18,454
18,738
18,660
18,100

33,922
35,324
39,315
40,822
43,538

50,556
51,118
55,302
56,722
58,851

17,521
16,750
17,019
16,938
16,421

33,035
34,368
38,283
39,784
42,430

2,608
2,660
2,751
2,760
2,787

1,721
1,704
1,719
1,722
1,679

887
956
1,032
1,038
1,108

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

62,287
63,704
66,345
68,419
69,393

17,087
16,553
15,852
15,141
14,199

45,200
47,150
50,493
52,278
55,195

59,486
60,888
63,565
65,624
66,672

15,371
14,849
14,201
13,522
12,594

44,115
46,039
49,364
52,102
54,078

2,802
2,815
2,780
2,795
2,721

1,716
1,704
1,651
1,619
1,605

1,086
1,111
1,129
1,176
1,117

1/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
2/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for 1980-1999.

77

Table E4. Estimated Private Wage and Salary Worker Participation Rates Under
Defined Benefit and Defined Contribution Plans, 1980-1999
(workers in thousands)

Year

Number of
Wage and
Salary
Workers

Workers Covered by a
Defined Benefit
Plan Only
Number
Percent

Workers Covered by a
Defined Contribution
Plan(s) only 1/
Number
Percent

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

78,349
80,282
82,318
84,410
86,732

21,861
21,458
18,680
17,529
16,357

28
27
23
21
19

6,201
7,214
8,108
9,376
9,877

8
9
10
11
11

8,239
8,585
10,998
12,349
13,716

11
11
13
15
16

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

88,293
90,267
91,559
93,012
94,448

14,603
15,096
15,592
14,667
13,768

17
17
17
16
15

11,514
12,626
13,396
14,040
15,404

13
14
15
15
16

14,292
13,433
12,835
13,299
13,368

16
15
14
14
14

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

94,772
94,959
96,577
97,749
101,077

12,273
12,233
11,557
10,449
9,929

13
13
12
11
10

16,023
17,024
19,340
19,632
20,781

17
18
20
20
21

13,932
13,370
13,665
14,537
14,551

15
14
14
15
14

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

102,162
104,313
106,955
108,340
110,131

8,978
7,830
6,768
7,061
7,215

9
8
6
7
7

22,734
23,954
26,785
28,839
31,464

22
23
25
27
29

14,417
15,303
15,851
15,802
15,414

14
15
15
15
14

Workers Covered by both
a Defined Benefit and a
Defined Contribution Plan(s) 1/
Number
Percent

1/ Some workers are covered by more than one defined contribution plan.
SOURCES: Number of workers taken from Employment and Earnings, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. These numbers include both employed
(full and part-time) and unemployed wage and salary workers. The number of workers participating in only a defined benefit plan, only a defined contribution plan, or
both types of plans are estimates derived from Form 5500 filings for 1980-1999.

78

Table E5. Number of Participants in Pension Plans
by type of plan, 1980-1999
(numbers in thousands)

Year

Total

Total Plans
Defined
Defined
Benefit
Contribution

Single Employer Plans 1/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

Multiemployer Plans 2/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

57,903
60,564
63,243
69,147
73,895

37,979
38,903
38,633
40,025
40,980

19,924
21,661
24,610
29,122
32,915

48,910
51,326
54,105
59,645
64,244

29,555
30,331
30,289
31,405
32,329

19,354
20,995
23,816
28,240
31,915

8,993
9,238
9,138
9,501
9,651

8,423
8,572
8,343
8,620
8,651

570
666
794
881
1,000

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

74,665
76,672
78,223
77,685
76,405

39,692
39,989
39,958
40,722
39,958

34,973
36,682
38,265
36,963
36,447

65,414
67,069
68,550
67,734
65,964

31,436
31,676
31,650
32,386
31,248

33,978
35,392
36,900
35,348
34,716

9,251
9,603
9,673
9,951
10,441

8,256
8,313
8,308
8,336
8,710

995
1,290
1,365
1,615
1,731

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

76,924
77,662
81,914
83,870
85,117

38,832
39,027
39,531
40,267
40,338

38,091
38,634
42,383
43,603
44,778

67,003
67,583
71,783
73,770
74,940

30,522
30,683
31,395
32,151
32,197

36,481
36,900
40,388
41,619
42,743

9,921
10,079
10,131
10,100
10,177

8,311
8,344
8,136
8,116
8,142

1,611
1,735
1,995
1,983
2,035

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

87,452
91,716
94,985
99,455
101,794

39,736
41,111
40,392
41,552
41,427

47,716
50,605
54,593
57,903
60,368

76,969
80,841
83,881
87,930
90,585

31,341
32,467
31,678
32,634
32,466

45,629
48,374
52,204
55,296
58,119

10,483
10,876
11,103
11,525
11,210

8,395
8,644
8,714
8,918
8,961

2,088
2,231
2,389
2,607
2,249

1/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
2/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for 1980-1999.

79

Table E6. Number of Participants in Pension Plans
with Fewer Than 100 Participants
by type of plan, 1980-1999
(numbers in thousands)
Year

Total

Total Plans
Defined
Defined
Benefit
Contribution

Single Employer Plans 1/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

Multiemployer Plans 2/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

5,741
6,298
6,877
6,872
6,886

1,995
2,154
2,155
2,154
2,013

3,746
4,143
4,722
4,718
4,873

5,725
6,283
6,854
6,855
6,869

1,980
2,148
2,144
2,144
2,013

3,744
4,135
4,710
4,711
4,856

17
15
23
17
17

15
6
11
10
12

2
9
12
7
5

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

7,553
7,926
8,413
8,345
8,200

2,059
2,033
2,008
1,720
1,396

5,495
5,893
6,405
6,625
6,804

7,537
7,914
8,400
8,329
8,188

2,052
2,025
2,000
1,713
1,392

5,486
5,889
6,400
6,616
6,796

16
12
13
16
12

8
8
8
8
4

9
4
5
9
8

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

8,268
8,441
9,076
9,087
9,152

1,279
1,226
1,129
1,030
944

6,989
7,215
7,946
8,057
8,208

8,251
8,424
9,059
9,067
9,132

1,275
1,218
1,125
1,024
935

6,976
7,206
7,934
8,043
8,197

17
17
17
20
20

4
8
5
6
9

13
8
12
14
11

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

9,373
9,571
10,276
10,679
11,104

893
794
731
718
496

8,480
8,777
9,546
9,961
10,608

9,359
9,551
10,257
10,670
11,096

890
789
724
715
493

8,469
8,762
9,533
9,955
10,603

14
21
19
9
8

3
5
6
2
3

11
16
13
6
5

1/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
2/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for 1980-1999.

