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Priana Sudjono Dept. of Environmental Engineering Bandung Institute of Technology email@example.com
Review on reservoir Water quantity of reservoir Water quality of reservoir Mathematical development Application and discussion Conclusion
Jatiluhur reservoir, West Java
West Java 4 .Saguling reservoir.
WATER QUANTITY OF RESERVOIR Introduction Reservoir usually support cities Also: Industries Recreation Transportation Fisheries Aesthetics Irrigated Agriculture Flood Control Power Plant 6 .
Morphology of Reservoirs The form of a Reservoir determines the characteristic of: Physical processes Chemistry of water Biological diversity Steep sided that usually deep. such as Saguling. Such as V shaped basins: biologically unproductive Shallow depressions: greather contact between water and Sediment: Biologically productive (natural lakes) Reservoir in Java. Jatiluhur are shallow at the entrance and deep at the outlet zone 8 .
km surface area. km2 9 .Morphometric Parameter Max open water length Surface area Storage volume Mean depth (Vol/area) Length of shore line Shoreline development shore line development. dimensionless length of shore linbe.
Many natural Lakes are subcircular or eleptical Elongated reservoirs in river valley Vol Water renewal time of a Reservoir 𝑡𝑡𝑑𝑑 = q Q is coming from river inflow. Outflow is the outflow and evaporation 2 < 𝐷𝐷𝐿𝐿 < 3 𝐷𝐷𝐿𝐿 ≈ 5 10 . groundwater seepage.
Thermal Stratification 12 .
Solar radiation penetrates to reservoirs Solar energy = f (latitude.penetrate deeper So there will be stratification 13 . season of the year) Light is absorbed by water = f(wave length) Long wavelength (red) dissipates within impounded of pure water Short wavelength (blue) .
Uniform stratification 15 .
Mixing Surface Water Movement 17 .
. ……………. …. reservoir ….. reservoir Density factor ……………. …. ……………. …… …. ….Internal Movement of Water …………….….. river 18 . …… river Density factor river reservoir ….. …………….. nutrient ……………. ………. ………...
WATER QUALITY IN RESERVOIR Problem Dam or reservoir is usually long and narrow following the regime of rivers In shallow area light penetrate to the bottom The productivity is not uniform 20 .
Mayor consideration in WQM: Water quality control Beneficial use Dilution of wastewater Water quality control We need to predict water quality 21 .
Oxygen Content O2 from Atmosphere Photosynthesis Inorganic Carbon Inorganic forms: CO2, HCO3-, CO3=
H+ +HCO3Bicarbonate ion
H+ + CO3=
pH=8,3 Carbonate ion
Inorganic carbon Bacteriological decomposition of organic matter Surface drainage Seepage of groundwater Respiration of aquatic animals 25 .
Blue green algae Organic N fixation N2 26 .
Input Nutrient in Eutrophic Reservoir Surface water rich in nutrients Drainage from cultivated farmlands Cattle feedlots from inorg fertilizer and Manure Municipal wastewaters Fish cages 27 .
The Nitrogen Cycle in a Reservoir 28 .
The Phosphorous Cycle in a Reservoir 30 .
Ecology of Lakes and Reservoirs 31 .
Aquatic Community Trophogenic: planktonic and animals Algae photosynthesis food Tropholyctic: decomposition and low DO 32 .
Mixing. Species Competition.• • • • • Chlorophyl a Planktonic algae Phytoplankton Zooplankton Blue green Algae Plant life in most enriched lakes is dominated by Blue Green Algae Phytoplankton = f (Temp. Nutrient) Algae = f (Nutrient (P)) 33 . Predator. Light.
Cultural Eutrophication Natural Environments Eutrophication is slow Cultural Eutrophication is accelerated by fertilization of a reservoir. stream arising from pollution associated with Population Growth Industrial Development Intensive Agriculture 34 .
The response of aquatic ecosystems to increased input of Nutrients is greater productivity to the detrimental of Water Quality Excessive growth of phytoplankton Increased organic content Decaying bluegreen algae reducing transparancy depleting DO • release foul and odor • loss of less tolerant fish species • littoral zones choked with aquatic weeds 35 Cultural eutrophication short period of a few years after introduction of excess Nutrient. .
Analysis 36 .Allowable Nutrient Loadings Data on the indicator parameters of nutrient concentrations: can’t be applied directly in Engg.
However. by relating Trophic level nutrient loading from external and cycling within a Reservoir Eutrophication can be described by Mathematical models 37 .
Vollenweider (1970) Correlated “Data on annual phosporus Loadings” “Mean Lake Depth” “Degree of Enrichment” Permissible loading is The maximum allowable load for a reservoir to remain oligotrophic indefinitely 38 .
and carbon in the approximate ratio of 1P: 7N : 40C per 100 dry weight). The principle inorganic nitrogen forms taken up by plants are Nitrate and Ammonia. The Phosphorus Loadings include all biologically available forms of which the majority are dissolved orthophosphate and acid hydrolyzable phosphate.typical plant tissue of phytoplankton and Macrophytes contains phosphorus. nitrogen. influene the degree of Eutrophication 39 .
and small oxygen deficits during the summer. high transparancy.Not equal to Dillon (1974): Some Lakes had very high Loadings with corresponding Low chlorophyl a concentrations. This discrepancy was attributed to the high rates of water flowing through these lakes as a result of large watershed areas relative to lake volumes 40 .
