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Liquid Extraction

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Lecturer: Dr.Gamse

-1-

1. Rectangular Triangle Diagram

Y = C / (A + B + C)

D

ve O ow rf l

(e xt ra ) ct

a b 0 A X = B / (A + B + C) B 1

a ... constant underflow b ... variable underflow c ... constant ration solvent / inert material

DE ... connode

Lecturer: Dr.Gamse

-2-

E F

b N = A / (B + C)

X,Y = B / (B + C)

a ... constant underflow b ... variable underflow c ... constant ration solvent / inert material

DE ... connode

N=

L = solution = extractable substance + solvent = B + C N * L = amount of inert material A L * X, L * Y = amount of extractable substance B

Lecturer: Dr.Gamse

-3-

In a single step solid-liquid extraction soybean oil has to be extracted from soybean flakes using hexane as solvent. 100 kg of the flakes with an oil content of 20 wt% are contacted with 100 kg fresh hexane. 1.5 kg of inert material hold back a constant value of 1 kg solution.

Determine in the rectangular triangle diagram and in the Ponchon - Savarit diagram the amount and composition of the flows leaving the extraction plant.

V1 L0

solvent

V2 L1

underflow

L0 wA,L0 + V2 wA,V2 = M wA,M with the feed concentration wA,L0 = 0.8 and the suggestion, that no solid particles are included in the overflow, so wA,V2 = 0 follows: 100 * 0.8 + 100 * 0 = 200 * wA,M wA,M = 0.4

Lecturer: Dr.Gamse

-4-

Balance for compound B: L0 wB,L0 + V2 wB,V2 = M wB,M with the feed concentration wB,L0 = 0.2 and with the knowledge, that pure hexane is used as solvent, wB,V2 = 0, follows 100 * 0.2 + 100 * 0 = 200 * wB,M wB,M = 0.1 The concentration of compound C (solvent) in the mixing point M can be determined either by a mass balance for compound C

L0 wC,L0 + V2 wC,V2 = M wC,M with wC,L0 = 0, because no solvent is included in the feed, and with wC,V2 = 1, pure hexane, follows

100 * 0 + 100 * 1 = 200 * wC,M wC,M = 0.5 or by the rule, that the sum of the mass percent of each compound in the point M has to be 1. wA,M + wB,M + wC.M = 1 0.4 + 0.1 + wC.M = 1 wC.M = 0.5 With these concentrations the mixing point M can be drawn in the diagram, which has to be on the connection line of feed point F and solvent C.

It is given, that 1 kg inert material retains 1.5 kg solution (extractable substance + solvent = miscella = overflow). Therefore the concentration of the underflow is

w A,Underflow =

1 .5 = 0.6 1 .5 + 1

w A,Underflow = w A, L1 =

Lecturer: Dr.Gamse

-5-

The amount of the leaving flows L1 and V1 can be calculated from the mass balance for compound A

M wA,M = V1 wA,V1 + L1 wA,L1 with wA,V1 = 0 (no solid material in the overflow) and wA,L1 = 0.6 (underflow)

L1 = M

w A,M w A,L1

= 200

0 .4 0 .6

M = L1 + V1 follows V1 = M - L1 = 200 - 133.333 V1 = 66.666 kg The concentrations of B and C in the overflow V1 are calculated with the suggestion that no inert material A is included in the overflow.

w B, V1 =

B 20 = (A ) + B + C 0 + 20 + 100

wC,V1 = 0,8333 The composition of the underflow can be calculated by mass balances for compound B and C. L1 wB,L1 + V1, wB,V1 = L0 wB,L0 + V2 wB,V2 with wB,V2 = 0

w B,L1 =

L 0 w B,Lo V1 w B, V1 L1

wB,L1 = 0.067

Lecturer: Dr.Gamse

-6-

wC,L1 = 0.333

wt% A

wt% B

wt% C

80 0 0 60

20 0 16.667 6.7

Total balance: L0 + V2 = M = L1 + V1

L0 = B + C = 20 kg, no solvent is included in the feed material V2 = 100 kg, pure solvent C M = 20 + 100 = 120 kg

XL0 = 1 =

C=0

20 * 1 + 100 * 0 = 120 * XM

XM = 0.1667

N0 = ?

