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Chapter 1

New Horizons
1. New Horizons was started in 1982, from Anaheim, California, USA. 2. 28yrs old Organization. 3. New Horizons has been rated as the Worlds Largest Independent IT training company as per IDC. 4. New Horizons has spread across 60 countries with more than 340+ branches. 5. New Horizons has ranked as one of FORTUNE magazines 100 FastestGrowing Companies in America (Sept. 2000); one of Forbes magazines 200 Best Small Companies in America (Oct. 2000), and Business Week magazines 100 Hot Growth Companies (June 2001). 6. In 27yrs New Horizons has made 25 million people more valuable. 7. New Horizons has been awarded as the best corporate trainer across the globe. 8. New Horizons has been affiliated with all the big giants like Microsoft, Cisco, Redhat, Oracle, CompTIA, adobe just a name of few 9. New Horizons has the largest network of Microsoft Certified Technical Education Centers (CTECs) and its the Gold Certified partner of Microsoft. 10. New Horizons entered in Indian market in 2002.


11. New Horizons India is a joint venture of New Horizons Inc. and Shriram Group of technologies. The shriram group is well know to Indian market because its the same group whos have Shriram College of Commerce in Delhi Univeristy, DCM group, DCM finance and Toyota group, USHA fans etc. 12. New Horizons shows its expertise to Govt. of India: a. NH has empanelled with 10 Govt. ministries for there training. b. Ministries like IT, Finance, Commerce, Labour, External Affairs etc c. NH offered the training NIC, UP Electronics, FCI, UCO Bank, Punjab and Sind Bank. d. NH offered the training to teachers of Govt. schools in the state of Haryana. e. NH has just completed one of the largest Govt. projects in India where NH has trained multi-thousands judicial officers across India up to District Judges.

13. New Horizons shows its expertise to Corporate sector on big scale:a. New Horizons has trained around 4500 employees of Infosys on different projects/technologies across India. b. New Horizons has trained multi-thousands engineers of Wipro, Wipro has indorsed one of our program named NHCNE and make as WCNE (Wipro Certified Networking Engineer). c. New Horizons has trained most of the big houses like TCS, HCL technologies, Bharti, Ranbaxy, Colt technologies, Fidelity, CSC etc

14. New Horizons has a big product baskets:a. Career Segment i. ii. iii. iv. b. Hardware & Networking: - NHCNP, NHCNE. Software Engineering: - NHCSE Web Development: - NHCWS Animation:-NHCAE

Modular Segment

i. ii.

H/W & N/w:- MCSE 2003/8, CCNA, RHCE,MCTS etc S/W: C,C++, Data structure, Java(Core and

Advance),Oracle DBA, .Net(Asp,VB) MCSD.Net etc..

15. New Horizons India has been awarded as the best training partner of Redhat for last 4 consecutive yrs. 16. New Horizons offered the job oriented programs, which are industry indorsed like NHCNP and NHCSE etc. 17. New Horizons has a sister concern named New Horizons Info-media which would take for placement because they: a. Placed over 10,000 employees in more than 500 locations globally. b. Mandate from blue chip clients like Microsoft, Oracle, HP, RBS, GENPACT and Wipro for their global placement need c. 60% of candidates placed have under 3 years of experience d. NH Info-Media Ltd has been providing training and staffing services to Wipro Ltd in India & Middle East Countries. e. Genpact: - NH Info-Media Ltd has around 100 resources working for Genpact India at their facilities for major centres of Genpact across India. f. CIPA Project (Govt. of India): NH Info-Media Ltd has been providing Resident Engineers for all Police Stations in North and East part of India. More than 500 IT professionals have been engaged for project delivery. g. ESIC Project (Govt. of India): NH Info-Media Ltd is providing FM Service for all ESIC offices in India across the level. More than 500 IT professionals have been engaged for project delivery.

18. New Horizons NHCNP would offer a. 15 Month Course in Hardware & Networking. (620 hours) b. Industry Simulated Labs in Live environment. c. Program Mapped to International Certification. d. English speaking and personality development session in each core.

e. Placement Aids (Workshops, Mock tests, Quiz etc ) f. Trained/Certified Trainers. g. Additional learning thru online content h. Cutting Edge courseware on latest technologies developed by New Horizons University. 19. New Horizons Course fee is very competitive in the market. 20. New Horizons offer latest & high-end technologies like Microsoft exchange Server 2007 & MCTS-Windows Server 2008 etc.. 21. New Horizons offers the internship (a weeks time) programs though Singapore, Malaysia and Dubai etc. to selected students. 22. More than 5Lakh jobs would be expected by 2011 as per NASSCOM report. 23. As per Indian scenario(jobs) a. TCS set to 30000. b. Wipro set to hire 5000. c. Mahindra Satyam set to hire 4000. d. Infosys to hire 15000.


Chapter 2


Computer Network
A computer network allows sharing of resources and information among interconnected devices. In the 1960s, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) started funding the design of the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) for the United States Department of Defence. It was the first computer network in the world. Development of the network began in 1969, based on designs developed during the 1960s.


Computer networks can be used for a variety of purposes:

Facilitating communications. Using a network, people can communicate efficiently and easily via email, instant messaging, chat rooms, telephone, video telephone calls, and video conferencing.

Sharing hardware. In a networked environment, each computer on a network may access and use hardware resources on the network, such as printing a document on a shared network printer.

Sharing files, data, and information. In a network environment, authorized user may access data and information stored on other computers on the network. The capability of providing access to data and information on shared storage devices is an important feature of many networks.

Sharing software. Users connected to a network may run application programs on remote computers. Information preservation. Security. Speed up.


2.1Types of Networks
2.12 Local Area Network(LAN)
LAN stands for Local Area Network. The scope of the LAN is within one building, one school or within one lab. In LAN (Hub), media access method is used CSMA/CD in which each computer sense the carrier before sending the data over the n/w. if carrier is free then you can transmit otherwise you have to wait or you have to listen. In multiple access each computer have right that they can access each other. If two computers sense the carrier on same time then the collision occur. Each computer, in the network, aware about the collision. Now this stop transmitting and they will use back off algorithm. In which random number is generated. This number or algorithm is used by each computer. Who has short number or small number, he has first priority to transmit the data over the network and other computers will wait for their turn.

2.13 Wide Area Network(WAN)

WAN stands for Wide Area Network, in which two local area networks are connected through public n/w. it may be through telecommunication infrastructure or dedicated lines. For e.g: - ISDN lines, Leased lines etc.In which we can use WAN devices and WAN technology. You can also connect with your remote area through existing Internetwork called Internet.

