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Question 1

1 out of 1 points System requirements serve as benchmarks to measure the overall acceptability of a finished system. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: True True

Question 2

1 out of 1 points New business support systems that produced valuable information, in addition to performing manual tasks, were called management information systems (MIS) because managers were the primary users. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: True True

Question 3

1 out of 1 points A strategic plan that stresses technology tends to create an unfavorable climate for IT projects that extends throughout an organization. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: False False

Question 4

1 out of 1 points ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the input category. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Student grades must be entered on machine-scannable forms prepared by the instructor Student grades must be entered on machine-scannable forms prepared by the instructor

Question 5

1 out of 1 points ____ components can provide automated response to sales inquiries, Web-based order processing, and online inventory tracking. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Customer relationship management (CRM) Customer relationship management (CRM)

Question 6

1 out of 1 points Examples of tangible benefits include all of the following except a(n) ____. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: user-friendly system that improves employee job satisfaction user-friendly system that improves employee job

satisfaction Question 7 1 out of 1 points In a sequence diagram, the interaction proceeds from left to right along horizontal arrows, while a vertical timeline represents messages from one object to another. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Question 8 False False

1 out of 1 points Internal factors that affect IT systems projects include all of the following except ____. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: the economy the economy

Question 9

1 out of 1 points A vertical system is a system, such as an inventory or payroll application, that can be adapted for use in many different companies. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: False False

Question 10

1 out of 1 points ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the output category. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: The contact management system must generate a daily reminder list for all sales reps The contact management system must generate a daily reminder list for all sales reps

Question 11

1 out of 1 points When evaluating systems requests, all of the following are disadvantages of a systems review committee except ____. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: one person’s bias is more likely to affect the decisions one person’s bias is more likely to affect the decisions

Question 12

1 out of 1 points Supporters of neutral locations for interviews believe that it ____.

Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Question 13

keeps interruptions to a minimum so people can concentrate fully keeps interruptions to a minimum so people can concentrate fully

1 out of 1 points A horizontal system is designed to meet the unique requirements of a specific business or industry, such as a Web-based retailer, a medical practice, or a video chain. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: False False

Question 14

1 out of 1 points All of the following are common reasons for systems requests except ____. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: weaker controls weaker controls

Question 15

1 out of 1 points The main objective of all RAD approaches is to extend development time and expense by excluding users from every phase of systems development. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: False False

Question 16

1 out of 1 points Examples of company-wide applications, called ____, include order processing systems, payroll systems, and company communications networks. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: enterprise applications enterprise applications

Question 17

1 out of 1 points Product-oriented companies primarily offer information or services or sell goods produced by others. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: False False

Question 18

1 out of 1 points A systems request might propose enhancements for an existing system, the correction of problems, or the development of an entirely new information system.

Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Question 19

True True

1 out of 1 points Knowledge management systems are called expert systems because they ____. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: simulate human reasoning by combining a knowledge base and inference rules that determine how the knowledge is applied simulate human reasoning by combining a knowledge base and inference rules that determine how the knowledge is applied

Question 20

1 out of 1 points When preparing a checklist of specific tasks to observe and questions to ask, a systems analyst should consider ____. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: all of the above all of the above 1 out of 1 points A systems request form should not ____. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: have complex instructions have complex instructions

Question 21

Question 22

1 out of 1 points In an information system, information consists of basic facts that are the system’s raw material. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: False False

Question 23

1 out of 1 points In a typical company organizational model, middle managers ____. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: provide direction, necessary resources, and performance feedback to supervisors and team leaders provide direction, necessary resources, and performance feedback to supervisors and team leaders

Question 24

1 out of 1 points Each activity within the systems analysis phase has an end product and one or more milestones.

Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Question 25

True True

1 out of 1 points Performance limitations result when a system that was designed for a specific hardware configuration becomes obsolete when new hardware is introduced. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: True True

Question 26

1 out of 1 points ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the performance category. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: The student records system must produce class lists within five hours after the end of registration The student records system must produce class lists within five hours after the end of registration

Question 27

1 out of 1 points In launching a new information system, the greatest risk occurs when a company ____. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: tries to decide how the system will be implemented before determining what the system is supposed to do tries to decide how the system will be implemented before determining what the system is supposed to do 1 out of 1 points

Question 28

Traditionally, the SDLC is pictured as a(n) ____, like that shown in the accompanying figure, where the result of each phase, which is called a deliverable or end product, flows sequentially into the next phase. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Question 29 waterfall model waterfall model

1 out of 1 points When planning an information system, a company must consider how a new system will interface with older systems, which are called ____.

Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Question 30

legacy systems legacy systems

1 out of 1 points In many large companies, applications called enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems provide cost-effective support for users and managers throughout the company. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: True True

Question 31

1 out of 1 points In an information system, data is information that has been transformed into output that is valuable to users. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: False False 1 out of 1 points

Question 32

Of the measures of feasibility in the accompanying figure, ____ considers questions such as “Does management support the project?” and “Will the new system require training for users?” Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Question 33 operational feasibility operational feasibility

1 out of 1 points A mission-critical system is one that is unimportant to a company’s operations. Selected Answer: False

Correct Answer: Question 34

False

1 out of 1 points To evaluate ____, a systems analyst needs information about projected future volume for all outputs, inputs, and processes. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: scalability scalability

Question 35

1 out of 1 points Greater user involvement in the system development process usually results in poorer communication, slower development times, and less satisfied users. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: False False

Question 36

1 out of 1 points Examples of intangible benefits include all of the following except a(n) ____. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: online package tracking system that decreases the need for clerical staff online package tracking system that decreases the need for clerical staff

Question 37

1 out of 1 points The ____ phase of the SDLC includes four main activities: requirements modeling, data and process modeling, object modeling, and consideration of development strategies. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: systems analysis systems analysis

Question 38

1 out of 1 points In object-oriented programming, an object is a member of a(n) ____, which is a collection of similar objects. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: class class

Question 39

1 out of 1 points Creating an FDD is different from drawing an organization chart — systems analysts start at the bottom and work their way up.

Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Question 40

False False

1 out of 1 points Systems requests seldom are aimed at improving service to customers or users within a company. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: False False 1 out of 1 points The primary advantage of RAD is that ____. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: systems can be developed more quickly with significant cost savings systems can be developed more quickly with significant cost savings

Question 41

Question 42

1 out of 1 points TP systems are inefficient because they process a set of transaction-related commands individually rather than as a group. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: False False

Question 43

1 out of 1 points While RAD typically focuses only on fact-finding and requirements determination, JAD provides a fast-track approach to a full spectrum of system development tasks, including planning, design, construction, and implementation. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: False False

Question 44

1 out of 1 points ____ is a traditional, time-tested, easy to understand systems development technique that uses a set of process models to describe a system graphically. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Structured analysis Structured analysis

Question 45

1 out of 1 points A risk of RAD is that a system might work well in the short term, but the corporate and long-term objectives for the system might not be met.

Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Question 46

True True 1 out of 1 points

____ is an example of a discretionary project. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Question 47 Creating a new report for a user Creating a new report for a user

1 out of 1 points A(n) ____ describes the logic that programmers use to write code modules. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: process model process model

Question 48

0 out of 1 points In an interview, ____ are questions that ask a person to evaluate something by providing limited answers to specific responses or on a numeric scale. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: closed-ended questions range-of-response questions

Question 49

1 out of 1 points IBM claims that its WebSphere strategy is best for Web-based application development, while Microsoft counters with a broad vision called .NET that redefines that company’s approach to Web-based application development. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: True True

Question 50

1 out of 1 points Hardware-based security controls include passwords, various levels of user access, and coding data. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: False False

Question 51

1 out of 1 points A business process describes a specific set of transactions, events, tasks, and results. Selected Answer: True

Correct Answer: Question 52

True

1 out of 1 points A ____, or requirements model, describes the information that a system must provide. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: business model business model

Question 53

1 out of 1 points Compared with traditional methods, the entire RAD process is expanded and, as a result, the new system is built, delivered, and placed in operation much later. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: False False

Question 54

1 out of 1 points As users rely more heavily on information systems to perform their jobs, they are likely to request even more IT services and support. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: True True

Question 55

1 out of 1 points Today, systems development is much more team-oriented than in the past. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: True True 1 out of 1 points Business support systems ____. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: provide job-related information support to users at all levels of a company provide job-related information support to users at all levels of a company

Question 56

Question 57

1 out of 1 points When setting priorities for systems requests, the highest priority goes to projects that provide the ____. Selected Answer: Correct greatest benefit, at the lowest cost, in the shortest period of time greatest benefit, at the lowest cost, in the shortest period

Answer: Question 58

of time

1 out of 1 points System requirements fall into five general categories: outputs, inputs, processes, performance, and controls. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: True True

Question 59

1 out of 1 points A SWOT analysis contributes to the strategic planning process by identifying ____ resources. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: all of the above all of the above

Question 60

1 out of 1 points Although the business-to-business (B2B) sector is more familiar to retail customers, the volume of business-to-consumer (B2C) transactions is many times greater. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: False False

Question 61

1 out of 1 points IT professionals recognize that successful systems must be user-oriented, and users need to be involved, formally or informally, at every stage of systems development. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: True True 1 out of 1 points Transaction processing (TP) systems ____. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: process data generated by day-to-day business operations process data generated by day-to-day business operations

Question 62

Question 63

1 out of 1 points Traditionally, a company either developed its own information systems, called in-house applications, or purchased systems called software packages from outside vendors.

Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Question 64

True True 1 out of 1 points

User productivity systems ____. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Question 65 include e-mail, voice mail, fax, video conferencing, word processing, automated calendars, database management, spreadsheets, and high-speed Internet access include e-mail, voice mail, fax, video conferencing, word processing, automated calendars, database management, spreadsheets, and high-speed Internet access

1 out of 1 points System analysts use modeling and fact-finding interactively — first they build fact-finding results into models, then they study the models to determine whether additional fact-finding is needed. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: True True 1 out of 1 points In a typical company organizational model, top managers ____. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: develop long-range plans, called strategic plans, that define the company’s overall mission and goals develop long-range plans, called strategic plans, that define the company’s overall mission and goals

Question 66

Question 67

1 out of 1 points Using a(n) ____, an analyst can show business functions and break them down into lower-level functions and processes. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: FDD FDD

Question 68

1 out of 1 points When companies attempt to simplify operations or reduce costs, a popular strategy is to have managers and systems analysts perform ____. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: business process reengineering (BPR) business process reengineering (BPR)

Question 69

1 out of 1 points Compared with traditional methods, when properly used, JAD can result in all of the following except ____. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: less expense and greater manageability if the group is too large less expense and greater manageability if the group is too large 1 out of 1 points In an interview, ____ limit or restrict the response. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: closed-ended questions closed-ended questions

Question 70

Question 71

1 out of 1 points Because use cases depict a system through the eyes of a user, common business language can be used to describe the transactions. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: True True

Question 72

1 out of 1 points A company’s mission statement is unrelated to its major goals, shorterterm objectives, and day-to-day business operations. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: False False

Question 73

1 out of 1 points Strategic planning looks beyond day-to-day activities and focuses on a horizon that is 3, 5, or even 10 years in the future. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: True True

Question 74

1 out of 1 points ____ are especially important to a systems analyst who must work with people at all organizational levels, balance conflicting needs of users, and communicate effectively. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Interpersonal skills Interpersonal skills

Question 75

1 out of 1 points

Of the measures of feasibility in the accompanying figure, ____ assesses tangible and intangible benefits to the company in addition to costs. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Question 76 economic feasibility economic feasibility

1 out of 1 points ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the process category. Selected The video rental system must not execute new rental

Answer: Correct Answer: Question 77

transactions for customers who have overdue tapes The video rental system must not execute new rental transactions for customers who have overdue tapes

1 out of 1 points Internal and external factors affect every business decision that a company makes, and IT systems are no exception. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: True True

Question 78

1 out of 1 points Because it is linked to a specific development methodology, systems developers use JAD whenever group input and interaction is not desired. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: False False

Question 79

1 out of 1 points External factors that affect IT systems projects include all of the following except ____. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: managers managers

Question 80

1 out of 1 points The purpose of a JIT (just-in-time) system is to provide the right product at the right place at the right time. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: True True

Question 81

1 out of 1 points Some industry experts predict that bar code technology will be overshadowed in the future by electronic product code (EPC) technology that uses RFID tags to identify and monitor the movement of each individual product. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: True True

Question 82

1 out of 1 points ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the control category. Selected The system must maintain separate levels of security for

Answer: Correct Answer: Question 83

users and the system administrator The system must maintain separate levels of security for users and the system administrator

1 out of 1 points Management leadership and information technology are unconnected, and no significant changes have occurred in either area. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: False False 1 out of 1 points

Question 84

Of the measures of feasibility in the accompanying figure, ____ considers points such as “Does the proposed platform have sufficient capacity for future needs?” and “Will the hardware and software environment be reliable?” Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Question 85 technical feasibility technical feasibility

1 out of 1 points ____ software controls the flow of data, provides data security, and manages network operations. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: System System

Question 86

1 out of 1 points Of the measures of feasibility in the accompanying figure, issues that relate to ____ include “Has management established a firm timetable for the project?” and “Will a project manager be appointed?” Selected Answer: Correct Answer: schedule feasibility schedule feasibility

Question 87

1 out of 1 points When assessing priorities for systems requests, a systems analyst should look for high scores in all of the following except ____. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Will the proposed system decrease revenue for the company? Will the proposed system decrease revenue for the company?

Question 88

1 out of 1 points Because of the limited range of input and interaction among participants, few companies believe that a JAD group produces the best definition of a new system. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: False False

Question 89

1 out of 1 points Application software manages hardware components, which can include a single workstation or a global network with many thousands of clients.

Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Question 90

False False

1 out of 1 points System software consists of programs that support day-to-day business functions and provide users with the information they require. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: False False

Question 91

1 out of 1 points The success or failure of an information system usually is unrelated to whether users are satisfied with the system’s output and operations. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: False False

Question 92

1 out of 1 points In an interview, ____ encourage spontaneous and unstructured responses. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: open-ended questions open-ended questions

Question 93

1 out of 1 points A system must have effective controls to ensure that data is secure and accurate. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: True True

Question 94

1 out of 1 points UML provides various graphical tools, such as use case diagrams and sequence diagrams. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: True True

Question 95

1 out of 1 points Service-oriented companies manufacture and sell products such as computers, routers, or microchips. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: False False 1 out of 1 points

Question 96

Systems development typically starts with a ____. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: Question 97 systems request, followed by a preliminary investigation, which includes a feasibility study systems request, followed by a preliminary investigation, which includes a feasibility study

1 out of 1 points A strong business case suggests that a company should pursue other options, above the alternative, because it would be in the firm’s best interest to do so. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: False False

Question 98

1 out of 1 points Much of the time a systems analyst spends talking with people is spent conducting ____, which is/are the most common fact-finding technique. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: interviews interviews 1 out of 1 points Data entry controls should be excessive without being effective. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: False False 1 out of 1 points RAD relies heavily on prototyping and user involvement. Selected Answer: Correct Answer: True True

Question 99

Question 100

Question 1

1 out of 1 points When determining outsourcing fees, a ____ uses a set fee based on a specified level of service and user support. Correct Answer: fixed fee model

Question 2

1 out of 1 points The Software & Information Industry Association and many software industry leaders, including Microsoft, believe that the concept of ____ is redefining the way that companies develop and deploy their information systems.

Correct Answer: Question 3

software as a service 1 out of 1 points

In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson symbol for an entity is a ____. Correct Answer: Question 4 rectangle, which may be shaded to make it look threedimensional

1 out of 1 points Another term for IBS is managed hosting, because the operation is managed by the outside firm, or host. Correct Answer: True

Question 5

1 out of 1 points A ____ is a document that describes a company, lists the IT services or products needed, and specifies the features required. Correct Answer: request for proposal (RFP)

Question 6

1 out of 1 points All of the following are true of Web-based development except ____. Correct Answer: Internet-based development treats the Web as a communication channel, rather than as the platform 1 out of 1 points An object treats data and processes separately. Correct Answer: False 1 out of 1 points In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson symbol for a process is a ____. Correct Answer: rectangle with rounded corners 1 out of 1 points A gray hole process is a process that has ____. Correct Answer: at least one input and one output, but the input obviously is too insufficient to generate the output shown

Question 7

Question 8

Question 9

Question 10

1 out of 1 points All of the following are true of a traditional systems development environment

except ____. Correct Answer: Question 11 scalability is not affected by telecommunications limitations and local networks

1 out of 1 points When DFDs are drawn, each of the following conventions should be followed except ____. Correct Answer: use the same names within each set of symbols 1 out of 1 points Which of the following is NOT an attribute of a car? Correct Answer: parking

Question 12

Question 13

1 out of 1 points Two Web-based development environments are IBM’s WebSphere and Microsoft’s .NET. Correct Answer: True

Question 14

1 out of 1 points Some data files should be totally hidden from view, while others should have ____ so users can view, but not change, the data. Correct Answer: read-only properties

Question 15

1 out of 1 points Building an application in a Web-based environment might involve different risks and benefits, compared to a traditional environment. Correct Answer: True

Question 16

1 out of 1 points Because diagram 0 is a more detailed or expanded version of process 0 on a context diagram, diagram 0 is called a(n) ____. Correct Answer: exploded view

Question 17

1 out of 1 points ____ is a widely used method of visualizing and documenting an information system.