80

Table E7. Number of Participants in Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1980-1999
(numbers in thousands)

Year

Total

Total Plans
Defined
Defined
Benefit
Contribution

Single Employer Plans 1/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

Multiemployer Plans 2/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

52,162
54,266
56,366
62,275
67,009

35,984
36,748
36,446
37,871
38,967

16,178
17,518
19,920
24,404
28,042

43,185
45,043
47,248
52,790
57,375

27,575
28,183
28,112
29,261
30,316

15,610
16,861
19,136
23,529
27,059

8,977
9,223
9,118
9,485
9,634

8,408
8,565
8,332
8,610
8,640

568
657
785
875
995

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

67,112
68,746
69,810
69,340
68,205

37,633
37,956
37,950
39,002
38,562

29,478
30,790
31,860
30,338
29,643

57,877
59,155
60,150
59,404
57,776

29,384
29,651
29,650
30,673
29,856

28,493
29,503
30,500
28,732
27,920

9,235
9,591
9,660
9,935
10,429

8,248
8,305
8,300
8,326
8,705

986
1,286
1,360
1,606
1,724

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

68,655
69,221
72,838
74,783
75,964

37,553
37,801
38,402
39,237
39,394

31,102
31,420
34,436
35,546
36,570

58,752
59,157
62,724
64,703
65,807

29,247
29,465
30,270
31,127
31,262

29,505
29,694
32,454
33,576
34,546

9,904
10,063
10,114
10,080
10,157

8,306
8,336
8,132
8,110
8,133

1,598
1,727
1,982
1,969
2,024

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

78,079
82,145
84,708
88,776
90,690

38,843
40,317
39,661
40,835
40,931

39,236
41,828
45,047
47,942
49,760

67,610
71,290
73,624
77,260
79,489

30,450
31,677
30,953
31,919
31,973

37,160
39,613
42,671
45,341
47,516

10,469
10,855
11,084
11,516
11,201

8,392
8,640
8,708
8,915
8,957

2,076
2,215
2,376
2,601
2,244

1/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
2/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for 1980-1999.

81

Table E8. Number of Active Participants in Pension Plans
by type of plan, 1980-1999
(numbers in thousands)
Year

Total

Total Plans
Defined
Defined
Benefit
Contribution

Single Employer Plans 1/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

Multiemployer Plans 2/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

48,986
50,770
53,099
57,680
60,618

30,100
30,043
29,678
29,878
30,073

18,886
20,727
23,421
27,802
30,545

42,039
43,766
46,239
50,783
53,886

23,672
23,662
23,552
23,791
24,216

18,367
20,104
22,687
26,992
29,670

6,947
7,005
6,860
6,897
6,732

6,428
6,381
6,126
6,087
5,857

519
623
734
810
875

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

62,064
63,056
63,280
61,912
60,997

28,895
28,529
28,427
27,966
27,136

33,168
34,528
34,853
33,946
33,861

55,573
56,490
56,734
55,234
54,003

23,336
23,129
23,165
22,753
21,723

32,237
33,361
33,569
32,481
32,280

6,491
6,566
6,546
6,678
6,994

5,559
5,400
5,262
5,213
5,413

931
1,167
1,284
1,465
1,581

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

61,545
61,211
63,898
64,394
64,607

26,205
25,603
25,222
24,986
24,480

35,340
35,608
38,676
39,408
40,127

55,122
54,744
57,607
58,244
58,524

21,248
20,689
20,630
20,528
20,079

33,874
34,055
36,977
37,716
38,445

6,423
6,467
6,291
6,150
6,083

4,957
4,914
4,592
4,458
4,401

1,466
1,553
1,699
1,692
1,682

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

65,599
67,471
70,270
72,835
73,020

23,395
23,133
22,619
22,863
22,630

42,203
44,337
47,651
49,972
50,390

59,300
61,001
63,633
65,897
66,419

18,870
18,552
17,992
18,152
17,975

40,430
42,449
45,641
47,745
48,444

6,299
6,470
6,637
6,938
6,601

4,525
4,581
4,627
4,711
4,655

1,773
1,888
2,010
2,227
1,946

1/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
2/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
NOTE: The number of participants includes double counting of workers in more than one plan.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for 1980-1999.

82

Table E9. Number of Active Participants in Pension Plans
with Fewer than 100 Participants
by type of plan, 1980-1999
(numbers in thousands)

Year

Total

Total Plans
Defined
Defined
Benefit
Contribution

Single Employer Plans 1/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

Multiemployer Plans 2/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

5,366
5,940
6,358
6,252
6,434

1,795
1,918
1,896
1,774
1,743

3,571
4,022
4,462
4,478
4,691

5,352
5,927
6,342
6,237
6,418

1,783
1,913
1,888
1,765
1,732

3,569
4,014
4,454
4,472
4,686

14
13
16
15
16

12
5
8
9
11

2
8
8
6
5

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

7,023
7,350
7,681
7,483
7,736

1,751
1,709
1,667
1,411
1,132

5,272
5,641
6,014
6,072
6,604

7,009
7,340
7,667
7,469
7,725

1,745
1,702
1,661
1,405
1,128

5,264
5,638
6,006
6,064
6,597

14
10
14
14
11

6
7
6
6
4

8
3
8
8
7

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

7,659
7,877
8,374
8,375
8,425

1,024
970
882
794
720

6,635
6,907
7,492
7,581
7,705

7,642
7,863
8,358
8,357
8,406

1,020
963
878
789
711

6,622
6,900
7,480
7,568
7,695

17
14
16
18
19

4
7
4
5
9

13
7
12
13
10

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

8,397
8,766
9,412
9,752
10,124

670
588
534
517
515

7,727
8,178
8,878
9,235
9,609

8,384
8,747
9,394
9,744
10,108

668
584
529
515
505

7,716
8,163
8,865
9,229
9,602

13
19
18
8
16

2
4
5
2
10

11
15
13
6
6

1/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
2/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
NOTE: Data for 1999 are based on actual count. Data for 1980-1998 are imputed. The number of participants includes double counting of workers in more than
one plan.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for 1980-1999.

