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AUGUST/SEPTEMBER 2001

Will All Be Saved?


Richard John Neuhaus
The question of universalism hether all ill! in the en"! #e save"is $erenniall% a&itate" in the 'hristian tra"ition( A nota#le $ro$onent of that vie as the &reat )ri&en! ho! in the thir" *entur%! set forth a theolo&i*all% an" $hiloso$hi*all% *om$le+ "o*trine of ,A$o*atastasis- a**or"in& to hi*h all *reatures! in*lu"in& the "evil! ill #e save"( ,)ri&enism- hi*h is not ne*essaril% the same thin& as )ri&en tau&hthas #een *on"emne" from time to time! ith the Em$eror .ustinian tr%in&! unsu**essfull%! to &et a total *on"emnation at the Se*on" 'oun*il of 'onstantino$le in //0( Amon& theolo&ians an" *hur*h historians! there has #een somethin& of a re"is*over% an" rea$$re*iation of )ri&en in re*ent "e*a"es! hel$e" alon& in si&nifi*ant $art #% the voluminous ritin&s of 1ans Urs von Balthasar( The universalism question *ame in for #roa"er "is*ussion ith the $u#li*ation of Balthasar2s little #oo3Dare We Hope That All Men Be Saved? 415667( Balthasar2s is a ver% *areful ar&ument! *learl% "istin&uishin& #et een universal salvation as a hope an" universal salvation as a doctrine( 1e su$$orts the former an" re8e*ts the latter( 9n sum: e "o not 3no ; onl% Go" 3no s; #ut e ma% ho$e( <hile m% #oo3 Death on a Frida A!ternoon! $u#lishe" last %ear! is inten"e" not as an e+er*ise in s%stemati* theolo&% #ut as a $oeti*="evotional refle*tion on the seven last or"s from the *ross! 9 "o in"i*ate there m% essential a&reement ith Balthasar2s $osition( 9 *onfess to #ein& *au&ht off &uar" #% the vehemen*e of some *riti*isms on that s*ore! an" not onl% from $utative "efen"ers of ortho"o+% ho have $ersonal a+es to &rin"( >et me not e+a&&erate the $ro#lem: the #oo3 has #een marvelousl% ell re*eive"! for hi*h 9 am &rateful! an" man% $eo$le have e+$resse" their "isa&reement ith the $u#lishe" *riti*isms! for hi*h 9 am also &rateful( ?onetheless! hen some $eo$le hose 8u"&ment %ou &enerall% res$e*t have misun"erstoo" hat %ou rote! a *larif%in& or" ma% #e in or"er( )f *ourse! 9 also ho$e that $eo$le ill &o #a*3 an" rea" hat 9 a*tuall% rote in Death on a Frida A!ternoon( The ho$e that all ill #e save" is $re*isel% that! a ho$e( 9t is not a "o*trine! never min" a "o&ma( But some res$on" that e *annot even hol" the ho$e! sin*e it *learl% *ontra"i*ts the reveale" truth that man%! if not most! ill #e eternall% "amne"( A "ifferent an" mu*h more trou#lin& o#8e*tion is that it ma3es no sense to #e a 'hristian if! in fa*t! one *an #e save" ithout #ein& a 'hristian( 9n this vie ! the "amnation of others! ma%#e of most others! is essentiall% relate" to the reason for #ein& a 'hristian( The 8o% of our salvation is *ontin&ent u$on the miser% of their "amnation( 9f it is $ossi#le that all ill #e save"! it is as3e"! h% not eat! "rin3! an" #e merr%@ )ne *riti* &oes so far as to rite a#out all the ron& thin&s that he oul" reall% li3e to "o! that he oul" $refer to "o over hat he is "oin&! an" that he oul" "o! ere it not for the fear of eternit% in hell( 9t follo s! he *onten"s! that! ithout the "amnation of man%! $erha$s of most! there is no $oint in #ein& a 'hristian( This! 9 su&&est! is $rofoun"l% ron&hea"e" an" s$irituall% $erverse( Aor one thin&! one *annot rationall% an" 3no in&l% *hoose to live *ontrar% to Go"2s ill! sin*e to "o so is *ontrar% to one2s o n nature! hi*h nature is to live in a**or" ith Go"2s ill( )ne avoi"s sin #e*ause to sin is to a*t a&ainst Go" an" a&ainst oneself! not #e*ause! or not *hiefl% #e*ause! of the threat of future $unishment( More $re*isel%! $unishment! un"erstoo" as "amnation! is the *ulmination of havin& live" a&ainst one2s hi&hest &oo"! namel%! Go"( 9t is "ou#tful that one *oul" reall% ant life ith Go" forever if one "oes not ant life ith Go" here an" no ( The "enerosit o! "od Su*h a $erverse vie is also more than a little li3e that of the la#orers in the vine%ar" ho *om$laine" that those ho *ame at the last hour re*eive" the same re ar" as those ho ha" or3e" all "a%( The master re$lies! ,Ta3e hat #elon&s to %ou an" &o; 9 *hoose to &ive to this last as 9 &ive to %ou( Am 9 not allo e" to "o hat 9 *hoose ith hat

#elon&s to me@ )r "o %ou #e&ru"&e m% &enerosit%@ So the last ill #e first! an" the first last- 4Matthe 207( Some of the *riti*s of the ho$e for universal salvation "o in"ee" seem to #e&ru"&e the &enerosit% of Go" entaile" in that out*ome( Theirs is a $osition of resentment "resse" u$ as a *laim of 8usti*e( ,<hat as the $oint of m% or3in& so har" an" so lon& if Go" is &oin& to let in the riffraff on equal terms@ 9t2s unfairB- The es*hatolo&i*al u$settin& of su*h attitu"es 4the last ill #e first an" first last7 is a *onstant in the tea*hin& of .esus( )thers! ho ever! raise questions that shoul" #e ta3en ver% seriousl%( 9t oul" #e a#solutel% on"erful! the% sa%! if all ere to #e save"! #ut the Bi#le is ver% *lear that that is not the *ase( There is no "en%in& the $o erful $resen*e of $assa&es su&&estin& a "estin% of se$aration from Go" 4e(&(! Matthe C:10ff(! 2/:01=DE; Mar3 5:D/=D6; >u3e 1E:20; .ohn 0:0E(7 As there is also no "en%in& the ?e Testament $assa&es su&&estin& the re"em$tion of the entire *osmos 4e(&(! 'olossians 1:15=20; 1 'orinthians 1/:22!26; Romans /:16! 11:00=0E; Phili$$ians 2:10=117( 9f one &ives $riorit% to the latter $assa&es! then the former ma% #e un"erstoo" as a"monitor% an" *autionar%! solemn arnin&s of a terri#le $ossi#ilit%( 9f one &ives $riorit% to the former $assa&es! it is not *lear ho e are to un"erstan" the latter( The $assa&es *ite" in su$$ort of universal re"em$tion *an an" often have #een inter$rete" in other a%s! as have the $assa&es *ite" in su$$ort of the "amnation of some or man%( The 'hur*h in her is"om has not "efinitivel% settle" these e+e&eti*al "is$utes( 9t is o#8e*te" that Matthe 2/! for instan*e! is ,$re"i*tive(- The out*ome is *ertain: ,An" the% ill &o a a% into eternal $unishment! #ut the ri&hteous into eternal life(- Fes! *ertainl%! $eo$le ho live that a% until the ver% en" ill &o to hell( But hat if! havin& live" that a%! the% at the ver% en" re$ent@ Re*all the thief on the *ross( The #atechis$ o! the #atholic #hurch rea"s: ,Go" $re"estines no one to &o to hell; for this! a illful turnin& a a% from Go" 4a mortal sin7 is ne*essar%! an" $ersisten*e in it until the en"( 9n the Eu*haristi* litur&% an" in the "ail% $ra%ers of her faithful! the 'hur*h im$lores the mer*% of Go"! ho "oes not ant Gan% to $erish! #ut all to *ome to re$entan*e2, 4100C7( 1o *an e 3no that an%one $ersists in mortal sin until the en"@ <e *annot( Must e not ho$e that! a**or"in& to Go"2s "esire 42 Peter 0:57! all ill re$ent@ 9f not! ho *an e $ra% that that is the *ase@ 9s it $ossi#le to $ra% for an out*ome ithout ho$in& for it@ 9s it $ossi#le to $ra% an" ho$e for somethin& that %ou 3no *annot #e@ 9n Death on a Frida A!ternoon! 9 rite: ,Arom the *ross 'hrist has alrea"% *ounte" them all( An" he assures us that none of them ill #e lost( 1e also sen"s out those hom e *all missionaries to let them 3no the% have #een foun"(The se*on" senten*e is sus*e$ti#le of misun"erstan"in&! an" some have "one their #est to misun"erstan" it( The $oint of the senten*e is not that ever%one ill #e save"( The $oint! re$eate"l% un"ers*ore" else here in the #oo3! is that a#solutel% no one is #e%on" the rea*h of Go"2s love in 'hrist( All are foun"! an" therefore are not lost( That some ma% *hoose not to a**e$t the &ift of #ein& foun" is quite another matter( <e $ra% an" ho$e that all ill a**e$t the &ift of salvation that is most surel% availa#le to all( At least for 'atholi*s! the tea*hin& is "efinitive: Go" "enies no one the &ra*e ne*essar% for salvation( A Sordid Realit Ma3e no mista3e: 1ell is real( Eternal se$aration from Go" is a "istin*t $ossi#ilit% to #e feare"! an" to #e feare" first of all for ourselves( The $assa&es of arnin& are to #e ta3en ith utmost! in"ee" ultimate! seriousness( Go" onl% 3no s ho! if an%! are "amne"( )ur unqualifie" $ra%er is that Go"2s ill #e "one( Ho 9 3no #e%on" a $ossi#ilit% of "ou#t that 9 ill not #e "amne"@ )f *ourse not( To ans er other ise is the sin of $resum$tion( 9 #elieve! 9 have a *onfi"ent faith! that 9 ill #e save" #e*ause of the mer*% of Go" in 'hrist( 9t is sometimes sai" that Protestants! ho su#s*ri#e to ,8ustifi*ation #% faith!- %no& the% ill #e save"! hile 'atholi*s onl% hope the% ill #e save"( That is a "istin*tion ithout a "ifferen*e( Aaith is ho$e anti*i$ate"! an" ho$e is faith "is$ose" to ar" the future( ,Four ill #e "one on earth as it is in heaven(- That is the $ra%er that is a#solutel% ithout qualifi*ation( )nl% Go" 3no s Go"2s ill *om$letel%! an" it is enou&h that Go" 3no s( 9n the s$len"i" notes to the ne translation of Hante2s 'n!erno #% Ro#ert an" .ean 1ollan"er 4Hou#le"a%7 e are tol": Beatri*e2s insisten*e Iin 'anto 99J that she is not ,tou*ha#le- #% the &rim $o ers of the $ains of hell un"erlines the mar&inalit% of sin for the save"( 1ell is sim$l% not of *on*ern to them( 9t is im$ortant to 3no ! as one #e&ins rea"in& the $oem! hat one *an onl% 3no on*e one has finishe" it: no soul in $ur&ation or in &ra*e in heaven has a thou&ht for the *on"ition of the "amne" 4onl% the "amne" themselves "o7( Their *on*ern for those ho "o not share their re"eemin& $eniten*e or #liss is reserve" for those still alive on earth! ho have at least the ho$e of salvation( 1ell! for the save"! is a sor"i" realit% of hi*h it is #etter not to s$ea3( <e %no& that some are save"( At least 'atholi*s 3no ! on the #asis of infalli#le tea*hin&! that Mar%! the mother of the >or"! is save"( An"! althou&h theolo&ians are not of one min" on this! it is *ommonl% a**e$te" that those ho are formall% *anoniKe" are "efinitivel% "e*lare" to #e in heaven( <ith res$e*t to all the faithful "e$arte"! e are invite" to have a &enerous e+$e*tation! ,that %ou ma% not &rieve as others "o ho have no ho$e- 41 Thessalonians D:107(

Moreover! there is $lent% of room for the save" in the ?e .erusalem! hi*h e are tol" is a$$ro+imatel% fifteen hun"re" miles in hei&ht! #rea"th! an" len&th 4Revelation 21:1E7( That2s a *it% of a siKe that oul" *over more than half the *ontinental U(S(! an" it ill #e more than a thousan" miles hi&h( 9t oul" seem there is am$le s$a*e for ever%#o"% to #e save"( 4<here $eo$le ho "on2t li3e *ities ill &o! 9 "on2t 3no (7 The "etails ma% not #e meant literall%! of *ourse! #ut the $i*ture of a ell=$o$ulate" heaven *an! 9 thin3! #e truste"( Ho& A(out Judas? B% a% of *ontrast! e "o not 3no ho! if an% one! is in hell( As .ohn Paul 99 $oints out in his remar3a#le little #oo3 #rossin) the Threshold o! Hope! the 'hur*h has never tau&ht that even .u"as 9s*ariot is "amne"( A *riti* rites me that he ill not #e satisfie" until 9 $u#li*l% "e*lare m% *ertain #elief in a ,$o$ulate" hell(- 9 am afrai" that he ill have to remain "issatisfie"( 1o on earth 4em$hasiKin& on earth7 *an 9 3no for sure that hell is $o$ulate"@ )ne "a% e ill 3no even as e are 3no n 41 'orinthians 107! an" $resuma#l% the saints in &lor% 3no no 4althou&h! as Hante su&&ests! the%2re not mu*h intereste"7! #ut ehere on earth an" no sim$l% "o not 3no ( There is that eni&mati* statement of .esus a#out .u"as! ,9t oul" have #een #etter for that man if he ha" not #een #orn- 4Matthe 2E:2D! Mar3 1D:217( 1e "oes not e+$li*itl% sa% that .u"as is in hell #ut! on the other han"! it oul" seem that he *annot #e in heaven( <ere he in heavenor in $ur&ator% on his a% to heavenho *oul" one sa% that it oul" have #een #etter for him if he ha" not #een #orn@ Some theolo&ians have s$e*ulate" a#out another $ossi#ilit%( Sin*e evil "oes not have in"e$en"ent ontolo&i*al status #ut is the a#sen*e of &oo"! $erha$s the fate of .u"as is that of total annihilation( Su*h a fate! 8oine" to his terri#le #etra%al! oul" seem to arrant sa%in& of him that it oul" have #een #etter ha" he not #een #orn( 9n an% event! as .ohn Paul 99 notes! the 'hur*h "oes not tea*h that even .u"as is in hell( That "oes not mean he is not in hell; onl% that e *annot tea*h hat e "o not 3no ( The De$ands o! Justice 1ere enters another *onsi"eration that is *ommonl% e+$resse": our sense of 8usti*e requires that e #elieve some $eo$le are eternall% $unishe"( 9t seems the favorite *an"i"ate here is A"olf 1itler( As one *riti* rites! ,9f 1itler is not in hell! there is little reason h% 9! ith m% mu*h lesser sins! shoul" #e in fear of &oin& there(- There are all 3in"s of thin&s ron& ith that ar&ument( 1itler ma% have re$ente"! turnin& to the mer*% of Go"! even as his fin&er $resse" the tri&&er( Plus! ratin& ,#i&- an" ,little- sinners is a ver% "u#ious #usiness( 9 e+$e*t there are man% $ett% t%rants in homes an" offi*es ho are ever% #it as "is$ose" to evil as as 1itler! #ut ho have a more restri*te" ran&e of o$$ortunit% for a*tin& on that "is$osition( Moreover! *onsi"er the A$ostle ho rites! ,9 am the *hief of sinners- 41 Timoth% 1:1E7! an" so shoul" e all sa% of ourselves! sin*e! hen it *omes to sinners! e 3no *hiefl% a#out ourselves( Aurther! it is not our sense of 8usti*e #ut Go"2s $erfe*t 8usti*e that is to #e satisfie"( An"! #e it note"! that $erfe*t 8usti*e is satisfie" #% the $erfe*t sa*rifi*e of 'hrist on the *ross( Then! too! there is the matter of $ur&ator%( ?ot onl% 'atholi*s! #ut thin3ers su*h as '( S( >e is an" the *ontem$orar% Metho"ist theolo&ian .err% <alls su&&est it is onl% fittin& that there #e an e+$erien*e! an" $erha$s a lon& an" $ainful e+$erien*e! of $ur&ation #efore e are rea"% for the #eatifi* vision( The master2s re$roa*h to the "is&runtle" la#orers in the vine%ar" 4,Ho %ou #e&ru"&e m% &enerosit%@-7 not ithstan"in&! there is somethin& that seems not ri&ht a#out the i"ea that 1itler or 'hairman Mao or 4enter %our favorite villain here7 shoul" &et to heaven ithout $a%in& a stee$ $ri*e for their *rimes here on earth( Are the% finall% to #e treate" the same as! sa%! Mother Teresa@ That too seems not ri&ht( So ma%#e the% have thousan"s of %ears 4as e re*3on time7 in $ur&ator%( An" ma%#e! as one frien" himsi*all% su&&ests! 1itler in heaven ill #e forever a little "o& to hom e ill #eni&nl% *on"es*en"( But he ill #e &rateful for #ein& there! an" for not havin& re*eive" hat he "eserve"( 4As ill e all #e &rateful for #ein& there an" not re*eivin& hat e "eserve(7 But ith su*h thou&hts e are in a realm of s$e*ulation an" hims% far #e%on" thin&s on hi*h e have a *ertain or" from Go"! an" far #e%on" our *a$a*it% to un"erstan"( Wh *van)eli+e? So ma% e ho$e that all ill #e save"@ Ans erin& that question in the affirmative! some *onten"! un"er*uts the rationale of 'hristian evan&eliKation( 9 res$on" to that o#8e*tion in Death on a Frida A!ternoon an" in an e+ten"e" *ommentar% on .ohn Paul2s en*%*li*al Rede$ptoris Missio 4The Mission of the Re"eemer7 4AT! )*to#er 15517( 9 ill not e+$an" on that res$onse here! #ut the &ist of the ar&ument is that the *omman" an" im$ulse to evan&eliKe is $remise" not on the #a" ne s that e "o not 3no #ut on the &oo" ne s 4i(e(! ,&os$el-7 that e "o 3no ( To #e sure! &oo" ne s ma% #e &oo" in relation to the #a"! #ut there is enou&h #a" ne s that e 3no for sure that e "o not nee" to $reten" to 3no more #a" ne s than e "o in or"er to ma3e the &oo" ne s &oo"( <e 3no a#out Go"2s savin& or3 in 'hrist! an" that ,there is no other name un"er heaven &iven amon& men #% hi*h e must #e save"4A*ts D:127( As #oth Rede$ptoris Missio an" the %ear 2000 statement of the 'on&re&ation for the Ho*trine of the

Aaith! Do$inus 'esus! ma3e *lear! ever%one ho is save" is save" #e*ause of 'hrist! even if the% have never hear" the &os$el( 9f the% are in heaven! the% ill *ertainl% 3no then that it is #e*ause of Go"2s re*on*ilin& or3 in 'hrist( As it is usuall% $ut! faith2s res$onse to the &os$el $ro*laime" an" ena*te" in or" an" sa*rament is the ,or"inar% meansof salvation( That is e+a*tl% ri&ht( At the same time! Go" is not limite" to the or"inar%( <h% evan&eliKe@ Evan&eliKation is most im$ortantl% "riven #% the means of salvation reveale"! #% 'hrist2s *lear *omman"! an" #% the sharin& of fello shi$ so that ,our 8o% ma% #e *om$lete- 41 .ohn 1:D7( <e 3no hat e are to "o! an" h%( But the fullness of hat Go" *an an" ill "o for the orl" that 1e loves is not limite" to hat e "o( <e ma% *ome at our question in a "ifferent a% #% tr%in& this thou&ht e+$eriment: Ho %ou 3no an%one of hom %ou oul" not sa% that %ou ho$e he or she is save"@ 9ma&ine that %ou *oul" 3no ever%one ho no lives! ho has ever live"! or ill ever live in the future( )f hom *oul" %ou sa% that %ou ho$e the% are eternall% "amne"@ Perha$s in a fit of an&eror in an a*t of $resum$tion in hi*h %ou i"entifie" %our moral in"i&nation ith Go"2s $erfe*t 8usti*e%ou have sai" that %ou ho$e some#o"% is eternall% "amne"! #ut %ou 3no %ou ere ron& in sa%in& or thin3in& that( ,Aor&ive us our sins! as e for&ive those ho sin a&ainst us(- 9s it $ossi#le to for&ive someone an"! at the same time! ho$e he &oes to hell@ 9 thin3 not( After %ou have! in this thou&ht e+$eriment! sai" to a#solutel% ever%#o"%! ,9 ho$e %ou ill #e save"!- have %ou not "e*lare" %our ho$e that all ill #e save"@ Luite a$art from su*h a thou&ht e+$eriment! the fa*t is that e all $ra% that all ma% #e save"( 9s it $ossi#le to $ra% for that ithout ho$in& for that@ 9 thin3 not( 9t follo s that e $ra%! an" therefore e ho$e! that all ill #e save"( 'atholi*s #% the millions $ra% the rosar% ever% "a%! a""in& at the en" of ea*h "e*a"e! , $ Jesus- !or)ive us our sinssave us !ro$ the !ires o! hell- lead all souls to heaven- especiall those $ost in need o! th $erc . <e $ra% an" e ho$e! #ut e "o not %no& that that ill #e the *ase( 9 have a terri#le fear that it ill not #e the *ase( 9f all are not save"! if man% or most are lost! 9 "o not 3no ="es$ite the man% ele&ant e+$lanations that have #een $ro$ose"=ho to square that ith #i#li*al $assa&es an" the theo=lo&i* that su&&est universal re"em$tion( But Go" 3no s! an" that is enou&h( <e 3no that e are to $ro*laim the savin& &os$el! e 3no hat e ho$e ill #e the *ase! #ut e 3no these thin&s in the full re*o&nition that the ultimate or3in& out of Go"2s mer*% an" 8usti*e elu"es our *ertain &ras$( Ho& to Disa)ree ?evertheless! 9 e+$e*t that 9 ma% not have *onvin*e" ever%one that e *an an" shoul" ho$e that all ill #e save"( 9n that event! 9 ho$e e *an "isa&ree ithout quarrelin&! remem#erin& 'hesterton2s o#servation that the $ro#lem ith a quarrel is that it s$oils an ar&ument( An"! as in all su*h "isa&reements! e "o ell to 3ee$ in min" the rule of Ri*har" Ba+ter 4famousl% reiterate" #% .ohn MM9997! ,9n ne*essar% thin&s! unit%; in "ou#tful thin&s! li#ert%; in all thin&s! *harit%(To hi*h one nee" onl% a"" this ne*essar% thin&: all our $uKKlin&! "is$utin&! an" s$e*ulatin& must finall% &ive a% to the most $ure a*t of faith! hi*h is "o+olo&%( So it as ith St( Paul in his $er$le+it% at the en" of Romans 11! an" so it must #e ith us( At the en" of all our tr%in& to un"erstan"! e 8oin in "e*larin&: Aor Go" has *onsi&ne" all to "iso#e"ien*e! that 1e ma% have mer*% u$on all( ) the "e$th of the ri*hes an" is"om an" 3no le"&e of Go"B 1o unsear*ha#le are 1is 8u"&ments an" ho ins*ruta#le 1is a%sB ,Aor ho has 3no n the min" of the >or"! or ho has #een 1is *ounselor@- ,)r ho has &iven a &ift to 1im that he mi&ht #e re$ai"@- Aor from 1im an" throu&h 1im an" to 1im are all thin&s( To 1im #e &lor% forever( Amen( We Piped and You Did Not Dance