Correct Answer: Question 18

UML 1 out of 1 points

A logical model describes how a system will be constructed. Correct Answer: Question 19 False

1 out of 1 points In a DFD, a process symbol can have only one outgoing data flow. Correct Answer: False

Question 20

1 out of 1 points In a DFD, a data flow must have a process symbol on at least one end. Correct Answer: True

Question 21

1 out of 1 points Typically, customers purchase licenses that give them the right to use the software under the terms of the license agreement. Correct Answer: True

Question 22

1 out of 1 points When companies use a ____, they already know the specific products or service they want and need to obtain price quotations or bids from vendors. Correct Answer: request for quotation (RFQ)

Question 23

1 out of 1 points Mergers and acquisitions typically have no impact on clients and customers of large, financially healthy firms. Correct Answer: False 1 out of 1 points A gas pump is an example of a black box. Correct Answer: True

Question 24

Question 25

1 out of 1 points An IBS (Internet business services) solution is attractive to customers because it offers online data center support, mainframe computing power for missioncritical functions, and universal access via the Internet.

Correct Answer: Question 26

True

1 out of 1 points Your car performs a(n) ____ called operate wipers when you send a message by moving the proper control. Correct Answer: method

Question 27

1 out of 1 points A company considering outsourcing must realize that the solution can be only as good as the outsourcing firm that provides the service. Correct Answer: True 1 out of 1 points A black hole process is a process that has ____. Correct Answer: no output 1 out of 1 points In a use case, an external entity is called a(n) ____. Correct Answer: actor 1 out of 1 points Leveling ____. Correct Answer: uses a series of increasingly detailed DFDs to describe an information system 1 out of 1 points In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson symbol for a data store is a ____. Correct Answer: flat rectangle that is open on the right side and closed on the left side

Question 28

Question 29

Question 30

Question 31

Question 32

1 out of 1 points Several years ago, Gartner, a leading IT research and consulting firm, accurately forecast the enormous growth of offshore outsourcing. Correct Answer: True

Question 33

1 out of 1 points A major advantage of O-O designs is that systems analysts can save time and avoid errors by using modular objects.

Correct Answer: Question 34

True

1 out of 1 points An auto parts store inventory ____ might include part number, description, supplier code, minimum and maximum stock levels, cost, and list price. Correct Answer: record

Question 35

1 out of 1 points All of the following are true of Web-based development except ____. Correct Answer: Web-based software treats the software as a service that is more dependent on desktop computing powers and resources

Question 36

1 out of 1 points Mission-critical IT systems should be outsourced only if the result is a costattractive, reliable, business solution that fits the company’s long-term business strategy. Correct Answer: True

Question 37

0 out of 1 points Many valuable reports can be obtained from a data dictionary, including a(n) ____. Correct Answer: all of the above 1 out of 1 points In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson symbol for a data flow is a ____. Correct Answer: line with a single or double arrowhead

Question 38

Question 39

1 out of 1 points Microsoft’s ____ is one of the major Web-based development environments. Correct Answer: .NET 1 out of 1 points A data flow in a DFD represents one or more data items. Correct Answer: True 1 out of 1 points

Question 40

Question 41

The number of attributes needed to describe an object depends on the business requirements of the information system and its users. Correct Answer: Question 42 True

1 out of 1 points An object’s ____ are the tasks or functions the object performs. Correct Answer: methods

Question 43

1 out of 1 points A major advantage of outsourcing is that it eliminates employee concerns about job security. Correct Answer: False

Question 44

1 out of 1 points The UML symbol for a use case is a(n) ____ with a label that describes the action or event. Correct Answer: oval

Question 45

1 out of 1 points Using Gane and Sarson symbols, a DFD represents processes as circles. Correct Answer: False 1 out of 1 points A black box does not want or need outside interference. Correct Answer: True

Question 46

Question 47

1 out of 1 points The Software & Information Industry Association (SIIA) believes that the acquisition of software as a service rather than a product will have a major impact on the software industry. Correct Answer: True

Question 48

1 out of 1 points Two data stores can be connected by a data flow without an intervening process. Correct Answer: False 1 out of 1 points

Question 49

Just as objects are similar to adjectives, attributes resemble verbs that describe what and how an object does something. Correct Answer: Question 50 A class can belong to a more general category called a subclass. Correct Answer: Question 51 False False 1 out of 1 points

1 out of 1 points The concept that a message gives different meanings to different objects is called encapsulation. Correct Answer: False

Question 52

1 out of 1 points Oracle Corporation offers a service called ____, which provides E-business applications on a fixed fee basis. Correct Answer: Oracle On Demand 1 out of 1 points Balancing ____. Correct Answer: ensures that the input and output data flows of the parent DFD are maintained on the child DFD

Question 53

Question 54

1 out of 1 points In data and process modeling, a(n) ____ model shows what the system must do, regardless of how it will be implemented physically. Correct Answer: logical

Question 55

1 out of 1 points The UML represents an object as a(n) ____ with the object name at the top, followed by the object’s attributes and methods. Correct Answer: rectangle

Question 56

1 out of 1 points When determining outsourcing fees, a ____ has a variable fee based on the number of users or workstations that have access to the application.

Correct Answer: Question 57

subscription model

1 out of 1 points All relationships have equal weight; none is stronger than any other. Correct Answer: False

Question 58

0 out of 1 points A method is like a blueprint, or template, for all the objects within a class. Correct Answer: False 1 out of 1 points A DFD shows the structure and detailed contents of a data flow. Correct Answer: False

Question 59

Question 60

1 out of 1 points In a traditional systems development environment, security issues usually are less complex than with Web-based systems, because the system operates on a private telecommunications network, rather than the Internet. Correct Answer: True

Question 61

1 out of 1 points System analysts define an object’s attributes during the systems design process. Correct Answer: True

Question 62

1 out of 1 points An ASP provides a license to use the software, and nothing more. Correct Answer: False 1 out of 1 points A(n) ____ defines specific tasks that an object can perform. Correct Answer: method

Question 63

Question 64

0 out of 1 points The same message to two different objects produces the same results. Correct Answer: False 1 out of 1 points

Question 65

A software package developed to handle information requirements for a specific type of business is called a horizontal application. Correct Answer: Question 66 False

1 out of 1 points Spontaneous generation, black holes, and gray holes are logically impossible in a DFD because a process must act on input, shown by an incoming data flow, and produce output, represented by an outgoing data flow. Correct Answer: True

Question 67

1 out of 1 points A use case ____ documents the name of the use case, the actor, a description of the use case, a step-by-step list of the tasks and actions required for successful completion, a description of alternative courses of action, preconditions, postconditions, and assumptions. Correct Answer: description

Question 68

1 out of 1 points Data flows are shown in a context diagram because data stores are external to the system. Correct Answer: False

Question 69

1 out of 1 points A software package that can be used by many different types of organizations is called a vertical application. Correct Answer: False

Question 70

1 out of 1 points Internet-based development treats the Web as just a communications channel, rather than as a platform. Correct Answer: False

Question 71

1 out of 1 points A DFD does not show the external entities that provide data to the system or receive output from the system. Correct Answer: False

Question 72

1 out of 1 points The ____ uses a set of symbols to represent graphically the various components

and relationships within a system. Correct Answer: Question 73 UML

1 out of 1 points Late in the systems design phase, you build a logical model that describes how a system will be constructed. Correct Answer: False

Question 74

1 out of 1 points The main reason for offshore outsourcing is the same as domestic outsourcing: lower bottom-line costs. Correct Answer: True

Question 75

1 out of 1 points By limiting access to internal processes, an object prevents its internal code from being altered by another object or process. Correct Answer: True

Question 76

1 out of 1 points Systems analysts call an entity that supplies data to the system a sink, and an entity that receives data from the system a source. Correct Answer: False

Question 77

1 out of 1 points Typically, companies choose in-house software development for all of the following reasons except to ____. Correct Answer: obtain input from other companies who already have implemented the software

Question 78

1 out of 1 points Which of the following is not a path that development can follow? Correct Answer: construct a legacy system

Question 79

1 out of 1 points DFD symbols are referenced by using all ____ letters for the symbol name. Correct Answer: capital

Question 80

1 out of 1 points The data dictionary usually records and describes a default value, which is the ____. Correct Answer: value for the data element if a value otherwise is not entered for it 1 out of 1 points Leveling also is called ____. Correct Answer: all of the above 1 out of 1 points The line from the actor to a use case is called a(n) ____. Correct Answer: association

Question 81

Question 82

Question 83

1 out of 1 points If objects are similar to adjectives that describe the characteristics of an object, attributes are similar to nouns. Correct Answer: False

Question 84

1 out of 1 points Customer objects can perform specific tasks, such as placing an order, or paying a bill. Correct Answer: True

Question 85

1 out of 1 points A DFD does not show the detailed contents of a data store — the specific structure and data elements are defined in the data dictionary. Correct Answer: True

Question 86

1 out of 1 points A use case ____ is a visual summary of several related use cases within a system or subsystem. Correct Answer: diagram

Question 87

0 out of 1 points Advantages of purchasing a software package over developing software in-house include all of the following except ____.