83

Table E10. Number of Active Participants in Pension Plans
with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1980-1999
(numbers in thousands)
Year

Total

Total Plans
Defined
Defined
Benefit
Contribution

Single Employer Plans 1/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

Multiemployer Plans 2/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

43,620
44,830
46,741
51,428
54,184

28,305
28,125
27,782
28,104
28,331

15,315
16,704
18,959
23,324
25,853

36,687
37,839
39,897
44,546
47,468

21,889
21,749
21,664
22,025
22,484

14,798
16,090
18,233
22,520
24,984

6,933
6,991
6,844
6,882
6,716

6,416
6,376
6,118
6,078
5,846

517
615
726
804
870

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

55,041
55,706
55,599
54,428
53,262

27,145
26,820
26,760
26,555
26,004

27,896
28,886
28,838
27,872
27,258

48,564
49,150
49,067
47,765
46,278

21,591
21,427
21,504
21,348
20,595

26,973
27,723
27,563
26,417
25,683

6,476
6,556
6,531
6,663
6,983

5,553
5,393
5,256
5,207
5,409

923
1,163
1,275
1,456
1,574

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

53,887
53,334
55,524
56,019
56,181

25,182
24,633
24,340
24,192
23,759

28,705
28,701
31,184
31,827
32,422

47,481
46,881
49,249
49,887
50,118

20,228
19,726
19,752
19,739
19,368

27,252
27,155
29,497
30,148
30,750

6,406
6,453
6,275
6,132
6,064

4,954
4,907
4,588
4,453
4,392

1,453
1,546
1,687
1,679
1,672

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

57,201
58,706
60,858
63,083
62,896

22,724
22,546
22,085
22,345
22,115

34,477
36,160
38,773
40,738
40,781

50,916
52,255
54,239
56,153
56,311

18,202
17,968
17,463
17,637
17,470

32,714
34,286
36,776
38,516
38,841

6,285
6,451
6,619
6,930
6,585

4,523
4,577
4,622
4,709
4,645

1,762
1,873
1,997
2,221
1,940

1/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
2/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
NOTE: The number of participants includes double counting of workers in more than one plan.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for 1980-1999.

84

Table E11. Pension Plan Assets
by type of plan, 1980-1999 1/
(amounts in millions)
Year

Total

Total Plans
Defined
Defined
Benefit
Contribution

Single Employer Plans 1/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

Multiemployer Plans 2/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

$563,551
628,916
788,987
923,470
1,044,592

$401,455
444,376
553,419
642,359
700,669

$162,096
184,540
235,567
281,111
343,922

$514,583
572,101
716,281
843,693
947,373

$353,967
389,846
483,536
566,369
608,703

$160,616
182,615
232,744
277,323
338,670

$48,968
56,814
72,706
79,777
97,212

$47,488
54,890
69,883
75,990
91,966

$1,480
1,924
2,823
3,788
5,246

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

1,252,739
1,382,910
1,402,488
1,503,635
1,675,597

826,117
895,073
877,269
911,982
987,971

426,622
487,837
525,219
591,653
687,626

1,136,417
1,251,034
1,266,694
1,351,845
1,505,319

716,107
772,205
751,475
772,381
832,148

420,310
478,830
515,219
579,464
673,171

116,322
131,876
135,794
151,790
170,278

110,010
122,868
125,794
139,601
155,822

6,312
9,008
10,000
12,189
14,455

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

1,674,139
1,936,271
2,094,087
2,316,272
2,298,556

961,904
1,101,987
1,146,798
1,248,180
1,210,856

712,236
834,284
947,289
1,068,092
1,087,700

1,496,300
1,743,190
1,879,033
2,091,468
2,070,804

798,167
926,424
955,621
1,049,915
1,010,275

698,133
816,766
923,412
1,041,553
1,060,529

177,839
193,080
215,053
224,804
227,752

163,737
175,562
191,177
198,265
200,581

14,102
17,518
23,877
26,540
27,171

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

2,723,735
3,136,281
3,553,757
4,021,849
4,407,805

1,402,079
1,585,397
1,735,604
1,936,600
2,057,539

1,321,657
1,550,884
1,818,152
2,085,250
2,350,266

2,458,153
2,837,125
3,213,304
3,642,656
4,008,220

1,163,416
1,316,599
1,432,788
1,599,303
1,697,424

1,294,737
1,520,526
1,780,516
2,043,353
2,310,797

265,582
299,156
340,452
379,193
399,585

238,663
268,798
302,816
337,297
360,116

26,920
30,358
37,636
41,896
39,470

1/ Asset amounts shown exclude funds held by life insurance companies under allocated group insurance contracts for payment of retirement benefits. These
excluded funds make up roughly 10 to 15 percent of total private fund assets.
2/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
3/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for 1980-1999.

85

Table E12. Pension Plan Assets of Plans with Fewer than 100 Participants
by type of plan, 1980-1999 1/
(amounts in millions)
Year