N0 =

A L0

80 =4 20

NM = ? N0 * L0 = A = NM * LM

LM = B + C = 20 + 100 = 120 kg NM =

A LM

80 = 0.667 120

Lecturer: Dr.Gamse

-7-

The amount of the extract solution V1 and of the solution, retained by the solid material, L1 can be determined by law of balance or by calculation. M = 120 kg = L1 + V1 N1 = ? It is given, that 1.5 kg of inert material A retains 1 kg solution B+C

N1 =

A = N0 * L0 = N1 * L1 = NM * M

L1 =

A L1

80 = 53.333 kg 1 .5

4 0 0 1.5

1 0 0.1667 0.1667

Lecturer: Dr.Gamse

-8-

10.000 kg of wet sugar beet chips with a composition of 28 wt% water, 32 wt% sugar and 40 wt% inert material have to be extracted in a continuous countercurrent extraction plant using hot water as solvent. The produced extract must contain 40 wt% sugar and the total extraction efficiency for sugar has to be 90%. 1 kg inert material retains 3 kg solution and this value is constant.

Determine in the rectangular triangle diagram and in the Ponchon - Savarit diagram the number of ideal steps for this separation problem.

V1 L0

extract (overflow)

solvent

Vn Ln

feed

underflow

90% sugar (B) have to be extracted and the extract solution must contain 40 wt% sugar

V1 * xB,V1 = 0.9 * L0 * xB,L0 with xB,V1 = 0.4, L0 = 10.000 kg and xB,L0 = 0.32 0.9 * 10,000 * 0.32 = 7.200 kg 0 .4

V1 =

xA,Ln = xA,Underflow =

A 1 = = 0.25 A + B + C 1+ 3

and xA,V1 = 0 with the suggestion that no solid material is included in the overflow and with xA,Vn = 0 because of pure solvent water C

Lecturer: Dr.Gamse

-9-

follows

Ln = L 0

x A,L0 x A,Ln

= 10,000

0 .4 = 16,000 kg 0.25

V1 * xB,V1 + Ln xB,Ln = L0 * xB,L0 + Vn * xB,Vn with xB,Vn = 0 because the solvent is pure water C follows L 0 * x B,L0 V1 * x B, V1 Ln 10,000 * 0.32 7,200 * 0.4 = 0.02 16,000

xB,Ln =

The amount of necessary solvent water C can be calculated by a total mass balance

L0 + Vn = Ln + V1

Vn = Ln + V1 - L0 = 16,000 + 7,200 - 10,000 = 13,200 kg

wt% A

wt% B

wt% C

40 0 0 25

32 0 40 2

28 100 60 73

Determination of the number of ideal steps First of all the constant underflow with xA,Ln = 0.25 and the given points L0 (xA,L0 = 0.4, xB,L0 = 0.32, xC,L0 = 0.28), V1 (xA,V1 = 0, xB,V1 = 0.4, xC,V1 = 0.6), Vn (xC,Vn = 1) and Ln (xA,Ln = 0.25, xB,Ln = 0.02, xC,Ln = 0.73) are drawn in the diagram. The one pole line is the connection of V1 with L0 and the other one the connection of Vn with Ln. Crossing these pole lines results in the pole point .

Lecturer: Dr.Gamse

- 10 -

Construction of the connode (= connection line with point A) through V1 gives the underflow L1 at the underflow line. Connecting L1 with the pole point give the extract composition V2, and so on. Finally the number of ideal steps results with Nth = 10

2. Ponchon - Savarit Diagram

N0 = XL0 =

XV1 =

B 0 .4 = = 0.4 B + C 0 . 4 + 0 .6

V1 =

0 .9 * L 0 * X L 0 X V1

Nn = NUnderflow = Ln =

A 1 = = 0.333 B+C 3

Total balance: L0 + Vn = LM = Ln + V1

LM = 12,000 + 7,200 = 19,200 kg Vn = 19,200 - 6,000 = 13,200 kg

Lecturer: Dr.Gamse

- 11 -

Balance for sugar B: L0 * XL0 + Vn * XVn = LM * XM = V1 * XV1 + Ln * XLn with XVn = 0 (pure solvent) follows

XLn =

0.666 0 0 0.333

Determination of the ideal number of steps: Drawing of the points L0 (NL0 = 0.666, XL0 = 0.533), V1 (NV1 = 0, XV1 = 0.4), Vn (NVn = 0, XVn = 0) and Ln (NLn = 0.333, XVn = 0.0267). The connection of L0 and V1 gives the first pole line and connection of Ln and Vn the second one. Crossing these two pole lines gives the pole point . The first connode is a vertical line through V1 which gives at the underflow the point L1. Connecting this point L1 with the pole point give the next extract composition V2 and so on.

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