Solutions to Chapter 3 Accounting and Finance 1. Assets Cash Accounts receivable nventory !tore & property 'otal assets 2.

$ 10,000 22,000 200,000 100,000 $((2,000 Liabilities & Shareholders’ Equity Accounts payable Long-term debt !hareholders" e#uity 'otal liabilities & !hareholders" e#uity $ 17,000 170,000 1$%,000 $((2,000

The balance sheet shows the position of the firm at one point in time. It shows the amounts of assets and liabilities at that particular time. In this sense it is like a snap shot. The income statement shows the effect of business activities over the entire year. Since it captures events over an extended period, it is more like a video. The statement of cash flow is like the income statement in that it summarizes activity over the full year, so it too is like a video. Accounting revenues and expenses can differ from cash flows because some items included in the computation of revenues and expenses do not entail immediate cash flows. For example, sales made on credit are considered revenue even though cash is not collected until the customer makes a payment. Also, depreciation expense reduces net income, but does not entail a cash outflow. Conversely, some cash flows are not included in revenues or expenses. For example, collection of accounts receivable results in a cash inflow but is not revenue. Purchases of inventory require cash outlays, but are treated as investments in working capital, not as expenses. Working capital ought to be increasing. The firm will be building up stocks of inventory as it ramps up production. In addition, as sales increase, accounts receivable will increase rapidly. While accounts payable probably will also increase, the increase in accounts receivable will tend to dominate since sales prices exceed input costs. a. 'a)es * +0.10 × $,,000- . 0.1% × +$20,000 − $,,000- * $2,700 Average ta) rate * $2,700/$20,000 * 0.1(% * 1(.%0 1arginal ta) rate * 1%0 b. 'a)es * +0.10 × $,,000- . 0.1% × +$27,2%0 − $,,000- . 0.27 × +$%0,000 − $27,2%0* $2,3$, (-1

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4.

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000 * 0.12.3$./$%0.Average ta) rate * $2.20 1arginal ta) rate * 270 (-2 .2 * 12..

700 − $27.10 × $..(07% * (0.123.7.1($. 0.000.70 Average ta) rate * $1. 'a)es * +0. (-( ...7%0 1arginal ta) rate * (%0 'a)es * +0...7. 0.(3.. 0.27 × +$.27 × +$. 0.000 − $.7.(731 * (7.. c.* $1%.700 − $12.0 d.2%0 − $.700.2%0 − $.70/$(. 0.2%2.310 1arginal ta) rate * (3.27 × +$.000.000 * 0. but the lease payments 5ill be made over several years.000.. a. Cash balance 5ill decrease.000..1% × +$27. 0.000..is e)changed 6or another +cash-..700.$70 1arginal ta) rate * 270 3.0%0. Average ta) rate * $12.2%0. 'a)es * +0. 'a)es * +0..(0 × +$1$1.27 × +$2%.000./$2%.(% × +$(00.123.(0 × +$1$1.20$7 * 20. 0.000. 0.(1% 10. 0.700* $12.1% × $%0. × +$(.00. 0.0%0 − $1$1.700.$$. 0.2%0 Average ta) rate * $22.000 * 0.10 × $12.000 4 $(07.2%0.7. 'he machine 5ill bring in cash 5hen it is sold.. Cash 5ill increase as one current asset +inventory.2%0/$100.222% * 22. 0.2%0 1arginal ta) rate * ($0 7.2%0 − $.10 × $..2% × +$7%.000.1% × +$$..7.$00.000* $22. 0. dividends ⇒ dividends * $.%0/$(00. 2..2%0. .$$.%0 Average ta) rate * $22.700 − $27..000 * +$(.. dividends $200. 0.2%0 − $.000 − $%0.000..7.000 'a)es on your salary * +0.700.c..* $22.2%0.10 × $.$.000.000 * 0.000.700 − $27.000.000 * 0.2%0..1($. Cash 5ill increase. b.* $1.1% × +$27.. 0.000 − $(. 8et income * ncrease in retained earnings .($ × +$100.000 − $1$1.000 −$$.2%0 . 0..(% × +$(07.2%2.000 − $7%.(0 × +$70. 'he 6irm 5ill use cash to buy bac7 the shares 6rom e)isting shareholders.000.1% × +$27.