Ra##i Haniel >a$in has 8ust a#out ha" it( 1e hea"s u$ a rene al or&aniKation *alle" To ar" Tra"ition an" ta3es shar$ e+*e$tion to the statements of A#raham Ao+man of the Anti=Hefamation >ea&ue( Fou remem#er hen! "urin& the Po$e2s visit! S%rian lea"er Assa" sai" some ru"el% stu$i" thin&s a#out .e s( The Po$e "e*line" to &et into a s$ittin& mat*h ith Assa" then an" there! so Ao+man *om$laine" a#out the Po$e2s ,sin of silen*e(- Referen*e to $a$al ,silen*e- is! of *ourse! inten"e" to evo3e the ol" *anar" a#out Pius M992s alle&e" silen*e "urin& the 1olo*aust( A ver% o"" 3in" of silen*e that as! ith .e ish or&aniKations at the time &ratefull% $raisin& Pius for #ein& ,a lone voi*e of *ons*ien*e- hen other lea"ers! su*h as Roosevelt an" 'hur*hill! ere in"ee" silent a#out the 1olo*aust( But that "oesn2t sto$ A#e Ao+man( A#out the same time as the S%rian visit! there as a me"ia fla$ over some $rominent 'hristians ho o$ine" that *an"or *om$els a re*o&nition that the .e s of the time ere not entirel% uninvolve" in the *ru*ifi+ion of .esus( Tal3 a#out $ushin& Mr( Ao+man2s #uttons( 1e *har&e" that ,9t seems to #e

o$en season on .e s an" .u"aism(- Ri&ht( ?e+t ee3 *ome the $o&roms( Ba*3 to Ra##i >a$in: ,9 ish e *oul" all *alm "o n a little( 9 mean! ere it not for the AH>2s s*reamin&! har"l% an%one oul" 3no a#out Assa"2s $atheti* insults( An" 8ust hat as the el"erl% $ontiff su$$ose" to "o as Assa" #lathere" a a% in Ara#i*8um$ u$! run a*ross the sta&e! an" start stran&lin& the &u%@ But 9 ima&ine A#e Ao+man as fa*in& a shortfall in fun"raisin& this quarter! or somethin& li3e that( Ten thousan" little ol" .e ish &ran"mothers must #e reall% or3e" u$ an" ritin& their *he*3s to AH>(Ao+man even too3 out an a" in the Ne& /or% Ti$es *ensurin& the Po$e( Mr( Ao+man "i" tem$er his *riti*ism ith the &enerous a*3no le"&ment! ,1e2s earne" our $atien*e(- Po$e .ohn Paul has earne" Mr( Ao+man2s $atien*e( Tal3 a#out testi*ular #rass or3s( )f hom "oes one sa%! ,<e must #e $atient ith him-@ Ma%#e a retar"e" *hil" or a re*overin& al*oholi*( The Po$e is no "ou#t &rateful that Mr( Ao+man is illin& to #e $atient ith him( To #e fair! Mr( Ao+man as not alone( The Jerusale$ 0ost also e"itoriall% rante" a&ainst the Po$e2s ,sinful silen*e(Eu&ene Aisher of the U(S( #isho$s2 offi*e for .e ish affairs has 8ust a#out ha" it! too( 1e rote the $a$er! ,9 must $rotest %our e"itorial *hara*teriKin& of Po$e .ohn Paul 992s re*ent a*tions in Hamas*us as Gsilen*e2 an" Gsinful(2 Sim$l% #e*ause the Po$e "i" not res$on" to Presi"ent Assa"2s $atheti* an" trans$arent a$$eal to hoar% reli&ious #i&otr% in the a% %ou oul" $refer "oes not 8ustif% %our e+*oriation of him(- Aisher then ent on to quote hat the Po$e a*tuall% "i" sa% on the o**asion a#out .e s! Muslims! an" 'hristians or3in& to&ether for $ea*e an" in mutual res$e*t( Reasona#le $eo$le mi&ht have ta3en that as a res$onse to Assa"2s tira"e( ?ot 'ra&& 1ines of the Houston #hronicle! ho ever( 1e "evotes a *olumn to *om$arin& the Po$e in Hamas*us ith *enturies of $utative *rimes #% 'atholi*ism a&ainst all an" sun"r%! *on*lu"in& ith a sneer that $o$es "on2t have to sa%! ,<e2re sorr%(- ?ever min" that a &oo" man% $eo$le thin3 that this Po$e has sai" ,<e2re sorr%- more than one time too man%( 9 hasten to a"" that 9 "on2t thin3 so( 9t2s $art of his ell=*onsi"ere" *am$ai&n aime" at the ,$urifi*ation of memories(- )ne "oes ish! ho ever! that others oul" sho at least some in*lination to re*i$ro*ate his honest% an" humilit%( Bisho$ .ose$h AiorenKa of 1ouston has also 8ust a#out ha" it( 1e rote! ,1ines on"ere" ho lon& it ill ta3e for the 'atholi* 'hur*h to a$olo&iKe for .ohn Paul not res$on"in& to the S%rian lea"er for "efamin& .e s an" 9srael( 9 on"er ho lon& it ill ta3e 1ines an" the #hronicle to a$olo&iKe for the "efamation of Po$e .ohn Paul 99! a &reat servant of $ea*e an" the stron&est moral voi*e in the orl"(Je&ish Wee%! $u#lishe" in ?e For3! o#taine" a letter sent to Mr( Ao+man #% <alter 'ar"inal Nas$er! the ne hea" of the 'ommission for Reli&ious Relations ith the .e s( ,To "efame the 1ol% Aather #% attri#utin& Gsilen*e2 to him is quite un8ust an" *annot &o un*onteste"!- the 'ar"inal rote( ,9 must ma3e *lear that su*h an offensive intervention "oes nothin& to serve %our "esire for a &oo" an" effe*tive relationshi$ ith the 'atholi* 'hur*h( 9t oun"s our relationshi$(- )ne veteran of the 'atholi*=.e ish "ialo&ue sai" that it as the ,tou&hest- messa&e from the Oati*an in thirt% %ears( 9n a res$onse to Nas$er! Ao+man sai"! ,9t as in the *onte+t of the Po$e2s a**om$lishments that e ere so "istresse" #% the Oati*an2s la*3 of *omment( 9n"ee" as of this ritin& the Oati*an has not a""resse" this matter(The AH>2s $atien*e is earin& thin( Ao+man2s AH> a" in the Ti$es "e*lares in #i& t%$e! ,Po$e .ohn Paul 99! e ere &reatl% sa""ene" #% %our silen*e(- To hi*h the $ro$er res$onse is! <e are &reatl% sa""ene"! an" more than a little im$atient! ith %our ru"eness( Ao+man! 1ines! theJerusale$ 0ost! an" too man% others $ut one in min" of the or"s of .esus in >u3e *ha$ter seven: ,To hat then shall 9 *om$are the men of this &eneration! an" hat are the% li3e@ The% are li3e *hil"ren sittin& in the mar3et$la*e an" *allin& to one another! G<e $i$e" to %ou! an" %ou "i" not "an*e; e aile"! an" %ou "i" not ee$(2, 9t is true that the Po$e is servus servoru$ Dei! servant of the servants of Go"! #ut that "oes not mean that he is an%#o"%2s la*3e%( The $artisan $i$ers ho e+$e*t him to "an*e to their tunes ill 8ust have to &et use" to it( The%2ll no "ou#t 3ee$ a*tin& as the% "o! at least for a hile! sin*e it a$$arentl% $la%s ell ith their har"=*ore *onstituen*%( But 9 e+$e*t it is the *ase that for most Ameri*ans! .e s an" non=.e s ali3e! su*h mis#ehavior loo3s in*reasin&l% li3e that of $etulant *hil"ren in the mar3et$la*e thro in& a tantrum #e*ause the orl" "oes not 8um$ at their #i""in&( 9t is not entirel% unli3e the tantrum thro n #% Assa" in Hamas*us( Gro n=u$s ill a&ree ith Ra##i >a$in that it2s time to *alm "o n( A"ult #ehavior ma% $ut a *rim$ in AH>2s fun"raisin&! #ut *ount that as a $ri*e ell orth $a%in& for the *ivilit% on hi*h e all "e$en"( Bobos in Paradise, but Maybe Not For Long Fou ma% remem#er that 9 as at first shar$l% *riti*al of Havi" Broo3s2 ar&ument in Bo(os in 0aradise 4AT! Au&ust/Se$tem#er 20007( But his res$onse 4'orres$on"en*e! He*em#er 20007 $rom$te" me to ta3e a lon& se*on" loo3( There is mu*h more there than 9 thou&ht! so our Ramse% 'olloquium invite" Broo3s to a "a%=lon& "is*ussion of his thesis( The thesis is that Ameri*a2s rulin& *lass is *om$ose" of Bo#os! meanin& $eo$le ho have su**essfull% *om#ine" values #ohemian an" #our&eois( The further ar&ument is that Bo#os ill remain the rulin& *lass #e*ause the% are a#le to *o=o$t *hallen&es to their rule( 9n short! sa%s Broo3s! Bo#os have resolve" hat man% %ears a&o Haniel Bell *alle" ,the *ultural *ontra"i*tions of *a$italism(- 9f true! that is an im$ortant "evelo$ment(

.ames Havison 1unter! the Universit% of Oir&inia so*iolo&ist ho has ritten ver% influentiall% a#out the *ulture ar! as there! an" he a&ree" ith mu*h of the Broo3s thesis( Bo#os! he su&&este"! live in a orl" ver% mu*h li3e a hi&h s*hool here 3i"s are "ivi"e" into &ee3s! ner"s! 8o*3s! an" so forth( E+*e$t that in this orl" the status "ifferentiation is #ase" almost e+*lusivel% on *onsum$tion( Bo#os have lifest%les! he sai"! instea" of lives or"ere" in o#e"ien*e to $er*eive" truth( Their serious *ommitments al a%s *ome ith an e+it strate&% atta*he"( This fits Broo3s2 o#servation a#out the moralit% of Bo#os! that theirs is ,a house of o#li&ation #uilt on the foun"ation of *hoi*e(- 1unter also a&rees that! at least for the most $art! the *ulture ar is over for Bo#os( 9t is 3e$t &oin& #% or&aniKations that are a#le to eli*it su$$ort from 10 $er*ent at either en" of the *ultural an" i"eolo&i*al s$e*trum( As he $uts it! ,The mi""le has no mailin& list(1unter an" others $ointe" out that the Bo#o orl" is more fra&ile than it a$$ears! ho ever( 9t is *om$letel% "e$en"ent u$on e*onomi* $ros$erit% an" the la*3 of serious testin&( Emerson as *ite": ,A"versit% intro"u*es a man to himself(- Bo#os are more than a little li3e ?ietKs*he2s $itiful ,last man- ho &oes on livin& the manners of moralit% after the moral #ottom has fallen out( 9t *an2t last! an" it on2t( )thers note" that Broo3s2 more re*ent ritin& a#out *olle&e stu"ents 4see ,The )r&aniKation Ni"s!- Atlantic Monthl ! A$ril 20017 su&&ests that Bo#o"om ma% #e a one= &eneration $henomenon( These stu"ents are un*riti*all% *ommitte" to the "is*i$lines of a*hievement( Put "ifferentl%! the% have quite a#an"one" the #ohemian half of hat it means to #e a Bo#o( Unli3e their $arents! the% feel no o#li&ation to maintain even the $retense of the re#elliousness of the si+ties( Meritocrac Broo3s sa%s he is often as3e" hether Bo#oism is not lar&el% a .e ish $henomenon! an" he thin3s there is somethin& to that( <hen 1arvar" "ro$$e" its ethni* quota s%stem in favor of merito*ra*%! .e s ere first in line( .e s! he o#serves! have #een on the *uttin& e"&e of merito*ra*%( This is not a su#8e*t "is*usse" in his #oo3! ho ever! an" others insiste" that the .e ish fa*tor shoul" not #e e+a&&erate"( Althou&h it is not &enerall% a$$re*iate"! 'atholi*s! es$e*iall% 9rish 'atholi*s! are not that far #ehin" .e s in havin& ta3en a"vanta&e of merito*ra*%( As for the ol" <ASP esta#lishment! some sai" it *ommitte" sui*i"e! others that it ha" altruisti*all% "e*i"e" to share $o er! an" %et others that it as ha$$% to #e assimilate" to Bo#o"om( 9n an% event! there as &eneral a&reement that Bo(os in 0aradise a**uratel% "es*ri#es hat loo3s ver% mu*h li3e a ne rulin& *lass( 9t as alto&ether a re ar"in& "is*ussion( 9 have al a%s foun" &reat merit! ho ever! in the o$inion that Ameri*an so*iet% is so vast an" so various that almost an% &eneraliKation ma"e a#out it is am$l% su$$orte" #% the evi"en*e( An" here thin&s move so qui*3l% that! 8ust as %ou &et a *on*e$t that seems to *a$ture the *ultural moment! it is ma"e o#solete #% *han&e! usuall% une+$e*te" *han&e( An" so it ma% turn out to #e ith the Bo#o thesis( 9 as therefore most $arti*ularl% intereste" hen $arti*i$ants turne" to the question of hat e 3no for sure is "ifferent no from! sa%! fift% %ears a&o( The resultin& list is not e+haustive! an" thin&s are not ne*essaril% liste" in or"er of im$ortan*e! #ut here are some *han&es that it seems e 3no for sure( )f *ourse! some items are $rett% o#vious! #ut 9 thin3 it is a useful list( Fou *an a"" or "elete at ill(

17 The $ervasiveness of fertilit% *ontrol 4e(&(! *ontra*e$tion an" a#ortion7! resultin& in $eo$le havin& fe er *hil"ren( 27 Merito*ra*% in the universit% an" other avenues to a*hievement an" re ar" 07 The o#session ith safet%! es$e*iall% the safet% of *hil"ren( 'hil"hoo" free"om is re$la*e" #% re&imentation( D7 'hil"=rearin& #ase" on the moral im$erative of a*hievement( Thus $arents 8o*3e%in& to &et their three=%ear=ol" into the ,#est s*hools!- from "a% *are throu&h &ra"uate s*hool( /7 The in*rease man% times over of 3i"s &oin& to *olle&e( A %oun& $erson ith onl% a hi&h s*hool e"u*ation is sim$l% out of the loo$ of a*hievement an" re ar"( E7 The movement to ar" havin& ,"esi&ner *hil"ren- throu&h ne re$ro"u*tive te*hniques( C7 The $ervasiveness of $harma*euti*al relief from life2s an+ietiesi(e(! ProKa* et al( 67 The *reation of a ,mass u$$er *lass(- There are to"a%! it is re$orte"! more than thirteen million Ameri*ans ho are millionaires( 57 Mass mar3et s$iritualit%( 'onsult the ,s$iritualit%- se*tion of an% *hain #oo3store( Reli&ious i"entit% is not

inherite" #ut ele*te"( 4Some "issente" on this one! ar&uin& that Ameri*a has al a%s #een a s$iritual an" reli&ious mar3et$la*e(7 107 The moraliKation of health( Aor instan*e! the anti=smo3in& *am$ai&n an" o#session ith e+er*ise( 1ealth "is$la*es salvation( )n ?e For3 #uses! there is this a" for a &%m: ,1eaven an" hell have the same a""ress(117 The e+tension of a"oles*en*e( The t ent%=five=%ear=ol" at home or livin& on allo an*e is ,fin"in& himself(- This *onne*ts ith marr%in& later an" havin& fe er *hil"ren( 127 The ne+us #et een ,s%m#oli* 3no le"&e- an" monetar% re ar"( The route to su**ess is not throu&h ma3in& thin&s #ut *ommuni*atin& thin&s( 107 The a#sen*e of a hierar*h% of value in literature an" the arts( Art is rate" #% hether it is e+$ressive or trans&ressive( An" ho rea"s $oetr% an%more@ The ,<estern *anon- is! for the most $art! *onsi&ne" to the "ust#in( 1D7 The intelle*tual an" *ultural elite has ma"e its $ea*e ith *ommer*e! an" then some( The anti=#our&eois tra"ition is "is$la*e" #% &ettin& ri*h( 1/7 The "ramati* in*rease of omen in the $rofessions! ith the resultin& *onfli*t #et een ,havin& it all- an" antin& *hil"ren( 4See a#ove on marr%in& later(7 1E7 Sele*tive matin&! meanin& that men *hoose omen an" omen *hoose men of the same status( Bo#os marr% 4or *oha#it ith7 Bo#os( 1C7 A $u#li* *ulture of #i#li*al illitera*%( Relate"! in $art! to the influen*e of se*ular .e s ho have #enefite" from merito*ra*%! an" are hostile to! or feel threatene" #%! #i#li*al 4meanin& mainl% 'hristian7 referents in $u#li*( 167 The in*rease in! an" moral im$erative of! toleran*e( ?ota#l% ith res$e*t to ra*e! #ut e+ten"in& to homose+uals an" others $reviousl% *ensure" as "eviant( 157 9ssues of moralit% an" *hara*ter re$la*e" #% the thera$euti*( See Phili$ Rieff2s $res*ient #oo3! The Triu$ph o! the Therapeutic 415EE7( 207 The $olariKation of the t o ma8or $arties alon& reli&io=moral lines( As "ramati*all% evi"ent in the 2000 ele*tion! *hur*h&oers vote Re$u#li*an! non=*hur*h&oers vote Hemo*rati*( 217 The un*riti*al a**e$tan*e #% %oun& $eo$le of authorit% fi&uresi(e(! $arents! tea*hers ho *ontrol the #esto al of &ra"es! hi*h means a**ess to a*hievement( 4There as "issent on this one; some sa%in& it is not so mu*h the *ase! others that it is not a *han&e(7 227 There is no i"es$rea" re#ellion a&ainst ,the s%stem(- Be*ause that st%le as e+hauste" #% the si+ties! an"! $erha$s more im$ortant! #e*ause there is no #i& alternative s%steme(&(! Mar+ist so*ialism#ein& $ro$ose" to"a%(

Fou ma% "isa&ree ith some items! #ut 9 thin3 the list is su&&estive( Nee$in& in min" that Ameri*an so*iet% is so vast an" various that almost an% &eneraliKation is am$l% su$$orte" #% the evi"en*e( An" %ou ma% ant to e+$lore for %ourself hat s$ar3e" this "is*ussion! in hi*h *ase 9 re*ommen" Havi" Broo3s2 Bo(os in 0aradise( 9t is! not in*i"entall%! &reat fun to rea"( Ne Yor! "lory

Ne& /or% 1niversit 0ress has no& pu(lished a !ine (oo% o! essa s on reli)ion in Ne& /or% #it ( the a(ove titleedited ( Ton #arnes. Here are e2cerpts !ro$ $ pre!ace to the (oo%- includin)- ' e2pect- a &ar$ed up chestnut or t&o. <hen %ou2re tire" of >on"on! the &reat Hr( .ohnson o#serve"! %ou2re tire" of life( More than t o hun"re" %ears later! the same mi&ht #e sai" of ?e For3 'it%( 9n fa*t! $eo$le have! in various a%s! #een sa%in& essentiall% that a#out ?e For3 for more than t o hun"re" %ears( 9n his fine intro"u*tion! e"itor Ton% 'arnes tou*hes on the a%s visitors to ?e For3 from Euro$e an" else here have intuite"! to their satisfa*tion or alarm! that the *it% #eto3ens the future of the mo"ern 4$ostmo"ern@7 orl"(