Correct Answer: Question 88

satisfaction of unique business requirements

1 out of 1 points Inheritance enables an object to derive one or more of its attributes from a(n) ____. Correct Answer: parent 0 out of 1 points Buyers can customize a software package by ____. Correct Answer: all of the above 1 out of 1 points Your red Mustang is a(n) ____ of the CAR class. Correct Answer: instance

Question 89

Question 90

Question 91

1 out of 1 points Objects can have a specific attribute called a(n) ____, which describes the object’s current status. Correct Answer: state

Question 92

1 out of 1 points A physical model shows what the system must do, regardless of how it will be implemented. Correct Answer: False

Question 93

1 out of 1 points In a DFD, processes contain the business logic, also called business rules, that transform the data and produce the required results. Correct Answer: True 1 out of 1 points Outsourcing can refer to ____. Correct Answer: all of the above

Question 94

Question 95

1 out of 1 points A data flow diagram (DFD) shows how the system transforms input data into useful information.

Correct Answer: Question 96

True

1 out of 1 points When you create a use case diagram, the first step is to identify the system boundary, which is represented by a ____. Correct Answer: rectangle

Question 97

1 out of 1 points Some objects might have a few attributes; others might have dozens. Correct Answer: True

Question 98

1 out of 1 points A set of DFDs provides a logical model that shows how the system works, not what the system does. Correct Answer: False 0 out of 1 points A spontaneous generation process is a process that has ____. Correct Answer: no input 1 out of 1 points An object has certain ____. Correct Answer: attributes

Question 99

Question 100

Question 1

1 out of 1 points Problems found with 1NF (first normal form) design that do not exist in 2NF (second normal form) include all of the following except ____. Correct Answer: 1NF tables always contain consistent data

Question 2

1 out of 1 points When developing e-business systems, an in-house solution usually requires a ____ for a company that must adapt quickly in a dynamic e-commerce environment. Correct Answer: greater initial investment but provides more flexibility 1 out of 1 points An existence check is a data validation check that ____.

Question 3

Correct Answer: Question 4

is used for mandatory data items

1 out of 1 points Exception reports are useful when the user needs to know the details, but does not want information only on records that might require action. Correct Answer: False

Question 5

0 out of 1 points In a typical file processing environment, ____ problems can occur if updates are not applied in every file. Correct Answer: data integrity

Question 6

1 out of 1 points In a table or file, each column represents a record, which is an individual instance, or occurrence of an entity, and each row represents a field, or characteristic of the entity. Correct Answer: False 1 out of 1 points A combination check is a data validation check that ____. Correct Answer: is performed on two or more fields to ensure that they are consistent or reasonable when considered together 1 out of 1 points In a detail report, each line of output printed is called a detail line. Correct Answer: True

Question 7

Question 8

Question 9

1 out of 1 points Web pages are stored on a Web server, which is a computer that receives requests and makes Web pages available to users. Correct Answer: True

Question 10

1 out of 1 points Online processing systems typically have all of the following characteristics except ____. Correct Answer: the system requires significantly fewer network resources than batch systems

Question 11 A ____ is a text document written in HTML. Correct Answer: Question 12 Web page

1 out of 1 points

0 out of 1 points A table is in first normal form (1NF) if it contains a repeating group. Correct Answer: False

Question 13

1 out of 1 points Relational databases are poorly suited to client/server computing because they are so powerless and rigid. Correct Answer: False

Question 14

1 out of 1 points ____ is the measure of a system’s ability to expand, change, or downsize easily to meet the changing needs of a business enterprise. Correct Answer: Scalability

Question 15

1 out of 1 points Today, client/server architecture is the dominant form of systems design, using Internet protocols and traditional network models. Correct Answer: True

Question 16

1 out of 1 points A disadvantage of server-based processing is that character-based terminals typically are used, which provide a limited interface for users. Correct Answer: True 1 out of 1 points In a file-oriented information system, a security file ____. Correct Answer: is created and saved for backup and recovery purposes

Question 17

Question 18

1 out of 1 points In the OSI (open system interconnection) model, the application layer ____. Correct Answer: provides network services requested by a local workstation

Question 19

1 out of 1 points To design data entry screens that are easy to learn and use, employ all of the following guidelines except ____. Correct Answer: require users to type leading zeroes for numeric fields

Question 20

1 out of 1 points Generally, reports used by individuals at higher levels in an organization include more detail than reports used by lower-level employees. Correct Answer: False

Question 21

1 out of 1 points A popular rule of thumb is that a design is in 3NF if every nonkey field depends on the key, the whole key, and nothing but the key. Correct Answer: True

Question 22

1 out of 1 points A batch processing system has all of the following characteristics except ____. Correct Answer: the information system is available whenever necessary to support business operations

Question 23

1 out of 1 points In contrast to a centralized system, a client/server design separates applications and data. Correct Answer: True

Question 24

1 out of 1 points Impact printers can use multi-part forms to produce more than one copy, which is an advantage to firms that require several copies of the same report. Correct Answer: True 1 out of 1 points In a client/server design, a database server ____. Correct Answer: processes individual SQL commands

Question 25

Question 26

1 out of 1 points In a Web-based database design, the Internet serves as the front end, or interface, for the database management system.

Correct Answer: Question 27

True

1 out of 1 points In the OSI (open system interconnection) model, the presentation layer ____. Correct Answer: assures that data is uniformly structured and formatted for network transmission

Question 28

1 out of 1 points Podcasts are especially important for legal reasons, or where it is necessary to display a signature, date stamp, or other visual features of a document. Correct Answer: False 1 out of 1 points In a file-oriented information system, a transaction file ____. Correct Answer: stores records that contain day-to-day business and operational data

Question 29

Question 30

1 out of 1 points A(n) ____, which is used to access stored data, allows a user to specify a task without specifying how the task will be accomplished. Correct Answer: query language

Question 31

1 out of 1 points For upper-level managers who often want to see total figures and do not need supporting details, a(n) ____ is appropriate. Correct Answer: summary report

Question 32

1 out of 1 points In a file-oriented information system, a history file contains reference data used by the information system. Correct Answer: False

Question 33

1 out of 1 points An entity is a person, place, thing, or event for which data is collected and maintained. Correct Answer: True

Question 34

1 out of 1 points A client is a computer that supplies data, processing services, or other support to

one or more computers, called servers. Correct Answer: Question 35 The Internet has had little impact on system architecture. Correct Answer: Question 36 False False 1 out of 1 points

1 out of 1 points In e-commerce, data mining works best when a goal is to reduce clicks to close, which means average page views to accomplish a purchase or obtain desired information. Correct Answer: True

Question 37

1 out of 1 points According to a usability expert at IBM, a computer user has the right to ____. Correct Answer: all of the above 1 out of 1 points A reasonableness check is a data validation check that ____. Correct Answer: identifies values that are questionable, but not necessarily wrong 1 out of 1 points A range check is a data validation check that ____. Correct Answer: tests data items to verify that they fall between a specified minimum and maximum value

Question 38

Question 39

Question 40

1 out of 1 points A system design where the server performs all the processing is described as ____. Correct Answer: mainframe architecture

Question 41

1 out of 1 points In a typical LAN, clients share data stored on a local server that supports a group of users or a department. Correct Answer: True

Question 42

1 out of 1 points Intranets and extranets are called Web-centric because they use different protocols, or data transmission standards, than the Internet. Correct Answer: False

Question 43

1 out of 1 points In a(n) ____ design, the remote user’s keystrokes are transmitted to the mainframe, which responds by sending screen output back to the user’s screen. Correct Answer: centralized

Question 44

1 out of 1 points One problem in a file processing environment is ____, which means that data common to two or more information systems is stored in several places. Correct Answer: data redundancy

Question 45

1 out of 1 points Interface design should call attention to the interface, rather than facilitating design objectives. Correct Answer: False

Question 46

1 out of 1 points In today’s interconnected world, output from one system often becomes input into another system. Correct Answer: True

Question 47

1 out of 1 points When using Microsoft Office, documents, spreadsheets, and databases can be stored in Unicode-compatible form by using the font called ____. Correct Answer: Arial Unicode MS

Question 48

1 out of 1 points Good interface design is based partly on ____, which focuses on how an interface can be made attractive and easy to use. Correct Answer: aesthetics

Question 49

1 out of 1 points A subschema is a view of a database used by one or more systems or users.