'a)es on corporate income * 0.%00 'otal ta)es * $1%.000 * $$. $$.31% (-$ .%00 * $12.(1% .1% × $(0.

Loo7 bac7 to 'able (-(.000 * $%0..3$. then negative net income might correspond to positive cash 6lo5 because depreciation is treated as an e)pense in calculating net income. but does not represent a cash out6lo5.31% − $17.000 <rice per share * $%0..2 million/2 million shares * $2%.000 − $27.000 * $7.%00 * $17. cash 6lo5 can be negative since the sales are revenue but do not yet generate cash. !ales occur in #uarters 2 and (.($. so this is 5hen the cost o6 goods sold is recogniAed. b. depreciation e)pense * $1. 1ar7et value e#uals the value o6 his patent plus the value o6 the production plant: $%0. !ales $ 10.000 ?.%00 =eneral & administrative e)penses 1. 1$.27 × +$%0.oo7 value per share * $200.($. and you 5ill see that increases in accounts receivable reduce cash provided by operations. 'he calculations are presented in the 6ollo5ing table.2 11.%0 Cash 6lo5 6rom operations * net income .1% × +$27. 'here6ore.10 × $. 'a)es on corporate income * 0. 0. $7.000.$.000/2 million shares * $0. net income is Aero in #uarters 1 and $. i6 net income is positive.000 the 6ounder o6 the 6irm has contributed in tangible assets. .oo7 value e#uals the $200.000 . the production o6 the 7its is treated as an investment in inventories. 0.000 >epreciation e)pense 1.%00 nterest e)pense %00 'a)able income 1.000 'a)es +(%0(%0 8et income $ .000. but a large portion o6 sales are made on credit.200.10 12.6 you rearrange income so that your salary and the 6irm9s pro6it are both $%0. 'he level o6 inventories then 6alls as goods are sold in #uarters 2 and (. i6 depreciation e)penses are large. @or e)ample.3$.000.000 Cost o6 goods sold .1% × $%0. ' 1. a. 'otal ta)es are reduced by $12..%0 1(.* $2.. * $2. . (-% . Conversely.2%0. n #uarter 1.000 then: 'a)es on your salary * +0. $200.%00 'otal ta)es * $2..10 .2%0 − $. Cash 6lo5 6rom operations can be positive even i6 net income is negative.

cash 6lo5 e#uals cash received 6or the 7its previously sold. (-. and in #uarters ( and $.Accounts receivable in #uarters 2 and ( e#ual the sales in those #uarters since it ta7es one #uarter 6or receivables to be collected. . 8otice that cash 6lo5 in #uarter 1 e#uals the cost o6 producing the 7its.

20.. 1.000 . and the average ta) rate 5as 200.* <ro6its − (. cash 6lo5 is $(.000 − +−2. Cash 6lo5 * <ro6its − ∆ Accounts receivable .000.000 (.* $10.000 Buarter 2 $ %%0 %00 $ %0 $ %00 %%0 $1.000 (.000 'here6ore: 8et income * ta)able income − ta)es * $3. then ta)able income must have been: +$2. 'his corresponds to the increase o6 $(.000.c. !ales Cost o6 goods sold 8et income b.00 −$1. Ge conclude that revenues 5ere $2(.000 in net 5or7ing capital. %..000- Cash 6lo5 * <ro6its − 10.000 $11.000/0.000.000 $10. a.000 1.000 less than pro6its. Cevenues − Cost o6 goods sold − Administrative e)penses − >epreciation e)pense ?.000 Cevenues − Cost o6 goods sold − Administrative e)penses − >epreciation e)pense − nterest e)pense 'a)able income DDD 3.000 E6rom part +a-F b.000 (-7 . ∆ Accounts payable − ∆ nventory − 10.00 Buarter $ $ 0 0 $ 0 $ 0 0 $ 0 $ . c. 6 the 6irm paid ta)es o6 $2. ' $2(. %.000 −+−2.000 .00 $ .000 'here6ore.0%0 Buarter ( $ .000 0 $1.000 1.a.00 %00 $ 100 $ 0 . nventories Accounts receivable 8et 5or7ing capital Buarter 1 $ 0 0 $ 0 $1.000 Cash 6lo5 $ 0 $ %%0 +Cash 6lo5 * net income 4 change in net 5or7ing capital1%.000 3.000 1.