2.14 Personal Area Network(PAN)

A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer and different information technological devices close to one person. Some examples of devices that are used in a PAN are personal computers, printers, fax machines, telephones, PDAs, scanners, and even video game consoles. A PAN may include wired and wireless devices. The reach of a PAN typically extends to 10 meters.[4] A wired PAN is usually constructed with USB and Firewire connections


while technologies such as Bluetooth and infrared communication typically form a wireless PAN.

2.15 Home area network(HAN)

A home area network (HAN) is a residential LAN which is used for communication between digital devices typically deployed in the home, usually a small number of personal computers and accessories, such as printers and mobile computing devices. An important function is the sharing of Internet access, often a broadband service through a CATV or Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) provider. It can also be referred to as an office area network (OAN).

2.16 Metropolitan area network(MAN)

A Metropolitan area network is a large computer network that usually spans a city or a large campus.

2.17 Virtual Private Network(VPN)

A virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network in which some of the links between nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger network (e.g., the Internet) instead of by physical wires. The data link layer protocols of the virtual network are said to be tunnelled through the larger network when this is the case. One common application is secure communications through the public Internet, but a VPN need not have explicit security features, such as authentication or content encryption. VPNs, for example, can be used to separate the traffic of different user communities over an underlying network with strong security features.


2.2 Common Basic Networking Devices:

Router: a specialized network device that determines the next network point to
which it can forward a data packet towards the destination of the packet. Unlike a gateway, it cannot interface different protocols. Works on OSI layer 3.

Bridge: a device that connects multiple network

layer. Works on OSI layer 2.

segments along the data link

Switch: a device that allocates traffic from one network segment to certain lines
(intended destination) which connect the segment to another network segment. So unlike a hub a switch splits the network traffic and sends it to different destinations rather than to all systems on the network. Works on OSI layer 2.

Hub: connects multiple Ethernet segments together making them act as a single
segment. When using a hub, every attached all the objects, compared to switches, which provide a dedicated connection between individual nodes. Works on OSI layer 1.

Repeater: device to amplify or regenerate digital signals received while sending

them from one part of a network into another. Works on OSI layer 1.





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Chapter 3

3.1 Network Topology

The physical topology of a network refers to the configuration of cables, computers, and other peripherals. Physical topology should not be confused with logical topology which is the method used to pass information between workstations. Logical topology was discussed in the Protocol chapter.

Main Types of Network Topologies

In networking, the term "topology" refers to the layout of connected devices on a network. This article introduces the standard topologies of computer networking. One can think of a topology as a network's virtual shape or structure. This shape does not necessarily correspond to the actual physical layout of the devices on the network. For example, the computers on a home LAN may be arranged in a circle in a family room, but it would be highly unlikely to find an actual ring topology there. Network topologies are categorized into the following basic types:

Star Topology Ring Topology Bus Topology Tree Topology Mesh Topology Hybrid Topology

More complex networks can be built as hybrids of two or more of the above basic topologies.

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3.12 Star Topology

Many home networks use the star topology. A star network features a central connection point called a "hub" that may be a hub, switch or router. Devices typically connect to the hub with Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Ethernet. Compared to the bus topology, a star network generally requires more cable, but a failure in any star network cable will only take down one computer's network access and not the entire LAN. (If the hub fails, however, the entire network also fails.

Advantages of a Star Topology

Easy to install and wire. No disruptions to the network then connecting or removing devices. Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.

Disadvantages of a Star Topology

Requires more cable length than a linear topology. If the hub or concentrator fails, nodes attached are disabled. More expensive than linear bus topologies because of the cost of the concentrators.

The protocols used with star configurations are usually Ethernet or LocalTalk. Token Ring uses a similar topology, called the star-wired ring.

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3.13 Star-Wired Ring

A star-wired ring topology may appear (externally) to be the same as a star topology. Internally, the MAU of a star-wired ring contains wiring that allows information to pass from one device to another in a circle or ring (See fig. 3). The Token Ring protocol uses a star-wired ring topology.

3.14 Ring Topology

In a ring network, every device has exactly two neighbours for communication purposes. All messages travel through a ring in the same direction (either "clockwise" or "counterclockwise"). A failure in any cable or device breaks the loop and can take down the entire network. To implement a ring network, one typically uses FDDI, SONET, or Token Ring technology. Ring topologies are found in some office buildings or school campuses.

3.15 Bus Topology

Bus networks (not to be confused with the system bus of a computer) use a common backbone to connect all devices. A single cable, the backbone functions as a shared communication medium that devices attach or tap into with an interface connector. A
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device wanting to communicate with another device on the network sends a broadcast message onto the wire that all other devices see, but only the intended recipient actually accepts and processes the message. Ethernet bus topologies are relatively easy to install and don't require much cabling compared to the alternatives. 10Base-2 ("ThinNet") and 10Base-5 ("ThickNet") both were popular Ethernet cabling options many years ago for bus topologies. However, bus networks work best with a limited number of devices. If more than a few dozen computers are added to a network bus, performance problems will likely result. In addition, if the backbone cable fails, the entire network effectively becomes unusable. See the illustration of Bus Network Topology.

Advantages of a Linear Bus Topology

Easy to connect a computer or peripheral to a linear bus. Requires less cable length than a star topology.

Disadvantages of a Linear Bus Topology

Entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main cable. Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable. Difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down. Not meant to be used as a stand-alone solution in a large building.

3.16 Tree Topology

Tree topologies integrate multiple star topologies together onto a bus. In its simplest form, only hub devices connect directly to the tree bus, and each hub functions as the
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"root" of a tree of devices. This bus/star hybrid approach supports future expandability of the network much better than a bus (limited in the number of devices due to the broadcast traffic it generates) or a star (limited by the number of hub connection points) alone.

Advantages of a Tree Topology

Point-to-point wiring for individual segments. Supported by several hardware and software venders.

Disadvantages of a Tree Topology

Overall length of each segment is limited by the type of cabling used. If the backbone line breaks, the entire segment goes down. More difficult to configure and wire than other topologies

3.17 Mesh Topology

Mesh topologies involve the concept of routes. Unlike each of the previous topologies, messages sent on a mesh network can take any of several possible paths from source to destination. (Recall that even in a ring, although two cable paths exist, messages can only travel in one direction.) Some WANs, most notably the Internet, employ mesh routing. A mesh network in which every device connects to every other is called a full mesh. As shown in the illustration below, partial mesh networks also exist in which some devices connect only indirectly to others.