Shortl% after #ein& a$$ointe" Ar*h#isho$ of ?e For3 in 156D! .ohn 'ar"inal )2'onnor visite" Po$e .ohn Paul 99( The Po$e &reete" him ith his arms s$rea" an" "e*lare"! ,<el*ome to the ar*h#isho$ of the *a$ital of the orl"BThis from the Bisho$ of Rome! the *it% to hi*h! or so e are tol"! all roa"s lea"( ?e For3ers are re&ularl% remin"e"! an" not al a%s in the 3in"est tones! that ?e For3 is not Ameri*a( The% 8ust as re&ularl%! an" ha$$il%! a&ree( )ne a% in hi*h ?e For3 is $resuma#l% not li3e the rest of Ameri*a is that the rest of Ameri*a is ver% reli&ious hile ?e For3 is "etermine"l% se*ular( 9t is one of the &reat merits of the $resent #oo3 to *hallen&e! shar$l% an" *onvin*in&l%! that assum$tion( 9 have en*ountere" so*iolo&ists ho! ith res$e*t to Ameri*a2s reli&iosit% an" ?e For32s se*ularit%! s$ea3 of ,?e For3 e+*e$tionalism(- M% o n e+$erien*e of livin& here more than thirt% %ears! reinfor*e" #% the stories an" "ata in these $a&es! su&&ests that e shoul" vie su*h a notion ith ro#ust s3e$ti*ism( 9n &eneral! se*ulariKation theorists have "one somethin& of a turna#out in re*ent %ears( 9n the more militantl% se*ular versions of ei&hteenth=*entur% Enli&htenment an" u$ throu&h re*ent times! it as thou&ht that se*ulariKation as somethin& of an unsto$$a#le 8u&&ernaut( As the orl" #e*ame more mo"ern 4i(e(! enli&htene"7! reli&ion oul" either ither a a% or #e hermeti*all% seale" off from $u#li* life as a $rivate e**entri*it%( Se*ulariKation theorists ten"e" to #e Euro$ean an" a&ree" ith Ma+ <e#er that there a$$eare" to #e an un#rea3a#le lin3 #et een mo"erniKation an" the ,"isen*hantment- of the orl"( All is rationaliKe"! s$e*ialiKe"! #ureau*ratiKe"! fun*tionaliKe"( 9n short! all is se*ulariKe"( Amon& those su#s*ri#in& to this &eneral theor%! $uKKlement as re&ularl% e+$resse" as to h% reli&ion! in ma""enin&l% "iverse a%s! is so vi#rantl% alive in Ameri*a! "es$ite the fa*t that Ameri*a is a mo"ern! $erha$s the most mo"ern! so*iet%( The a&ree"=u$on ans er to this $uKKlement as e+$resse" in the notion of ,Ameri*an e+*e$tionalism(- To"a% there is a &ro in& *onsensus that it ma% #e more a**urate to s$ea3 of Euro$ean e+*e$tionalism! or at least of <estern Euro$ean e+*e$tionalism( <hile German%! Aran*e! an" the ?etherlan"s! amon& others! seem to #e in thrall to a num#in& se*ulariKation! aroun" the orl"in Afri*a! Asia! >atin Ameri*a! an" else herethere is a resur&en*e of reli&ion! ith all the *ultural an" $oliti*al *onsequen*es that atten" su*h a resur&en*e( This is the realit% e+amine" #% 1arvar"2s Samuel 1untin&ton in his mu*h *ontroverte"! #ut 9 thin3 essentiall% a**urate! ,*lash of *iviliKations- thesis( 9 am in*line" to ris3 &oin& a ste$ further an" sa% that! if the $rover#ial man or oman from Mars as3e" a#out the most im$ortant sin&le thin& ha$$enin& on $lanet earth at the #e&innin& of the t ent%=first *entur%! a ver% &oo" ans er mi&ht #e the dese*ulariKation of orl" histor%( This is not! a**or"in& to the te+t#oo3s still use" from &ra"e s*hool throu&h &ra"uate s*hool! ho histor% as su$$ose" to turn out( A #it o! Man #ities The $resent #oo3 su&&ests that the m%th of ?e For3 e+*e$tionalism is as "u#ious as is the m%th of Ameri*an e+*e$tionalism( As Ameri*a is! ith res$e*t to reli&ion! more li3e than unli3e the rest of the orl"! so ?e For3 is more li3e than unli3e Ameri*a( But! of *ourse! ?e For3 is also "ifferent( The "ifferen*e! ho ever! ma% #e quite the o$$osite of hat is usuall% su$$ose"( The *onventional is"om for a lon& time as that the *it% is the $reeminentl% mo"ern e+$ression of <e#er2s rationaliKe" ,"isen*hantment(- 9t seems to me more li3el%! ho ever! that the rau*ousl% varie&ate" "is8un*tions of ever%"a% life in ?e For3 o$en u$ s$a*es of en*hantment#oth on"rous an" #iKarre un3no n in more "omesti*ate" forms of human so*iet%( The *it% is a *it% of man% *ities! a orl" of man% orl"s( M% first $arish assi&nment as to a me"ium=siKe" to n of fifteen thousan" $eo$le in far u$state ?e For3( The life of that to n as ti&ht as a "rum! $re"i*ta#le! rational! an" in all its "imensions run #% the rules of a famil%! a #usiness! an" an E$is*o$al *hur*h that ha" "ominate" it for &enerations( 9 an" the small flo*3 9 she$her"e" ere most "e*i"e"l% outsi"ers( Then! still in m% mi"=t enties! 9 *ame to Broo3l%n! ?e For3! an" $lun&e" into the *ommunit% a*tivism that ent ith #ein& $astor of a $oor #la*3 $arish in those "a%s( <ithin months! 9 as lea"in& "emonstrations! testif%in& #efore the 'it% 'oun*il! meetin& ith the Ma%or! an" &enerall% $la%in& the $art of a $u#li* $erson of im$ortan*e in a a% that oul" have #een im$ossi#le in the u$state to n of m% first $arish( A $erson of im$ortan*e@ 9t as $artl% true an" $artl% a "elusion! an" the truth an" the "elusion ere har" to se$arate( That is hat is meant #% sa%in& that ?e For3 is a orl" of man% orl"s( Ever%#o"% ith a taste for it an" a mo"i*um of talent &ets a *han*e to #e im$ortant in ?e For3( There are so man% orl"s in hi*h to #e im$ortant! or at least to feel im$ortant( 9t is the *it% of finan*e an" #usiness! of fashion an" theater! of $u#lishin& an" the arts! of hustlin& an" fervent $iet%( This #oo3 is mainl% a#out the last "imension of life in ?e For3( Aormer Ma%or E" ar" No*h frequentl% sai" that reli&ion! an" the 'atholi* 'hur*h in $arti*ular! is the &lue that hol"s the *it% to&ether( 9 "on2t 3no if that is the most a$t ima&e! #ut for man%! if not most! ?e For3ers! reli&ion "efines a $la*e to #e! a $ie*e of the hole from hi*h it is $ossi#le to vie the hole throu&h the e%es of en*hantment( As the late 'hristo$her >as*h rote of the famil% as a refu&e in a heartless orl"! so it is $ossi#le to

vie the reli&ious *ommunities "es*ri#e" in these $a&es as su*h refu&es( Aor man% mem#ers of these *ommunities! the% ma% #e that( Fet it is the *ase! 9 e+$e*t! that for man% others reli&ion $rovi"es the stor% line #% hi*h to ma3e sense of! an" to ma3e liva#le! the hole( 9 have sometimes su&&este"! less than half=8o3in&l%! that over the heavenl% &ates ill #e a si&n: ,Arom the <on"erful Peo$le <ho Brou&ht Fou ?e For3 'it%! the ?e .erusalemB- 9 a"" that those ho in this life "i" not li3e ?e For3 'it% ill have another $la*e to &o( 9 sa% that less than half=8o3in&l%! #ut not ver% mu*h less( The #hurch /ou Mean . . . The e"itor notes! *orre*tl%! that Roman 'atholi*ism in ?e For3 is ver% mu*h sli&hte" in the a**ounts $rovi"e" here( 9 share his $uKKlement as to h% that shoul" #e( After all! some here aroun" DD $er*ent of all the $eo$le in ?e For3 *laim to #e 'atholi*! an" it is a 'atholi*ism of stunnin& variet%( 9 am tol" that in ?e For3 the Mass is sai" ever% ee3 in thirt%=t o "ifferent lan&ua&es( 4Some sa% it is thirt%=nine "ifferent lan&ua&es! #ut 9 thin3 the% are *ountin& some hat similar 'hinese "iale*ts(7 So the "earth of resear*h on 'atholi*ism is har"l% "ue to la*3 of ,*olor- or variet%( An" in man% a%s the $resen*e of 'atholi*ism in the *it% is reli&iousl% over helmin&( As *ome"ian Mort Sahl sai" #a*3 in the 15/0s! ,The 'atholi* 'hur*h is the *hur*h %ou mean hen %ou sa% Gthe 'hur*h(2, 9n terms of $u#li* $resen*e! no reli&ious fi&ure is in the same lea&ue as the 'ar"inal Ar*h#isho$( <hen &a% a*tivists "e*i"e to $rotest hat the% vie as reli&ion2s o$$ressive a%s! the "emonstration is! of *ourse! at St( Patri*32s( 9t is not as thou&h the me"ia! theater! an" entertainment orl"s #ase" in ?e For3 i&nore 'atholi*ism( )n the *ontrar%! at an% &iven time there are half a "oKen or more $la%s "e$lorin& the alle&e"l% terri#le thin&s "one to $u$ils #% Sister 9mma*ulata in $aro*hial s*hool! an" sit*om an" tal3=sho 8i#es a#out 'atholi* &uilt 4usuall% se+ual7 are a sta$le( Fet a*a"emi*s in histor% an" the so*ial s*ien*es seem to #e $a%in& little attention to the realit% of 'atholi*ism in ?e For3( Perha$s it is li3e the ele$hant in the livin& room( Ever%#o"% 3no s it is there an" has rather "efinite vie s a#out it! #ut there seems to #e little to #e "one a#out it e+*e$t to i&nore it in the ho$e that it ill &o a a%( 9 "o not have a satisf%in& ans er to Ton% 'arnes2 $uKKlement a#out the la*3 of a*a"emi* interest in 'atholi*ism in ?e For3( 9 "o 3no that G( N( 'hesterton as ri&ht hen he sai" that 'atholi*ism is ever so mu*h lar&er from the insi"e than from the outsi"e( There are su*h ri*h lo"es to mine in resear*h an" ritin&( Base" on m% o n e+$erien*e in the Ar*h"io*ese an" Broo3l%n Hio*ese! 9 oul" love to see! to *ite #ut one instan*e! a thorou&h e+amination of the Aili$inos in ?e For3( 9n the $ast half *entur%! in $arish after $arish! the Aili$inos have #een a *atal%st of *han&e in *harismati* rene al! *ate*hesis! an" the revival of $o$ular eu*haristi* an" other "evotions( Then there are the man% "etermine"l% "is*i$line" ,rene al movements-from )$us Hei an" Ao*olare to the ?eo*ate*humenal <a% an" the >e&ionaries of 'hrist( <ho are all these $eo$le! mainl% %oun& $eo$le! ho are #ent u$on evan&eliKin& the *a$ital of the orl" an" thus! or so the% #elieve! *han&in& the orl"@ Suffi*e it to sa% that Ne& /or% "lor shoul" #e vie e" as a #e&innin&( Reli&ion in ?e For3 'it% is a su#8e*t as ine+hausti#le as the human stor% itself( An" ere a "efinitive a**ount ever to #e ritten! it oul" imme"iatel% nee" to #e re ritten( <hen 9 *ame here as a %oun& man! 9 as sho in& a frien" from out of to n aroun"( Pointin& to all the *onstru*tion sites here #uil"in&s ere #ein& torn "o n an" others ere*te" or reha#ilitate"! 9 sai" in m% inno*en*e! ,This is reall% &oin& to #e a #eautiful *it% hen the% &et it finishe"(- But! of *ourse! the finishin& of ?e For3 'it% is an es*hatolo&i*al *on*e$t( Mean hile! Ne& /or% "lor $rovi"es overvie s! assessments! an" sna$shots of a *it% on its a% to the ?e .erusalem( W#y $#ristianity Needs %udais&

9n these $a&es there is frequent referen*e to ,the .u"eo='hristian tra"ition(- The $hrase is mu*h more than the 8ar&on of interreli&ious $olitesse or a $ie*e of hat some *all the Ameri*an ,*ivil reli&ion(- <e s$ea3 of a .u"eo= 'hristian $oraltra"ition! not of a .u"eo='hristian reli&ion( Fet the moral tra"ition $resu$$oses *ommon #eliefs a#out Go"! *ovenant! histor%! an" final $romise( 1ere too! moralit% an" reli&ion *annot #e neatl% se$arate"( ?or *an $ersonal #elief an" $u#li* "e*ision ma3in&( Both 'hristianit% an" .u"aism are em$hati*all% $u#li*( The% are not $rivate ,s$iritualities!- to use the term so $revalent in our "a%( The% have to "o ith $u#li* revelations ma3in& $u#li* truth *laims( The &ivin& of the ,Ten <or"s- at Sinai as a $u#li* event! visi#le to an%one ho as there! an" is re*or"e" in the $u#li* te+ts of the Torah! o$en to the e+amination of an%one ho *an rea" them( Similarl% $u#li* is the life an" mission of .esus! an" the histor% of the 'hur*h! #e&innin& ith the &ivin& of the 1ol% S$irit on Pente*ost! an" all this is re*or"e" in the ?e Testament( Moreover! .u"aism an" 'hristianit% are $u#li* in that ea*h is atta*he" to a $eo$lea "eterminate! *ounta#le! flesh=an"=#loo" $eo$le throu&h time( There is no .u"aism a$art from .e s! nor 'hristianit% a$art from

'hristians( 9n this res$e*t! .u"aism an" 'hristianit% are "ramati*all% "ifferent from the ,m%ster% reli&ions- an" various &nosti* *ults of #oth the an*ient orl" an" our o n times( Ba*3 in the 15E0s! some li#eral 'hristian theolo&ians $romote" hat the% *alle" ,se*ular 'hristianit%!- an" it *ause" a stir at the time( Ae un"erstoo" hat the% ere &ettin& at! an" the me"ia soon lost interest( But there is an im$ortant sense in hi*h #oth 'hristianit% an" .u"aism hat some $refer to *all sim$l% ,#i#li*al reli&ion-are un"enia#l% se*ular! hi*h is *losel% *onne*te" to their #ein& $u#li* in *hara*ter( The% have to "o ith the saeculu$! ith the $resent a&e! ith the real orl"; the% "o not float a#ove the orl" or a$art from the orl" in a s$here *alle" ,reli&ion- or ,the s$iritual(- ?or *an the% #e *ontaine" ithin reli&ion as "efine" #%in the or"s of $hiloso$her Alfre" ?orth <hitehea" hat a man "oes ith his solitu"e( 'hristians! more than .e s! are $rone to for&ettin& this( .e s must al a%s *o$e ith the stu##ornl% resistant fa*t of the e+isten*e of the .e ish $eo$le( 'hristians *an an" "o for&et the histori*al em#o"iment of 'hristianit%( This for&etfulness is the su#8e*t of 1arol" Bloom2s 1552 essa%! A$erican Reli)ion! an e+a&&erate" #ut instru*tive "es*ri$tion of 'hristian Ameri*a as Emersonian Gnosti*ism( 'hristians for&et ho the% are! an" for&et hat 'hristianit% is! hen the% for&et .e s an" .u"aism( 'hristianit% is .e ish( ?ot sim$l% as a matter of histori*al a**i"ent or an*ient ori&ins! #ut as a matter of its *onstitutin& #eliefs an" *ontinuin& e+isten*e( 9n the earl% t entieth *entur%! the &reat AranK RosenK ei&! ho stru&&le" ith #e*omin& 'hristian #efore his re*onversion to .u"aism! ent so far as to *all 'hristianit% ,.u"aism for the Gentiles(- This shoul" not soun" stran&e to 'hristians ho have atten"e" to St( Paul2s refle*tions on the relationshi$ #et een .e an" 'hristian( The earliest 'hristians ere .e s! hile other .e s re8e*te" .esus as the $romise" Messiah( That re8e*tion "oes not mean that Go" has #ro3en 1is *ovenant ith A#raham an" his "es*en"ants( That *ovenant an" that $eo$le remain ,the root!- to hi*h the Gentiles are no 8oine"( Paul rites to the Gentile 'hristians in Rome: ,But if some of the #ran*hes ere #ro3en off! an" %ou! a il" olive shoot! ere &rafte" in their $la*e to share the ri*hness of the olive tree! "o not #oast over the #ran*hes( 9f %ou "o #oast! remem#er it is not %ou that su$$ort the root! #ut the root that su$$orts %ou- 4Romans 117( A *riti*al fi&ure in .e ish='hristian relations is Mar*ion! ho "ie" in A.D. 1E0( Althou&h he as *on"emne" #% the 'hur*h as a hereti*! man% 'hristians of the se*on" *entur% nonetheless rallie" to Mar*ion2s tea*hin& that 'hristianit% is not onl% se$arate" from #ut is antitheti*al to the root of 9srael( The Go" of the )l" Testament! Mar*ion sai"! as the 'reator Go" or Hemiur&e ho is the ver% antithesis of the Go" hom .esus *alle" Aather( The 'reator Go" is the Go" of >a ; the 'hristian Go" is the Go" of >ove( The Go" of the )l" Testament! the Hemiur&e! as *ontra"i*tor%! fi*3le! *a$ri*ious! "es$oti*! an" *ruel( The Su$reme Go" of >ove as reveale" in .esus in or"er to overthro the rule of the Hemiur&e( 9n *on"emnin& Mar*ion! in em#ra*in& the 1e#re S*ri$tures as $art of the 'hristian Bi#le! in affirmin& the un#rea3a#le *ontinuit% ith .u"aism! the 'hur*h ma"e the sin&le most *riti*al "e*ision in "efinin& the relationshi$ #et een 'hristians an" .e s( 9t is a "e*ision "eterminative of our relationshi$ in the t ent%=first *entur%! an" until the en" of time( Fet it must #e a"mitte" that! for man% 'hristians! Mar*ionism is #% no means "ea"( 9 "o not mean that 'hristians to"a% su#s*ri#e to the "o*trines tau&ht #% Mar*ion! althou&h amon& some frin&e &rou$s there are $ossi#l% some ho "o( But in hat is vie e" as the mainstream of 'hristianit%! also in Ameri*a to"a%! there is hat e mi&ht *all an o$erative Mar*ionism in hi*h it is assume" that 'hristianit% an" .u"aism are t o "ifferent reli&ions that have little or nothin& to "o ith one another( 9t is Mar*ionism ithout the animus! or at least usuall% ithout the animus( 9n this vie ! the Peo$le of 9srael live" #a*3 in the ol"en "a%s of the )l" Testament! an" the fa*t that there are still .e s in the orl" is little more than a *urious anomal%( Aor su*h 'hristians! the realit% of >ivin& .u"aism sim$l% ma3es no reli&ious sense( This "oes not mean the% are anti= .e ish! never min" that the% are &uilt% of hat in the mo"ern orl" *ame to #e *alle" anti=Semitism( As har" as it is for some of us ho live in ?e For3 to #elieve! man%! $erha$s even most! Ameri*ans "o not $ersonall% 3no an% .e s( .e s are a little over 2 $er*ent of the $o$ulation an" heavil% *on*entrate" in ?e For3! >os An&eles! 'hi*a&o! Miami! an" a fe other ur#an *enters( Aor 'hristian Ameri*a! #% an" lar&e! .e s are a $eo$le a$art( Aor the ma8orit% of Ameri*ans! .e s an" .u"aism are $er*eive" at a "istan*ein the "istant $ast of the )l" Testament! an" on the "istant *omman"in& hei&hts of *ontem$orar% *ulture( ?ote also that in the mo"ern era the Mar*ionite "ivor*e of 'hristianit% an" .u"aism has #een *ham$ione" #% lea"in& li&hts of the li#eral theolo&i*al tra"ition in Protestantism( The &reat German *hur*h historian A"olf von 1arna*3 416/1=15007 *onsi"ere" it the &reat a*hievement of the A$ostle Paul that he ,"elivere" the 'hristian reli&ion from .u"aism(- A**or"in& to 1arna*3! 'hristianit%! unli3e .u"aism! has to "o not ith *or$orate salvation #ut ith the in"ivi"ual soul( ,An%one ho ants to 3no hat the 3in&"om of Go" an" the *omin& of this 3in&"om mean in .esus2 $rea*hin&!- 1arna*3 rites! ,must rea" an" me"itate on the $ara#les( There he ill learn hat the 3in&"om is all a#out( The 3in&"om of Go" *omes #% *omin& to individuals! ma3in& entran*e into their souls! an" #ein& &ras$e" #% them( ( ( ( Ever%thin& e+ternall% "ramati*! all $u#li* histori*al meanin& vanishes here; all e+ternal ho$e for the future

fa"es also( I9t isJ a matter of Go" an" the soul! of the soul an" its Go"(Arie"ri*h S*hleierma*her 41CE6=160D7! the a*3no le"&e" father of mo"ern theolo&i*al li#eralism! "i" not &o so far as 9mmanuel Nant! ho "enie" that .u"aism has the "i&nit% of #ein& a reli&ion at all! #ut he as sure that it as a reli&ion of a "e*i"e"l% inferior sort( 'hristianit%2s *onne*tions to ,Mosai* institutions!- S*hleierma*her asserte"! are $urel% histori*al an" a**i"ental: ,As far as *on*erns its histori*al e+isten*e an" its aim! 'hristianit%2s relation to .u"aism an" 1eathenism are the same(- The 'hristian theolo&ian! he sai"! ma% safel% i&nore the )l" Testament! hi*h is to #e ,utterl% "is*ar"e"- sin*e it is no more than the ,hus3 or ra$$in&!- an" sin*e , hatever is most "efinitel% .e ish has least value(- The ,essen*e- of 'hristianit% is for S*hleierma*her! 1arna*3! an" man% *ontem$orar% thin3ers somethin& that must #e li#erate" from a $arti*ular histor% an" a $arti*ular $eo$le( S*hleierma*her "efine" authenti* reli&ion as a ,mo"ifi*ation of feelin&- or a ,taste for the 9nfinite!- hi*h! li3e 1arna*32s reli&ion of ,the soul an" its Go"!- is stri3in&l% similar to 1arol" Bloom2s *ele#ration of Gnosti*ism as the ar*het%$i*all% ,Ameri*an reli&ion(9t is a safe #et that henever reli&ious thin3ers start tal3in& a#out the ,essen*e of 'hristianit%- the% ill en" u$ #% "ivor*in& it from the stu##ornl% histori*al realit% that is 'hristianit%! an" #% $ittin& it! im$li*itl% or e+$li*itl%! a&ainst the stu##ornl% histori*al realit% that is .u"aism( Man% .e s are more *omforta#le ith the toleran*e that the% asso*iate ith li#eral rather than *onservative 'hristianit%( That is! #oth lo&i* an" histori*al e+$erien*e su&&est! a &rave mista3e( 'hristianit% that is li#erate" from the normative stor% of A#raham! 9saa*! .a*o#! .esus! an" the 'hristian $eo$le throu&h time is no frien" of .e s or .u"aism( W#ile We're At (t