(% million Cash 6lo5 increases because depreciation e)pense is not a cash out6lo5.0% $ 1. !ales Cost o6 goods sold ∆Accounts receivable ∆ nventory Cash 6lo5I 8et incomeII April $ 0 0 0 100. !ales − Cost o6 goods sold − nterest e)pense − >epreciation e)pense 'a)able income − 'a)es +(%08et income $ 1$. 18. $1 million * $0.000 0 $ %0.00 1. not as a conse#uence o6 any changes in the underlying pro6itability o6 the 6irm.17.000 0 1%0.000 1%0.2% million Cash 6lo5 * 8et income .% million.because. >epreciation e)pense * $(. by the $1 million increase in e)penses less the $0. 6 depreciation 5ere increased by $1 million.(% million. Cash 6lo5 +* net income . in contrast to depreciation.e. 'he reduction in net income 5ould be recogniAed as resulting entirely 6rom accounting changes..000 100..00 2. d. interest e)pense represents an actual cash outlay.% million. a. 'his di66ers 6rom part +b.. but increasing the depreciation e)pense 6or ta) purposes reduces ta)es paid by $0. net income 5ould be reduced by $0.000 $ 0 ICash 6lo5 * !ales − CJ=! − ∆A/C −∆ nventory II 8et income * !ales − CJ=! (-3 .00 1.000 −100. Cash available to the 6irm 5ould increase.(% million reduction in ta)es.000 $ 0 1ay $1%0.2% million b. 6 interest e)pense 5ere $1 million higher.000 −100.00 million 3. depreciation.00 (. i. 'he impact on stoc7 price is li7ely to be positive.. c.% million . both net income and cash 6lo5 5ould decrease by $0.5ould be increased by: −$0.000 Hune $ 0 0 −1%0.

%0 c. !hareholders" e#uity * 'otal assets − total liabilities 2002: !hareholders" e#uity * $320 − $.(% × $((0 * $11%. Assets Current assets 8et 6i)ed assets 'otal assets a. depreciation * $100 .0$0 − $310 * $2(0 8et 5or7ing capital * current assets − current liabilities 2002: 8et 5or7ing capital * $20 − $%0 * $$0 200(: 8et 5or7ing capital * $1$0 − $. !ince long-term debt increased by $20. 6rom +$(10 − $210. e. !ince o5ners" e#uity increased by $210.%0 8et income * $21$. (-2 .%0 +%0. 6.* $100 in 2002 to +$$20 − $2$0. the increase in o5ners" e#uity must be due entirely to retained earnings.2%0 − $1.%0 * $2$0 200(: !hareholders" e#uity * $1.1. 8et 5or7ing capital increased by $30.%0 8et income >ecrease +increase.0010. a.0(0 − $(%0 − $2$0 * $((0 'a)es paid * 0. =ross investment * ncrease in net 6i)ed assets . d. !ince net 6i)ed assets increased by $220. c. b.30 J5ners" e#uity * 'otal assets − 'otal liabilities +as sho5n in the balance sheet above6 the 6irm issued no stoc7. and dividends 5ere $100. 20.$20 1. net income must have been $(10.200 1.00 $17$. $110 o6 outstanding debt must have been paid o66. d. e.0$0 $70 200( 2$0 220 1. and the 6irm purchased $(00 o6 ne5 6i)ed assets.%10 200( $20 1.* $130 in 200(.in current assets ncrease in current liabilities Cash provided by operations $21$. 'here6ore. and the 6irm issued $200 o6 ne5 long-term debt. b. the depreciation charge must have been $30.12.0 . $(%0 * $$%0 Current liabilities increased by $10.0 * $30 'a)able income * $1.3$0 Liabilities and Owners’ equity Current liabilities Long-term debt 'otal liabilities J5ners" e#uity 2002 210 3(0 1. 2002 (10 1. current liabilities other than accounts payable must have increased by $$%.