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3.18 Hybrid Topology

A combination of any two or more network topologies. Note 1: Instances can occur where two basic network topologies, when connected together, can still retain the basic network character, and therefore not be a hybrid network. For example, a tree network connected to a tree network is still a tree network. Therefore, a hybrid network accrues only when two basic networks are connected and the resulting network topology fails to meet one of the basic topology definitions. For example, two star networks connected together exhibit hybrid network topologies. Note 2: A hybrid topology always accrues when two different basic network topologies are connected.

3.2 Network Cabling

Cable is the medium through which information usually moves from one network device to another. There are several types of cable which are commonly used with LANs. In some cases, a network will utilize only one type of cable, other networks will use a variety of cable types. The type of cable chosen for a network is related to the network's topology, protocol, and size. Understanding the characteristics of different types of cable and how they relate to other aspects of a network is necessary for the development of a successful network.

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The following sections discuss the types of cables used in networks and other related topics.

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable Coaxial Cable Fiber Optic Cable Cable Installation Guides Wireless LANs Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable

Twisted pair cabling comes in two varieties: shielded and unshielded. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is the most popular and is generally the best option for school networks

The quality of UTP may vary from telephone-grade wire to extremely high-speed cable. The cable has four pairs of wires inside the jacket. Each pair is twisted with a different number of twists per inch to help eliminate interference from adjacent pairs and other electrical devices. The tighter the twisting, the higher the supported transmission rate and the greater the cost per foot. The EIA/TIA (Electronic Industry Association/Telecommunication Industry Association) has established standards of UTP and rated six categories of wire (additional categories are emerging).

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Categories of Unshielded Twisted Pair

Category Speed 1 2 3 4 1 Mbps 4 Mbps 16 Mbps 20 Mbps 100 Mbps (2 pair) 5 1000 Mbps (4 pair) Gigabit Ethernet Use Voice Only (Telephone Wire) LocalTalk & Telephone (Rarely used) 10BaseT Ethernet Token Ring (Rarely used) 100BaseT Ethernet

5e 6

1,000 Mbps 10,000 Mbps

Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet

3.21 Unshielded Twisted Pair Connector

The standard connector for unshielded twisted pair cabling is an RJ-45 connector. This is a plastic connector that looks like a large telephone-style connector. A slot allows the RJ-45 to be inserted only one way. RJ stands for Registered Jack, implying that the connector follows a standard borrowed from the telephone industry. This standard designates which wire goes with each pin inside the connector.

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3.22 Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable

Although UTP cable is the least expensive cable, it may be susceptible to radio and electrical frequency interference (it should not be too close to electric motors, fluorescent lights, etc.). If you must place cable in environments with lots of potential interference, or if you must place cable in extremely sensitive environments that may be susceptible to the electrical current in the UTP, shielded twisted pair may be the solution. Shielded cables can also help to extend the maximum distance of the cables. Shielded twisted pair cable is available in three different configurations: 1. Each pair of wires is individually shielded with foil. 2. There is a foil or braid shield inside the jacket covering all wires (as a group). 3. There is a shield around each individual pair, as well as around the entire group of wires (referred to as double shield twisted pair).

3.3 Coaxial Cable

Coaxial cabling has a single copper conductor at its center. A plastic layer provides insulation between the center conductor and a braided metal shield .The metal shield helps to block any outside interference from fluorescent lights, motors, and other computers.

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Although coaxial cabling is difficult to install, it is highly resistant to signal interference. In addition, it can support greater cable lengths between network devices than twisted pair cable. The two types of coaxial cabling are thick coaxial and thin coaxial. Thin coaxial cable is also referred to as thinnet. 10Base2 refers to the specifications for thin coaxial cable carrying Ethernet signals. The 2 refers to the approximate maximum segment length being 200 meters. In actual fact the maximum segment length is 185 meters. Thin coaxial cable has been popular in school networks, especially linear bus networks. Thick coaxial cable is also referred to as thicknet. 10Base5 refers to the specifications for thick coaxial cable carrying Ethernet signals. The 5 refers to the maximum segment length being 500 meters. Thick coaxial cable has an extra protective plastic cover that helps keep moisture away from the center conductor. This makes thick coaxial a great choice when running longer lengths in a linear bus network. One disadvantage of thick coaxial is that it does not bend easily and is difficult to install.

3.4 Coaxial Cable Connectors

The most common type of connector used with coaxial cables is the Bayone-NeillConcelman (BNC) connector (See fig. 4). Different types of adapters are available for BNC connectors, including a T-connector, barrel connector, and terminator. Connectors on the cable are the weakest points in any network. To help avoid problems with your network, always use the BNC connectors that crimp, rather screw, onto the cable.

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3.5 Fiber Optic Cable

Fiber optic cabling consists of a center glass core surrounded by several layers of protective materials.It transmits light rather than electronic signals eliminating the problem of electrical interference. This makes it ideal for certain environments that contain a large amount of electrical interference. It has also made it the standard for connecting networks between buildings, due to its immunity to the effects of moisture and lighting.

Fiber optic cable has the ability to transmit signals over much longer distances than coaxial and twisted pair. It also has the capability to carry information at vastly greater speeds. This capacity broadens communication possibilities to include services such as video conferencing and interactive services. The cost of fiber optic cabling is comparable to copper cabling; however, it is more difficult to install and modify. 10BaseF refers to the specifications for fiber optic cable carrying Ethernet signals. The center core of fiber cables is made from glass or plastic fibers .A plastic coating then cushions the fiber center, and kevlar fibers help to strengthen the cables and prevent breakage. The outer insulating jacket made of teflon or PVC.

There are two common types of fiber cables -- single mode and multimode. Multimode cable has a larger diameter; however, both cables provide high bandwidth at high speeds. Single mode can provide more distance, but it is more expensive.
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Chapter 4 4.1 OSI Model

The OSI model defines a networking framework for implementing protocols according to seven layers. Each layer is functionally independent of the others, but provides services to the layer above it and receives services from the layer above it.
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The Application layer is the layer at which applications access network services. This layer represents the services that directly support applications such as software for file transfers, database access, email, and network games. The application layer serves as the window for users and application processes to access network services. This layer contains a variety of commonly needed functions:

Resource sharing and device redirection Remote file access Remote printer access Inter-process communication Network management Directory services Electronic messaging (such as mail) Network virtual terminals


The Presentation layer translates data from the Application layer into a network format (and vice-versa). This layer also manages security issues by providing services such as data encryption and compression. The presentation layer formats the data to be presented to the application layer. It can be viewed as the translator for the network. This layer may translate data from a format used by the application layer into a common format at the sending station, then translate the common format to a format known to the application layer at the receiving station.