Correct Answer: Question 50

True

1 out of 1 points Good user interface design is based partly on ____, which describes how people work, learn, and interact with computers. Correct Answer: ergonomics

Question 51

1 out of 1 points ____ describes how instances of one entity relate to instances of another entity. Correct Answer: Cardinality

Question 52

1 out of 1 points ____ protects privacy rights and shields an organization’s proprietary data from theft or unauthorized access. Correct Answer: Output security

Question 53

1 out of 1 points ____ means that a system can be expanded, modified, or downsized easily to meet the rapidly changing needs of a business enterprise. Correct Answer: Scalability

Question 54

1 out of 1 points Centering headings over maximum field widths is ideal when many of the actual values are shorter than the maximum width. Correct Answer: False

Question 55

1 out of 1 points Middleware provides a transparent interface that enables system designers to integrate dissimilar software and hardware. Correct Answer: True

Question 56

1 out of 1 points The speed of laser printers is rated in ____, which can be used to estimate the time required to print a report. Correct Answer: ppm (pages per minute) 0 out of 1 points

Question 57

As the size of a business changes, it is easier to alter the capability of a largescale central server than it is to adjust the number of clients and the processing functions they perform. Correct Answer: Question 58 False

1 out of 1 points A repeating group is a set of one or more fields that can occur only once in a single record, with each occurrence having the same value. Correct Answer: False

Question 59

1 out of 1 points On a source document, the ____ contains codes, identification information, numbers, and dates that are used for storing completed forms. Correct Answer: control zone 1 out of 1 points Compared to file server designs, client/server systems ____. Correct Answer: reduce network loads and improve response times

Question 60

Question 61

1 out of 1 points A report footer, which appears at the end of a report, can include grand totals for numeric fields and other end-of-report information. Correct Answer: True

Question 62

1 out of 1 points In a typical client/server system, the client stores the data and provides data access and database management functions. Correct Answer: False

Question 63

1 out of 1 points Apart from backup and recovery procedures necessary to sustain business operations ____ laws and regulations apply to company data. Correct Answer: file retention

Question 64

1 out of 1 points When considering physical design, a systems analyst must determine how a new application will communicate with existing legacy systems.

Correct Answer: Question 65

True

1 out of 1 points After a report design is approved, the design should be documented in a ____, which contains information about the fields, data types and lengths, report frequency and distribution, and other comments. Correct Answer: report analysis form

Question 66

1 out of 1 points A fat client, also called a thick client, design locates all or most of the processing logic at the server. Correct Answer: False

Question 67

1 out of 1 points Visio is an example of a CASE tool that can help users plan, analyze, design, and implement an information system. Correct Answer: True

Question 68

1 out of 1 points A(n) ____ produces one or more lines of output for each record processed. Correct Answer: detail report 1 out of 1 points In a file-oriented information system, a work file ____. Correct Answer: is a temporary file created by an information system for a single task

Question 69

Question 70

1 out of 1 points The type of output and the technology needed usually is decided during the systems analysis phase, based on user requirements. Correct Answer: True

Question 71

1 out of 1 points A database system stores and manages data in separate files using a method called file processing. Correct Answer: False

Question 72

1 out of 1 points When designing a report, a sample report, which is a ____, or prototype, should

be prepared for users to review. Correct Answer: Question 73 mock-up

1 out of 1 points A(n) ____ displays only those records that meet a specific condition or conditions. Correct Answer: exception report

Question 74

1 out of 1 points In the OSI (open system interconnection) model, the session layer ____. Correct Answer: defines control structures that manage the communications link between computers

Question 75

0 out of 1 points Either a page header or a page footer, which appears at the bottom of a page, is used to display the name of the report and a page number. Correct Answer: True

Question 76

1 out of 1 points A fat client design is ____ to develop than a thin client design, because the architecture resembles traditional file-server designs where all processing is performed at the client. Correct Answer: simpler and less expensive

Question 77

1 out of 1 points A three-tier design includes a middle layer between the client and server that processes the client requests and translates them into data access commands that can be understood and carried out by the server. Correct Answer: True

Question 78

1 out of 1 points The ____ section in a typical system design specification describes the constraints, or conditions, affecting a system, including any requirements that involve operations, hardware, systems software, or security. Correct Answer: System Environment

Question 79

1 out of 1 points When a system produces multiple reports, each report should have completely

different design elements. Correct Answer: Question 80 False

1 out of 1 points In a report, a group header can be printed after the last detail line in a group and a group footer above the first detail line. Correct Answer: False 1 out of 1 points In a file-oriented information system, a master file ____. Correct Answer: stores relatively permanent data about an entity

Question 81

Question 82

1 out of 1 points A report header, which appears at the beginning of a report, identifies the report, and contains the report title, date, and other necessary information. Correct Answer: True

Question 83

1 out of 1 points In a client/server design, tasks are divided between servers, which are workstations that users interact with, and clients, which are computers that supply data, processing, and services to the server workstations. Correct Answer: False

Question 84

1 out of 1 points When a system reads a physical record, it loads the data from storage into a ____, which is a segment of computer memory. Correct Answer: buffer

Question 85

1 out of 1 points An extranet is a private, company-owned network to provide Web-based access to users. Correct Answer: False

Question 86

1 out of 1 points Specific DBMS (database management system) advantages include all of the following except ____. Correct Answer: data dependence

Question 87

1 out of 1 points Although stand-alone PCs improved employee productivity and allowed users to perform tasks that previously required IT department assistance, stand-alone computing was inefficient and expensive. Correct Answer: True

Question 88

0 out of 1 points Physical storage refers to information as seen through a user’s eyes, regardless of how or where the information actually is organized or stored. Correct Answer: False

Question 89

1 out of 1 points Using a DDBMS (distributed database management system) offers all of the following advantages except ____. Correct Answer: the architecture of the system is simple and easy to manage

Question 90

1 out of 1 points File sharing designs are efficient only if the number of networked users is ____. Correct Answer: low and the transmitted file sizes are relatively small

Question 91

1 out of 1 points Initial screen designs can be presented to users in the form of a(n) ____, which is a sketch that shows the general screen layout and design. Correct Answer: storyboard

Question 92

1 out of 1 points HTML uses formatting codes called ____, which specify how the text and visual elements on a Web page will be displayed in a Web browser. Correct Answer: tags

Question 93

1 out of 1 points A Web-based application encounters all of the connectivity and compatibility problems that typically arise when different hardware environments are involved. Correct Answer: False 1 out of 1 points

Question 94

A dialog box allows a user to enter information about a task that the system will perform. Correct Answer: Question 95 True

1 out of 1 points In a client/server interaction, the client submits a request for information from the server, which carries out the operations and responds to the client. Correct Answer: True 1 out of 1 points Every information system involves ____. Correct Answer: all of the above

Question 96

Question 97

1 out of 1 points Scalability is especially important in implementing systems that are volumerelated, such as transaction processing systems. Correct Answer: True

Question 98

1 out of 1 points User-selected Help always offers assistance for the task in progress. Correct Answer: False

Question 99

1 out of 1 points In most organizations, the IT department is responsible for output control and security measures. Correct Answer: True

Question 100

1 out of 1 points In older systems, often the user interface mainly consisted of process-control screens that allowed a user to send commands to the system. Correct Answer: True

systems planning phase In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, the ____ usually begins with a formal request to the IT department, called a systems request, which describes problems or desired changes in an information system or a business process. business model A ____, or requirements model, describes the information that a system must provide.

enterprise applications Examples of company-wide applications, called ____, include order processing systems, payroll systems, and company communications networks. Modeling ____ is a systems development technique that produces a graphical representation of a concept or process that systems developers can analyze, test, and modify. O-O Whereas structured analysis treats processes and data as separate components, ____ combines data and the processes that act on the data into things called objects. process-centered Because it focuses on processes that transform data into useful information, structured analysis is called a(n) ____ technique. waterfall model Traditionally, the SDLC is pictured as a(n) ____, like that shown in the accompanying figure, where the result of each phase, which is called a deliverable or end product, flows sequentially into the next phase. object-oriented analysis The ____ method of developing systems produces code that is modular and reusable. SDLC Structured analysis is a traditional systems development technique that uses a series of phases, called the ____, to plan, analyze, design, implement, and support an information system. provide direction, necessary resources, and performance feedback to supervisors and team leaders In a typical company organizational model, middle managers ____. adaptive The ____ method of developing systems stresses team interaction and reflects a set of community-based values. tries to decide how the system will be implemented before determining what the system is supposed to do In launching a new information system, the greatest risk occurs when a company ____. systems support and security In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, during ____, the IT staff maintains, enhances, and protects the system. methods properties. In object-oriented design, built-in processes called ____ can change an object's

business process reengineering (BPR) When companies attempt to simplify operations or reduce costs, a popular strategy is to have managers and systems analysts perform ____. business process modeling Systems analysts use a process called ____ to represent a company's operations and information needs. Legacy systems When planning an information system, a company must consider how a new system will interface with older systems, which are called ____.