.2%0 $00 $ 3%0 200( $$.300 'otal assets $ . 8et 6i)ed assets increased by $300.000 shares * $1. gross investment in plant and e#uipment 5as $1.70 ?arnings per share in 200( * $7.(%0 (. $$00.000. $.(20.(%.000 1. 8et 5or7ing capital.0 n order to determine the 6irm"s marginal ta) brac7et.− +$(00 .0 − $$10 * $(%0 n 200(. * (%. Assets 2002 200( Cash & mar7etable securities $ 300 $ (00 nventories (00 (%0 Accounts receivable $00 $%0 8et 6i)ed assets %. 2.000 shares * $1. Cevenue Cost o6 goods sold Administrative e)penses >epreciation e)pense nterest e)pense 'a)able income @ederal & state income ta)es 8et income 2002 $ $. $(%0 .00 2.. ?arnings per share in 2002 * $3%0. 2(..000.00 %00 %00 1%0 1. 200( * +$(00 . shareholders" e#uity increased by the amount o6 the increase in retained earnings. 'here6ore.$00 (.000/%00.. $(00 .%%0 $.000.(20 * (2.000 %.000 2. $1. (-10 .000 (.130 $20 $ 7.00..200 22.0.000 during 200(.200 200( $ (%0 .700 %%0 %20 1%0 1.00 Average ta) brac7et in 200( * $$20/$1130 * 0.− +$(%0 .(00 (.200 Liabilities and Shareholders’ equity Accounts payable 8otes payable Long-term debt 'otal liabilities !hareholders" e#uity 'otal liabilities plus !hareholders" e#uity 2002 $ (00 1.* $1%0 8et 5or7ing capital decreased by $%0. 2$. $$%0. 2002 * +$300 .000/%00. one 5ould need in6ormation regarding ta) rates applicable 6or both 6ederal and state income ta)es.%00 $. 5hile depreciation e)pense in 200( 5as $%20...* $200 8et 5or7ing capital.%00 $ .%2 2%.0 ncrease in retained earnings in 200( * 8et income − dividends * $7. Average ta) brac7et in 2002 * ta)es/ta)able income * $$00/$12%0 * 0.100 1.21.

in accounts receivable >ecrease +increase.in accounts payable Cash provided by changes in 5or7ing capital Cash provided by operations Cash 6lo5s 6rom investments Cash provided by +used 6or. 2003 (Figures in thousands of dollars) Liabilities & Assets Shareholders’ Equity Cash $ (00 Accounts payable nventories (%0 8otes payable Accounts receivable $%0 Long-term debt ?mployee s7ills 2..and allo5 the 6irm to earn $72.00 2.200 'otal liabilities 8et 6i)ed assets . 'o minimiAe ta)es.$00 (.6inancing activities 8et increase +decrease.000/%00.%0 $10. personal versus corporate.27 − 0..(20+1.disposal o6 +additions to.in inventories ncrease +decrease. plant & e#uipment Cash provided by +used 6or. total ta)es 5ould increase by: $ 7.(20+$00$00 +$10+$10+$ %00- $ (%0 .%0. Cash provided by operations 8et income 8oncash e)penses >epreciation e)pense Changes in 5or7ing capital >ecrease +increase. Market value balance sheet.000 !hareholders" e#uity I !hareholders9 e#uity * 'otal assets − total liabilities <rice per share * $.in cash and cash e#uivalents 23.2%0 +the highest income consistent 5ith a 1%0 personal ta) rate.i6 you can move the income into the other category at a lo5er ta) rate.0%0 +ta)ed at the 2%0 corporate ta) rate-.000 shares * $1(.notes payable Additions to +reductions in. Kou should there6ore pay yoursel6 a salary o6 $27. !tarting 6rom this allocation.investments Cash provided by +used 6or.6inancing activities Additions to +reductions in...27.000 (-11 ..property.(%0 .2(0 +1.long-term debt >ividends paid Cash provided by +used 6or . i6 you shi6ted a dollar 6rom corporate income into personal salary.(0 29.000 !hareholders" e#uityI 'otal liabilities & 'otal assets $10.0 %20 +%0+%0%0 +%0$1. total ta)es 5ould increase by: E$1 × +0. you should not have income in one ta) category +that is.2%-F 6 you shi6ted a dollar out o6 salary into corporate pro6its.

edu/~mrb/solution/fin300/ (-12 .2% − 0.1%-F ?ither shi6t 5ould result in higher ta)es.uic.E$1 × +0. http://tigger.

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