Total

Total Plans
Defined
Defined
Benefit
Contribution

Single Employer Plans 1/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

Multiemployer Plans 2/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

$86,785
104,006
129,263
155,214
176,847

$31,498
38,792
46,971
60,594
62,904

$55,287
65,214
82,292
94,620
113,943

$86,101
103,220
128,895
154,626
176,103

$30,872
38,081
46,649
60,064
62,231

$55,229
65,139
82,246
94,562
113,873

$684
785
369
58
743

$626
711
323
530
673

$58
74
46
58
70

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

211,665
232,718
228,244
240,867
236,459

67,745
66,276
65,232
54,652
44,570

143,920
166,442
163,012
186,215
191,889

210,666
231,481
227,048
239,393
236,016

66,878
65,132
64,277
53,389
44,243

143,789
166,350
162,771
186,004
191,773

999
1,237
1,196
1,474
443

867
1,143
955
1,263
327

132
93
241
211
116

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

242,068
264,329
261,359
291,912
278,555

44,192
40,161
30,396
33,166
25,384

197,876
224,168
230,963
258,746
253,171

241,224
263,967
260,922
291,238
277,644

43,599
40,033
30,199
32,770
24,687

197,624
223,934
230,723
258,468
252,958

844
362
437
675
911

592
128
197
396
698

252
234
239
278
213

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

323,751
359,984
398,775
442,589
488,865

26,455
28,576
25,614
39,669
31,696

297,295
331,407
373,161
402,920
457,169

323,066
358,874
397,474
441,880
488,420

26,210
27,870
24,876
39,409
31,512

296,855
331,005
372,598
402,471
456,908

685
1,110
1,302
708
445

245
707
738
260
184

440
403
563
449
261

1/ Asset amounts shown exclude funds held by life insurance companies under allocated group insurance contracts for payment of retirement benefits. These
excluded funds make up roughly 10 to 15 percent of total private fund assets.
2/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
3/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for 1980-1999.

86

Table E13. Pension Plan Assets of Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1980-1999 1/
(amounts in millions)

Year

Total

Total Plans
Defined
Defined
Benefit
Contribution

Single Employer Plans 2/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

Multiemployer Plans 3/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

$476,766
524,910
659,724
768,256
867,745

$369,957
405,584
506,448
581,765
637,765

$106,809
119,326
153,276
186,491
229,979

$428,482
468,881
587,386
689,066
771,270

$323,095
351,405
436,887
506,305
546,472

$105,387
117,476
150,499
182,761
224,797

$48,284
56,029
72,337
79,190
96,469

$46,862
54,179
69,560
75,460
91,293

$1,422
1,850
2,777
3,730
5,176

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

1,041,074
1,150,192
1,174,244
1,262,768
1,439,138

758,372
828,797
812,037
857,330
943,401

282,702
321,395
362,207
405,438
495,737

925,751
1,019,553
1,039,646
1,112,452
1,269,303

649,229
707,073
687,198
718,992
787,905

276,521
312,480
352,448
393,460
481,398

115,523
130,639
134,598
150,316
169,835

109,143
121,725
124,839
138,338
155,496

6,180
8,915
9,759
11,978
14,339

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

1,432,072
1,671,942
1,832,728
2,024,360
2,020,001

917,712
1,061,826
1,116,401
1,215,014
1,185,471

514,360
610,116
716,326
809,346
834,529

1,255,076
1,479,224
1,618,111
1,800,230
1,793,159

754,567
886,391
925,422
1,017,145
985,588

500,509
592,832
692,689
783,085
807,572

176,995
192,718
214,617
224,130
226,841

163,145
175,434
190,979
197,869
199,884

13,851
17,284
23,637
26,261
26,958

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

2,399,984
2,776,297
3,154,982
3,579,261
3,918,940

1,375,623
1,556,821
1,709,990
1,896,931
2,025,843

1,024,361
1,219,476
1,444,991
1,682,330
1,893,097

2,135,087
2,478,251
2,815,831
3,200,776
3,519,800

1,137,206
1,288,729
1,407,912
1,599,894
1,665,912

997,881
1,189,521
1,407,919
1,640,882
1,853,888

264,897
298,047
339,151
378,485
399,140

238,417
268,092
302,078
337,037
359,931

26,480
29,955
37,072
41,448
39,209

1/ Asset amounts shown exclude funds held by life insurance companies under allocated group insurance contracts for payment of retirement benefits. These
excluded funds make up roughly 10 to 15 percent of total private fund assets.
2/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
3/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for 1980-1999.

87

Table E14. Pension Plan Contributions
by type of plan, 1980-1999
(amounts in millions)
Year

Total

Total Plans
Defined
Defined
Benefit
Contribution

Single Employer Plans 1/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

Multiemployer Plans 2/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

$66,157
75,374
79,502
82,447
90,625

$42,626
46,985
48,438
46,313
47,197

$23,531
28,389
31,064
36,134
43,428

$58,718
67,191
71,320
74,022
81,553

$35,524
39,187
40,807
38,677
38,990

$23,194
28,004
30,513
35,345
42,563

$7,439
8,183
8,182
8,425
9,072

$7,102
7,798
7,631
7,636
8,207

$337
385
551
789
865

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

95,188
91,503
92,070
91,248
97,920

41,996
33,161
29,793
26,300
24,723

53,192
58,342
62,277
64,948
73,197

85,927
82,190
82,834
81,612
88,049

33,794
25,142
21,993
18,352
16,684

52,133
57,049
60,841
63,261
71,365

9,261
9,313
9,235
9,636
9,871

8,202
8,020
7,800
7,948
8,039

1,059
1,293
1,436
1,688
1,832

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

98,792
111,124
128,795
153,642
144,353

23,026
30,146
35,174
52,123
39,031

75,766
80,978
93,621
101,519
105,322

89,834
102,224
119,682
143,944
133,844

15,709
22,952
27,964
44,521
30,829

74,125
79,272
91,718
99,423
103,015

8,958
8,899
9,114
9,698
10,509

7,317
7,194
7,210
7,602
8,203

1,641
1,705
1,904
2,096
2,307

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

158,832
169,540
177,940
201,886
215,827

41,423
35,803
29,862
34,985
29,958

117,409
133,737
148,078
166,900
185,869

147,621
157,204
164,633
187,367
200,804

32,600
26,174
19,723
24,240
18,706

115,021
131,030
144,909
163,127
182,098

11,210
12,335
13,307
14,518
15,023

8,823
9,629
10,138
10,745
11,252

2,387
2,707
3,169
3,773
3,771

1/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
2/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
NOTE: Includes both employer and employee contributions.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for 1980-1999.