24 months Over 40 years ago, a concept called Moore's Law accurately predicted that computer processing power would double about every ____. include e-mail, voice mail, fax, video conferencing, word processing, automated calendars, database management, spreadsheets, and high-seed Internet access User productivity systems ____. False In a knowledge management system, a knowledge base consists of logical rules that identify data patterns and relationships. False Because they focus on a longer time frame, middle managers need less detailed information than top managers, but somewhat more than supervisors who oversee day-to-day operations. True A corporate culture is the set of beliefs, rules, traditions, values, and attitudes that define a company and influence its way of doing business. True In the systems analysis phase, the first step is requirements modeling, where business processes are investigated and what the new system must do is documented. structured analysis Roark has just joined the company and in his role as lead analyst, he will be responsible for determining which systems development method the team uses to create the new application for a major medical supplier. It is a new day at the firm. Roark has been in place for a few weeks, strengthening the communications skills of his employees, getting them to work much better together. Now, the challenge that he faces is not an internal one; it lies with the client, which is increasingly showing itself to be incapable of sticking with decisions. Roark, based on his past experience with other clients like this, is afraid that the client will throw them a curveball and want to make changes late in the game but that they also will be unwilling to absorb the costs of those changes. For this reason, Roark eliminates which of the following methods of development? agile/adaptive methods Roark has just joined the company and in his role as lead analyst, he will be responsible for determining which systems development method the team uses to create the new application for a major medical supplier. After Roark has spent a week getting to know the members of the team, including their strengths and weaknesses, and what has worked well (and not so well) for this particular team in the past, one theme keeps recurring: the team has particularly weak communications skills. Which of the following methods, then, is he least likely to use, given what he knows about the disadvantages of each method? economic A feasibility study includes tests for ____ feasibility, which means that the projected benefits of the proposed system outweigh the estimated costs. have complex instructions A systems request form should not ____.

introduction In a preliminary investigation report, the ____ contain(s) a brief description of the system, the name of the person or group performing the investigation, and the name of the person or group who initiated the investigation. user-friendly system that improves employee job satisfaction of the following except a(n) ____. Examples of tangible benefits include all

Customer relationship management (CRM) ____ components can provide automated response to sales inquiries, Web-based order processing, and online inventory tracking. fishbone A popular technique for investigating causes and effects is called a(n) ____ diagram, which is an analysis tool that represents the possible causes of a problem as a graphical outline. Strategic ____ planning is the process of identifying long-term organizational goals, strategies, and resources. determine the people to interview, establish objectives for the interview, develop interview questions, prepare for the interview In sequence, the interviewing process involves a series of steps: ____, conduct the interview, document the interview, and evaluate the interview. SWOT During strategic planning, top managers ask a series of questions that is called a(n) ____ analysis because it examines a company's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. conduct interviews The primary method of obtaining information during the preliminary investigation is to ____. Will the proposed system decrease revenue for the company? When assessing priorities for systems requests, a systems analyst should look for high scores in all of the following except ____. one person's bias is more likely to affect the decisions When evaluating systems requests, all of the following are disadvantages of a systems review committee except ____. define project scope as clearly as possible To avoid the problem of project creep, ____.

fishbone When using a ____ diagram to investigate causes of a problem, an analyst first states the problem and then draws a main bone with sub-bones that represent possible causes of the problem. discretionary projects. True False Projects where management has a choice in implementing them are called ____

Competition drives many information systems decisions. Even if users have difficulty with a new system, it still will produce the expected benefits.

False When interacting with users, a systems analyst should focus on difficulties instead of questioning users about additional capability they would like to have.

True Whenever possible, a systems analyst should evaluate a proposed project based on tangible costs and benefits that represent actual (or approximate) dollar values. Sales reps requested a more powerful sales analysis report. As part of the annual report for the fiscal year just ended, Lara is working on a grid that summarizes the major decisions that the small business for which she works made during the year. As part of her review, she is identifying whether a decision was impacted by factors internal to the company, or external.

Which of the following does not appear on Lara's list of external factors? The new system is more user-friendly, thus increasing employee job satisfaction.Sam is the analyst with the responsibility for assessing the economic feasibility of the new system that his team has been hired to develop for Widgets, Inc.

Sam's boss has asked for a quick list of the tangible benefits of the new system, because the client has expressed some concerns about the project and she wants to reassure him. Which of the following would NOT be on such a list as developed by Sam? TCO The estimated costs of a proposed system usually are considered the ____, which includes ongoing support and maintenance costs, as well as acquisition costs. operational feasibility Of the measures of feasibility in the accompanying figure, ____ considers questions such as "Does management support the project?" and "Will the new system require training for users?" Creating a new report for a user ____ is an example of a discretionary project. preliminary A systems analyst conducts a(n) ____ investigation to study the systems request and recommend specific action. economic feasibility Of the measures of feasibility in the accompanying figure, ____ assesses tangible and intangible benefits to the company in addition to costs. greatest benefit, at the lowest cost, in the shortest period of time When setting priorities for systems requests, the highest priority goes to projects that provide the ____. technical A feasibility study includes tests for ____ feasibility, which refers to the practical resources needed to develop, purchase, install, or operate the system. findings In the preliminary investigation report, the ____ section contains the results of the preliminary investigation, including a description of the project's scope, constraints, and feasibility.

Performance ____ limitations result when a system that was designed for a specific hardware configuration becomes obsolete when new hardware is introduced. scope Determining the project ____ means to define the boundaries, or extent, of a project being as specific as possible. False The purpose of an interview, and of the preliminary investigation itself, is to convince others that a project is justified, not to uncover facts. False Data entry controls should be excessive without being effective.

True If only one person has the necessary IT skills and experience to evaluate systems requests, that person should consult closely with users and managers throughout the company to ensure that business and operational needs are considered carefully. The new system is more user-friendly, thus increasing employee job satisfaction.Sam is the analyst with the responsibility for assessing the economic feasibility of the new system that his team has been hired to develop for Widgets, Inc.

Sam's boss has asked for a quick list of the tangible benefits of the new system, because the client has expressed some concerns about the project and she wants to reassure him. Which of the following would NOT be on such a list as developed by Sam? identify all tasksThe first step in creating a WBS is to ____. risk A ____ is an event that could affect a project negatively.

milestones When maintaining schedules, if enough ____ and frequent checkpoints exist, problems will be detected rapidly. successor When two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task, the concurrent tasks are called ____ tasks. identify all the project tasks The first step in the creation of a PERT/CPM chart is to ____.

critical A ____ path includes all tasks that are vital to the project schedule. completion with the same personnel as were on the team at the outset All of the following are metrics of a successful project EXCEPT ____. critical Project managers always must be aware of the ____ path, so they can monitor the vital tasks and keep the project on track. milestones In addition to tasks, every project has ____, which are reference points used to monitor progress and manage the project.

all of the above task time estimates, sequences, personnel assignments A project manager must balance ____ to achieve a workable schedule; graphical planning aids like the one in the accompanying figure can help in the process. includes identifying project tasks and estimating completion times and costs planning _____. A project manager's

includes monitoring the progress of the project, evaluating results, and taking corrective action when necessary to stay on target For a project manager, monitoring and controlling _____. the team member most vulnerable to a given risk description of all of the following EXCEPT ____. all of the above project size and scope, prior experience with similar projects or systems, IT resources time and cost estimates, project managers must consider _____. any of the above personality conflicts among team members, turnover of project personnel, poor control methods Problems with timetables and project milestones can indicate ____. groups The accompanying figure shows task ____, which each might represent several activities that can be shown in a more detailed chart. inaccurate TCO forecast All of the following are possible causes of cost overruns related to human resource factors EXCEPT ____. PERT/CPM Many project managers find ____ charts more helpful for scheduling, monitoring, and controlling projects. defining project constraints Project scheduling involves all of the following EXCEPT ____. In developing Most risk identifications include a brief

True Most managers recognize that problems do occur on most projects; it is better to alert management sooner rather than later. True System developers can initiate a formal project as early as the preliminary investigation stage, or later on, as analysis, design, and implementation activities occur. True False Project planning is a dynamic task and involves constant change. When tasks must be completed one after another, they are called concurrent tasks.