The presentation layer provides:

Character code translation: for example, ASCII to EBCDIC. Data conversion: bit order, CR-CR/LF, integer-floating point, and so on.
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Data compression: reduces the number of bits that need to be transmitted on the network.

Data encryption: encrypt data for security purposes. For example, password encryption.


The Session layer allows applications on different computers to establish, use, and end a session/connection. This layer establishes dialog control between the two computers in a session, regulating which side transmits, and when and how long it transmits. The session layer allows session establishment between processes running on different stations. It provides:

Session establishment, maintenance and termination: allows two application processes on different machines to establish, use and terminate a connection, called a session.

Session support: performs the functions that allow these processes to communicate over the network, performing security, name recognition, logging, and so on.


The Transport layer handles error recognition and recovery. It also repackages long messages when necessary into small packets for transmission and at the receiving end, rebuilds packets into the original message. The receiving Transport layer also sends receipt acknowledgments. The transport layer ensures that messages are delivered error-free, in sequence, and with no losses or duplications. It relieves the higher layer protocols from any concern with the transfer of data between them and their peers.
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The size and complexity of a transport protocol depends on the type of service it can get from the network layer. For a reliable network layer with virtual circuit capability, a minimal transport layer is required. If the network layer is unreliable and/or only supports datagrams, the transport protocol should include extensive error detection and recovery.

The transport layer provides:

Message segmentation: accepts a message from the (session) layer above it, splits the message into smaller units (if not already small enough), and passes the smaller units down to the network layer. The transport layer at the destination station reassembles the message.

Message acknowledgment: provides reliable end-to-end message delivery with acknowledgments.

Message traffic control: tells the transmitting station to "back-off" when no message buffers are available.

Session multiplexing: multiplexes several message streams, or sessions onto one logical link and keeps track of which messages belong to which sessions (see session layer).

Typically, the transport layer can accept relatively large messages, but there are strict message size limits imposed by the network (or lower) layer. Consequently, the transport layer must break up the messages into smaller units, or frames, prepending a header to each frame. The transport layer header information must then include control information, such as message start and message end flags, to enable the transport layer on the other end to recognize message boundaries. In addition, if the lower layers do not maintain sequence, the transport header must contain sequence information to enable the transport layer on the receiving end to get the pieces back together in the right order before handing the received message up to the layer above. End-to-end layers Unlike the lower "subnet" layers whose protocol is between immediately adjacent nodes, the transport layer and the layers above are true "source to destination" or endto-end layers, and are not concerned with the details of the underlying communications facility. Transport layer software (and software above it) on the
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source station carries on a conversation with similar software on the destination station by using message headers and control messages.


The Network layer addresses messages and translates logical addresses and names into physical addresses. It also determines the route from the source to the destination computer and manages traffic problems (flow control), such as switching, routing, and controlling the congestion of data packets. The network layer controls the operation of the subnet, deciding which physical path the data should take based on network conditions, priority of service, and other factors. It provides:

Routing: routes frames among networks. Subnet traffic control: routers (network layer intermediate systems) can instruct a sending station to "throttle back" its frame transmission when the router's buffer fills up.

Frame fragmentation: if it determines that a downstream router's maximum transmission unit (MTU) size is less than the frame size, a router can fragment a frame for transmission and re-assembly at the destination station.

Logical-physical address mapping: translates logical addresses, or names, into physical addresses.

Subnet usage accounting: has accounting functions to keep track of frames forwarded by subnet intermediate systems, to produce billing information.

Communications Subnet
The network layer software must build headers so that the network layer software residing in the subnet intermediate systems can recognize them and use them to route data to the destination address.

This layer relieves the upper layers of the need to know anything about the data transmission and intermediate switching technologies used to connect systems. It establishes, maintains and terminates
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communications facility (one or several intermediate systems in the communication subnet).

In the network layer and the layers below, peer protocols exist between a node and its immediate neighbor, but the neighbor may be a node through which data is routed, not the destination station. The source and destination stations may be separated by many intermediate systems.


The Data Link layer packages raw bits from the Physical layer into frames (logical, structures packets for data). This layer is responsible for transferring frames from one computer to another, without errors. After sending a frame, it waits for an acknowledgment from the receiving computer. The data link layer provides error-free transfer of data frames from one node to another over the physical layer, allowing layers above it to assume virtually error-free transmission over the link. To do this, the data link layer provides:

Link establishment and termination: establishes and terminates the logical link between two nodes.

Frame traffic control: tells the transmitting node to "back-off" when no frame buffers are available.

Frame sequencing: transmits/receives frames sequentially. Frame acknowledgment: provides/expects frame acknowledgments. Detects and recovers from errors that occur in the physical layer by retransmitting nonacknowledged frames and handling duplicate frame receipt.

Frame delimiting: creates and recognizes frame boundaries. Frame error checking: checks received frames for integrity. Media access management: determines when the node "has the right" to use the physical medium.

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The Physical layer transmits bits from one computer to another and regulates the transmission of a stream of bits over a physical medium. This layer defines how the cable is attached to the network adapter and what transmission technique is used to send data over the cable. The physical layer, the lowest layer of the OSI model, is concerned with the transmission and reception of the unstructured raw bit stream over a physical medium. It describes the electrical/optical, mechanical, and functional interfaces to the physical medium, and carries the signals for all of the higher layers. It provides:

Data encoding: modifies the simple digital signal pattern (1s and 0s) used by the PC to better accommodate the characteristics of the physical medium, and to aid in bit and frame synchronization. It determines:

How the receiving station knows when a "bit-time" starts How the receiving station delimits a frame

Physical medium attachment, accommodating various possibilities in the medium:

Will an external transceiver (MAU) be used to connect to the medium? How many pins do the connectors have and what is each pin used for?

Transmission technique: determines whether the encoded bits will be transmitted by baseband (digital) or broadband (analog) signaling.

Physical medium transmission: transmits bits as electrical or optical signals appropriate for the physical medium, and determines:

What physical medium options can be used How many volts/db should be used to represent a given signal state, using a given physical medium

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4.21 TCP/IP

TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. If this leads you to think that it is not just one protocol, you're right. In fact, it is not just two protocols, either. TCP/IP is a suite of protocols. Like most network protocols, TCP/IP is a layered protocol. Each layer builds upon the layer below it, adding new functionality. The lowest level protocol is concerned purely with the business of sending and receiving raw data using specific network hardware. At the top are protocols designed specifically for tasks like transferring files or delivering email. In between are levels concerned with things like routing and reliability. The benefit that the layered protocol stack gives you is that if you invent a new network application or a new type of hardware, you only need to create a protocol for that application or that hardware: you don't have to rewrite the whole stack.