88

Table E15. Pension Plan Contributions to Plans with Fewer than 100 Participants
by type of plan, 1980-1999
(amounts in millions)
Year

Total

Total Plans
Defined
Defined
Benefit
Contribution

Single Employer Plans 1/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

Multiemployer Plans 2/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

$13,545
16,406
16,094
17,357
18,561

$5,870
7,163
7,672
7,593
7,850

$7,675
9,242
9,422
9,764
10,712

$13,490
16,304
16,047
17,288
18,487

$5,830
7,079
7,641
7,537
7,788

$7,660
9,225
9,406
9,751
10,700

$55
101
47
69
74

$40
84
31
56
62

$15
17
16
13
12

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

21,575
21,543
19,963
18,964
20,995

7,404
5,659
4,296
3,015
2,763

14,171
15,884
15,667
15,948
18,232

21,489
21,475
19,895
18,909
20,961

7,339
5,607
4,239
2,981
2,742

14,150
15,868
15,656
15,929
18,219

86
68
67
54
34

65
52
57
34
21

21
16
11
20
13

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

21,687
21,908
25,214
25,959
23,933

2,608
2,420
2,229
2,451
1,918

19,079
19,488
22,985
23,508
22,015

21,642
21,881
25,185
25,904
23,688

2,590
2,413
2,223
2,418
1,693

19,052
19,468
22,962
23,486
21,995

44
27
29
55
245

18
7
6
33
225

26
21
23
22
20

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

28,150
30,802
34,285
38,180
43,793

2,406
1,943
1,977
1,929
2,156

25,744
28,860
32,309
36,252
41,637

28,111
30,742
34,204
38,124
43,722

2,392
1,911
1,936
1,905
2,132

25,719
28,830
32,268
36,218
41,590

39
60
81
57
71

14
31
41
23
24

25
29
40
33
47

1/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
2/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
NOTE: Includes both employer and employee contributions.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for 1980-1999.

89

Table E16. Pension Plan Contributions to Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1980-1999
(amounts in millions)
Year

Total

Total Plans
Defined
Defined
Benefit
Contribution

Single Employer Plans 1/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

Multiemployer Plans 2/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

$52,612
58,968
62,408
65,090
72,064

$36,756
39,822
40,766
38,720
39,347

$15,856
19,147
21,642
26,370
32,717

$45,228
50,887
54,273
56,734
63,066

$29,694
32,108
33,166
31,140
31,203

$15,534
18,779
21,108
25,594
31,863

$7,384
8,082
8,135
8,356
8,997

$7,062
7,714
7,600
7,580
8,145

$322
368
535
776
853

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

73,613
69,960
72,107
72,286
76,925

34,592
27,502
25,497
23,285
21,960

39,021
42,458
46,610
49,000
54,965

64,438
60,715
62,939
62,703
67,088

26,455
19,535
17,754
15,371
13,942

37,983
41,180
45,185
47,332
53,146

9,175
9,245
9,168
9,582
9,837

8,137
7,968
7,743
7,914
8,018

1,038
1,277
1,425
1,668
1,819

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

77,105
89,215
103,581
127,683
120,420

20,418
27,726
32,945
49,672
37,113

56,687
61,489
70,636
78,011
83,307

68,192
80,343
94,497
118,040
110,155

13,119
20,539
25,741
42,103
29,135

55,073
59,804
68,756
75,937
81,020

8,914
8,872
9,084
9,643
10,265

7,299
7,187
7,204
7,569
7,978

1,614
1,684
1,880
2,074
2,287

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

130,682
138,738
143,655
163,705
172,035

39,017
33,860
27,886
33,057
27,803

91,665
104,877
115,770
130,649
144,232

119,510
126,463
130,429
149,244
157,082

30,208
24,263
17,788
22,335
16,574

89,302
102,200
112,641
126,909
140,508

11,172
12,275
13,226
14,462
14,952

8,809
9,598
10,097
10,722
11,228

2,363
2,677
3,128
3,739
3,724

1/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
2/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
NOTE: Includes both employer and employee contributions.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for 1980-1999.

90

Table E17. Pension Plan Benefits Disbursed
by type of plan, 1980-1999 1/
(amounts in millions)
Year

Total

Total Plans
Defined
Defined
Benefit
Contribution

Single Employer Plans 2/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

Multiemployer Plans 3/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

$35,280
44,753
55,307
65,333
79,086

$22,148
27,334
33,875
36,976
46,513

$13,132
17,420
21,432
28,357
32,573

$31,485
40,281
50,219
59,547
72,510

$18,524
22,987
28,957
31,507
40,269

$12,961
17,294
21,263
28,040
32,241

$3,795
4,473
5,088
5,786
6,576

$3,624
4,347
4,918
5,469
6,244

$171
125
170
317
332

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

101,898
130,483
122,254
118,645
132,049

54,466
67,974
66,241
60,450
66,707

47,432
62,509
56,013
58,195
65,342

94,792
122,613
113,834
109,446
121,750

47,801
60,612
58,345
51,910
57,236

46,991
62,000
55,489
57,535
64,514

7,106
7,870
8,420
9,200
10,299

6,665
7,361
7,896
8,540
9,471

441
579
524
660
828

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

129,405
135,552
152,441
156,305
163,934

66,363
71,503
77,853
79,093
82,625

63,042
64,048
74,588
77,212
81,309

118,227
123,986
139,247
142,471
149,035

56,079
61,081
66,287
66,847
69,417

62,147
62,904
72,960
75,625
79,617

11,178
11,566
13,194
13,834
14,899

10,284
10,422
11,566
12,246
13,207

894
1,144
1,628
1,587
1,692

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

183,025
213,399
232,479
273,115
314,512

85,134
96,914
97,213
111,249
119,375

97,892
116,485
135,266
161,866
195,138

167,249
196,224
214,191
253,270
293,051

70,947
81,436
80,994
93,558
99,937

96,302
114,788
133,197
159,711
193,113

15,777
17,176
18,288
19,845
21,461

14,187
15,478
16,219
17,690
19,437

1,590
1,698
2,069
2,155
2,024

1/ Amounts shown include both benefits paid directly from trust funds and premium payments made by plans to insurance carriers. Amounts exclude
benefits paid directly by insurance carriers.
2/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
3/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for 1980-1999.