They are predecessor tasks of each other. In discussing PERT/CPM charts, you discuss the types of task patterns that can occur in a project schedule. You give an example of two tasks, A and B, that can

both begin as soon as task C is finished. Which of the following is NOT a true statement about tasks A and B? predecessor ____ task. Two or more concurrent tasks often depend on a single prior task, which is called a(n)

dependent task A _____ cannot be started until one or more other tasks are completed. bottom-up PERT/CPM is called a(n) ____ technique, because it analyzes a large, complex project as a series of individual tasks. concurrent When several tasks can start at the same time, each is called a ____ task.

involves staffing, which includes selecting the project team and assigning specific tasks to team members A project manager's scheduling function _____. reference to successor tasks ____. response deal with it. False In a PERT/CPM chart, each task has all of the following EXCEPT a(n)

A risk ____ plan is a proactive effort to anticipate a risk and describe an action plan to

Using prior experience to make time and cost estimates works best for large projects.

False When two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task, each of the concurrent tasks is called a predecessor task. True Although a Gantt chart provides more detailed information about a project, a PERT/CPM chart offers a rapid overview that graphically displays the timing, duration, and progress of each task. histogram A common tool for showing the distribution of a questionnaire or sampling results is a vertical bar chart called a(n) ____. use case diagram A(n) ____ is a UML technique that visually represents the interaction between users and an information system. more satisfied users ____. Greater user involvement in the system development process usually results in

range-of-response questions In an interview, ____ are questions that ask a person to evaluate something by providing limited answers to specific responses or on a numeric scale. actor In a use case diagram, the user becomes a(n) ____, with a specific role that describes how he or she interacts with a system. Student grades must be entered on machine-scannable forms prepared by the instructor a typical example of a system requirement for the input category. ____ is

systematic sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select every tenth customer for review. informal In a(n) ____ structure, which usually is based on interpersonal relationships, some people have more influence or knowledge than appears on an organization chart. stratified sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ could ensure the sample is balanced geographically by selecting five customers from each of four zip codes. random sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select any 20 customers. The contact management system must generate a daily reminder list for all sales reps example of a system requirement for the output category. ____ is a typical

FDD Using a(n) ____, an analyst can show business functions and break them down into lower-level functions and processes. Analytical skills ____ enable a systems analyst to identify a problem, evaluate the key elements, and develop a useful solution. FDD A(n) ____ is a top-down representation of a function or a process.

give the interviewee easy access to supporting material that might be needed If an interviewee gives only short or incomplete responses to open-ended questions, a systems analyst should do all of the following EXCEPT ____. scrum In a(n) ____, team members prepare to lunge at each other to achieve their objectives. systems analysis The ____ phase of the SDLC includes four main activities: requirements modeling, data and process modeling, object modeling, and consideration of development strategies. both a and b prototyping, user involvement RAD relies heavily on ____. open-ended questions In an interview, ____ encourage spontaneous and unstructured responses. True The ability to manage information is the mark of a successful systems analyst and an important skill for all IT professionals. False When fact-finding, asking what is being done is the same as asking what could or should be done. False In the early stages of systems analysis, interviews usually focus on specific topics, but as the fact-finding process continues, the interviews are more general.

True IT professionals recognize that successful systems must be user-oriented, and users need to be involved, formally or informally, at every stage of systems development. control Perry has inherited an Excel sheet that lists all of the system requirements for his team's new project, but unfortunately, his predecessor did not label the requirements with categoriesor in some cases failed to categorize them correctlyso he needs to take care of this so the requirements can be sorted correctly.

Perry has found one system requirement that he thinks could fit into a couple of different categories. What is the best categorization of this requirement: An employee record must be added, changed, or deleted only by a member of the human resources department? questionnaire In projects where it is desirable to obtain input from a large number of people, a(n) ____, such as that shown in the accompanying figure, can be a valuable tool. The student records system must produce class lists within five hours after the end of registration ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the performance category. random sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select any 20 customers. UML The ____ is a widely used method of visualizing and documenting software systems design. ____ is

The system must maintain separate levels of security for users and the system administrator a typical example of a system requirement for the control category. closed-ended questions In an interview, ____ limit or restrict the response.

informal In a(n) ____ structure, which usually is based on interpersonal relationships, some people have more influence or knowledge than appears on an organization chart. TCO In addition to direct costs, systems developers must identify and document indirect expenses that contribute to the ____. stratified sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ could ensure the sample is balanced geographically by selecting five customers from each of four zip codes. False When designing a questionnaire, arrange questions in a random order, intermixing simple and more complex topics. True The main objective of a sample is to ensure that it represents the overall population accurately.

True A list of topics should be sent to an interviewee several days before the meeting, especially when detailed information is needed, so the person can prepare for the interview and minimize the need for a follow-up meeting. his own Kieran has finished compiling the list of the various members of the JAD group: He is the JAD project leader, Malia is the representative from top management, Simon is a manager, Alisa and Ian are users, Shakira and Max are systems analysts, and Devon is the recorder.

As Kieran develops the agenda he wants to put the name of the appropriate person next to the agenda item. Whose name would he put next to the final task on the agenda, the task of preparing the report that will be sent to JAD team members? validity In a data dictionary, some data elements have ____ rules, such as an employee's salary must be within the range defined for the employee's job classification. logical In data and process modeling, a(n) ____ model shows what the system must do, regardless of how it will be implemented physically. no output A black hole process is a process that has ____.

a process step that is repeated until a specific condition changes A black hole process is a process that has ____. tree A decision ____ is a graphical representation of the conditions, actions, and rules found in a decision table. Leveling ____ is the process of drawing a series of increasingly detailed DFDs, until all functional primitives are identified. All of the above Spontaneous generation, Gray holes, Black holes ____ is/are logically impossible in a DFD because a process must act on input, shown by an incoming data flow, and produce output, represented by an outgoing data flow. horizontal form that resembles a tree with the roots at the left and the branches to the right Decision trees show the logic structure in a ____. capital DFD symbols are referenced by using all ____ letters for the symbol name. value for the data element if a value otherwise is not entered for it records and describes a default value, which is the ____. The data dictionary usually

records In a data dictionary, data elements are combined into ____, which are meaningful combinations of data elements that are included in data flows or retained in data stores.

domain A data dictionary specifies a data element's ____, which is the set of values permitted for the data element. field In a data dictionary, a(n) ____ is the smallest piece of data that has meaning within an information system. rectangle with rounded corners In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson symbol for a process is a ____. exploded view Because diagram 0 is a more detailed or expanded version of process 0 on a context diagram, diagram 0 is called a(n) ____. alias In a data dictionary, any name other than the standard data element name is called a(n) ____.

ensures that the input and output data flows of the parent DFD are maintained on the child DFD Balancing ____. line with a single or double arrowhead In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson symbol for a data flow is a ____. False False In most data dictionaries, records are defined together with the data flows and data stores. Two data stores can be connected by a data flow without an intervening process.

True In addition to describing each data element, data flow, data store, record, entity, and process, the data dictionary documents the relationships among these components. False In modular design, a rectangle represents a condition or decision, a diamond shape represents a step or a process, and the logic follows the lines in the direction indicated by the arrows. Costs may be high. The analysts at Novel Systems Worldwide are considering the four-model approach to system development for a new client.

If they pursue the four-model approach, which of the following is a likely outcome? A teleological model of the current system The analysts at Novel Systems Worldwide are considering the four-model approach to system development for a new client.

Which of the following will NOT be developed if they decide to use the four-model approach? repository A data ____ is a central storehouse of information about a system's data.

line with a single or double arrowhead In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson symbol for a data flow is a ____. one or more process steps based on the results of a test or condition completion of ____ The selection structure is the

process descriptions If processes must be performed in a specific sequence, you document the information in the ____. Balancing ____ maintains consistency among DFDs by ensuring that input and output data flows align properly. context diagrams Typical process description tools include all of the following EXCEPT ____.

pseudocode Structured English might look familiar to programming students because it resembles ____, which is used in program design. decision A(n) ____ table shows a logical structure, with all possible combinations of conditions and resulting actions. rectangle, which may be shaded to make it look three-dimensional symbol for an entity is a ____. In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson

type In a data dictionary, ____ refers to whether the data element contains numeric, alphabetic, or character values. True What makes one system more complex than another is the number of components, the number of levels, and the degree of interaction among its processes, entities, data stores, and data flows. True In a DFD, a data flow must have a process symbol on at least one end.

iteration Evan is an expert on all of the different kinds of process description tools, so when his colleagues have questions, they know where to turn.