P Please 8oin us in el*omin& Hamon >in3er as the ne Asso*iate E"itor of this 8ournal( 1e re$la*es Haniel Molone%! ho has #een a s$len"i" *ollea&ue an" has ma"e invalua#le *ontri#utions over the last several %ears! #ut no inten"s to finish his "o*toral "issertation at the Universit% of ?otre Hame( 1e is ritin& on Anselm of 'anter#ur%2s theor% of 8usti*e! an" e loo3 for ar" to his "efinitive *larifi*ation of that mu*h misun"erstoo" su#8e*t( After stu"%in& at 9tha*a 'olle&e in u$state ?e For3 an" ?e For3 Universit%! Hamon >in3er re*eive" his Ph(H( in $oliti*al s*ien*e from Mi*hi&an State Universit% in 1556( 1e has tau&ht at Mi*hi&an State an" Bri&ham Foun& Universit%! an" as most re*entl% a s$ee*h riter for Ma%or Ru"ol$h Giuliani of ?e For3( 1e has $u#lishe" e+tensivel% in! inter alia!#o$$entar ! 0olic Revie&! the Revie& o! 0olitics! an" the Wall Street Journal( 1e an" his ife Beth! nQe )2Honnell! met at 9tha*a 'olle&e an" she is *urrentl% a Ph(H( stu"ent in the histor% of me"i*ine an" s*ien*e at Fale Universit%( Hamon as re*eive" into full *ommunion ith the 'atholi* 'hur*h at this %ear2s Easter Oi&il( <e are &rateful that he has a**e$te" this $osition an" loo3 for ar" to a lon&! *on&enial! an" $ro"u*tive *olla#oration( As for Han Molone%! e have se*ure" his firm $romise that he ill *ontinue to $rovi"e us ith his &oo" *ounsel an" ritten *ontri#utions to these $a&es( 9f 9 ma% #e $ermitte" a $ersonal or": )ne of the 8o%s of this enter$rise is that! from the #e&innin&! e have #een #lesse" ith a staff of remar3a#le ener&%! relia#ilit%! an" s$irite" *oo$erativeness( The *ommitment of talente" %oun& $eo$le! su*h as Han! Hamon! an" our Mana&in& E"itor! Ali*ia Mosier! #o"es ell for the future of this or3! an" for that 9 am ver% &rateful in"ee"( 9 am also &rateful! of *ourse! for talente" ol" $eo$le! su*h as E"itor .im ?ue*hterlein( P 9t a$$ears that Hinesh H2SouKa is stri3in& out ith his latest #oo3! The 3irtue o! 0rosperit 4 Findin) 3alues in an A)e o! Techno5A!!luence 4Aree Press7! an" he is &ettin& ver% little hel$ from his *onservative frien"s( The te*hno= affluent so*iet% is $ro"u*in& a ne 3in" of human #ein&! sa%s H2SouKa( There are those ho are unha$$% a#out that! ,the $art% of ?ah!- an" those ho thin3 it2s 8ust &reat! ,the $art% of Feah(- H2SouKa "efinitel% #elon&s to the se*on" $art%( Revie in& the #oo3 in the 0u(lic 'nterest! Havi" S3inner notes that H2SouKa $uts his Feah vs( ?ah *on*e$t to or3 on all 3in"s of questions: ,9t #e*omes another a% of "istin&uishin& an*ient versus mo"ern $oliti*al $hiloso$h%! ith the Gree3s in the Part% of ?ah an" Aran*is Ba*on! .ohn >o*3e! an" the Ameri*an Aoun"ers in the Part% of Feah( The Feah $eo$le &et to *laim *re"it for #uil"in& the Unite" States of Ameri*a an" the ?ah $eo$le en" u$ on the losin& si"e of slaver%! $overt%! "isease! an" various other assaults on human "i&nit%( So! "on2t *om$lain a#out %our or"= $ro*essin& soft are unless %ou2re rea"% to ta3e #lame for the 'rusa"es( )ne is remin"e" of Oir&inia Postrel2s #oo3! hi*h *ru"el% "ivi"e" the orl" #et een Gthe future an" its enemies(2- H2SouKa "oes have a measure of res$e*t for the *ontinuin& relevan*e of the ?ahs( S3inner rites: ,<hen the "is*ussion finall% turns to the question of $osthuman man! H2SouKa $a%s res$e*t to >eon Nass2 &reat *ontri#utions to the #ioethi*s "e#ate( But hile re*o&niKin& su*h Part% of ?ah vie s! H2SouKa ma3es *lear that he #elieves man% of the *han&es te*hnolo&% offers"esi&ner *hil"ren! in*rease" life s$an! #rain im$lantsare sim$l% inevita#le( <hi*h leaves the Part% of ?ah on the ron& si"e of histor%( But ait! H2SouKa #elieves these G hiners!2 as he *alls them! ill still have a 8o# to "o in the future( <ith thin3ers li3e Plato an" Aristotle on their si"e! the Part% of ?ah *an Gsu$$l% us ith $ersonal horiKons of un"erstan"in& an" si&nifi*an*e(2 Put another a%! the% *an hel$ ever%one Gfin" values in an a&e of te*hno=affluen*e2somethin& H2SouKa himself $romises in his su#title! #ut onl% halfhearte"l% $ursues in this #oo3(- 92m not sure that S3inner an" others

have #een entirel% fair to the #oo3( 9n *onversation ith H2SouKa! ho is a ver% #ri&ht an" affa#le fello ! 9 am im$resse" ith his i"ea that revivals of virtue have usuall% #een s$urre" #% ant! hereas e no ma% #e itnessin& a revival of virtue s$urre" #% $ros$erit%( 9 am #% no means *onvin*e"! #ut it is an interestin& i"ea orth% of more *areful "evelo$ment in another #oo3! on hi*h Hinesh H2SouKa ma% #e or3in& even as 9 rite( P 9 oul" not #e sur$rise" ere a rea"er or t o sur$rise" #% the &enerall% favora#le refle*tion on R( .( Rush"oon% in this issue( After all! the e"itors have left no one in "ou#t a#out their #elief that his movement to re*onstitute so*iet% on the #asis of ,Bi#le la - is fun"amentall% ron&hea"e"( See! for #ut one instan*e! m% arti*le ,<h% <ait for the Nin&"om@ The Theonomist Tem$tation- 4Ma% 15507( 9n an o#ituar%! ho ever! the ma+im *omes into $la%! De $ortuis nil nisi (onu$( An" Rush"oon% un"ou#te"l% arrants an o#ituar% in a 8ournal "evote" to reli&ion an" $u#li* life( Aar #e%on" the relativel% small *ir*le of those familiar ith his name or movement! Rush"oon%2s $e*uliar #ran" of 'alvinism has influen*e" the a%s in hi*h *ountless Ameri*ans thin3 a#out Go"2s ill an" the $u#li* or"er( <e "isa&ree" ith him! as e "isa&ree ith those ho sim$l% "ismiss him as a 3oo3( As$e*ts of his thou&ht! for #etter an" for orse! are not entirel% alien to the e+$erien*e of the Ameri*an foun"in& an" *ontinue to $la% a $art in ho $eo$le tr% to ma3e *onne*tions #et een reveale" truth an" the tas3s of *ulture! la ! an" $oliti*s( <hatever our "isa&reements! it *annot #e "enie" that he! too! as or3in& on ,first thin&s(P The more refine" e+it $olls on ele*tion 2000 are no in an" the num#ers *run*hers are #usil% "isse*tin& them in or"er to fin" out hat reall ha$$ene"( 'olumnist an" $oliti*al anal%st Mar3 Shiel"s revisits the ans ers to the question! ,<hi*h issues! if an%! ere most im$ortant to %ou in "e*i"in& ho %ou oul" vote for Presi"ent to"a%@- The num#er one ans er 40/ $er*ent7 as ,moral an" ethi*al values(- 'lose to 1/ $er*ent sai" a#ortion as their to$ issue( That! of *ourse! in*lu"es #oth $ro=lifers an" $ro=*hoi*ers! #ut amon& those for hom a#ortion mattere" most! /6 $er*ent vote" for Bush an" D1 $er*ent for Gore( Shiel"s rites! ,Sim$l% $ut! that translates into a Bush a"vanta&e on the a#ortion issue of 2(/ million votes in an ele*tion that Gore on nationall% #% more than /D0!000 votes(- As Shiel"s notes! the elite me"ia *onsistentl% *laim that #ein& $ro=life is an ele*toral han"i*a$ an" ur&e the Re$u#li*an Part% to #e a ,#i& tent- that el*omes those ho su$$ort the unlimite" a#ortion li*ense( ,The nation2s lea"in& an" most influential e"itorial $a&es!- rites Shiel"s! ,almost never ur&e the Hemo*rati* lea"ershi$ an" nominee to el*ome $ro=life Hemo*rats into their $latform or onto their $ro&ram(- But %ou 3ne that( P 9n %our e+amination of *ons*ien*e %ou mi&ht ant to a"" the sin of ,trans$ho#ia(- That2s the trans&ression of not a$$rovin& of $eo$le ho tr% to sur&i*all% *han&e their se+( ,The Trans&en"er Revolution- is the latest $oliti*al *ause #ein& $romote" #% those of hei&htene" *ons*iousness( 'olumnist .ohn >eo notes that San Aran*is*o no $a%s for *it% em$lo%ees ho ant se+=*han&e o$erations! an" a num#er of television sho s are in the or3s $ortra%in& the 8o%s of trans&en"ere" li#eration( The 6os An)eles Ti$es ha" a s%m$atheti* stor% on a hus#an" an" ife ho are #oth havin& the o$eration( The% ill sta% marrie"! #ut the hus#an" ill #e*ome the ife an" vi*e versa( ?ot ever%#o"% is su$$ortive of the *ause( Hr( Paul M*1u&h! "ire*tor of $s%*hiatr% at .ohns 1o$3ins S*hool of Me"i*ine an" a AT *ontri#utor! *om$ares a $atient2s feelin& that he is a oman tra$$e" in a man2s #o"% ith an anore*ti* oman2s feelin& that she is "rasti*all% over ei&ht( ,<e "on2t "o li$osu*tion on anore*ti*s( <h% am$utate the &enitals of these $oor men@ Surel% the fault is in the min"! not the mem#er(- M*1u&h sto$$e" se+=*han&e o$erations at 1o$3ins in the 15C0s! *allin& them ,$erha$s ith the e+*e$tion of frontal lo#otom%! the most ra"i*al thera$% ever en*oura&e" #% t entieth=*entur% $s%*hiatrists(- )thers ma3e the *om$arison ith a$otemno$hilia! a $s%*hiatri* *on"ition in hi*h $eo$le thin3 their lim#s "on2t reall% #elon& to them( >ast %ear a sur&eon in S*otlan" "re $u#li*it% hen he am$utate" the health% le&s of t o $atients( Universit% of Minnesota #ioethi*ist 'arl Elliott su&&ests that un$re"i*ta#le $atholo&ies arise in *ertain so*ieties at *ertain times ,seemin&l% out of no here!- an" then "isa$$ear 8ust as su""enl%( >eo rites: ,9n nineteenth=*entur% Aran*e! %oun& men *ommonl% la$se" into a Gfu&ue state!2 often *omin& to in a forei&n *ountr% ith no i"ea of ho the% &ot there( 9n the 15C0s an" 1560s! thousan"s of Ameri*ans *ame to #elieve the% ha" multi$le $ersonalities as a result of *hil"hoo" trauma( Aift% %ears a&o! Elliott sa%s! no#o"% sus$e*te" that tens of thousan"s of $eo$le oul" ant to have their &enitals sur&i*all% altere" as a a% of relievin& sufferin&( 1e thin3s trans&en"er a*tivism an" man% so*ial *ues ma% have resulte" in a tem$orar% #oom for se+= *han&e sur&er%( 9t2s a tentative anal%sis! an" ma%#e he2s ron&( But at least he is $ushin& the "is*ussion #a*3 into the ri&ht arena$s%*hiatr% an" me"i*ine! not $oliti*s(- As for %our e+amination of *ons*ien*e! for&et a#out the sin of ,trans$ho#ia(- Fou un"ou#te"l% have a enou&h to orr% a#out as it is( P Foun&er rea"ers *annot remem#er! an" man% *an har"l% *on*eive of! a time hen $eo$le ere ostra*iKe" from the #est *ir*les of Ameri*a for #ein& anti='ommunist( 9n the universities an" me"ia! anti=anti*ommunism as re&nant! ith some *laimin& that 'ommunists ere merel% i"ealisti* ,li#erals in a hurr%!- hile most $re"i*te" a $ea*eful ,*onver&en*e- #et een <estern "emo*ra*% an" ,Soviet=st%le so*ialism!- an" almost all a&ree" that the hi&hest &oal as ,*oe+isten*e- ith a realit% that as "eeme" to #e an unremova#le fa*t of histor%( )n the orl"=histori*al sta&e! there ere a fe lea"ers ise an" #ol" enou&h to "issent from that ortho"o+%: most nota#l% .ohn Paul 99! Ronal" Rea&an! an" Mar&aret That*her( But there ere man% others less ell 3no n! #ut *ru*iall% im$ortant to the en"in& of the &reatest t%rann% the orl" has 3no n( Mi*hael Bour"eau+! for instan*e! the foun"er of Neston 'olle&e! hi*h for man% %ears! ith tireless "etermination an" *areful s*holarshi$! tra*3e" the innumera#le vi*tims of 'ommunist o$$ression( Bour"eau+! no retire" from Neston! rites an o#ituar% for %et another! Ri*har" <urm#ran"! ho "ie"

this %ear at a&e ninet%=one( 9n Ameri*a almost all ri&ht=thin3in&! meanin& left=thin3in&! $eo$le vie e" <urm#ran" as a nut! #ut Bour"eau+ $a%s tri#ute to his heroism( Born in Romania in 1505! <urm#ran" #e*ame a >utheran $astor an"! for his outs$o3enness! as im$risone" #oth #% the Aas*ist Romanian re&ime an"! later! #% the 'ommunists( 9n 15E/! for a ransom of R10!000! Romania let him an" his ife Sa#ina &o( Bour"eau+ rites that the "eal as the orst that the 'ommunists ever ma"e( ,Ten #illion "ollars oul" have #een a *hea$ ransom for a man ho o$ene" u$ the first hairline *ra*3s in the 'ommunist "omination of the international 'hristian a&en"a! *ra*3s hi*h oul" e+$an" into fissures in the 1560s an" #e*ome a *ontri#utor% fa*tor to the eventual *olla$se of the Soviet s%stem itself(- <ith relentless ener&% an" &reat rhetori*al s3ills! <urm#ran" *har&e" institutions su*h as the <orl" 'oun*il of 'hur*hes ith #ein& a$olo&ists for *ommunism( At a U(S( Senate *ommittee hearin& he famousl% 4notoriousl%! most thou&ht7 too3 off his shirt to "is$la% the mar3s of torture from his $rison %ears( Bour"eau+ rites: ,1e *oul" an" "i" ma3e enormous mista3es! #ut his fourteen %ears of solitar% *onfinement in a 'ommunist $rison an" the a$$allin& treatment #oth he an" his ife re*eive" *onferre" on him the ri&htin"ee" the "ut%to s$ea3 out ith emotion on*e he as free( Aor several %ears after his release he #e*ame $erha$s the most im$osin& orator on the 'hristian orl" sta&e(- >i3e *ountless mart%rs #efore him! his s$irit as hone" #% $erse*ution( ,9n his isolation an" in the intervals #et een sessions of torture! <urm#ran" $rea*he" himself Ser$ons in Solitar #on!ine$ent! hi*h as to #e*ome the title of his finest #oo3 415E57( 1is torturers $romise" him li#ert% an" elevation to *hur*h lea"ershi$ if he oul" travel an" $ersua"e international *hur*h a&en*ies to a"o$t a $ro='ommunist a&en"a( The% ha" $i*3e" the ron& man(- Bour"eau+ *on*lu"es: ,But the final "e*a"e of <urm#ran"2s life as a ha$$% one( 1e an" Sa#ina visite" Romania to a heroi* el*ome an" to a$$ear on television( Most remar3a#l% of all! the% visite" Ri*har"2s former $rison! to fin" there a re$ositor% for his #oo3s(- A&ainst the vul&ar "eterminists ho no sa% that *ommunism *olla$se" of its o n ei&ht! it is ne*essar% to remem#er the $art $la%e" #% those ho #ore itness to the truth #% hi*h! then an" no ! e are ma"e free( Ri*har" <urm#ran"( Re7uiescat in pace( P ,Ho Poles! alon& ith Germans! #ear &uilt for the 1olo*aust@ 9t is har" to ima&ine a more a#sur" *laim(- So rites A"am Mi*hni3! a .e an" e"itor of Polan"2s lar&est "ail%! "a+eta W (orc+a! in the Ne& /or% Ti$es( ,?ot a sin&le Polish famil% as s$are" #% 1itler an" Stalin( The t o totalitarian "i*tatorshi$s o#literate" three million Poles an" three million Polish *itiKens *lassifie" as .e s #% the ?aKis(- )f *ourse some Poles "i" terri#le thin&s( 1e *ites this from a letter ritten a#out a artime in*i"ent on a <arsa #ri"&e: ,Another time! on the Nier#e"K #ri"&e! a German sa a Pole &ivin& alms to a starvin& .e ish ur*hin( 1e $oun*e" an" or"ere" the Pole to thro the *hil" into the river or else he oul" #e shot alon& ith the %oun& #e&&ar( GThere is nothin& %ou *an "o to hel$ him( 9 ill 3ill him an% a%; he is not allo e" to #e here( Fou *an &o free! if %ou "ro n him! or 9 ill 3ill %ou! too( Hro n him or "ie( 9 ill *ount ( ( (1! 22 The Pole *oul" not ta3e it( 1e #ro3e "o n an" thre the *hil" over the rail into the river( The German &ave him a $at on the shoul"er( GBraver 8erl(2 The% ent their se$arate a%s( T o "a%s later! the Pole han&e" himself(- Mi*hni3 "oes not "en% the anti=Semitism in Polish *ulture( ,The anti=Semiti* tra"ition *om$els the Poles to $er*eive the .e s as aliens hile the Polish heroi* tra"ition *om$els them to save them(- An" man% thousan"s "i" en&a&e in heroi* a*tions to save .e s! even at the ris3 of their o n lives an" the lives of their families! "urin& the time of 1itler( ,9 feel &uilt%!- he rites! , hen 9 rea" so often in Polish an" forei&n ne s$a$ers a#out the mur"erers ho 3ille" .e s! an" note the "ee$ silen*e a#out those ho res*ue" .e s( Ho the mur"erers "eserve more re*o&nition than the ri&hteous@P The lar&est &rou$ of 'hristians in the Mi""le East are the 'o$ts of E&%$t! an" the% are the o#8e*t of relentless $erse*ution #% militant Muslims! ith little or no res$onse from the Mu#ara3 &overnment( The U(S( 'ommission on 9nternational Reli&ious Aree"om is ta3in& a hei&htene" interest in hat is ha$$enin& there! an" Aree"om 1ouse has $u#lishe" a 100=$a&e meti*ulousl% "o*umente" #oo3!Massacre at the Millenniu$! on one as$e*t of the $erse*ution! the mur"er of t ent%=one 'hristians in Al=Nosheh( Aor more information! rite Aree"om 1ouse at 'enter for Reli&ious Aree"om! 1015 16th Street! ?<! <ashin&ton! H('( 2000E( P As has #een frequentl% $ointe" out! the ri&ht to "ie almost inevita#l% mor$hs into the o#li&ation to "ie( The )re&on 1ealth Hivision 4)1H7 re$orts that in the thir" %ear of that state2s euthanasia la E0 $er*ent of those ho sou&ht an" re*eive" $h%si*ian=assiste" sui*i"e &ave as their reason that the% feare" #ein& a #ur"en to famil%! frien"s! an" other *are&ivers( That *om$ares ith 20 $er*ent in the se*on" %ear( 9n 1555 0C $er*ent ere referre" for $s%*hiatri* evaluation #efore #ein& euthaniKe"! *om$are" ith 15 $er*ent in 2000( The $ro*ess is also s$ee"in& u$( 9t as on avera&e ei&ht%=three "a%s from first request to 3illin& in 1555! *om$are" ith a mu*h more effi*ient thirt% "a%s last %ear( )ur Gil#ert Meilaen"er mi&ht su&&est that it is the famil% an" frien"s ho nee" to #e referre" for evaluation( See his ,9 <ant to Bur"en M% >ove" )nes- 4)*to#er 15517! also in*lu"e" in The *ternal 0it 4Universit% of ?otre Hame Press7! e"ite" #% Ri*har" .ohn ?euhaus( P ,The Pure Ameri*an <oman an" the <i*3e" 'atholi* Priest(- That2s a sna$$% title for Marie Anne Pa&liarini2s arti*le in Reli)ion and A$erican #ulture on one as$e*t of anti='atholi* $ro$a&an"a in ante#ellum Ameri*a( Most $eo$le 3no a#out Maria Mon32s A&!ul Disclosures o! the Hotel Dieu Nunner ! ritten #% a &rou$ of men hea"e" #% .( .( Slo*um an" $u#lishe" in 160E( But that as onl% one of some 2C0 #oo3s! t ent%=five ne s$a$ers! thirteen ma&aKines! an" innumera#le tra*ts servin& the anti='atholi* mar3et #et een 1600 an" 16E0( The% all s$e*ialiKe" in luri" an" frequentl% $orno&ra$hi* "e$i*tions of hat 'atholi* $riests alle&e"l% "o ith omen! an" ith nuns in