91

Table E18. Pension Plan Benefits Disbursed From Plans
with Fewer than 100 Participants
by type of plan, 1980-1999 1/
(amounts in millions)

Year

Total

Total Plans
Defined
Defined
Benefit
Contribution

Single Employer Plans 2/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

Multiemployer Plans 3/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

$5,123
6,991
10,736
11,649
14,311

$2,076
2,789
5,782
4,213
6,290

$3,047
4,203
4,954
7,436
8,021

$5,086
6,940
10,679
11,580
14,237

$2,044
2,740
5,736
4,149
6,225

$3,042
4,200
4,943
7,431
8,012

$37
52
56
70
74

$32
49
46
65
65

$5
2
10
6
9

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

22,493
38,484
34,584
33,718
37,063

8,936
14,730
14,796
12,069
12,369

13,557
24,527
19,788
21,649
24,694

22,403
38,355
34,425
33,657
36,914

8,872
14,604
14,665
12,018
12,252

13,531
23,749
19,760
21,639
24,662

90
129
159
61
149

63
125
131
51
117

26
5
28
10
32

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

34,238
30,601
30,763
29,230
25,900

10,798
9,489
7,929
6,660
4,860

23,439
21,112
22,834
22,570
21,040

34,098
30,532
30,720
29,129
25,743

10,737
9,448
7,912
6,582
4,737

23,361
21,083
22,808
22,547
21,007

139
69
43
100
157

61
41
17
77
124

78
28
26
23
33

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

33,927
36,376
43,066
48,701
55,773

7,100
7,057
7,720
8,362
8,700

26,827
29,320
35,346
40,338
47,073

33,816
36,247
42,879
48,534
55,626

7,035
6,965
7,608
8,300
8,597

26,781
29,282
35,271
40,234
47,030

111
129
187
167
147

65
92
112
62
104

46
37
75
104
43

1/ Amounts shown include both benefits paid directly from trust funds and premium payments made by plans to insurance carriers. Amounts exclude
benefits paid directly by insurance carriers.
2/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
3/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for 1980-1999.

92

Table E19. Pension Plan Benefits Disbursed From Plans
with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1980-1999 1/
(amounts in millions)

Year

Total

Total Plans
Defined
Defined
Benefit
Contribution

Single Employer Plans 2/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

Multiemployer Plans 3/
Defined
Defined
Total
Benefit
Contribution

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

$30,157
37,762
44,571
55,693
64,775

$20,072
24,545
28,093
32,763
40,223

$10,085
13,217
16,478
22,920
24,552

$26,399
33,341
39,540
47,967
58,273

$16,480
20,247
23,221
27,358
34,044

$9,919
13,094
16,319
20,609
24,229

$3,758
4,421
5,032
5,715
6,502

$3,592
4,298
4,872
5,404
6,179

$166
123
160
311
322

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

79,405
91,999
87,680
84,926
94,987

45,530
53,244
51,445
48,381
54,339

33,875
38,754
36,225
36,546
40,648

72,389
84,258
79,409
75,787
84,836

38,929
46,008
43,680
39,892
44,984

33,460
38,250
35,729
35,896
39,852

7,016
7,741
8,262
9,139
10,151

6,602
7,236
7,765
8,489
9,355

415
504
496
650
796

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

95,167
104,951
121,678
127,076
138,034

55,564
62,014
69,924
72,433
77,764

39,603
42,937
51,755
54,643
60,269

84,128
93,454
108,527
113,342
123,291

45,342
51,633
58,374
60,264
64,681

38,786
41,821
50,153
53,078
58,611

11,039
11,497
13,151
13,734
14,742

10,222
10,381
11,549
12,169
13,084

816
1,116
1,602
1,565
1,659

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

149,099
177,023
189,413
224,414
258,739

78,034
89,858
89,493
102,886
110,674

71,065
87,166
99,920
121,528
148,065

133,433
159,976
171,312
204,736
237,425

63,912
74,471
73,386
85,258
91,341

69,521
85,505
97,926
119,477
146,084

15,666
17,047
18,101
19,678
21,314

14,122
15,386
16,107
17,628
19,334

1,544
1,660
1,994
2,050
1,980

1/ Amounts shown include both benefits paid directly from trust funds and premium payments made by plans to insurance carriers. Amounts exclude
benefits paid directly by insurance carriers.
2/ Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
3/ Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for 1980-1999.

93

Table E20. Number of 401(k) Type Plans, Participants, Assets,
Contributions, and Benefit Payments, 1984-1999
Year

Number of Plans

Assets
(millions)

Active Participants
(thousands)

Contributions
(millions)

Benefits
(millions)

1984
1985
1986
1987
1988

17,303
29,869
37,420
45,054
68,121

7,526
10,315
11,528
13,091
15,151

$91,754
143,939
182,784
215,477
276,995

$16,291
24,322
29,226
33,185
39,412

$10,617
16,399
22,098
22,215
25,235

1989
1990
1991
1992
1993

83,301
97,614
111,394
139,704
154,527

17,271
19,466
19,039
22,293
20,015

357,015
384,854
440,259
552,959
616,316

46,081
48,998
51,533
64,345
69,322

30,875
32,028
32,734
43,166
44,206

1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

174,945
200,813
230,808
265,251
300,593

25,062
27,759
30,643
33,633
36,846

674,681
863,918
1,061,493
1,264,168
1,540,975

75,878
87,416
103,973
115,673
134,659

50,659
62,163
78,481
93,070
120,693

1999

335,121

38,619

1,790,256

151,966

145,979

SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for 1984-1999.

94

Table E21. Aggregate Rates of Return Earned by Private Pension Plans
with 100 or More Participants, 1985-1999
Total Plans

Year

Total

Single Employer Plans

Defined

Defined

Benefit

Contribution

Total

Multiemployer Plans

Defined

Defined

Benefit

Contribution

Total

Defined

Defined

Benefit

Contribution

Total
401(k)