TCP/IP is a four layer protocol, as illustrated above. The lowest level, the link layer, is implemented within the network adapter and its device driver. Like all the TCP/IP protocols, it is defined by standards. The standards for generic Ethernet-type networks are defined by the IEEE 802 Committee: for example IEEE 802.3 for Ethernet networks, or IEE 802.5 for Token Ring networks. Other link layer protocols that

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could be used include Serial Line IP (SLIP) or Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), which are used when connecting to a network over an asynchronous dial-up link.

4.22 Ethernet

Since Ethernet is the most common type of network, let's look at it in a bit more detail. The Ethernet protocol is designed for carrying blocks of data called frames. A frame consists of a header containing 48-bit hardware destination and source addresses (which identify specific network adapters), a two byte length field and some control fields. There follows the data, and then a trailer which is simply 32-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) field. The data portion of an Ethernet frame must be at least 38 bytes long, so filler bytes are inserted if necessary. This means that frames are at least 64 bytes long, even if they carry only one byte of user data: a significant overhead in some types of application. Frames also have a maximum size. Less headers, the maximum size for an Ethernet frame is 1492 bytes, which is the maximum transmission unit (MTU) for Ethernet. All link layer protocols have a MTU. It is one hardware characteristic that the higher level protocol needs to be aware of, because larger blocks of data must be fragmented into chunks that fit within the MTU and then reassembled on arrival at their destination. The next layer up from the link layer is called the network layer. The most important protocol at this level is IP, the Internet Protocol. Its job is to send packets or datagrams - a term which basically means 'blocks of data' - from one point to another. It uses the link layer protocol to achieve this. Both the network layer and the link layer are concerned with getting data from point A to point B. However, whilst the network layer works in the world of TCP/IP, the link layer has to deal with the real world. Everything it does is geared towards the network hardware it uses. An IP address is a 'soft' address. It is bit like calling your office block "Pan-Galactic House" instead of its real address, 2326 Western Boulevard. The former is no use to the postman who has to deliver the letters, unless he can use it to find out the latter. The link layer Ethernet protocol needs to know the unique hardware address of the

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specific network adapter it has to deliver the message to and, in case of an error, the address of the one it came from. To make this possible, the TCP/IP protocol suite includes link layer protocols whose job is to convert between IP and hardware addresses. The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) finds out the physical address corresponding to an IP address. It does this by broadcasting an ARP request on the network. When a host recognizes an ARP request containing its own IP address, it sends an ARP reply containing its hardware address. There is also a Reverse ARP (RARP) protocol. This is used by a host to find out its own IP address if it has no way of doing this except via the network.

4.23 Internet Protocol

IP is the bedrock protocol of TCP/IP. Every message and every piece of data sent over any TCP/IP network is sent as an IP packet. IP's job is to enable data to be transmitted across and between networks. Hence the name: inter-net protocol. In a small LAN, it adds little to what could be achieved if the network applications talked directly to Ethernet. If every computer is connected to the same Ethernet cable, every message could be sent directly to the destination computer. Once you start connecting networks together, however, direct Ethernet

communication becomes impractical. At the application level you may address a message to a computer on the far side of the world but your Ethernet card can't communicate with the Ethernet card on that computer. Physical Ethernet limitations would prevent it, for a start. It would, in any case, be undesirable for every computer in the world to be connected to one big network. Every message sent would have to be heard by every computer, which would be bedlam. The Internet is congested enough as it is. Instead, inter-net communications take place using one or more "hops." Your Ethernet card will communicate with another Ethernet device on the route to the final destination. Routing is the important capability that IP adds to a hardware network protocol. Before we come to it, we will look at some other features of IP.
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IP is a connectionless protocol. This means that it has no concept of a job or a session. Each packet is treated as an entity in itself. IP is rather like a postal worker sorting letters. He is not concerned with whether a packet is one of a batch. He simply routes packets, one at a time, to the next location on the delivery route. IP is also unconcerned with whether a packet reaches its eventual destination, or whether they arrive in the original order. There is no information in a packet to identify it as part of a sequence or belonging to a particular job. Consequently, IP cannot tell if packets were lost or whether they were received out of order. IP is an unreliable protocol. Any mechanisms for ensuring that data which is sent arrives correct and intact are provided by the higher level protocols in the suite. An IP packet consists of the IP header and data. The header includes a 4-bit protocol version number, a header length, a 16-bit total length, some control fields, a header checksum and the 32-bit source and destination IP addresses. This totals 20 bytes in all.We won't get into the detail of all the IP control fields. However, the protocol field is important. It identifies which higher level TCP/IP protocol sent the data. When data arrives at its destination (either the packet's destination address equals the host's own IP address or it is a broadcast address) this field tells IP which protocol module to pass it on to. One control field, the time-to-live (TTL) field, is interesting. It is initialized by the sender to a particular value, usually 64, and decremented by one (or the number of seconds it is held on to) by every router that the packet passes through. When it reaches zero the packet is discarded and the sender notified using the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), a network layer protocol for sending network-related messages. The TTL field is a safety mechanism which prevents packets from traveling the Internet forever in routing loops. It is exploited in a novel way by the Traceroute diagnostic tool. Although the total length field in the IP protocol header is 16 bits, IP packets are usually much smaller than the 64K byte maximum this implies. For one thing, the link layer will have to split this into smaller chunks anyway, so most of the efficiency advantages of sending data in large blocks is lost. For another, IP standards historically did not require a host to accept a packet of more than 576 bytes in length. Many TCP/IP applications limit themselves to using 512 byte blocks for this reason, though today most implementations of the protocol aren't so restricted.
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4.24 Internet Addressing