MATHEMATICAL DEVELOPMENT Water Quantity Model Water Quality Model 41 .
Dyresm (dynamic reservoir simulation model) Surface Heat and Mass Exchange Energetic of surface layer Vertical diffusion in the hypolimnion Inflow dynamics Outflow dynamics 42 .
3.Difficulties in building models applicable for Indonesian situation 1. 2. Lack of data Ecological cycle or process takes place all over the year (the weather is warm) Less fund needed 43 .
The number of segment is estimated by dividing hydraulic detention time by ( ∆t ) overland flow subsurface flow main stream 1 overland flow subsurface flow m outlet intake evaporation intake evaporation 44 .Tropical Reservoir Eutrophication Model (TREM) The schematization: reservoir is divided into (m) segments that the water in the segment remain for a time-step ( ∆t ) then moves to the direction of flow to the next segment.
Then the volume of the first segment is where 45 . During a time-step. the volume of the river water to the first segment is and the volume of side inlet is .Water Quantity Model The incoming water to the first segment consists of water from the main river and side inlet such as small rivers or subsurface flow and overland flow. .
evaporation or other activities need water. During a time-step. the volume of water in the first segment. as their total amount of water intake is . the volume of intake-water. water supply.In every segment: agriculture. as. V1t = Vr t + Vs1t − Vo1t V1t = Vi1t − Vo1t 46 . Vo t = qo t ∗ ∆t n n So that.
t t Vnt = Vin − Von Initial volume is placed as Vinit for all segments 47 .It is assumed that all water in upper segment moves to the downstream segment. and side inflow and intake also take place. then the general equation can be written as if −1 t t Vin = Vnt− 1 + Vs n Then.
At the last segment where overflow weir is placed as in the figure. if Vmt 〉 Vd if Vmt 〈 Vd if V = Vd t m t − Vd overflow takes place as much as Vm overflow does not occur. the flow depends on the dead storage that is the volume of the last segment under the weir. then the t volume of water in the segment is Vm overflow does not occur 48 .
overland flow. and activities in segments. such as fish farming.Water Quality Model Load of pollutants in reservoir comes from river water. Pollutant load at the first segment during a specified time (∆t ) t L1 = Lr t + Li1t − l1t where Lr1t = Qr t ci t Li1t = qs1t co1t + f1t 49 .
While at other segments : t t Ltn = Ltn−−11 + Lin − ln It is assumed that water intake contents pollutant at average concentration. The amount of pollutant taken t t t out from the segment is l n = qo C It is assumed that water in a segment is completely mixed. so the average concentration: t Ltn Cn = t Vn 50 .
the alteration can be predicted by using first order of reaction as: t t −1 − k∆t Cn = Cn −1 e t Cn k = concentration at segment (n) at time (t ) = coefficient reaction rate for the pollutant. In case conservative pollutants are concerned. For example.During a time-step the pollutant may involve in physical and biochemical processes that alter the concentration. reaction rate does not take place but mass balance principle can be applied. 51 .
APPLICATION OF THE MODEL The computer model is applied into Saguling reservoir that is divided into 12 segments 52 .
0E+08 5.0E+08 Volume (m3) 1. 53 .0E+07 0.0E+00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Segment 9 10 11 12 The volume of reservoir in all segments at day 252 in 1991.5E+08 1.Water Quantity 2.
54 .0E+00 14 56 98 140 182 224 266 308 350 Julian day.0E+07 0.0E+08 5.2.5E+08 1. 1991 The volume of water in segment 11th.0E+08 Volume (m3) 1.
Scenario of altering pollutants in the management.33ci 55 .Water Quality . No 1* River flow Pollutant concentration in the main river water Fish farming exists none none exists Qr 2 Qr 3 Qr 4 Qr *) actual condition ci ci 0.33ci 0.
1 Phosphor (g/m3) 0.8 0. 56 .4 0.6 0.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Calculated Measured 10 11 12 Segment Concentration of pollutant along the reservoir at day 252 year 1991 and the calculated results using data of actual condition (scenario 1).
2 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Julian day.57 .8 0.4 0.6 0.1 Phosphor (g/m3) 0. 1991 Fluctuation of concentration of pollutant at segment eleven using data of actual condition in 1991 (scenario 1).
58 .2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Segment Concentration of pollutant along the reservoir at day 252 in 1991 given scenario 3.4 0.6 0.1 PHosphor (g/m3) 0.8 0.
2 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Julian day.4 0. 1991 Fluctuation of concentration of pollutant at segment eleven given scenario 3.1 Phosphor (g/m3) 0.8 0.6 0. 59 .
CONCLUSION Water quality of in a reservoir is under the influence of point sources and diffuse sources quality of Main River water overland flow. 60 . and activities in segments. The fate of pollutant in a reservoir depends on the water movement characteristics and biochemical processes that are specific for each segment.
Water in a segment is assumed to move to the next segment and at the same time alterations on pollutant concentrations take place. 61 .The reservoir is divided into segments activities related to pollutant increments and water consumption could be included in a mathematical model.
the Vertical segmentation can facilitate any activities related to quantity and quality related to elongated reservoir. 62 . But the accuracy depends on the input data and adopted pollutant transformations applied in the pollutant computation. However.The results can indicate water quantity and concentrations of pollutants at a specified time along the reservoir or water quality at a segment.
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