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COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE IN SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING Rizka Safriyani A.

Introduction Second language acquisition is the process by which people learn a second language in addition to their native language. Those who can communicate successfully can be considered as the one who has commnunicative competence. Communicative competence is the ability to interact well with others. Communication takes place in an infinitive variety of situations, and success in a particular role depends on ones understanding of the context and on prior experience of a similar kind. It requires making appropriate choices of register and style in terms of the situation and other participants. Hence, communicative competence deals with linguistic terms which refers to second languages learner ability. It does not only refer to a learners ability to apply and use grammatical rules, but also to form correct utterances, and know how to use these utterances appropriately and it implies to the communicative approach in language teaching.

B. The Characteristics of Communicative Competence Savignon (1883: 8-9) mentions that there are five characteristics of communicative competence and those characteristics are: 1. Communicative competence is dynamic rather than static concept. It depends on the negotiation of meaning between two or more persons who share to some degree the same symbolic system.

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2. Communicative competence applies to both written and spoken language, as well as too many other symbolic systems. 3. Communicative competence is context specific. Communication takes place in an infinitive variety of situations, and success in a particular role depends on ones understanding of the context and on prior experience of a similar kind. 4. Competence is defined as a presumed underlying ability, and performance as the overt manifestation of that ability. Competence is what one knows. Performance is what one does. 5. Communicative competence is relative, not absolute, and depends on the cooperation of all the participants involved. It makes sense, then, to speak of degrees of communicative competence.

C. Areas of Communicative Competence Communicative competence is a broad term that involves not only the structural features of language, but also its social, pragmatic and contextual characteristics. Therefore, it is necessary to understand communicative competence as the sum of a series of competences (Jaimes, 2006). There are four areas of communicative competence, they are: 1. Grammatical competence It refers to the ability of speakers in using the different functioning rules of the system of their language or the linguistic code: the mastery of second language phonological and lexicogrammatical rules and the rules of sentence formation. It includes:

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Phonetics

: Pronunciation

Morphology : Word function and inflection Syntax Lexis :Structure of language : Vocabulary and semantics

The competence in grammar can be seen from the ability to express and interpret literal meaning of their utterances (for examples: vocabulary, word and sentence meaning, construction of grammatical sentences, correct spelling, etc.).

2.

Sociolinguistic competence It refers to the ability of speakers in producing sentences according to the communicative situation. Speakers (usually) know when, where, and whom to say things. Here, the mastery of socio-cultural rules of appropriate use of second language can be seen from how utterances are produced and understood in different sociolinguistic contexts (for example: understanding of speech act conventions, the use of a language to signal social relationships, etc.).

3.

Discourse competence It refers to the ability of speakers to use the different types of discourse. Usually language users know what is being referred to in different contexts, i.e. they distinguish between new and old information, and are able to determine the discourse topics. For instance, speakers know when a "he" refers to "John" or to "the child" according to the text context in the sentence: John went to the park,

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and he found a child who was sick. The young boy was crying because he didnt know where his mother was. It also deals with the mastery of rules concerning cohesion and coherence of various kinds of discourse in second language (for example: use of appropriate pronouns, synonyms, conjunctions, substitution, repetition, etc.).

4.

Strategic competence It refers to the knowledge speakers have to maintain communication. Therefore, this competence accounts for the strategies language users have to be understood, and to understand others. Gestures, expressions, mimics and intonation are among others some of the most strategies used. The mastery of verbal and non-verbal communication strategies in second language used when attempting to compensate for deficiencies in the grammatical and sociolinguistic competence or to enhance the effectiveness of communication (for examples: how to address others when uncertain of their relative social status, slow speech for rhetorical effect, etc.). Furthermore, Bachman proposes a design in components of communicative

language ability in communicative language use (1990: 85). It can be figured out below:

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Figure 1: Components of language competence

From the above figure, we can know that grammatical and discourse competence is called as a part of organizational competence. It explains about all rules and systems that dictate what we can do with the forms of language, whether they are sentence-level rules (grammar) or rules that govern how we string sentence together (discourse). Then, sociolinguistic competence is divided into two separate pragmatic categories: functional aspects of language (illocutionary competence pertaining, sending, and receiving intended emanings) and sociolinguistic aspects (politeness, metaphor, register, etc.). To be able to communicate competently, we need strategic competence so that we are able to communicate with others with various kinds of backgrounds. Bachman adds that strategic competence serves an executive function of making the final decision,

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among many possible options on wording, phrasing, and other productive and receptive means for negotiating meaning. It can be seen in the following figure:

Figure 2: Components Of Communicative Language Ability

D. Developing Communicative Competence In Second Language Teaching Brown (1994a: 245) views Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) as an approach (that is, a theoretical position about the nature of language and of language

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teaching), rather than a specific method of teaching. He also describes four underlying characteristics in defining CLT in a second language classroom: 1. Focus in a classroom should be on all of the components of communicative competence of which grammatical or linguistic

competence is just part. 2. Classroom activities should be designed to engage students in the pragmatic, authentic, and functional use of language for meaningful purposes. 3. Both fluency and accuracy should be considered equally important in second language learning classroom. And they are complementary. 4. Students have to use their target language, productively and receptively, in unrehearsed contexts under proper guidance, but not under the control of a teacher. Moreover, students success in acquiring communicative competence in their target language is that easy. Here are some teaching learning activities which can be applied in the second language classroom so that the communicative competence still can be maintained: 1. Use of Audiovisual Recordings, Second language learners can get benefit from viewing and reviewing audiovisual recordings such as videotapes and visual hypermedia software of their own communicative interactions and model interactions by native speakers. In learning how to make requests, for example, the students can not only participate in, say, pair work as part of their function-building exercise, but also film their actual