$arti*ularin*lu"in& se"u*tion! ra$e! torture! an" the 3illin& of un ante" *hil"ren( Hr( Pa&liarini2s arti*le #reathes outra&e! hi*h is un"erstan"a#le! #ut the o#8e*t of her outra&e is not the slan"er a&ainst the 'atholi* 'hur*h #ut the $atriar*hal Protestant #i&ots ho ere e+$loitin& an" there#% reinfor*in& the stereot%$e of omen as $ure! inno*ent! an" ,$assionless(- Su*h #i&otr%! she rites! is an instan*e of ,&en"er roles- em$lo%e" in hat the $ol%mor$housl% an" sui*i"all% $erverse Mi*hel Aou*ault *alle" ,#io=$o er(- A rea"er mi&ht almost "ra the *on*lusion that Hr( Pa&liarini oul" #e ha$$ier if the $riests ha" #een &uilt% of "oin& hat their enemies a**use" them of "oin&! thus *onstitutin& themselves as the ,trans&ressive van&uar"- of her an" M( Aou*ault2s *am$ai&n a&ainst o$$ressive &en"er roles( P ?ot at all fi*tional! unfortunatel%! is the $attern of $riests ra$in& an" other ise a#usin& nuns that has #een re$orte" to the Oati*an( This is ha$$enin& mainl% in Afri*a! here it seems almost ever%thin& is #rea3in& "o n( Es$e*iall% heart#rea3in& in re*ent %ears has #een the massa*re of hun"re"s of thousan"s in Burun"i an" R an"a! *arrie" out #% $eo$le ho are over helmin&l% 'hristian! mainl% 'atholi*( 9n other *ountries! su*h as South Afri*a! a quarter of the a"ult $o$ulation is infe*te" #% A9HS! an" in some the e$i"emi* is re"u*in& life e+$e*tan*% #% as mu*h as t ent% %ears( Massive "islo*ation is *ause" #% the fa*t that men must fin" em$lo%ment in ur#an *enters far from their ives an" *hil"ren! an" therefore from the tra"itional tri#al re&ulations of se+ual relationshi$s! in*lu"in& ol"=fashione" $ol%&am%( An" no it seems the 'hur*h is *au&ht u$ in these *ommotions even as it see3s to *ounter them( ?uns are $arti*ularl% vulnera#le! sa%s an o#server! #e*ause the% are not *laime" #% a man an" Afri*an *ustoms ma3e it almost im$ossi#le for an a"oles*ent or %oun& oman to o$$ose a man ho is ol"er or in a $osition of authorit%( Oati*an s$o3esman .oaquin ?avarro=Oalls sa%s the $ro#lem is re*eivin& ur&ent $riorit%! an" #isho$s are or3in& ith hea"s of reli&ious or"ers #oth to a""ress $arti*ular *ases of a#use an" to restore "is*i$line amon& the *ler&%( 9 have a lon&= stan"in& interest in Afri*a an" have travele" e+tensivel% there( Re*entl% an Afri*an #isho$ visite"! ur&in& me that e shoul" re$ort also on the man% $ositive thin&s ha$$enin& there( 1e s$o3e movin&l% a#out the vitalit% of the $eo$le2s faith un"er *alamitous *on"itions! an" 9 am sure he is ri&ht a#out that( But $erha$s one ma% #e for&iven! at least for the moment! for #ein& over helme" #% the *alamit%( To thin3 of Afri*a is to ee$( Better! to $ra%( P Sli&ht attention has #een $ai" the artisti* value of the &ol"en *alf that Moses smashe"! #urne"! &roun" into $o "er! an" then $oure" into the ater that he ma"e the 9sraelites "rin3( Until the Tali#an rulers of Af&hanistan starte" #lo in& them u$! sli&ht attention! even #% art historians! ha" #een $ai" the Bu""hist statues in that fara a% *ountr%( But all of a su""en the orl" as in a mo"e of hi&h moral "u"&eon over this uns$ea3a#le sa*rile&e( 'ris$in Sart ell! author of The Art o! 6ivin)4 Aesthetics o! the ,rdinar in World Spiritual Traditions ! is #emuse" #% our i&noran*e of the stren&th of i*ono*lasm in .e ish! 'hristian! an" 9slami* histor%( 1e hol"s no #rief for hat the Tali#an "i"! #ut he thin3s there is somethin& "ee$er at or3( ,But the i"olaters that the Tali#an are atta*3in& are not the orshi$ers of the Gol"en 'alf or even of the Bu""ha( Bu""hism has #een "ea" in Af&hanistan for a thousan" %ears( The i"ols the%2re o#literatin& are ours( <e of the se*ular <est have to some "e&ree re$la*e" reli&ion ith art( Art for us is somethin& hol% that must #e $reserve": house" in fortress=li3e #uil"in&s to hi*h e ma3e $il&rima&es! $reserve" or restore" in $er$etuit%( Art has not al a%s #een thou&ht of that a% #% other *ultures( ?ava8o san" $aintin&s! as #eautiful an" "iffi*ult to ma3e as the% are! are tra"itionall% "estro%e" after the *eremonies for hi*h the% are ma"e( Art for us is s$iritual! eternal! trans*en"ent( <e have ma"e of art a *ult! an" the or3 of art is our i"ol( So the i*ono*lasts of the mo"ern era horrif% us as mu*h as the i*ono*lasts of the an*ient orl" horrifie" the $a&ans( 9t has seeme" at times in the $ast fe "a%s that e are move" more #% the $li&ht of the s*ul$tures of Af&hanistan than the $li&ht of the Af&han $eo$le! ho are sufferin& from a "rou&ht an" from the o$$ression of the Tali#an rulers themselves( But the Tali#an 3no ver% ell ho to horrif% us: the% 3no our reli&ion! an" the% 3no their o n( The%2re #oth ena*tin& a *entral feature of theirs! an" a*hievin& ma+imum $rovo*ation #% assaultin& ours( This lea"s to the sa" "estru*tion of #eautiful thin&s( But it also testifies to the *ontinuin& $o er of ima&es an" the *ontinuin& $o er of the &reat reli&ious tra"itions(P To #e fair! an author is not res$onsi#le for hat the $eo$le in the $u#lisher2s $u#li*it% "e$artment "o( To #e fair to the $eo$le in the $u#li*it% "e$artment! the% $ro#a#l% &ot their im$ressions from Aather 1ans NSn&( Those ho 3no Ar( NSn&! %our s*ri#e in*lu"e"! 3no it is the im$ression he &ives( The $u#li*it% for his little #oo3 in the Mo"ern >i#rar%! a on*e $resti&ious series! "es*ri#es NSn& as ,the $rimar% author of Oati*an 99 an" one of the 'hristian orl"2s &reat reformin& voi*es(- Else here e are tol" that he ,$la%e" the 3e% role in the ritin& of Oati*an 99(- The #oo3 is *alle" The #atholic #hurch4 A Short Histor an" it *on*lu"es ith Po$e .ohn MM9O an" Oati*an 'oun*il 999! of hi*h 1ans NSn& is un"ou#te"l% the $rimar% author( As %ou mi&ht e+$e*t! the Thir" Oati*an 'oun*il ma3es e+$li*it all the *han&es that for thirt% %ears NSn& has #een ar&uin& ere im$li*it in the Se*on" Oati*an 'oun*il( 9f onl% in fi*tion! Ar( NSn& &ot the stor% to turn out his a% after all( P Ran"% Gor"on! a&e seventeen( Br%an Tu*3or! a&e fourteen( Fou never hear" of them@ Fou $ro#a#l% "i"! ver% #riefl%( But e have hear" a &reat "eal a#out 'harles An"re <illiams! the s*hoolmate ho 3ille" them an" oun"e" thirteen others in Santee! 'alifornia( Me"ia *riti* Horoth% Ra#ino itK of the Wall Street Journal has #een listenin& to all the *hatter a#out hat ma"e %oun& <illiams ,ti*3!- an" all the testimonials #% frien"s an" nei&h#ors a#out hat a ver% ni*e #o% he is( Foun& 3illers li3e <illiams! sa%s Ra#ino itK! have #een &iven an ,inner assuran*e- that $eo$le ill un"erstan"! an" that the% ill &et a &reat "eal of s%m$atheti* $u#li*it%( <hat has #een remove" is ,the most $rofoun" inhi#ition of allnamel%! fear of hat $eo$le oul" thin3! hat frien"s! tea*hers! an" authorities oul" sa% of them

in the fa*e of an a*t so unima&ina#le in its horror(- Foun& <illiams as a$$arentl% u$set #% s*hool #ullies ho ha" #een #otherin& him( States are no "is*ussin& anti=#ull%in& $ro&rams for their s*hools( ,9n"ee"!- rites Ra#ino itK! ,a ne *omer to this stor% ho Ilistene" to the me"ia "is*ussionsJ *oul" easil% have *on*lu"e" that it as all a#out a terri#le *rime that ha" ta3en $la*e in a 'alifornia s*hool=an" that the vi*tim as a %outh *alle" 'harles An"re <illiams(P Fou ma% re*all that a fe %ears a&o there as mu*h me"ia h%$e a#out a rash of #urnin&s of #la*3 *hur*hes a*ross the South( 9t turne" out to #e 8ust that! h%$e( But the ?ational 'oun*il of 'hur*hes an" others raise" a#out a million "ollars for re#uil"in& *hur*hes that ere not #urne"( The mone% as s$ent! of *ourse! on ,fi&htin& ra*ism(- ?o in 'ana"a! the fe"eral Multi*ulturalism Minister 4%es! the% have su*h an offi*e7! 1e"% Ar%! raise" an alarm a#out ra*ist *ross=#urnin&s( That! too! turne" out to #e fi*tional( But >orne Gunter of the *d$onton Journal notes there reall% as an instan*e of *ross=#urnin& a %ear earlier in Montreal! hen feminists storme" the 'atholi* *athe"ral on 9nternational <omen2s Ha%! an o#servan*e mu*h en*oura&e" #% Multi*ulturalism Minister Ar%( ,The feminists! hi"in& #ehin" s3i mas3s! set ali&ht homema"e *rosses! then storme" the *athe"ral( The% van"aliKe" the alls an" altar ith s$ra% $aint $ro*laimin& ?o Go"! no masters( The% 3no*3e" "o n el"erl% nuns! "estro%e" h%mnals an" $ra%er #oo3s! smeare" the alls ith use" sanitar% na$3ins! an" stre e" *on"oms aroun"! all in the name of toleran*e( 9t seems these $rotesters *oul" not #ear an% vie s on a#ortion or omen2s ri&hts that "isa&ree" ith their o n( An" sin*e the 'atholi* 'hur*h #elieves all a#ortion is sin an" *hooses not to or"ain omen as $riests! ell then! its *athe"rals ere fair &ame for a &oo" ransa*3in&(- Fou ill $ro#a#l% not #e sur$rise" to learn that the Ministr% of Multi*ulturalism ha" nothin&! as in a#solutel% nothin&! to sa% a#out hat ha$$ene" in Montreal( P <ritin& in #o$$entar ! our ne Asso*iate E"itor Hamon >in3er e+amines the *laims of the animal ri&hts movement as ver% influentiall% a"van*e" #% Steven <ise of 1arvar" an" Peter Sin&er of Prin*eton( 1is *on*lusion: ,9t is a *urious fa*t that in virtuall% all of human histor%! onl% in li#eral "emo*ra*iesso*ieties foun"e" on the re*o&nition of the innate "i&nit% of all mem#ers of the human ra*ehave animals en8o%e" *ertain minimum $rote*tions *o"ifie" in our o n *ountr% in the Animal <elfare A*t( 9t is a no less *urious fa*t that these same li#eral "emo*ra*ies have #e*ome infe*te" over the $ast "e*a"es ith a *orrosive self="ou#t! &ivin& rise in some e"u*ate" *ir*les to antili#eral! anti hite! antimale! anti=<estern! an" no ! ith $erfe*t lo&i*! antihuman enthusiasms( The $ro$onents of these various #ut lin3e" i"eolo&ies mar*h un"er a #anner of 8usti*e an" the $romise of e+ten"in& the #lessin&s of equalit% to one or more e+*lu"e" )thers( Su*h $iet% is to #e e+$e*te" in a ra"i*al movement see3in& ell= meanin& allies; #ut it nee" not "efle*t us from the main fo*us of their a&&ressive $assions! hi*h the euthanasia= en"orsin& Peter Sin&er! for one! has at least ha" the *an"or to a"mit to( 'an an%one reall% "ou#t that! ere the misanthro$i* a&en"a of the animal ri&hts movement a*tuall% to su**ee"! the result oul" #e an increase in man2s inhumanit%! to man an" animal ali3e@ 9n the en"! fosterin& our a&e=ol" G$re8u"i*e2 in favor of human "i&nit% ma% #e the #est thin& e *an "o for animals! not to mention for ourselves(- Alon& the a%! he rites! ,Until the "a% hen a sin&le animal stan"s u$ an"! le" #% a love of 8usti*e an" a sense of self= orth! insists that the orl" re*o&niKe an" res$e*t its "i&nit%! all the $hiloso$hi*al &%rations of the a*tivists ill remain so mu*h so$histr%(- Asi"e from the $ossi#ilit% that his referen*e to ,stan"s u$- ma% #e a vesti&e of hat the animal ri&hts a*tivists *all ,s$e*iesism!- Mr( >in3er2s ar&ument is entirel% on tar&et( But then! %ou oul" e+$e*t that of someone ho is our Asso*iate E"itor( P ,Go" &ets a #um ra$ in GSol"iers in the Arm% of Go"!2 an unnervin& 1B) "o*umentar% a#out the most ra"i*al se&ment of the anti=a#ortion movement!- rites .ulie Salamon in the Ne& /or% Ti$es( 1er revie lea"s one to #elieve that she as in"ee" unnerve" #% the $ro&ram( ,Their o$$osition to a#ortion is their #usiness! #ut their ri&hteous mur"erousness is re$ellent 4an"! of *ourse! ille&al7(- She almost sa%s that 3illin& a#ortionists is ron&a $osition frequentl% ar&ue" in these $a&es#ut a$$arentl% "oes not ish to soun" ,ri&hteous(- 9t is suffi*ient to &o on re*or" that she is re$elle" #% $eo$le 3illin& other $eo$le( )r! as it is usuall% $ut these "a%s! it is ,ina$$ro$riate #ehavior(- Remin"in& us that it is also ille&al is a ni*e tou*h; the la is on the si"e of her feelin&s an" a&ainst theirs( )ne notes $arentheti*all% that it is a mar3 of our time that ,ri&hteous- an" ,self=ri&hteous!- hi*h is hat she meant to sa%! are thou&ht to #e inter*han&ea#le( Ms( Salamon &oes on to rite that! sin*e the Roe v. Wade "e*ision of 15C0! seven a#ortionists an" their hel$ers have #een 3ille"( She "oes not mention that a$$ro+imatel% fort% million un#orn *hil"ren have #een 3ille"( Sin*e! as she notes! the $eo$le in the 1B) film thin3 a#ortion is mur"er! the ratio seems il"l% "is$ro$ortionate( 9n ei&hin& the life of an un#orn *hil" a&ainst the life of an a"ult ho 3ills un#orn *hil"ren! it mi&ht #e ar&ue" that the a"ult life ,*ounts- for more( <ei&hin& the *om$arative value of human lives is a "u#ious #usiness! #ut one ma% as3$urel% for $ur$oses of "is*ussion! min" %ouho man% un#orn lives it ta3es to equal the value of one a"ult life( Ten@ 9n that *ase! the 3illin& of four million $eo$le involve" in or su$$ortive of the 3illin& of un#orn *hil"ren oul" seem to #e $ro$ortionate( But $erha$s there are those ho oul" sa% that one a"ult life equals the value of! sa%! a thousan" un#orn #a#ies! in hi*h *ase fort% thousan" oul" a*hieve a form of s%mmetr%( But fort% million versus onl% seven@ >ittle on"er that $ro=a#ortionists frequentl% taunt $ro=lifers! *laimin& that the% *an2t reall% #elieve that a#ortion is mur"er( 9f the% "i"! it is sai"! the% oul" have lon& sin*e #lo n u$ ever% a#ortuar% an" ever% a#ortionist in the *ountr%( 9t is in"ee" remar3a#le that there has #een so little violen*e over these almost thirt% %ears( But the ,fanati*s- "e$i*te" in the 1B) film are #e%on" the $ale( Ms( Salamon rites! ,These are not rational $eo$le a&reein& to "isa&ree(- She *ontrasts them unfavora#l% ith the ,*lini*ians an" es*orts at a#ortion *lini*s ho 3ee$ "oin& their 8o# "es$ite the "an&er(- The reasonin& &oes li3e this: ,<e 3ill #a#ies! %ou o#8e*t to 3illin& #a#ies! so