Total
ESOP

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

19.6%
13.9
4.6
12.4
11.2

20.1%
14.1
4.4
12.1
12.1

18.4%
13.3
4.8
13.1
9.4

20.0%
14.1
4.7
12.6
11.9

20.6%
14.4
4.6
12.2
13.2

18.5%
13.4
4.8
13.2
9.7

16.8%
12.5
3.7
11.6
6.0

17.0%
12.6
3.5
11.8
6.4

12.7%
10.3
6.4
9.5
1.8

n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a

n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

3.5
17.5
8.8
10.2
2.9

3.5
18.8
8.3
10.5
2.2

3.5
15.1
9.8
9.8
3.8

3.1
17.8
8.8
10.6
2.7

2.8
19.6
8.0
11.1
1.8

3.4
15.2
9.8
9.9
3.8

6.8
14.9
9.3
7.4
4.4

6.7
15.2
9.4
7.5
4.5

7.4
12.0
8.7
6.2
3.9

3.6
14.7
10.3
9.8
3.7

-1.3
14.7
13.4
12.8
4.1

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

20.8
14.9
17.9
14.9
13.2

21.4
14.8
16.8
14.2
13.8

20.0
15.0
19.3
15.8
12.5

21.0
15.0
18.0
15.3
13.6

21.6
14.9
16.6
14.6
14.6

20.3
15.2
19.5
15.9
12.6

19.5
13.8
17.1
11.9
10.2

20.5
14.3
17.5
12.2
10.5

11.8
9.6
13.6
9.6
7.5

20.5
14.8
19.4
12.0
12.8

22.9
18.4
23.8
17.0
10.3

Geo. mean 2/
Std. deviation 3/

12.3
5.4

12.3
5.7

12.1
5.2

12.5
5.6

12.6
5.9

12.2
5.2

11.0
4.7

11.2
4.9

8.7
3.2

n/a
n/a

n/a
n/a

1/ The 1994 row, for example, represents all plan years that began in 1994. About 77 percent of these plan years began on January 1, 1994.
2/ The geometric mean is computed by adding one to the aggregate rate of return for each of the n years, taking the product of the sums, and taking the nth root of the
product, and subtracting one.
3/ Standard deviation formula uses a denominator definition of n, not n-1.
Note: Rates of return have been derived directly from tables C4-C11 and from similar published summary tables for prior years. The rate of return formula is the same
as that described in Chapter 12 of the 1989 DOL volume entitled "Trends in Pensions," except that the return formula used here refines the treatment of receivables.
The receivable line item called "income receivables," which first appeared on the 1988 form, is not deducted from total assets because such assets may produce
investment income. The formula makes no adjustment for reporting periods other than one year, which are reported on approximately 3 percent of Form 5500 filings.
Because the Form 5500 does not provide information on the timing of cash flows during the year, a time weighted rate of return cannot be derived. The formula used in
assumes that all cash flows occur in the middle of the plan's reporting period. The cash flow for which this assumption is most uncertain is contributions. The overall
1994 rate of return reported as 2.9 percent could be as low as 2.80 percent or as high as 2.98 percent depending on the assumption regarding the timing of contributions
during the year. The overall 1995 rate of return reported as 20.8 percent could be as low as 20.15 percent or as high as 21.53 percent.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for 1985-1999

95

Table E22. Aggregate Investment Perfomance of Private Pension Plans
with 100 or More Participants, 1985-1999
(dollar amounts in millions)

Year

Average
Investable 1/
Assets

Investment
Income 2/

Appreciation
Realized

Unrealized

Total

Total DFE
Income 3/

Total
Return on
Invest. 4/

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

$852,433
1,007,303
1,118,764
1,135,950
1,268,455

$49,936
55,572
58,359
47,509
12,484

$41,170
65,830
49,825
13,609
23,197

$68,007
15,924
-58,758
30,597
38,963

$109,177
81,754
-8,933
44,206
62,160

$8,042
2,922
1,511
49,613
67,305

$167,155
140,248
50,937
141,328
141,949

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

1,395,262
1,411,538
1,658,785
1,808,728
1,961,820

49,855
49,457
45,325
45,340
43,012

1,995
15,435
9,126
15,142
1,871

-16,810
73,766
30,378
30,099
-10,567

-14,815
89,201
39,504
45,241
-8,696

13,866
108,288
61,706
93,800
22,283

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

1,975,258
2,383,830
2,699,052
3,108,337
3,491,526

48,331
50,844
53,862
51,457
53,347

32,145
27,349
51,788
34,043
33,283

120,317
87,761
122,825
106,324
73,494

152,462
115,110
174,613
140,367
106,777

210,447
189,439
254,663
271,865
300,702

Geo. mean /7

Total
Rate of
Return 5/
19.6%
13.9
4.6
12.4
11.2

0.2
11.1
1.5
11.7

48,906
246,946
146,535
184,381
56,599

3.5
17.5
8.8
10.2
2.9

10.0
1.2
17.5
9.0
8.5

411,240
355,393
483,138
463,689
460,826

20.8
14.9
17.9
14.9
13.2

0.7
20.7
13.2
15.2
12.3

12.3

10.6

1/ Average of beginning-of-year and end-of-year levels of all assets except contributions receivable and value of buildings and other
property used in plan operations minus one-half of total return.
2/ Sum of interest, dividends, rents, and (for years 1985-87) royalties.
3/ The DFE category includes direct filing entities (common/collective trusts, master trusts, 103-12 investment entities, and pooled separate accounts)
and funds invested through registered investment companies and insurance company general accounts .
4/ Sum of investment income, total appreciation, and total DFE income.
5/ Total return as a percentage of average investable assets. See note for previous table.
6/ Percentage increase in average investable assets (column 1) from previous year to current year.
7/ The geometric mean is computed by adding one to the rate for each of the n years, taking the product of the sums, taking the nth root of the product, and subtracting one.
SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for 1985-1999

96

Growth of
Investable
Assets 6/

Table E23. Aggregate Rates of Return Earned by Employee Stock Ownership
Plans and 401(k) Plans with 100 or More Participants, 1990-1999
Employee Stock Ownership Plans
Leveraged
Nonleveraged
-1.0%
-1.5%

Year

401(k)

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

3.6%

Total
-1.3%

14.7
10.3
9.8
3.7

14.7
13.4
12.8
4.1

18.9
15.1
10.6
4.4

12.6
12.3
14.3
4.0

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
Geometric mean 1/
1990-99
1995-99
1997-99
Std. deviation 2/
1990-99
1995-99
1997-99

20.5
14.8
19.4
12.0
12.8

22.9
18.4
23.8
17.0
10.3

17.5
18.2
24.7
18.6
11.2

24.7
18.5
23.5
16.5
9.6

12.0
15.9
14.7

13.3
18.4
16.9

13.6
18.0
18.0

13.2
18.4
16.4

5.4
3.4
3.3

7.4
4.8
5.5

7.3
4.3
5.5

7.7
5.4
5.7

1/ Computed by adding one to the aggregate rate of return for each of the n years, taking the product of the sums, and taking
the nth root of the product, and subtracting one.
2/ Standard deviation formula uses a denominator definition of n, not n-1.