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performance to collect data for analysis. The data ideally cover a wide range of situations in which they make or receive requests, in terms of social status and role of interlocutors, degree of imposition internal to the act of the request being made, and so on. Through close examination of their recordings and introspection, the students will have a chance to reflect on what they said to make requests (grammatical competence). To measure the success of the students performance, the teacher can, then, play a video clip that shows model performance by native speakers of the target language, in order for them to see how different or similar their communicative performance of requests is, when contrasted with how native speakers execute the same act. Here, the students can both review their grammatical precision in use and learn about the sociocultural appropriateness of the communicative event. Moreover, the very nature of the audiovisual material enables the students to see and analyze their own and native speakers nonverbal communication as well. It is, thus, advisable that the students study their own communicative experience and the nature and characteristics of social interaction in their target language so as to develop their L2 sociolinguistic competence (Erickson, 1996). 2. Role-play Role play is an effective way to develop students communicative competence, especially the sociolinguistic and strategic competence. It also helps the students acquire what Saville-Troike (1996) describes as interactional knowledge. Learning a language for a wide range of social and expressive functions requires more than just learning word- and sentence-formation, correct pronunciation, and orthography;

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rather, one learns a system of use whose rules and norms are an integral part of culture (Schiffrin, 1996: 323). Usually, role-plays are properly framed, yet open-ended, bilateral, interactive, and above all, highly contextualized in nature. However, Clark (1987), acknowledging the value of role-plays in a foreign language classroom, cautions us that a form of role-play in which the students simply act out a predetermined script made by someone else would result in mere memorization of stereotypical expressions that may or may not have real-life application in actual communicative exchange. Instead, the teacher must structure his or her role-plays in a way that their students engage in role-making and role-negotiating as they interact. 3. Speech Act The speech act, or performative use of language, is an area that many Japanese students have trouble dealing with. It is because speech acts are generally difficult for second language learners to realize in terms of grammar and vocabulary, formulas and conventionalized expressions, and socio-cultural difference between their first and second language, and because in many cases Japanese students are not taught explicitly in the classroom how to signal their intent in performing an illocutionary act, beyond the semantic meanings of syntactic structures. Below is an example of communicative failure in an act of apology that I have come across: Student A Student B Student A : I need the notebook I lent you. do you have it now? : Im sorry. Im sorry. I was bad. Im sorry. Can you excuse me? : Well,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

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All this indicates that the students do not necessarily pick up complex speech behavior and sociocultural strategies and sociolinguistic forms. Therefore, explicit teaching of speech act strategies will be needed for students to gain illocutionary competence (Cohen, 1996). 4. Interactive Language Instruction Interactive language instruction involves the teacher and learners engaging in activities that create conditions that foster language use, which lead to further language development. First and foremost, the teacher is the initiator of interaction. That does not mean that the teacher is always in control of the discourse, such as in models where the teacher initiates, the students respond, and the teacher provides feedback. It means that the teacher is responsible for providing opportunities for interaction in which learners control the topics and discourse (Brown, 2001; Ellis, 1999). Interactive language instruction may be new for some learners. Learners may have expectations of how instruction should proceed based on their experience with school-based education and previous language instruction. For these reasons, discussing with learners the benefits of and the rationale for having them interact with each other during class time, in meaningful discourse, is difficult but important. Teachers can begin the discussion by brainstorming with learners the things they do that help them learn English. Teachers can introduce the phrase use it or lose it! and learners can be asked to talk about what it means. The classroom setup can hinder or enhance interaction opportunities. If the desks are in neat rows with every one facing the chalk board and the teacher, learner-to-

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learner interactions are more difficult to initiate. Round tables, desks arranged in small groups, or even a semicircle of desks help make interactive tasks easier.

E.Conclusion Communicative competence have been defined and discussed in many different ways by language scholars of different fields. With the change of focus from grammar to communicative approach, second language teachers and researchers can see the notion of the communicative competence within language learning. Here, Communicative competence has come to play an important role in the field pedagogic.

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References Brown, H. D. (1994a). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents Brown, H. D. (1994b). Teaching by Principles. An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy . New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents. Savignon, Sandra J. 1983. Communicative Competence: Theory and Classroom Practice. Massachucets: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Swain, M. (1985). Communicative competence: some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development. In S. M. Gass and C. G. Madden, eds. Input in Second Language Acquisition . Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

About the writer Rizka Safriyani is an English teacher of SMA YPPI-II Surabaya. She was born on September 14th 1984. She has been teaching English for three years. She graduated from the undergraduate program (S1) of The State University of Surabaya (UNESA) majoring English Literature on 2006. Next, she continued her study at graduate program (S2) of The State University of Surabaya (UNESA) majoring Education of Language and Literature and she graduated on 2009. Details: Full Name Address Contact Number Email Institution The purpose of Paper : Rizka Safriyani : Kencanasari Timur xx / 19 Surabaya : +6285730122874 / 03177474818 : rizkasafriyani@yahoo.com : SMA YPPI-II Surabaya : Implementing the communicative approach to the second language teaching

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