Internet protocol addresses, or IP addresses, uniquely identify every network or host on the Internet. To make sure they are unique, one body, called InterNIC, is responsible for issuing them. If your network is connected to the Internet and the computers are required to be addressable from the Internet you must use IP addresses issued by InterNIC. If you don't, you must set up the gateway between your network and the Internet so that packets containing the made-up addresses will never pass through it in either direction. Internet addresses are 32 bits long, written as four bytes separated by periods. They can range from to It's worth noting that IP addresses are stored in big-endian format, with the most significant byte first, read left to right. This contrasts with the little-endian format used on Intel-based systems for storing 32-bit numbers. This minor point can cause a lot of trouble for PC programmers and others working with raw IP data if they forget it. IP addresses comprise two parts, the network ID and the host ID. An IP address can identify a network (if the host part is all zero) or an individual host. The dividing line between the network ID and the host ID is not constant. Instead, IP addresses are split into three classes which allow for a small number of very large networks, a medium number of medium-sized networks and a large number of small networks. Class A addresses have a first byte in the range 1 to 126. The remaining three bytes can be used for unique host addresses. This allows for 126 networks each with up to 16m hosts. Class B addresses can be distinguished by first byte values in the range 128.0.x.x to 191.255.x.x. In these addresses, the first two bytes are used for the net ID, and the last two for the host ID, giving addresses for 16K networks each with up to 16K hosts. Class C addresses are in the range 224.0.0.x to 239.255.255.x. Here, the first three bytes identify the network, leaving just one byte for the individual hosts. This provides for 2 million networks of up to 254 hosts each. Although these addresses make it possible to uniquely identify quite a lot of networks (and hosts) the number is not that large in relation to the current rate of expansion of
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the Internet. Consequently, a new addressing system has been devised which is part of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6.) IP addresses can be further divided to obtain a subnet ID. The main net ID identifies a network of networks. The subnet ID lets you address a specific network within that network. This system of addressing more accurately reflects how real-world large networks are connected together. You decide how the subnet ID is arrived at by defining a 32-bit value called the subnet mask. This is logically ANDed with the IP address to obtain the subnet address. For example, if a subnet mask was and an IP address was, 128.124 would identify the Class B network, 128.124.14 would identify the sub-network, and 5 would identify the host on that sub-network. A few IP addresses have special meanings. A network ID of 0 in an address means "this network" so for local communication only the host ID need be specified. A host ID of 0 means "this host." A network ID of 127 denotes the loopback interface, which is another way of specifying "this host." The host ID part of the address can be anything in this case, though the address is normally used. Packets sent to the loopback address will never be appear on the network. The loopback address can be used by TCP/IP applications that run on the same machine and want to communicate with one another. Addresses in the range 224.x.x.x to 239.x.x.x are Class D addresses which are used for multi-casting. Addresses 240.x.x.x to 247.x.x.x are reserved for experimental purposes. Net, subnet and host IDs of all binary ones (byte value 255) are used when an IP packet is to be broadcast. Mercifully, an address of does not result in a broadcast to the entire Internet. Three sets of addresses are reserved for private address space: networks of computers that do not need to be addressed from the Internet. There is one class A address, 10.x.x.x, sixteen class B addresses, 172.16.x.x to 172.31.x.x, and 255 class C addresses, 192.168.0.x to 192.168.255.x. If you have equipment which uses IP addresses that have not been allocated by InterNIC then the addresses used should be within one of these ranges. This is an extra precaution in case router misconfiguration allows packets to leak on to the Internet.

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An IP address is a numeric identifier assigned to each machine on a IP network . In designates the specific location of a device on the network.

This is the designation used in routing to send packet to remote network For example, and

The address is used by application and host to send information to all nodes an a network is called the broadcast address. Example include Which is all network all nodes ; which is all network subnet and host and network and which broadcast to all subnet and host and network .

An IP consist 32 bit information. These bites are divided in to four section referred to as octet or bytes each containing 1 byte (8bits). You can depict an IP address using one of three method :

Dotted-decimal as in Binary as in 10101100.00010000.00011110.00111000 Hexadecimal as in ac.10.1e.38

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The network address (which can also called the network number uniquely identifies each network. The IP address for example 172.16 is the network address. The designers of the internet decided to create classes of network based on network size. For the small number of network possessing a very large number of nodes they created the rank CLASS A network. At the other extreme is the CLASS C network which is reserved for the numerous network with a small number of nodes. The class destination for network between very large and very small is predictably called the CLASS B network.


The designers of IP address scheme said that the First bit of the first byte in class A network must always be off or 0 . This means a CLASS A address must be between 0 and 127 in the first byte inclusive . Consider the following network address: 0xxxxxxx If we turn the other 7 bits all off and then turn them all on we will find the Class A range of network address. 00000000=0 01111111=127 So a Class A network is defined in the first octet between 0 and 127 and it cant be less or more . (Yes I know 0 and 127 are not valid in a Class A network. I will talk about reserved address in a minute.)

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In a class B network the RFCs state that the first bit of the first byte must always be turned on but the second bit must always be turned off. If you turn the other 6 bits all off and then all on you will find the range for a Class B network . 10000000=128 10111111=191 As you can see a class B network defined when the first byte is configured from 128to 191.

For Class C networks the RFCs define the first 2 bits the octet as alwas truned on but the third bit can never be on . following the same process as the previous Classes convert from binary to decimal to find the range heres the range for a Class C network ; 11000000=192 11011111=223 So if you see an IP address that starts 192 and goes to you will know it is a Class C IP address.

Network Number
A network denotes the network segment to which the device is connected . for example in a Class C network the IP address will begin from 192 . They have a network segment of 24 bits . Therefore a network segment for Class C IP address would be you can represent a network number for any class of IP addresses by substituting the host bits by 0 . The first address in a network denotes the network number. For example the network number for class A address can be

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Host number
A host number specifies the address of the device in the network segment. Host number are the numbers between the network and the directed broadcast number. You can calculate the host number for a particular class using the mathematical formula 2-2, where N specifies the number of host bits. For example the number of host Class C will be 2-2 =254. Therefore Class C can have 254 host in a network segment.

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Chapter 5


How to create subnets

To create sub networks, you take bits from the host portion of the IP address and reserve them to define the subnet address. This means fewer bits for hosts, so the more subnets, the fewer bits available of define hosts. To create a subnet follows these steps: 1. Determine the number of required networks IDs: One for each subnet One for each wide area network connection

2. Determine the number of required host IDs per subnet: One of each TCP/IP host One for each router interface

3. Based on the above requirements, create the following: One for each TCP/IP host A unique subnet ID for each physical segment A range of host IDs for each subnet

5.2 Subnet Masks

For the subnet address scheme to work every machine on the network must know which part of the host address will be used as the subnet address. This is accomplished by assigning a subnet mask to each machine. A subnet mask is a 32 bit value that allows the recipient of IP packets to distinguish the network ID portion of the IP address from the host ID address.

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The network administrator creates a 32- bit subnet mask composed of 1s and 0s. The 1s in the subnet mask represent the position that refers to the network or subnet address.Not all networks need subnets, meaning they use the default subnet mask.