SOURCE: Form 5500 filings for 1980-1999.

97

Thousands

Figure E1. Number of Pension Plans,
1980-1999
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

Total

Defined Contribution

Defined Benefit

1981

1984

1987

1990
Year

Reference: Table E1.
SOURCE: Form 5500 series reports filed for 1980-1999 plan years.

98

1993

1996

1999

Thousands

Figure E2. Number of Defined
Contribution Plans,
1984-1999
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

Non-401(k) Defined
Contribution

401(k)

1984

1987

1990

1993
Year

Reference: Table E20.
SOURCE: Form 5500 series reports filed with the US Department of Labor for 1984-1999 plan years.

99

1996

1999

Figure E3. Number of Defined Contribution Plans
and 401(k) Plans, 1984-1999
800
700

DC Plans

500
400
300

401(k) Plans

200
100

19
87
19
88
19
89
19
90
19
91
19
92
19
93
19
94
19
95
19
96
19
97
19
98
19
99

19
86

19
85

0

19
84

Thousands

600

Year
Source: Form 5500 series reports filed for plan years beginning in 1984-1999.

100

Figure E4. Number of 401(k) Plans and Active
Participants, 1984-1999
400,000

45
40

Active
Participants

300,000

35

Number of Plans

30
250,000
25
200,000

Plans

20

150,000
15
100,000

10

50,000

5

0

0
1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Year
Source: Form 5500 series reports filed for plan years beginning in 1984-1999.

101

Participants (Millions)

350,000

Figure E5. Number of 401(k) Plans and Average
Number of Active Participants Per Plan, 1984-1999
500

400,000

400
Num ber of 401(k) Plans

300,000

Plans
Participants

250,000

350
300
250

200,000

200

150,000

150
100,000
100
50,000

50

0

0
1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Year
Source: Form 5500 series reports filed for plan years beginning in 1984-1999.

102

Average Num ber of Participants

450

350,000

Figure E6. Pension Plan Active
Participants, 1980-1999
80
Millions

Total

60
Defined Contribution

40
20

Defined Benefit

0
1980

1983

1986

1989
Year

Reference: Table E8.
Source: Form 5500 series reports filed for 1980-1999 plan years.

103

1992

1995

1998

Figure E7. Participants per Plan
by type of plan, 1975-1999
900
800
700
600
500
400

Defined Benefit

300

Defined Contribution

200
100
0
1975

1977

1979

1981

1983

1985

1987

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

Year
Reference: Tables E1 and E5.
Note: The total number of participants in defined benefit plans increased only slightly from 40 million in 1986 to 41.4 million in 1999 (Table E5). The
average number of participants per defined benefit plan grew dramatically over the same period because the number of defined benefit plans fell 71
percent (Table E1).
SOURCE: Form 5500 series reports for plan years beginning in 1975-1999.

104

Figure E8. Ratio of Active to Retired Participants
In Defined Benefit Plans, 1978-1999
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1978

1980

1982

1984

1986

1988
Year

SOURCE: Form 5500 reports for plan years beginning in 1978-1999.

105

1990

1992

1994

1996

1998

Figure E9. Pension Coverage of
Wage and Salary Workers,
1980-1999
Millions

80
60

Not Covered

40

Covered

20
0
1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998

Year

Reference: Table E4.
Source: Form 5500 series reports filed for 1980-1999 plan years.

106

Figure E10. Pension Plan
Assets, 1980-1999
$5,000

Billions

$4,000
$3,000

Total

$2,000
Defined Benefit

$1,000
Defined Contribution

$0
1980

1983

1986

1989

1992

1995

1998

Year

Reference: Table E11.
Note: Total asset amounts shown exclude funds held by life insurance companies under allocated group insurance contracts.
These funds equal 10 to 15 percent of pension assets.
Source: Form 5500 series reports filed for 1980-1999 plan years.

107

Figure E11. Assets per Participant
by type of plan, 1975-1999
$60

Thousands

$50
$40
$30

Defined Benefit
$20

Defined Contribution

$10
$0
1975

1977

1979

1981

1983

1985

1987
Year

Reference: Tables E5 and E11.
SOURCE: Form 5500 series reports for plan years beginning in 1975-1999.

108

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

Billions

E12. Pension Plan
Contributions and Benefits,
1980-1999
$350
$300
$250
$200
$150
$100
$50
$0

Benefits

Contributions

1980

1983

1986

1989
Year

Reference: Tables E14 and E17.
SOURCE: Form 5500 series reports filed for 1980-1999 plan years.

109

1992

1995

1998

Figure E13. Rates of Return
by type of plan, 1985-1999
25%

Rate of Return

20%
Defined Benefit

15%
10%
5%
Defined Contribution

0%
1985

1987

1989

1991

1993
Year

Reference: Table E24.
Note: Plans with 100 or more participants only.
SOURCE: Form 5500 series reports for plan years beginning in 1985-1999.

110

1995

1997

1999

Figure E14. Rates of Return for Single
and Multiemployer Plans, 1985-1999
25%

Rate of Return

20%
15%

Single Employer

10%
5%
Multiemployer

0%
1985

1987

1989

1991

1993
Year

Reference: Table E24.
Note: Plans with 100 or more participants only.
SOURCE: Form 5500 series reports for plan years beginning in 1985-1999.

111

1995

1997

1999

Figure E15. Rates of Return for 401(k) Type
Plans, 1990-1999
25%
Rate of Return

20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Reference: Table E26.
Note: Plans with 100 or more participants only.
SOURCE: Form 5500 series reports for plan years beginning in 1990-1999.

112

Figure E16. Rates of Return for ESOPs
by type of ESOP, 1990-1999
30%
25%
R ate of Return

Leveraged ESOPs

20%
15%

Nonleveraged ESOPs

10%
5%
0%
-5%
1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995
Year

Reference: Table E23.
Note: Plans with 100 or more participants only.
SOURCE: Form 5500 series reports for plan years beginning in 1990-1999.

113

1996

1997

1998

1999