let2s #e rational a#out this an" a&ree to "isa&ree as e &et on ith our 8o#( ?o#o"% is for*in& %ou to 3ill #a#ies( 9t2s a "irt% 8o#! #ut some#o"% has to "o it( Fou shoul" #e &rateful that e2re illin& to "o it( 9t2s almost as thou&h e2re "oin& it for %ou(- As 9 note"! .ulie Salamon2s revie #e&ins ith Go" &ettin& a #a" ra$( 9t en"s on a ha$$ier note: ,As if to restore Go"2s *re"i#ilit%! the $ro"u*ers en" the "o*umentar% in a Unitarian *hur*h at a memorial servi*e for the t o men mur"ere" in front of the Pensa*ola *lini*(- That2s the rational a% to han"le thin&s( <e a&ree to "isa&ree! unless %ou "isa&ree( As for Ms( Salamon2s final ,as if!- one nee" onl% a"" that Go"2s *re"i#ilit% as never in question( P Sola scriptura is the #asis of "emo*ra*%( That overstates some hat the thesis of Benson Bo#ri*3 in Wide as the Waters 4Simon U S*huster7! hi*h tells the stor% of <%*liffe! T%n"ale! an" others ho &ave the Bi#le in En&lish to or"inaril% #elievers( <ritin& in the Wall Street Journal! Mar* Ar3in sa%s the #oo3 is a fine rea" #ut &oes some hat over#oar"( ,This is the <hi& vie of histor% ta3en to the e+tremethe stor% of a stea"il% trium$hant! An&lo*entri* li#eralism unfol"in& "o n to mo"ern times! ith the verna*ular Bi#le lea"in& the a%( Thus Mr( Bo#ri*3 un"er$la%s the e*onomi* an" $oliti*al for*es that *ontri#ute" to the &ro th of $arliamentar% "emo*ra*% in En&lan"! an" to the litera*% levels that ma"e Bi#le rea"in& $ossi#le( After all! >uther $la*e" S*ri$ture at the *enter of the faith an" &ave German% a verna*ular Bi#le ell #efore En&lan" ha" one( Fet German% "i" not attain a sta#le "emo*ra*% until the latter half of the t entieth *entur%( Oerna*ular S*ri$ture ma% #e a ne*essar% *on"ition for e&alitarianism! #ut it *ertainl% isn2t suffi*ient( Even in *ommunities here the En&lish Bi#le hel" s a%! the roa" to "emo*ra*% as not smooth( 9n Massa*husetts! here "evotion to the Bi#le as on*e a requirement for the fran*hise! Lua3ers ere last han&e" on Boston 'ommon in 1EE1; it as the auto*rati* 'atholi* s%m$athiKer 'harles 99 ho or"ere" the e+e*utions sto$$e"( ?ot until 1E51 as toleration finall% im$ose" on a relu*tant Ba% 'olon% #% the mother *ountr%( 9n"ee"! ell after 1600! ?e En&lan"ers still a""resse" their #etters ith their hats in their han"s an" *hur*h $e s ere assi&ne" a**or"in& to *ommunit% status! ith the ise an" ell=to="o $la*e" nearest the Almi&ht%(P The or"s of Mo( 5Dic%! rites theoreti*al mathemati*ian Havi" Berlins3%! #rin& a orl" into #ein&( But hat #rin&s the orl" into #ein&@ S*ientists a""ressin& su*h reall% #i& questions have in re*ent %ears #een atta*he" to a num#er of theories: *haos an" nonlinear "%nami*s! *atastro$he theor%! &ame theor%! evolutionar% entro$%! an" various notions of *om$le+it% an" self=or&aniKation( ,The histor% of s*ien*e!- sa%s Berlins3%! ,resem#les a *olle*tion of &hosts remem#erin& that on*e the% too ere &o"s(- To"a%! information theor% is ri"in& hi&h( ,Oie e" at the most a#stra*t level!- sa%s Ne& /or% Ti$es s*ien*e riter Geor&e .ohnson! ,#oth #rains an" *om$uters o$erate the sa$e &a #% translatin& $henomenasoun"s! ima&es! an" so forthinto a *o"e that *an #e store" an" mani$ulate"4em$hasis a""e"7( After e+aminin& in "etail the ar&uments #ein& ma"e for that $ro$osition! Berlins3% rites: ,<e are thus returne" to our ori&inal question: 1o "o s%m#ols or"s! strin&s! H?A#rin& a orl" into #ein&@ A$$arentl% the% 8ust "o(- 'urrent *osmolo&% su&&ests that the universe #e&an ith a #i& #an&! eru$tin& from nothin& hatsoever fifteen #illion %ears a&o( ,Plainl%! the *reation of somethin& from nothin& *annot #e e+$laine" in terms of the #ehavior of material o#8e*ts( This *ir*umstan*e has $rom$te" some $h%si*ists to assi&n a *ausative role to the la s of $h%si*s the$selves( The inferen*e! in"ee"! is ines*a$a#le( Aor hat else is there@ G9t is har" to resist the im$ression!2 rites the $h%si*ist Paul Havies! Gof somethin&some influen*e *a$a#le of trans*en"in& s$a*e=time an" the *onfinements of relativisti* *ausalit%$ossessin& an overvie of the entire *osmos at the instant of its *reation! an" mani$ulatin& all the *ausall% "is*onne*te" $arts to &o #an& ith almost e+a*tl% the same vi&or at the same time(2, The la s of $h%si*s #e&in to soun" somethin& li3e a "eit%( The% are! sa%s $hiloso$her Mar% 1esse! ,universal an" eternal! *om$rehensive ithout e+*e$tion 4omni$otent7! in"e$en"ent of 3no le"&e 4a#solute7! an" en*om$assin& all $ossi#le 3no le"&e 4omnis*ient7(- Su*h s*ientifi*=$hiloso$hi*al thou&ht! sa%s Berlins3%! e"&es u$ to the ver% limits of the $lausi#le( ,A novel #rin&s a orl" into *reation; a *om$li*ate" mole*ule an or&anism( But these are the lo taverns of thou&ht( 9t is onl% hen information is assi&ne" the $o er to #rin& somethin& into e+isten*e from nothin) &hatsoever that its essentiall% ma&i*al nature is reveale"( An" *ontem$latin& ma&i* on this s*ale $rom$ts a final question( .ust ho "i" the information latent in the fun"amental la s of $h%si*s unfol" itself to #e*ome a orl"@ A$$arentl% it 8ust "i"(- )ne mi&ht #e tem$te" to "ismiss Berlins3%2s $on"erin&s as an instan*e of ta3in& the ver% lon& a% aroun" to &et to Fou Nno <ho! #ut the tem$tation shoul" #e resiste"( Aor those ho vie faith as an alien im$osition on reason! as ell as for those ho hol" to a reasone" faith! it is al a%s im$ortant to "emonstrate a&ain an" a&ain! even #% lon& a%s aroun"! that all that is true is or"ere" to the truth( P 1ere2s a fine "ustu$( The Unitarian Universalist Asso*iation 4UUA7 is suin& the ne Ameri*an Unitarian Asso*iation 4AUA7 for usin& the name Unitarian( AUA a**uses UUA of a#an"onin& ,*lassi*al!- ,tra"itional!- an" ,histori*Unitarianism( The AUA $ress release e"&es "an&erousl% *lose to sa%in& ,ortho"o+(- The release *har&es that ,Unitarian=Universalism has full% em#ra*e" $ol%theisti* reli&ions that totall% *ontra"i*t the name Unitarian(- Sin*e it starte" as a $rotest a&ainst the 'hristian "o*trine of the Trinit%the three Persons in one Go"the AUA oul" seem to #e on soli" &roun" in *laimin& that Unitarianism is in*om$ati#le ith #elief in an o$en=en"e" num#er of &o"s an" &o""esses( But 9 *onfess that fi&urin& out ho an anti=*re"al tra"ition "etermines ho is faithful to its *ree" is #e%on" m% $o ers( P ,9t is a#solutel% sho*3in& to see some of the $eo$le ho have #een *hosen to hel$ *reate fe"eral $oli*% on *hur*h= state $artnershi$!- "e*lares Barr% >%nn of Ameri*ans Unite" for Se$aration of 'hur*h an" State( 1is referen*e is to a lar&el% honorar% a"visor% *ommittee a$$ointe" #% the Re$u#li*an *on&ressional lea"ershi$( >%nn! i&norin& the ell=

esta#lishe" rule of the homileti*al sus$ension of rhetori*al tem$eran*e! *ites insensitive remar3s a#out other &rou$s ma"e #% #la*3 *ler&% on the *ommittee( 9 mention this onl% #e*ause of m% interest in *ontem$latin& Mr( >%nn hose 8o#! li3e that of 'a$tain Renault in #asa(lanca! requires #ein& routinel% sho*3e"in a state of a(solute sho*3( 9t is a terrif%in& $ros$e*t( P Fes! 9 am intensel% intereste" in! #ut 9 ho$e not o#sesse" #%! the re*e$tion of .ames 'arroll2s #onstantine9s S&ord4 The #hurch and the Je&s( The other ee3 at a Barnes U ?o#le #oo3 si&nin& for Death on a Frida A!ternoon! *o$ies of 'arroll2s #oo3 ere sta*3e" si+ feet hi&h at the entran*e an" the mana&er tol" me it is sellin& #ris3l%( 9t seems li3el% that man% min"s an" souls are #ein& $oisone"! for this is a "ee$l% #a" #oo3( 9n a""ition to our o n revie #% Thomas A( M( ?o#le 4Ma%7! 9 have note" in this s$a*e *ritiques of 'arroll2s self=in"ul&ent travest% of histor% an" theolo&% a$$earin& in other $u#li*ations( <hat is left to #e sai"@ 9 have not noti*e" else here this o#servation #% the "istin&uishe" historian .ohn >u3a*s: ,Fes! "urin& t o thousan" %ears there ere! an" $resuma#l% there still are! 'atholi*s ho hate .e s an" ish to have them 3ille"( >a%men an" la% omen #ut also $riests an" friars an" $rea*hers 4thou&h no $o$es7( But in his ver% Ameri*an an" anti=authoritarian a%! 'arroll misses the fo*us of the "an&er holl%( The "an&er! not onl% to .e s #ut to the 'hur*h an" faith itself! is not authoritarianism #ut $o$ulism( 1ere an" there 'arroll noti*es this ithout $a%in& attention to it( The $erse*ution of the .e s in S$ain as a $o$ulist "eman"! to hi*h the Nin& an" the Lueen relu*tantl% a&ree" 4thou&h the Po$e "i" not7( <h% as 1itler "an&erous@ Be*ause he as #oth $o$ulist an" $o$ular(- 9f 'onstantinianism means the 'hur*h *om$romisin& herself in a**ommo"atin& the $o ers of the orl"! it ta3es a quite "ifferent form to"a%! sa%s >u3a*s: ,An" no ! hen $o$ular soverei&nt% is the "ominant $oliti*al *onfi&uration throu&hout the &lo#e! the trou#le is not that a *ross stan"s on a hill at Aus*h itK( 9t is that a $astor of a *hur*h here 9 atten"e" Mass on the last Sun"a% of .anuar% in A.D. 2001 shoul" have #e&un his sermon thus: G>et me tell %ou no the stor% of the an&els an" saints in heaven as the% are at*hin& the Su$er Bo l(2, P 1ere2s a "ou#le stan"ar" that ma% have es*a$e" %our attention( 'olumnist Terr% Gol a% rites in the Ne& /or% ,(server that reli&ious or&aniKations are orr%in& out lou" a#out the "an&ers of #ein& *orru$te" if the% a**e$t &overnment mone% for their so*ial servi*e $ro&rams( ,This is not the 3in" of intros$e*tion one asso*iates ith some other #enefi*iaries of fe"eral lar&esse! i(e(! the artists! museums! an" other *ultural or&aniKations hose *ons*ien*es are untrou#le" #% the flo of mone% from the ?ational En"o ment for the Arts an" from the #u"&ets of lo*al &overnments( Rather than rin& their han"s a#out the $ossi#le *orru$tin& influen*e of &overnment mone%! a &eneration of artists has *ome to #elieve that $u#li*l% fun"e" &rants are an entitlement! an" those ho either o$$ose them outri&ht or see3 some 3in" of revie $ro*ess are nothin& more than neo=Aas*ist shre""ers of the ri&ht to free e+$ression( Aaith=#ase" or&aniKations ma% torture themselves a#out the rules that a**om$an% fe"eral mone%; artists #elieve that rules sim$l% "on2t a$$l% to them( Aree e+$ression! "on2t %ou 3no @ 9t2s in the 'onstitutionB 9n"ee" it is *ontaine" in the same amen"ment that &uarantees reli&ious free"om(- Artists! Gol a% notes! $lea" the Airst Amen"ment hen &overnment 4a(3(a( Ru"% Giuliani7 su&&ests that it has a ri&ht to ithhol" mone% from artisti* e+hi#itions that ta+$a%ers fin" offensive( ,That2s a vali" an" in"ee" honora#le ar&ument! so one mi&ht e+$e*t ri&ht= thin3in& artists to stan" alon&si"e their #rothers an" sisters in the Airst Amen"ment as the nation2s reli&ious or&aniKations attem$t to #alan*e their ri&ht to reli&ious #elief ith the a**e$tan*e of &overnment mone%( )ne sus$e*ts! ho ever! that the "eniKens of Hante2s 'n!erno ill #e turnin& tri$le a+les #efore the nation2s artists ill $erson the #arri*a"es on #ehalf of Pat Ro#ertson2s ri&ht to orshi$ as he sees fit hile ta3in& fe"eral mone% to minister to the $oor( So some of the ver% same $eo$le ho #elieve *ultural or&aniKations o e no o#li&ation to $u#li* sensi#ilities hen the% ta3e ta+$a%er fun"s are $re$are" to ar&ue that reli&ious or&aniKations must a#i"e #% the &overnment2s $oliti*al "i*tates if the% ta3e the &overnment2s mone%( 9f that infrin&es on reli&ious #elief ell! no#o"% is for*in& these or&aniKations to ta3e ta+ "ollars( Those ho use a similar ar&ument on matters artisti*! of *ourse! ill fin" themselves *on"emne" as *ensors(P Mi*hael .o%*e has retire" as $resi"ent of the >%n"e an" 1arr% Bra"le% Aoun"ation in Mil au3ee( 9t is not the 3in" of thin& 9 oul" or"inaril% mention here! e+*e$t that he is a ver% "ear frien" an" *ollea&ue! an" e+*e$t that %ou mi&ht not #e rea"in& this 8ournal ere it not for Mi3e .o%*e( Bra"le% is #% no means the lar&est foun"ation in the *ountr% 4it ran3s a#out seventieth7! #ut un"er Mi3e .o%*e2s fifteen %ears of lea"ershi$ it has $ro#a#l% #een the most ima&inativel% *onstru*tive( 'atal%ti* is the or"( Fou *an "o a lot ith a little! if %ou 3no hat %ou2re "oin&! as as "emonstrate" in or3in& ith Mi3e .o%*e( Throu&h su#s*ri$tions! a"vertisin&! an" the &enerous su$$ort of rea"ers es$e*iall% in res$onse to the annual a$$ealthis 8ournal mana&es to survive! #ut it an" the other $ro&rams of the 9nstitute on Reli&ion an" Pu#li* >ife are also sustaine" #% Mi3e .o%*e an" Bra"le%( B% his strate&i* thin3in& an" 8u"i*ious fun"in&! Mi3e has ma"e a sin&ular *ontri#ution to man% &oo" *auses! nota#l% to $arental *hoi*e in e"u*ation an" o$enin& o$$ortunities for *hil"ren in the inner *it%( 1is is the &ratifi*ation of 3no in& that! man% %ears from no ! 3i"s ho mi&ht have #een in 8ail ill #e $ro"u*tive *itiKens! in lar&e $art #e*ause of the &oo" *itiKenshi$ of Mi3e .o%*e an" Bra"le%( 9 "on2t 3no hat Mi3e ill "o ne+t 4he is! from m% $ers$e*tive! a relativel% %oun& man7! #ut 9 ho$e to #e $art of it( P M% *ollea&ue .im ?ue*hterlein rote re*entl% a#out the moral am#i&uities that atten" #ein& i"entifie" as German 4,Pri"e an" Patriotism!- Ma%7( Germans in German% are sensitive a#out that! an" it as a fa*tor re$orte"l%

un"ers*ore" #% almost all 'atholi* an" >utheran #isho$s in their Easter sermons this %ear( The o**asion as the Hut*h "e*ision to #e*ome the first nation to le&islate a #roa" le&aliKation of euthanasia( Narl 'ar"inal >ehmann! hea" of the 'atholi* #isho$s *onferen*e! "e*lare" that the Hut*h a*tion as a #etra%al of the Euro$ean moral an" *ultural tra"ition( ,<e are alrea"% in the mi"st of a *ulture of "eath!- he sai"( .oa*him 'ar"inal Meisner of 'olo&ne asserte" that onl% a ,si*3 an" $s%*holo&i*all% "e&enerate- so*iet% *oul" a$$rove su*h a la ( The Germans! of *ourse! have $o erful reasons to #e alert to the violation of the fra&ile $roto*ols of *iviliKation( Their universities have "enie" a $latform to Prin*eton2s Peter Sin&er an" his a"vo*a*% of infanti*i"e! euthanasia! an" eu&eni*s! an" stri*t limits are $la*e" on hat *an #e sai" in $u#li* a#out! for instan*e! the &ro in& $resen*e of Muslim immi&rants in Euro$e( Aree s$ee*h a#solutists $rotest su*h limits! of *ourse! #ut! in vie of its histor%! one is in*line" to *ut German% *onsi"era#le sla*3 on this s*ore( As for euthanasia an" relate" as$e*ts of the *ulture of "eath! the $oi&nant o""it% of the Germans re$roa*hin& the Hut*h is that! "urin& the latter2s o**u$ation #% the former in <orl" <ar 99! the Hut*h ha" a sterlin& re*or" of resistin& the lethal $oli*ies of the ?aKis( 9t is su&&este" that the ?etherlan"s shoul" #e &iven to un"erstan" that it is fast turnin& itself into a $ariah nation( To someone ho is $lannin& a va*ation or meetin& in Amster"am! one mi&ht inno*entl% as3 the question! ,The% 3ill ol"! ea3! an" unha$$% $eo$le! "on2t the%@P Washin)ton 0ost *olumnist Ri*har" 'ohen sa%s he has ,qualms- a#out a#ortion! #ut he *ertainl% "oesn2t ant to #e asso*iate" ith $eo$le ho a"vo*ate 3illin& a#ortionists( .ames N( AitK$atri*32s arti*le! ,A Pro=>ife >oss of ?erve@, 4AT! He*em#er 20007! to hi*h 'ohen t i*e refers! is of *ourse an ar&ument a)ainst the use of violen*e in the $ro=life *ause( But hat ith t o *olumns $er ee3 an" other "ea"lines! Mr( 'ohen2s is un"ou#te"l% a ver% #us% life( An"! after all! he &ets $ai" for ritin&! not rea"in&( P )h! "ear( The e"itors of A$erica! the .esuit ee3l%! are at it a&ain! railin& a&ainst the ,inquisitorial metho"s- of the 'on&re&ation for the Ho*trine of the Aaith 4'HA7 an" "eman"in& that it ,#e "ismantle" ithout "ela%(- ,Aather I.a*quesJ Hu$uis 8oins a lon& list of eminent 'atholi* theolo&ians ho have #een harasse" #% the *on&re&ation!- the e"itors "e*lare! an" then &o on to list $re*isel% four others ho have run into trou#le ith 'HA "urin& the entire t ent%=three %ears of this $ontifi*ate( A*tuall% there have #een more than four! $erha$s si+ or seven( But! a**or"in& to the e"itors! ,The *on&re&ation has &one full s$ee" ahea" ith its investi&ations of theolo&ians aroun" the orl"(Moreover! A$erica *om$lains that hen 'HA has "etermine" that the ritin&s of a theolo&ian ma% #e "an&erousl% erroneous! it notifies the author an" his e**lesiasti*al su$eriors of its *on*ern( ,Sin*e the me"ia usuall% learn of the 8u"&ment! the author2s re$utation is staine"!- the e"itors sa%( 9f lea3in& to the me"ia is the $ro#lem! it oul" seem to follo that there shoul" #e more se*re*% rather than less in 'HA $ro*e"ures( ?ee"less to sa%! the or3in&s of 'HA are not #e%on" *riti*ism! #ut the fa*t is that it is t%$i*all% the theolo&ian in question ho &oes to the me"ia( 1ans NSn&! for instan*e! has ma"e a ver% &oo" thin& out of his "iffi*ulties ith 'HA man% %ears a&o hen Rome still too3 him seriousl%( An" then there as the former $riest Matthe Ao+! ho too3 out a full=$a&e a" in the Ne& /or% Ti$es ith the hea"line! ,9 1AOE BEE? S9>E?'EHB- The *ore ron&hea"e"ness of the A$erica e"itors is that the% entirel% i&nore the uniqueness of the 'hur*h2s res$onsi#ilit% to &uar" ,the faith on*e "elivere" to the saints- 4.u"e 1:07( Their onl% *riterion is hat the% *all ,mo"ern notions of "ue $ro*ess(- The% *on"emn 'HA for referrin& to i"eas as ,erroneous- an" ,"an&erous(- ,)nl% totalitarian states use su*h e+$ressions!- the e"itors harrum$h( The%2re ri&ht a#out that! of *ourse( Hemo*rati* states "o not $resume to 8u"&e erroneous an" "an&erous i"eas! #ut hat "oes that have to "o ith the 'hur*h@ Oati*an 'it% is a tin% state! #ut Oati*an 'it% is not the 'hur*h( The 'hur*h is not a state! "emo*rati* or other ise( There are! to #e sure! $oliti*al an" le&al "imensions of the life of the 'hur*h! #ut the *onstitutin& "efinition of the 'hur*h is theolo&i*al! an" it is theolo&% that is entirel% missin& in A$ericaGs "is*ussion( The e"itors s$ea3 as if the% mi&ht #e "is*ussin& "ue $ro*ess ith res$e*t to $oli*% "isa&reements in the He$artment of 1ealth an" 1uman Servi*es( The 'hur*h is *onstitute" #% reveale" truth! an"! hile truth is more than i"eas! it is also inse$ara#le from i"eas( 'ertainl% "istin*tions shoul" #e ma"e( ,There is a "ifferen*e!- the e"itors rite! ,#et een "en%in& the faith an" #ein& in error on some minor issue( There is also a "ifferen*e #et een #ein& trul% "an&erous an" #ein& 8u"&e" "an&erous #% some fearful $eo$le(- The first statement is a truism! an" the se*on" is a most un*harita#le=an"! in m% e+$erien*e! &rossl% ina**urate8u"&ment of those ho or3 in 'HA! #e&innin& ith its $refe*t! .ose$h 'ar"inal RatKin&er( ,Ainall%!- sa%s A$erica! ,no human *ourt is immune to mista3e( A$$eals must #e allo e"(- True! 'HA ma% ma3e mista3es! #ut to hom shoul" a 8u"&ment #e a$$eale"@ The e"itorial has alrea"% note" that the Po$e a$$roves 'HA "e*isions 4the im$li*ation is that the Po$e "oesn2t realiKe that he is #ein& use" #% 'HA7! so it oul" seem that a$$eals *annot #e "ire*te" to the Po$e( Perha$s the a$$eal shoul" #e to the &uil" of a*a"emi* theolo&ians@ Revie #% $eers ho are frequentl% $artners in "issent is not li3el% to *arr% mu*h *re"i#ilit%( There is the a""itional $ro#lem that the man"ate an" *harism for authoritative tea*hin& is &iven to Peter an" the a$ostoli* *olle&e! not to the a*a"em%( Goin& outsi"e the *ommunit% of theolo&i*al "is*ourse! "issentin& theolo&ians "o a$$eal to A$erica an"! to the #est of m% re*olle*tion! are ithout e+*e$tion foun" a$$ealin& an" &rante" a favora#le 8u"&ment( But! of *ourse! the 8u"&ments of the e"itors of A$erica are "eterminative of nothin&! an" there2s the ru#( The e"itorial! ,Hue Pro*ess in the 'hur*h!- is ar&ue" in su*h stri"ent an" sla$"ash fashion that $erha$s not too mu*h shoul" #e ma"e of it( <ere one to ta3e it more seriousl% than it "eserves! ho ever! it oul" not #e ina**urate to sa% that it is! at least #% im$li*ation! a "enial of hat the 'atholi* 'hur*h hol"s re&ar"in& the tea*hin& authorit%! or Ma&isterium! of the 'hur*h( Perha$s to the "isa$$ointment of its authors! the e"itorial re*eive" little attention an"! hile *learl% erroneous! "i" not rise to the status of "an&erous in the 8u"&ment of 'HA or an%one else( Ma%#e that is #e*ause 'HA is too #us%! hat ith its &oin& ,full s$ee" ahea" ith its investi&ations of theolo&ians