Classless Inter-domain Routing (CIDR) Another terms you need to familiarize yourself with is classless inter-domain routing (CIDR) its basically the method that ISPs (Internet service provider) use to allocate a number of a company, a home a customer.

When you receive a block of addresses from an ISP, what you get looks something like this: This is telling you what your subnet mask is. The slash notation (/) means how many bits are turned on (1s). obviously the maximum could only be /32 because a byte is 8 bits and there are 4 byte in an IP address: (4x8=32).

But keep in mind that the largest subnet mask available (regardless of the class of address) can only be a /30beacause you have got to keep a least 2 bits for host bits. For example a Class A default subnet mask which is this means that the first byte of the subnet mask is all ones (1s), or 11111111. When referring a slash notation, you need to count all the 1s bits to figure out your mask. The is considered a /8 because it has 8 bit that are 1s that is 8 bits that are turned on.

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A Class b default mask would be, which is a /16 because 16 bits are ones (1s): 111111111.11111111.00000000.00000000.

CIDR Values: SUBNET MASK 2555.0.0.0 CIDR Value /8 /9 /10 /11 /12 /13 /14 /15 /16 /17 /18 /19 /20 /21 /22 /23 /24 /25 /26 /27 /28 /29 /30

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The /8 through /15 can only be used with Class A network address. /16 through /23 can be used by Class A and Class B network address. /24 through /30 can be used by Class A, B, and C network address.

Subnetting Class C addresses there are many different ways to subnet a network. The right way is the way that works best for you. In a class a address, only 8 bits a available for define the host. Remember that subnet bits start at the left and to right, without skipping bits. This means that the only Class C subnet masks can be the following: Binary 00000000 10000000 11000000 11100000 11110000 11111000 11111100 = = = = = = = Decimal 0 128 192 224 240 248 252 CIDR /24 /25 /26 /27 /28 /29 /30

We cannot use a /31 or /32 because we have to have at least 2 host bits for assigning IP address to host.

Subnetting a Class C address the fast way: when you have chose n a possible subnet mask for your network and need to determine the number of subnet valid host, and broadcast address of a subnet that the mask provides, all you need to do is answer five simple question:

At this point its important that you both understand and have memorized your powers of 2. Please refer to the sidebar understand the power 2 earlier in this chapter if you need some help. Heres how to get the answer to those five big questions: How many subnets? 2x = number subnets. X is the number of masked bits or 1s. For example in 11000000 the number of 1s gives us 22 subnets. In this example there are 4 subnet.
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How many host per subnet? 2y -2 = number of host per subnet. Y is the number of unmarked bits or the 0s. For example, in 11000000, the number as 0s gives us 26-2 hosts. In this example, there are 62 hosts per subnet. You need to subtract 2 for the sub net address and the broadcast address, which are not valid hosts.

What are the valid blocks? 256- Subnet mask = block size, or increment number. An example would be 256.192 =64 the block size of a 192 mask is always 64. Start counting at zero in blocks of 64 until you reach the subnet mask value and these are your subnets. 0, 64, 128, 192.

Whats the broadcast address for each subnet? Now heres the really easy part. Since we counted our subnets in the last section as 0, 64,128,192, broadcast address always of 63 because the next subnet is 64. The 64 subnet has a broadcast address of 127 because next subnet 128. And so on. And remember, the broadcast address of the last subnet is always 255

What are the valid hosts? Valid hosts are the numbers between the subnets omitting the all 0s and all 1s. for example if 64 is the subnet number and 127 is the broadcast address, then 65-126 is the valid host range its always the number between the subnet address and the broadcast address.


#1C: (/25) - = Network address =broadcast

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Chapter 6

6.1 IP Routing Overview

IP routing is the process of forwarding a packet based on the destination IP address. Routing occurs at a sending TCP/IP host and at an IP router. In each case, the IP layer at the sending host or router must decide where to forward the packet. For IPv4, routers are also commonly referred to as gateways. To make these decisions, the IP layer consults a routing table stored in memory. Routing table entries are created by default when TCP/IP initializes, and entries can be added either manually or automatically.

Direct and Indirect Delivery

Forwarded IP packets use at least one of two types of delivery based on whether the IP packet is forwarded to the final destination or whether it is forwarded to an IP router. These two types of delivery are known as direct and indirect delivery.

Direct delivery occurs when the IP node (either the sending host or an IP router) forwards a packet to the final destination on a directly attached subnet. The IP node encapsulates the IP datagram in a frame for the Network Interface layer. For a LAN technology such as Ethernet or Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) 802.11, the IP node addresses the frame to the destinations media access control (MAC) address.

Indirect delivery occurs when the IP node (either the sending host or an IP router) forwards a packet to an intermediate node (an IP router) because the final destination is not on a directly attached subnet. For a LAN technology such as Ethernet or IEEE 802.11, the IP node addresses the frame to the IP routers MAC address.
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End-to-end IP routing across an IP network combines direct and indirect deliveries. In Figure, when sending packets to Host B, Host A performs a direct delivery. When sending packets to Host C, Host A performs an indirect delivery to Router 1, Router 1 performs an indirect delivery to Router 2, and then Router 2 performs a direct delivery to Host C.

Figure : Direct and indirect delivery

6.2 Static and Dynamic Routing

For IP packets to be efficiently routed between routers on the IP network, routers must either have explicit knowledge of remote subnet routes or be properly configured with a default route. On large IP networks, one of the challenges that you face as a network administrator is how to maintain the routing tables on your IP routers so that IP traffic travels along the best path and is fault tolerant.

Routing table entries on IP routers are maintained in two ways:

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Static IP routers have routing tables that do not change unless a network administrator manually changes them. Static routing requires manual maintenance of routing tables by network administrators. Static routers do not discover remote routes and are not fault tolerant. If a static router fails, neighboring routers do not detect the fault and inform other routers.


Dynamic IP routers have routing tables that change automatically when the routers exchange routing information. Dynamic routing uses routing protocols, such as Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), to dynamically update routing tables. Dynamic routers discover remote routes and are fault tolerant. If a dynamic router fails, neighboring routers detect the fault and propagate the changed routing information to the other routers on the network.