aroun" the orl"(- Theolo&ians first( The e"itors of A$erica ill 8ust have to ait their turn( P 0u(lishers Wee%l ! in a s$e*ial issue *overin& >GBT 4les#ian! &a%! #ise+ual! an" trans&en"ere"7 #oo3s! sa%s this ni*he mar3et has #een sli"in& sin*e 1550! hi*h as i"el% *ele#rate" as the Fear of the Ga%s! hen ,ma8or $u#lishers #e*ame into+i*ate" #% an irrational e+u#eran*e for les#ian an" &a% titles(- <ill S*h al#e! the &a% e"itorial "ire*tor of 1%$erion! sa%s! ,9 8ust "on2t see &a% men rea"in& mu*h or &ettin& e+*ite" a#out #oo3s( 9n a""ition to movies! the%2re at*hin& *a#le $ro&rams li3e :ueer as Fol% an" TO sho s li3e Will and "race(- Perha$s $re"i*ta#l%! >GBT riters an" $u#lishers are turnin& to %oun&er $eo$le( ,The real ne stor%!- sa%s Havi" Rosen of 9nsi&ht)utBoo3s! ,is the emer&en*e of hat 9 *all Ghi8in3s in hi&h s*hool2 #oo3s "ealin& ith se+ualit% in hi&h s*hool(- 0W *omments: ,This $henomenon is refle*te" in the fa*t that t o mainstream houses are o$enl% a""ressin& the issue of same=se+ teen e+$erien*e in novels "ire*te" to an a&es t elve=an"=u$ rea"ershi$(- The %outh of to"a% are the mar3et of tomorro ! an"! for that matter! of to"a%( P Uh=oh( The hea"line in the Washin)ton 0ost rea"s! ,Ash*roft2s Aaith Pla%s Oisi#le Role at .usti*e(- Oisi#le! as "istin*t from invisi#le! faith is! it seems! "ou#tfull% *onstitutional( The &ist of the stor% is that the Attorne% General #e&ins the "a% ith a #rief Bi#le stu"% session in his offi*e( The session is o$en to an%one ho ants to *ome! an" atten"an*e ran&es from a "oKen or so to as man% as thirt%( The re$orter! Han E&&en! *alle" u$ the usual sus$e*ts an" eli*ite" their "ee$ orries a#out Ash*roft violatin& the se$aration of *hur*h an" state( There is no referen*e to Presi"ent Thomas .efferson havin& re&ularl% atten"e" Sun"a% servi*es in the Senate *ham#er( The stor% "oes mention that Presi"ent Bush also #e&ins the "a% ith Bi#le stu"%! #ut he "oes so alone an" therefore! $resuma#l%! ithout visi#le faith! or ithout his faith $la%in& a visi#le role! or hatever( 9n a""ition to its man% other res$onsi#ilities on #ehalf of the *ommon &oo"! the 0ost has assume" a heav% tas3 in "eterminin& hether the faith of $u#li* offi*ials has a role! visi#le or invisi#le! in ho the% "o their 8o#s( This requires! 9 shoul" thin3! the most *areful e+amination an" s$iritual "is*ernment( An"! of *ourse! one *ounts on the 0ost to ta3e a**ount of the variet% of faiths an" non=faiths involve"( Aor instan*e! e mi&ht loo3 for ar" to a stor% #% Mr( E&&en ith the hea"line! ,He$ut% Se*retar%2s Se*ularism Pla%s Oisi#le Role at State-or Hefense! or 11S! or herever( The inquisitor2s lot is not an eas% one( P 9t is a ma8or "evelo$ment in the $u#li* ar&ument a#out homose+ualit%( The stu"% $resente" at the annual meetin& of the Ameri*an Ps%*hiatri* Asso*iation 4APA7 is #% Hr( Ro#ert S$itKer! 'hief of Biometri*s Resear*h an" Professor of Ps%*hiatr% at 'olum#ia Universit% in ?e For3( Hr( S$itKer "es*ri#es himself as a se*ular humanist .e an" as the lea"in& fi&ure in the 15C0 APA "e*ision that remove" homose+ualit% from the offi*ial "ia&nosti* manual of mental "isor"ers( ,>i3e most $s%*hiatrists! 9 thou&ht that homose+ual #ehavior *oul" onl% #e resiste"! an" that no one *oul" reall% *han&e their se+ual orientation( 9 no #elieve that to #e false( Some $eo$le *an an" "o *han&e!- sai" S$itKer( The stu"% in*lu"e" hun"re"s of men an" omen ho have e+$erien*e" a si&nifi*ant shift from homose+ual to heterose+ual attra*tion an" have sustaine" the *han&e for at least five %ears( Three=quarters of the men an" half of the omen are no marrie"( ?ot sur$risin&l%! the stu"% has met ith furious *riti*ism from &a% a"vo*ates( Hr( S$itKer2s $rin*i$le" vie is ver% sim$le: ,9 #elieve $atients shoul" have the ri&ht to e+$lore their heterose+ual $otential(- 4Aor more information on the stu"% an" other $ertinent resear*h! rite to the ?ational Asso*iation for Resear*h an" Thera$% of 1omose+ualit%! 1EE00 Oentura Blv"(! Suite 10D0! En*ino! 'alifornia 51D0E! or visit (narth(*om(7 P 9t is true that! from time to time! 9 have offere" a #ar#e"! even *austi*! *omment on hat $ur$orts to #e our ne s$a$er of re*or"( Then there are those moments hen 9 am for*e" to on"er ho those hose matinal routine "oes not in*lu"e $erusin& the Ti$es mana&e to &et #%( 1ere! for instan*e! is the hea"line of a ma8or stor%: ,S*hool Bull%in& 9s 'ommon! Mostl% #% Bo%s! Stu"% Ain"s(- So*iolo&ists of 3no le"&e "es*ri#e su*h moments as ,Ah! haBe+$erien*es( .ust hen %ou2re thin3in& of &ivin& her u$! the ol" $ainte" la"% on*e a&ain "emonstrates her in"is$ensa#ilit%( P )ver lun*h ith a *ar"inal of the Roman *uria! the "is*ussion turne" to $erenniall% trou#le" relations ith )rtho"o+ 'hristians! .e s! an" Muslims( ,<hat %ou have to un"erstan"!- the *ar"inal tol" me! ,is that this Po$e has no shame(- B% that he meant that it is not $ossi#le to shame the Po$e into not tr%in& a&ain( Fou *an revile him! re#uff him! an" insult him! #ut he 3ee$s *omin& #a*3! hol"in& out his han" in a relentless sear*h for un"erstan"in& an" re*on*iliation( The Po$e2s "etermination as sorel% teste" a&ain "urin& his Ma% $il&rima&e to Gree*e( There some )rtho"o+ *ler&% $u#li*l% invo3e" *urses u$on the ,ar*h=hereti*- an" ,t o=horne" &rotesque monster of Rome4referrin& to his #isho$2s miter7( 'hristo"oulos! the hea" of the Gree3 *hur*h! &reete" him #% rea"in& a #ill of in"i*tment! listin& *enturies of )rtho"o+ &rievan*es a&ainst the <est( 9n a**or" ith his *all for a ,$urifi*ation of memories!- .ohn Paul *alml% res$on"e" ith an a*3no le"&ment of sins a&ainst )rtho"o+% #% 'atholi*s! an" $ra%e" for Go"2s for&ivin& an" healin& love( Some 'atholi*s have &iven e+$ression to an im$atien*e that the Po$e al a%s mana&es to *ontain( 1ere! for instan*e! is Ro" Hreher! ritin& in the Wall Street Journal: ,SeiKin& the moment! he has not onl% as3e" for&iveness for the histori*al sins of 'atholi*ism! #ut has also &one to astonishin& len&ths to a**ommo"ate the o#stre$erous )rtho"o+even $uttin& the nature of the $a$a*% on the ta#le for "is*ussion( 1e has suffere" re$eate" insult from Eastern *hur*hmenin*lu"in& a s*an"alous 1551 re#u3e at a *eremon% in St( Peter2s Basili*a%et returne" hatre" ith affe*tion( To little avail! alas( 9f the fathomless humilit% an" *harita#le itness of

this &reat an" &oo" $ontiff 4&reat (ecause he is &oo"7 #ear fruit in the East! it ill almost *ertainl% not #e in his lifetime( <or" has not %et rea*he" Mt( Athos that the ne Ba#%lon is not Rome #ut 1oll% oo" an" the sho$$in& mall( 41o 2s that for a t o=horne" monster@7 But it ill( B% the time the )rtho"o+ a a3en from their self=satisfa*tion an" &ras$ the true nature of the s$iritual an" moral *risis en&ulfin& their res$e*tive *ultures! hat ill the% "o to fi&ht it@ Perha$s the% ill *onsult 3eritatis Splendor an" *van)eliu$ 3itae! as ell as other $ro$heti* ritin&s of .ohn Paul 99! an authenti* 'hristian humanist ho trul% &ras$e" the $romise an" the $eril of the $ostmo"ern orl"( Too late! it ma% "a n on the )rtho"o+ reli&ious authorities hat 3in" of ise an" hol% man the%! in their narro = min"e"ness an" $ri"e! re8e*te" out of han"( Tra&i*@ Fes( But in the Gos$els! %ou2ll fin" $re*e"ent for this sort of thin&(- As it ha$$ene"! 'hristo"oulos seeme" ver% mu*h ta3en ith .ohn Paul2s res$onse to his #ristlin& in"i*tment! an" even ent so far as to 8oin him in $u#li*l% $ra%in& the )ur Aather( That as no little ste$! sin*e $ra%er ith an ,ar*h=hereti*- is stri*tl% for#i""en( Moreover! 'hristo"oulos seeme" to su&&est that he oul" use his influen*e to soften the hostilit% of the Mos*o Patriar*hate! $erha$s ma3in& $ossi#le! at lon& last! a $a$al visit to Russia( Shamelessness! ri&htl% un"erstoo"! ma% #e a virtue to #e *ultivate"( P The ne Pro&ressive Reli&ious Partnershi$! an or&aniKational $ot$ourri of ra"i*alisms $ast an" $resent! hel" its or&aniKin& *onferen*e in <ashin&ton( ,Bet een the s$ee*hes an" $lenar% "is*ussions!- re$orts the #hristian #entur ! ,*onferen*e $arti*i$ants #ro3e into or3sho$s on A9HS! the 2000 $resi"ential ele*tion! missile "efense! s eatsho$s! elfare! s*hool vou*hers! *a$ital $unishment! e*olo&%! re$ro"u*tive ri&hts! an" same=se+ unions! amon& other to$i*s(- Sai" Ra##i Steven .a*o#s of a Reform tem$le in >os An&eles! ,<e are not s$ra%in& #ullets all over the $la*e( ( ( ( Se+ual 8usti*e is $art of the threat that runs throu&h all of these issues an" all are $art of the $ro&ressive a&en"a for Ameri*a(- 9 "on2t 3no hat that means; $erha$s that missile "efense! for instan*e! mi&ht tri&&er a nu*lear *onfli*t that *oul" have "evastatin& *onsequen*es for &a%! les#ian! an" trans&en"ere" $ersons( P 9n the Ma% issue 9 ran a fi*tional letter to Hr( >aura S*hlessin&er! the $o$ular &iver of a"vi*e! in hi*h the author 8oshe" her for quotin& the Bi#le in *on"emnin& homose+ual a*ts as an ,a#omination(- 9n a humorous vein! the author as3e" her ho e ou&ht to im$lement the "eath $enalt% for other *a$ital offenses s$e*ifie" in E+o"us an" >eviti*us( 9 sai" that the letter as a useful remin"er that the *ase a&ainst same=se+ relations *annot #e ma"e #% *herr%=$i*3in& Bi#le $assa&es #ut requires a *onsi"ere" un"erstan"in& of human se+ualit% #ase" on #oth natural la an" reveale" truth( Several rea"ers tell me that 9 shoul" have a""e" that the tra"ition of ra##ini*al *ommentar% on Torah *ontains *lear an" so$histi*ate" "istin*tions in a$$l%in& the $ros*ri$tions mentione" in the letter! an" the% are ri&ht( The item as "ire*te" at a st%le of ,$roof=te+tin&- *ommon amon& some 'hristians! an" shoul" not have #een "ire*te" at Hr( S*hlessin&er! ho is an o#servant .e ( Aor an e+am$le of the 3in" of *onsi"ere" statement #% .e s an" 'hristians that 9 as re*ommen"in&! see the Ramse% 'olloquium2s ,The 1omose+ual Movement, 4AT! Mar*h 155D7( As for the letter to Hr( >aura! the riter as tr%in& to #e too *lever #% half! an" 9 shoul" not have run it( Even 1omer no"s! an" 92m no 1omer( P Presi"ent Bush seems to #e meetin& ith ever%one! so e shoul" not #e sur$rise" that he &ot aroun" to meetin& ith the #isho$s of his o n Unite" Metho"ist 'hur*h( There asn2t a mention of the meetin& in the &eneral me"ia! so 9 thou&ht %ou shoul" 3no that the #isho$s re#u3e" Bush for his anti=missile "efense s%stem! insiste" that the U(S( *ease its , ar &ames- in Norea! an" re"u*e ai" to 9srael for its o$$ression of the Palestinians! amon& other thin&s( The% also $romise" to $ra% for the Presi"ent( Mar3 Toole%! a Unite" Metho"ist ith the 9nstitute on Reli&ion an" Hemo*ra*%! sa%s there are several reasons h% no#o"% $ai" an% min" to the meetin&( Airst! re$orters 3no that the #isho$s "o not s$ea3 for Unite" Metho"ists! ho over helmin&l% vote Re$u#li*an( Then there is the fa*t that Unite" Metho"ists are so "ull( Southern Ba$tists *an #e ,entertainin& hen the% ant to #e!- an" ,'atholi*s are &oo" at sho s an" *eremon%!- an" E$is*o$alians are forever into ,squa##les over se+!- hile ,There are fe thin&s more mi""le Ameri*an an" therefore less e+*itin& than a Metho"ist(- 4This is Toole%! $lease note! not me(7 But the main $ro#lem! he su&&ests! is that the UM #isho$s are 8ust so fatuousl% an" in*essantl% "um# in their san*timonious reiteration of leftist #romi"es( 4That2s m% $ara$hrase of hat 9 thin3 he is su&&estin&(7 But he2s &la" the #isho$s sai" that the%2re $ra%in& for the Presi"ent( 1e re*alls the Re$u#li*an Senators ho met ith a &ravel% ill Presi"ent <oo"ro <ilson an" assure" him of their ar"ent $etitions to heaven( ,Aor hi*h result are %ou $ra%in&@- <ilson as3e"( P Some 3in" of me"al for "o&&e"l% $ersistent i"eolo&i*al *ommitment is o e" British 'olum#ia2s 'olle&e of Tea*hers! hi*h *ertifies e"u*ational $ro&rams an" tea*hers( )r "oesn2t! as the *ase ma% #e( As! in fa*t! as the *ase ith Trinit% <estern Universit%! hi*h as3s stu"ents an" tea*hers to si&n a ,*ommunit% stan"ar"s a&reement- that $re*lu"es involvement in ,$remarital se+! a"ulter%! an" homose+ual #ehavior(- The s*hool also as3s stu"ents to refrain from *heatin& an" stealin&! so %ou *an see hat a nest of fanati*ism Trinit% <estern is( But it as the homose+ualit% #it that $ushe" the #uttons of the 'olle&e of Tea*hers( Hes$ite losin& at ever% level! the% $ushe" the *ase throu&h the *ourts for si+ %ears( This s$rin& the Su$reme 'ourt of 'ana"a rule" 6=1 that there as no evi"en*e that Trinit% <estern tea*hers ha" "is*riminate" a&ainst or other ise mistreate" homose+ual *hil"ren( A &reat vi*tor% for reli&ious free"om@ Perha$s not( 'riti*s *laim that the rulin& turns on the $remise that reli&iousl% #ase" moral *onvi*tion is not a $ro#lem if one 3ee$s one2s *onvi*tions to oneself( 9f a tea*her ha" su&&este" in a *lassroom that there mi&ht #e somethin& ron& ith $remarital se+! never min" homo&enital se+! the lo&i* of the rulin& oul" seem

to require that the 'ourt *ome "o n on the other si"e( ?onetheless! the 6=1 "e*ision is to #e el*ome"( Aor the moment! it is le&al in 'ana"a to #elieve hat almost all 'hristians have #elieve" for t o thousan" %ears! as lon& as %ou 3ee$ it to %ourself( 1avin& sai" that! 9 shoul" a"" that m% frien" 9ain Benson! a "istin&uishe" la %er ith the 'entre for 'ultural Rene al! ta3es a mu*h more ho$eful vie of the 'ourt2s "e*ision! an" of *ourse 9 ho$e he is ri&ht( P <hat "o %ou su$$ose the Ne& /or% Ti$es 3no s that the U(S( State He$artment! Aree"om 1ouse! 1uman Ri&hts <at*h! the Atlantic Monthl ! the Balti$ore Sun! an" others "o not 3no @ 1ere is a stor% #% .ane PerleK *laimin& that Afri*a e+$ert 'hester 'ro*3er ants assuran*es from Se*retar% 'olin Po ell that he ill #e shiel"e" from $oliti*al $ressure #% reli&ious *onservatives if he a**e$ts the $osition of s$e*ial envo% to "eal ith the atro*ities in Su"an( Ms( PerleK rites: ,The *onfli*t has #e*ome a li&htnin& ro" for 'hristian a"vo*ates an" for #la*3 la ma3ers #e*ause of hat the% *all the Su"an &overnment2s $oli*% of allo in& 'hristian #la*3 Su"anese to #e a#"u*te" an" sent into slaver% in the 9slami* north( Some *hur*h &rou$s have finan*e" Gre"em$tion2 missions! in hi*h visitin& Ameri*ans $a% mone% to Gfree2 a#"u*tees(- That sni"e an" "ismissive ,the% *all- is interestin&( 9n fa*t! the U(S( State He$artment offi*ial re$orts 4also un"er Presi"ent 'linton7 an" the a#ove=name" human ri&hts &rou$s an" $u#li*ations have all "o*umente" in "etail that the Nhartoum re&ime is en&a&e" in slavin&( )f at least equal interest is $uttin& ,free- in quotes( 9f there are slaves 4an" there are7! an" if the% are #ein& #ou&ht #a*3 from slaver% 4an" the% are7! it oul" follo that the% are #ein& free"( So hat "oes the Ti$es 3no tha t no#o"% else 3no s@ ?othin&( E+*e$t that it #elieves no o$$ortunit% shoul" #e misse" to ta3e a ha*3 at the insi"ious influen*e of reli&ious *onservatives! es$e*iall% hen the% su**ee" in ro$in& in some &ulli#le ,#la*3 la ma3ers(- 9ma&ine a stor% in the Ti$es ith this line: ,Ga% a"vo*ates are see3in& G$rote*tion2 from hat the% *all "is*rimination(- 9ma&ine a a%( P A#raham Brum#er& as *learl% not the $erson to revie .an T( Gross2 #est=sellin& Nei)h(ors4 The Destruction o! the Je&ish #o$$unit in Jed&a(ne- 0oland( The a**e$te" stor% for %ears as that the 15D1 slau&hter of 1!E00 .e s in the to n of .e" a#ne as *arrie" out #% the ?aKis( 49nvesti&ations no &oin& on su&&est that the num#er of $eo$le 3ille" ma% #e mu*h less(7 9n his #oo3 Gross *onten"s that! in fa*t! the anti=Semiti* non=.e ish half of the to n! free" to "o so #% the ?aKi o**u$ation! 3ille" off the .e ish half! an" "i" so ith uns$ea3a#le #rutalit%( Brum#er&! ritin& in the Ti$es 6iterar Supple$ent! &oes farther! offerin& a s ee$in& in"i*tment of inveterate Polish anti=Semitism an" ea&er *olla#oration ith the ?aKis( That $rom$ts ?orman Havies! the "istin&uishe" British historian of mo"ern Euro$e! to a s$irite" res$onse: ,)n the i"er as$e*ts of *olla#oration! Brum#er& "oes his #est to asso*iate ron&= "oin& e+*lusivel% ith Poles( 1e "oes so #% sa%in& nothin& a#out *olla#oration ith the Soviets! ho in 1505=D1 ere 3illin& an" "e$ortin& *onsi"era#l% more $eo$le than the ?aKis ere! an" #% har$in& on Polish $oli*e! Polish roun"= u$s! an" Polish .e =haters( 9t is all "one on the false assertion that it is someho Ginsensitive2 to mention .e ish $oli*emen! .e ish roun"=u$s! .e ish informers! .e ish Pole=haters! .e ish 3a$os! or the .e ish 'oun*ils hi*h a"ministere" the ?aKi=#uilt &hettos( The #ias is #latant( The fun"amental fa*t is that the totalitarian re&imes *oul" tem$t or *oer*e mem#ers of an% ethni* *ommunit% to "o their "irt% or3 for them( <e shoul" ta3e note of ever%thin&! #ut shoul" treat it ith *om$assion( Brum#er& rites of the nast%! anti=Semiti* Gre$tile $ress2 hi*h flourishe" in ?aKi=o**u$ie" Polan"( 9t shoul" not #e for&otten( There as "efinitel% one se*tor of Polish o$inion that as hostile to .e s! an" there ere *ertainl% $eo$le aroun"! as there oul" have #een in Britain or Ameri*a! ho ere illin& to *onsume the filth( <hat Brum#er& fails to mention is that all artime ne s$a$ers in the Greater Rei*h ere overseen #% ?aKi $ro$a&an"ists! all ere *ontrolle" #% ?aKi=a$$ointe" e"itors! an" all ere su#8e*t to ?aKi *ensors( The% "i" not refle*t $u#li* o$inion as a hole! an" ere i"el% #o%*otte"(- )n these an" other s*ores! Havies *on*lu"es that the rea"ers of T6S,have not #een ell serve"- #% Brum#er&2s revie ( As #est 9 *an tell from the *onfli*tin& a**ounts! the most a**urate a% of $uttin& it is that hat ha$$ene" in .e" a#ne as $art of the ?aKi="ire*te" e+termination $ro&ram! *arrie" out in this *ase ith the enthusiasti* hel$ of some Polish thu&s( 9n this an" similar tra&e"ies! there is no $la*e for ma3in& e+*uses( An" the Aren*h ma+im that ,To un"erstan" all is to for&ive all- must #e firml% re8e*te"( .ust as surel%! ho ever! ethni* i"entit% $rovi"es no li*ense for slan"erin& an entire $eo$le! as Mr( Brum#er& "oes( As for Havies2 $oint a#out .e ish *olla#oration ith the ?aKi e+terminators! it is an e+*ee"in&l% "eli*ate su#8e*t! as 1annah Aren"t "is*overe" after $u#lishin& *ich$ann in Jerusale$( But Havies is surel% ri&ht: ,The fun"amental fa*t is that the totalitarian re&imes *oul" tem$t or *oer*e mem#ers of an% ethni* *ommunit% to "o their "irt% or3 for them(- The a$$ro$riate res$onse is to #e &rateful that e "o not live un"er su*h terror an"! remem#erin& those ho "i"! to al3 hum#l% ith our Go"( P The $lanners of the $ainfull% *orre*t 'hautauqua 9nstitute in u$state ?e For3 almost *ertainl% "i" not inten" su*h a fittin& *om#ination( 9n a series of $resentations on ,The Phenomenon of 1eroism!- Ale+an"er San&er of Planne" Parenthoo"! the &ran"son of Mar&aret San&er! is s*he"ule" for one "a%! follo e" the ne+t "a% #% Theo"ore Aensterma*her! the assistant $rose*utor at ?urem#er&( P More than t o hun"re" >utheran $astors $arti*i$ate" in the or"ination of out=of=the=*loset les#ian Anita 1ill 4no! not that Anita 1ill7 at St( Paul=Reformation 'hur*h in St( Paul! Minnesota( 9n Foru$ 6etter! E"itor Russell SaltKman o$ines that this re$resents the ,*riti*al mass- that &a% a"vo*ates have #een or3in& for! ma3in& it almost *ertain that no #isho$ or *on&re&ation ill in the future $a% a $ri*e in *onne*tion ith the or"ination of se+uall% a*tive homose+uals( At the same time! ver% Protestant o$$onents in the Evan&eli*al >utheran 'hur*h in Ameri*a 4E>'A7

are su**essfull% o$$osin& the $rovision of the full *ommunion a&reement ith the E$is*o$alians hi*h requires that future >utheran or"inations #e #rou&ht ithin the or#it of hat E$is*o$alians un"erstan" to #e a$ostoli* su**ession( 9t a$$ears no that ,e+*e$tions- ill #e *ountenan*e"! even ,$lanne"!- #% the E>'A! thus threatenin& the >utheran= E$is*o$al a&reement s$elle" out in#alled to #o$$on Mission( Presi"in& Bisho$ Aran3 Gris ol" of the E$is*o$al 'hur*h has ritten the E>'A! ,)ur *hur*h vote" for ##M as it stan"s! e ant##M to or3! an" e #elieve that it *an(- The E>'A nonetheless a$$rove" a #%la allo in& for e+*e$tions an" ill su#mit it to the *hur*h i"e assem#l%! here it stan"s a ver% &oo" *han*e of $assin&( As for the matter of or"ainin& the homo&enitall% a*tive! SaltKman #elieves it ill not #e #rou&ht to a vote #% the *hur*h i"e assem#l%! here it oul" almost *ertainl% lose( Rather! the $ra*ti*e is esta#lishe" as a fait a**om$li that effe*tivel% nullifies the stan"ar"s that ill remain offi*iall% on the #oo3s( SaltKman "e*lares that ,the e**lesial unit% of the E>'A is at an en"( ( ( ( <hen offi*ial stan"ar"s are re&ularl% e+*e$te"! informal e+*e$tions ill s iftl% #e*ome unoffi*iall% offi*ial( That means the E>'A is nearl% over in all #ut form(- As one of those ?euhaus >a s has it! <hen ortho"o+% is o$tional! it ill sooner or later #e $ros*ri#e"( As for hether the E>'A is at an en"! one ma% $ara$hrase General Ma*Arthur: ,)l" "enominations never "ie ( ( (P The 8u"i*ial usur$ation of $oliti*s %ou 3no a#out! #ut the 8u"i*ial usur$ation of s$orts@ That! it oul" seem! is *learl% hat is in $ros$e*t ith the Su$reme 'ourt2s C=2 rulin& in 0"A Tour- 'nc. v. #ase Martin that the 1550 Ameri*ans <ith Hisa#ilities A*t 4AHA7 &ives Martin the ri&ht to ri"e a &olf *art in tournaments( 1ere e have the Su$reme 'ourt overrulin& the PGA on the question of hat "oes an" "oes not #elon& to the essen*e of the &ame of &olf! an" onl% .usti*es 'laren*e Thomas an" Antonin S*alia *au&ht the sa" humor of it( <hat2s ne+t@ <e "on2t have to &uess( The ?ational Allian*e for the Mentall% 9ll! Self 1el$ for 1ar" of 1earin& Peo$le! an" the H arf Athleti* Asso*iation ere amon& or&aniKations enterin& #riefs for Martin( 9n $ro&ressive *ir*les it has #een ar&ue" for "e*a"es that s$orts violate the $rin*i$le of equalit% #e*ause the% are *om$etitive( 9t is not entirel% im$ro#a#le that some here in those famous $enum#ras of the 'onstitution ill soon #e "is*overe" a $rohi#ition of *om$etitive s$orts! at least hen the% result in there #ein& inners an" losers( 'om$etition &uaranteein& equal out*omes ill li3el% $ass *onstitutional muster( P This is ver% ni*e( #hristianit Toda has $olle" its lar&e $anel of 8u"&es an" #esto e" its annual #oo3 a ar"s( )f the to$ t elve for the %ear! Death on a Frida A!ternoon is liste" as thir"( <hether that means it *ame in thir"! 9 "on2t 3no ! #ut 92ll a**e$t the honor! &ratefull%( 9 note also that it is the onl% #oo3 in the to$ t elve that is not #% an evan&eli*al Protestant an" is not from an evan&eli*al $u#lishin& house( <hat "oes that sa% a#out #hristianit Toda an" its 8u"&es@ <hat "oes that sa% a#out me@ 1o shoul" 9 3no @ P 9 s$e*ulate" some months a&o that the reason there is no an+ious *hatter a#out ho is &oin& to run the 3illa)e 3oice is that the Ti$es has in re*ent %ears $rett% mu*h *o=o$te" the *ounter*ultural turf that use" to #e *omman"e" #% the 3oice( As thou&h to *om$lete the ta3eover! the Ti$es has announ*e" that! for the first time in histor%! it ill $u#lish 4&as$7 $ersonal a"vertisements( Another $a$er! the ,(server! &ives us an i"ea of hat to e+$e*t: ,P)RT?)F2S ?)T ')MP>A9?9?GB Si+t%=somethin& H.M! riter! see3s #u+om shi3sa &o""ess un"er thirt% for lon& "is*ussions a#out self! *onsti$ation( .ust loo3in& for fun! #ut $ossi#le tra&i* roman*e( Must a&ree that: Bello is overrate"; U$"i3e is &oof%=loo3in&( 1ave $lent% of $ass$orts on han" for those last=minute im$ulse tri$s(- The Ti$es assures its rea"ers that the% ill monitor for ,taste(- All the an&st that2s fit to $rint( P Homini*an Aather Paul Phili#ert a""ressin& the ?ational Ae"eration of Priests2 'oun*ils in Baltimore: ,>i3e .esus! our ministr% is not a#out "oin& thin&s for other $eo$le! #ut em$o erin& them to #e*omeli3e the sevent%=t o "is*i$lesevan&eliKers in the *ulture! in the e*onom%! in the famil%! in the nei&h#orhoo"! an" in the orl"(- As he sai"! ,9 have *ome neither to #e serve" nor to serve! #ut to em$o er %ou(P ?o she2s &one an" "one it( She2s #een $romisin& to for a lon& time! an" 92ve #een ea&erl% a aitin& it( Mi"&e He*ter has ritten the stor% of her life( 9t2s *alle" An ,ld Wi!e9s Tale an" is $u#lishe" #% Re&an Boo3s! a 1ar$er'ollins im$rint 4206 $a&es!! R2E7( )f *ourse 9 rea" ith $arti*ular interest her a**ount of the five %ears hen she as "istin&uishe" fello here at the 9nstitute( 1er a**ount is &enerous an" ten"er! althou&h she is e+*essivel% self= "e$re*atin& a#out the *ontri#ution she ma"e to A9RST T19?GS( There as not a "a% that 9 as not &rateful for her #ein& ith us! as 9 *annot ima&ine a "a% hen 9 ill not #e &rateful for her frien"shi$( Startin& out as a $re*o*ious *hil" in St( Paul! Minnesota! "etermine" to ma3e it in ?e For3! Mi"&e2s life has en&a&e" most of the movements an" ar&uments that have sha$e" an" missha$e" Ameri*an life in the $ast half *entur%( Es$e*iall% the 'ol" <ar an" the sun"r% feminisms that have *ome "o n the $i3e( )ne &reat merit of An ,ld Wi!e9s Tale is to remin" us of ho lon& our *ultural "isorientations have #een aroun"( Mi"&e still serves on our #oar"! an" at the annual meetin& a hile #a*3 another mem#er as &oin& on a#out ho this "evelo$ment an" that s$elle" "efeat for all e *herish( Mi"&e2s su**in*t an" utterl% *hara*teristi* res$onse: ,9t2s never over(- She is a master of $olemi*s tou*he" #% &ra*e( Rea"ers ill remem#er her Erasmus >e*ture! ,A .e in Anti='hristian Ameri*a- 4AT! )*to#er 155/7( 9t too3 more than a little *oura&e to ma3e the *ase that the mu*h tra"u*e" ,reli&ious ri&ht- is! all in all! also &oo" for the .e s( But Mi"&e is a $erson ho ma3es *oura&e seem li3e somethin& that *omes naturall%( An ,ld Wi!e9s Tale! ho ever! is not onl%! is not even *hiefl%! a#out $u#li* #attles( 9t is a#out #ein& a oman! a mother! an" a &ran"mother! all of hi*h *oul" not #e ithout #ein& a ife( She is marrie"! as all the orl" 3no s! to ?orman Po"horetK( She ma3es it soun" eas%! hi*h to

those ho 3no ?orman ill *ome as somethin& of a sur$rise( But then! there is an easiness to so mu*h of Mi"&e2s a% of #ein&; a &ratitu"e for so mu*h &oo" in life! if onl% e "i" not stu$i"l% *om$le+if% it ith *raK% i"eas an" im$ossi#le attem$ts to live a&ainst the &rain( She has man% $u#li* a*hievements to her *re"it! an" An ,ld Wi!e9s Tale is not ithout an ar&umentative e"&e! #ut mostl% it is the stor% of an enormousl% &ifte" oman ho is enormousl% &rateful( <hi*h is h% 9 *annot ima&ine a time hen 9 ill not #e &rateful for her frien"shi$( An" h% man% thousan"s of rea"ers ill! 9 am *onfi"ent! &ive than3s for An ,ld Wi!e9s Tale( P ,<e have learne" that nature ma"e us to as3 #i& questions that have no ans ers!- sai" the ver% #ri&ht *olle&e senior to her un*le( ,?o h% "o %ou su$$ose nature oul" "o that@- he as3e"( ,9 "on2t 3no ( That2s $re*isel% m% $oint( That2s a #i& question that has no ans er( )r at least e2ll $ro#a#l% never 3no the ans er *om$letel%( ?ature is ver% m%sterious(- That2s a fairl% *ommon$la*e e+*han&e( 9t or somethin& ver% mu*h li3e it is $ro#a#l% ha$$enin& in some *olle&e "orm room at this ver% moment( Are"eri3 .oKef Belinfante! ho ith <olf&an& Pauli "i" famous or3 on the statisti*al la s of ele*tron intera*tion! sai" this: ,9f 9 &et the im$ression that ?ature itself ma3es the "e*isive *hoi*e hat $ossi#ilit% to realiKe! here quantum theor% sa%s that more than one out*ome is $ossi#le! then 9 am as*ri#in& $ersonalit% to ?ature! that is! to somethin& that is al a%s ever% here( )mni$resent eternal $ersonalit% hi*h is omni$otent in ma3in& the "e*isions that are left un"etermine" #% $h%si*al la is e+a*tl% hat in the lan&ua&e of reli&ion is *alle" Go"(- That stri3in& o#servation is quote" in .effre% Satinover2s ne #oo3! The :uantu$ Brain 4<ile%7( 1e also quotes the &reat En&lish $h%si*ist Sir Arthur E""in&ton! ho arne": ,9t oul" $ro#a#l% #e iser to nail u$ over the "oor of the ne quantum theor% a noti*e! GStru*tural alterations in $ro&ress?o a"mittan*e e+*e$t on #usiness!2 an" $arti*ularl% to arn the "oor3ee$er to 3ee$ out $r%in& $hiloso$hers(- Satinover! a *ontri#utor to these $a&es! is a $r%in& $s%*hiatrist of a $hiloso$hi*al #ent ho for some %ears no has #een &ettin& aroun" the "oor3ee$ers of s*ientifi* se*rets that! as a matter of fa*t! are not so mu*h se*ret as the% are little noti*e" or little thou&ht a#out #% almost ever%one e+*e$t those ho atten" to them ,on #usiness(- The :uantu$ Brain is an a"venturesome #oo3 that! as the% sa%! $resses the envelo$e( The a"venturesome Geor&e Gil"er *alls it ,the first &reat #oo3- of the t ent%=first *entur%( Satinover ma3es the s*ien*e a**essi#le! althou&h it ill $rovi"e a vi&orous or3out for the s*ientifi*all% *hallen&e"( <hile loo3in& for ar" to our revie of the #oo3! ritten #% a s*ientist ith a #etter *omman" of the $ertinent fa*ts an" theories! 9 feel *onfi"ent in re*ommen"in& The :uantu$ Brain to rea"ers ith a $arti*ular interest in the overla$$in& truths of $h%si*s! $hiloso$h%! an" reli&ion( 9 as &oin& to sto$ there! #ut 9 *annot resist one more of the man% ele&ant quotes ith hi*h the #oo3 is s$i*e"( This is from Am#rose Bier*e! The Devil9s Dictionar 4150E7: ,Min": A m%sterious form of matter se*rete" #% the #rain( 9ts *hief a*tivit% *onsists in the en"eavor to as*ertain its o n nature! the futilit% of the attem$t #ein& "ue to the fa*t that it has nothin& #ut itself to 3no itself ith(- As 9 sa%! e ill #e returnin& to the m%sterious min" of .effre% Satinover e+$lorin& the trans*en"en*e of matter in a%s that matter( P 1ere2s a ni*e 3in" of $ro#lem to have( The 3in" %ou *an "o somethin& a#out! at least if %ou have an% influen*e ith li#raries or #oo3stores that "o not *arr% AT( Es$e*iall% universit% an" *olle&e li#raries 4an" sometimes "e$artmental li#raries7! as ell as $arish li#raries( The #i& #oo3 *hains usuall% have AT! #ut then e &et inquiries as to h% some "on2t( 9n some *ases! the ans er is that the% onl% *arr% a fe *o$ies an" the%2re soon sol" out( 9n others! e have no i"ea hat the ans er is( 9n all *ases! the *ustomer on the s$ot is in a &oo" $osition to hel$ re*tif% hat is ron&( Man% than3s( P The *ou$le hose roman*e an" flourishin& marria&e #e&an hen he si&hte" her rea"in& A9RST T19?GS in the *olle&e li#rar% ma% not #e t%$i*al( But all 3in"s of &oo" thin&s *an ha$$en throu&h A9RST T19?GS *onne*tions( <e ill #e ha$$% to sen" a sam$le issue of this 8ournal to $eo$le %ou thin3 are li3el% su#s*ri#ers( Please sen" names an" a""resses to A9RST T19?GS! 1/E Aifth Avenue! Suite D00! ?e For3! ?e For3! 10010 4or e=mail to su#s*ri#erservi*esV $ma=in*(net7( )n the other han"! if the%2re rea"% to su#s*ri#e! *all toll free 1=6CC=50/=5520! or visit (firstthin&s(*om(

Sources) ,<e Pi$e" an" Fou Hi" ?ot Han*e!- Anti=Hefamation >ea&ue a"! Ne& /or% Ti$es! Ma% 10! 2001; Ra##i Haniel >a$in! To ar" Tra"ition $ress release! Ma% 1D! 2001; 'ra&& 1ines! Houston #hronicle! Ma% 5! 2001; Bisho$ .ose$h AiorenKa letter! Ne& /or% Ti$es! Ma% 11! 2001; Eu&ene Aisher letter! Ne& /or% Ti$es! Ma% 1/! 2001; <alter 'ar"inal Nas$er letter to A#raham Ao+man! Je&ish Wee%! .une 6! 2001( <hile <e2re At 9t: Havi" S3inner on Hinesh H2SouKa! 0u(lic 'nterest! <inter 2001( Mar3 Shiel"s on the ele*tion! Seattle 0ost5'ntelli)encer! Ae#ruar% /! 2001( )n Ri*har" <urm#ran"! Ta(let! Mar*h 0! 2001( A"am Mi*hni3 on Polish &uilt! Ne& /or% Ti$es! Mar*h 1C! 2001( Statisti*s on euthanasia in )re&on! National Ri)ht5to56i!e Ne&s! Mar*h 2001( ,The Pure Ameri*an <oman an" the <i*3e" 'atholi* Priest!- Reli)ion and A$erican #ulture! <inter

1555( 'atholi* violen*e in Afri*a! TE?9T! Mar*h 21! 2001( Horoth% Ra#ino itK on s*hool shootin&s! Wall Street Journal! Mar*h 5! 2001( Hamon >in3er on animal ri&hts! #o$$entar ! A$ril 2001( Revie of 1B) film ,Sol"iers in the Arm% of Go"!- Ne& /or% Ti$es! Mar*h 01! 2001( Mar* Ar3in revie of Wide as the Waters! Wall Street Journal! A$ril D! 2001( Havi" Berlins3% on information theor%! #o$$entar ! A$ril 2001( Unitarian "ustu$! Ameri*an Unitarian Asso*iation $ress release! A$ril /! 2001( )n Barr% >%nn2s a#solute sho*3! Ameri*ans Unite" for the Se$aration of 'hur*h an" State $ress release! A$ril 1C! 2001( .ohn >u3a*s on 'atholi* anti=Semitism! 'nside the 3atican! Mar*h/A$ril 2001( Terr% Gol a% on "ou#le stan"ar"s in $u#li* fun"in&! Ne& /or% ,(server! A$ril 1E! 2001( German #isho$s on the ?etherlan"s! SPU' 9nformation! A$ril 20! 2001( Ri*har" 'ohen on 3illin& a#ortionists! Washin)ton 0ost! A$ril 2D! 2001( 'HA harassment! A$erica! A$ril 5! 2001( Ga% #oo3 mar3et!0u(lishers Wee%l ! A$ril 20! 2001( Pra%er at the .usti*e He$artment! Washin)ton 0ost! Ma% 1D! 2001( Bull%in& stu"% quote" in Wall Street Journal! A$ril 00! 2001( Ro" Hreher on .ohn Paul 99 an" the )rtho"o+! Wall Street Journal! Ma% 6! 2001( )n the Pro&ressive Reli&ious Partnershi$! #hristian #entur ! A$ril 16=2/! 2001( Mar3 Toole% on Metho"ism! 9nstitute on Reli&ion an" Hemo*ra*% $ress release! Ma% 6! 2001( Susan Martinu3 on 'ana"ian s*hool stan"ar"s! National 0ost! Ma% 21! 2001( .ane PerleK on Afri*a $oli*%! Ne& /or% Ti$es! Ma% 01! 2001( A#raham Brum#er& an" ?orman Havies on .e" a#ne! Ti$es 6iterar Supple$ent! Ma% D! 2001( Anita 1ill or"ination! Foru$ 6etter! .une 2001( )n $ersonal a"s in the Ne& /or% Ti$es! Wall Street Journal! A$ril 5! 2001( Aather Paul Phili#ert on em$o erment! #atholic Trends! A$ril 1D! 2001( German moralit% lessons! Pro>ife 9nfonet! Ma% 2/! 2001(