Dynamic Routing

Dynamic routing is the automatic updating of routing table entries to reflect changes in network topology. A router with dynamically configured routing tables is known as a dynamic router. Dynamic routers build and maintain their routing tables automatically by using a routing protocol, a series of periodic or on-demand messages that contain routing information. Except for their initial configuration, typical dynamic routers require little ongoing maintenance and, therefore, can scale to larger networks. The ability to scale and recover from network faults makes dynamic routing the better choice for medium, large, and very large networks. Some widely used routing protocols for IPv4 are RIP, OSPF, and Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4). Routing protocols are used between routers and represent additional network traffic overhead on the network. You should consider this additional traffic if you must plan WAN link usage.
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When choosing a routing protocol, you should pay particular attention to its ability to sense and recover from network faults. How quickly a routing protocol can recover depends on the type of fault, how it is sensed, and how routers propagate information through the network. When all the routers on the network have the correct routing information in their routing tables, the network has converged. When convergence is achieved, the network is in a stable state, and all packets are routed along optimal paths. When a link or router fails, the network must reconfigure itself to reflect the new topology by updating routing tables, possibly across the entire network. Until the network reconverges, it is in an unstable state. The time it takes for the network to reconverge is known as the convergence time. The convergence time varies based on the routing protocol and the type of failure, such as a downed link or a downed router. The Routing and Remote Access service in the Microsoft Windows Server 2003 operating systems supports the RIP and OSPF IPv4 routing protocols but no IPv6 routing protocols.

6.3 Routing Protocol Technologies

Typical IP routing protocols are based the following technologies:

Distance Vector
Distance vector routing protocols propagate routing information in the form of an address prefix and its distance (hop count). Routers use these protocols to periodically advertise the routes in their routing tables. Typical distance vector-based routers do not synchronize or acknowledge the routing information they exchange. Distance vector-based routing protocols are easier to understand and configure, but they also consume more network bandwidth, take longer to converge, and do not scale to large or very large networks.

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Link State
Routers using link state-based routing protocols exchange link state advertisements (LSAs) throughout the network to update routing tables. LSAs consist of address prefixes for the networks to which the router is attached and the assigned costs of those networks. LSAs are advertised upon startup and when a router detects changes in the network topology. Link state-based routers build a database of LSAs and use the database to calculate the optimal routes to add to the routing table. Link state-based routers synchronize and acknowledge the routing information they exchange. Link state-based routing protocols consume less network bandwidth, converge more quickly, and scale to large and very large networks. However, they can be more complex and difficult to configure.

Path Vector
Routers use path vectorbased routing protocols to exchange sequences of autonomous system numbers that indicate the path for a route. An autonomous system is a portion of a network under the same administrative authority. Autonomous systems are assigned a unique autonomous system identifier. Path vectorbased routers synchronize and acknowledge the routing information they exchange. Path vectorbased routing protocols consume less network bandwidth, converge more quickly, and scale to networks the size of the Internet. However, they can also be complex and difficult to configure.

6.4 OSPF
OSPF is an interior gateway protocol that routes Internet Protocol (IP) packets solely within a single routing domain (autonomous system). It gathers link state information from available routers and constructs a topology map of the network. The topology determines the routing table presented to the Internet Layer which makes routing decisions based solely on the destination IP
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address found in IP packets. OSPF was designed to support variable-length subnet masking (VLSM) or Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)

addressing models. OSPF detects changes in the topology, such as link failures, very quickly and converges on a new loop-free routing structure within seconds. It computes the shortest path tree for each route using a method based on Dijkstra's algorithm, a shortest path first algorithm. The link-state information is maintained on each router as a link-state database (LSDB) which is a tree-image of the entire network topology. Identical copies of the LSDB are periodically updated through flooding on all OSPF routers. The OSPF routing policies to construct a route table are governed by link cost factors (external metrics) associated with each routing interface. Cost factors may be the distance of a router (round-trip time), network throughput of a link, or link availability and reliability, expressed as simple unitless numbers. This provides a dynamic process of traffic load balancing between routes of equal cost. An OSPF network may be structured, or subdivided, into routing areas to simplify administration and optimize traffic and resource utilization. Areas are identified by 32-bit numbers, expressed either simply in decimal, or often in octet-based dot-decimal notation, familiar from IPv4 address notation. By convention, area 0 (zero) or represents the core or backbone region of an OSPF network. The identifications of other areas may be chosen at will; often, administrators select the IP address of a main router in an area as the area's identification. Each additional area must have a direct or virtual connection to the backbone OSPF area. Such connections are maintained by an interconnecting router, known as area border router (ABR). An ABR maintains separate link state databases for each area it serves and maintains summarized routes for all areas in the network. OSPF does not use a TCP/IP transport protocol (UDP, TCP), but is encapsulated directly in IP datagrams with protocol number 89. This is in contrast to other routing protocols, such as the Routing Information
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Protocol (RIP), or the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). OSPF handles its own error detection and correction functions. OSPF uses multicast addressing for route flooding on a broadcast network link. For non-broadcast networks special provisions for configuration facilitate neighbour discovery. OSPF multicast IP packets never traverse IP routers, they never travel more than one hop. OSPF reserves the multicast addresses for IPv4 or FF02::5 for IPv6 (all SPF/link state routers, also known asAllSPFRouters) and for IPv4 or FF02::6 for IPv6 (all Designated Routers, AllDRouters), as specified in RFC 2328 and RFC 5340. For routing multicast IP traffic, OSPF supports the Multicast Open Shortest Path First protocol (MOSPF) as defined in RFC 1584. Neither Cisco nor Juniper Networks include MOSPF in their OSPF implementations. PIM (Protocol Independent Multicast) in conjunction with OSPF or other IGPs, (Interior Gateway Protocol), is widely deployed. The OSPF protocol, when running on IPv4, can operate securely between routers, optionally using a variety of authentication methods to allow only trusted routers to participate in routing. OSPFv3, running on IPv6, no longer supports protocol-internal authentication. Instead, it relies on IPv6 protocol security (IPsec). OSPF version 3 introduces modifications to the IPv4 implementation of the protocol.Except for virtual links, all neighbour exchanges use IPv6 link-local addressing exclusively. The IPv6 protocol runs per link, rather than based on the subnet. All IP prefix information has been removed from the link-state advertisements and from the Hello discovery packet making OSPFv3 essentially protocol-independent. Despite the expanded IP addressing to 128bits in IPv6, area and router identifications are still based on 32-bit value

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The one that uses the web or other internet technologies can benefit from learning at least the very basics of networking, for example, the difference between a telephone cable and a Cat5 ethernet cable and the places they plug into on the back of your computer.

Knowing the difference between public and private networks, how data travels from one computer to another, and how to troubleshoot problems can save you money

Future aspects:
The network will be green The network will be a platform: The network will be open and sustainable The network will be intelligent There will be one network

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