One of the firm's beginner analysts is working on a financial process that will continue to print vendor payments until it reaches the end of the file. Which of the following processes will Evan suggest that the analyst use? association oval The line from the actor to a use case is called a(n) ____.

The UML symbol for a use case is a(n) ____ with a label that describes the action or event. A ____ is a command that tells an object to perform a certain method. A use case ____ is a visual summary of several related use cases within a system or

message diagram subsystem. attributes 0..*

An object has certain ____, which are characteristics that describe the object.

The UML notation ____ identifies a zero or many relation.

object A(n) ____ represents a real person, place, event, or transaction.

Relationships ____ describe what objects need to know about each other, how objects respond to changes in other objects, and the effects of membership in classes, superclasses, and subclasses. instance Your red Mustang is a(n) ____ of the CAR class.

child Inheritance enables an object, called a ____, to derive one or more of its attributes from another object. inherit In an object-oriented system, objects can ____ certain attributes from other objects. class All objects within a(n) ____ share common attributes and methods.

Encapsulation ____ allows objects to be used as modular components anywhere in the system. class An object belongs to a group or category called a(n) ____.

Relationships ____ enable objects to communicate and interact as they perform business functions and transactions required by the system. methods actor state An object's ____ are the tasks or functions the object performs.

In a use case, an external entity is called a(n) ____. The ____ of an object is an adjective that describes the object's current status.

True A major advantage of O-O designs is that systems analysts can save time and avoid errors by using modular objects. False False An object treats data and processes separately. Use cases cannot interact with other use cases.

False Just as objects are similar to adjectives, attributes resemble verbs that describe what and how an object does something. True Class diagrams evolve into code modules, data objects, and other system components.

microwave oven Alex is getting a little confused by the terminology in the object-oriented world, so he consults his roommate, who has been doing a lot of work in object modeling in previous coursework.

Which of the following does Alex's roommate use as an example of an instance of the APPLIANCE class? methods Alex is getting a little confused by the terminology in the object-oriented world, so he consults his roommate, who has been doing a lot of work in object modeling in previous coursework.

The following examplesbake cakes, self-clean, and reheat pastaare all what with regard to the oven object, according to Alex's roommate? Methods ____ resemble verbs that describe what and how an object does something.

method Your car performs a(n) ____ called OPERATE WIPERS when you send a message by moving the proper control. UML actor ____ is a widely used method of visualizing and documenting an information system. In a use case, an external entity is called a(n) ____.

True By limiting access to internal processes, an object prevents its internal code from being altered by another object or process. False False True The same message to two different objects produces the same results. An object treats data and processes separately. A gas pump is an example of a black box.

0..* Jaime, the newest analyst at Novel Systems Worldwide, is responsible for assigning the appropriate UML notations to a given class diagram.

In a given diagram, Jaime is marking up a relationship in which a given employee can have no payroll deductions or she can have many deductions. Which of the following notations will Jaime write to mark this relationship? ASP A(n) ____ is a firm that delivers a software application, or access to an application, by charging a usage or subscription fee. fixed fee model When determining outsourcing fees, a ____ uses a set fee based on a specified level of service and user support. vendorsCompanies that develop software for sale are called software ____. request for proposal (RFP) A ____ is a document that describes a company, lists the IT services or products needed, and specifies the features required. service A firm that offers outsourcing solutions is called a ____ provider. transaction A(n) ____ model is an outsourcing fee model that charges a variable fee based on the volume of transactions or operations performed by the application. data duplication should be encouraged Guidelines to follow when determining data entry and storage considerations include all of the following except ____.

build or buy decision.

The choice between developing versus purchasing software often is called a ____

systems design The physical design is developed during the ____ phase of the SDLC. 4GL In a ____, the commands tend to resemble natural statements that people use.

middleware Web-based software usually requires additional layers, called ____, to communicate with existing software and legacy systems. obtain input from other companies who already have implemented the software Typically, companies choose in-house software development for all of the following reasons except to ____. parameter A ____ is a value that the user enters whenever a query is run, which provides flexibility, enables users to access information easily, and costs less. default A ____ is a value that a system displays automatically. satisfaction of unique business requirements Advantages of purchasing a software package over developing software in-house include all of the following except ____. package provider. A software ____ is software that is obtained from a vendor or application service

cloud Some industry leaders predict that ____ computing will offer an overall online software and data environment supported by supercomputer technology. all of the above negotiating directly with the software vendor to make enhancements to meet the buyer's needs by paying for the changes, purchasing a basic package that vendors will customize to suit the buyer's needs, purchasing the software and making their own modifications, if this is permissible under the terms of the software license Buyers can customize a software package by ____. False The decision to develop software in-house will require less participation from the systems analyst than outsourcing or choosing a commercial package. False A subscription model charges a variable fee based on the volume of transactions or operations performed by the application. True Many firms feel that in-house IT resources and capabilities provide a competitive advantage because an in-house team can respond quickly when business problems or opportunities arise. True Mission-critical IT systems should be outsourced only if the result is a cost-attractive, reliable, business solution that fits the company's long-term business strategy.

True Software vendors regularly upgrade software packages by adding improvements and enhancements to create a new version or release. design In an approach called ____ prototyping, systems analysts use prototyping to verify user requirements, after which the prototype is discarded and implementation continues. benchmark A ____ measures the time a package takes to process a certain number of transactions.

interface In addition to configuring software, an IT staff can create a user ____, which includes screens, commands, controls, and features that enable users to interact more effectively with the application. Web-based Building an application in a ____ environment can offer greater benefits, and sometimes greater risks, compared to a traditional environment. Prototyping ____, like that illustrated in the accompanying figure, produces an early, rapidly constructed working version of a proposed system. Outsourcing ____ is the transfer of information systems development, operation, or maintenance to an outside firm that provides these services, for a fee, on a temporary or long-term basis. read-only properties Some data files should be totally hidden from view, while others should have ____ so users can view, but not change, the data. .NET Microsoft's ____ is one of the major Web-based development environments.

True Building an application in a Web-based environment might involve different risks and benefits, compared to a traditional environment. False A request for quotation (RFQ) is less specific than an RFP (request for proposal).

True By designing a system in-house, companies can develop and train an IT staff that understands the organization's business functions and information support needs. True The primary objective of an evaluation and selection team is to eliminate system alternatives that will not work, rank the system alternatives that will work, and present the viable alternatives to management for a final decision. Data duplication should be encouraged. Now that they have joined the firm, Priscilla is providing the junior analysts on the team with some real-world illustrations to explain some of the system design concepts that they have studied in their coursework, to solidify their understanding.

Which of the following is NOT a guideline Priscilla will impart to the new class of analysts?

When Marny is tasked with the job, her output can involve outright purchase or a variety of leasing options. You have started the process of selecting a new system for the firm and you are weighing all of the various issues that need to be considered and the resources you have at yourosal as you make this important decision.

As you prepare to winnow the field in your selection of a new system, you want a quick refresher on the difference between RFPs and RFQs. If you need an RFP, Simone will write it, and if you need an RFQ, Marny is responsible for writing that. Which of the following is true?

systems planning phase In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, the ____ usually begins with a formal request to the IT department, called a systems request, which describes problems or desired changes in an information system or a business process. business model A ____, or requirements model, describes the information that a system must provide. enterprise applications Examples of company-wide applications, called ____, include order processing systems, payroll systems, and company communications networks. Modeling ____ is a systems development technique that produces a graphical representation of a concept or process that systems developers can analyze, test, and modify. O-O Whereas structured analysis treats processes and data as separate components, ____ combines data and the processes that act on the data into things called objects. process-centered Because it focuses on processes that transform data into useful information, structured analysis is called a(n) ____ technique.

waterfall model Traditionally, the SDLC is pictured as a(n) ____, like that shown in the accompanying figure, where the result of each phase, which is called a deliverable or end product, flows sequentially into the next phase. object-oriented analysis The ____ method of developing systems produces code that is modular and reusable. SDLC Structured analysis is a traditional systems development technique that uses a series of phases, called the ____, to plan, analyze, design, implement, and support an information system. provide direction, necessary resources, and performance feedback to supervisors and team leaders In a typical company organizational model, middle managers ____. adaptive The ____ method of developing systems stresses team interaction and reflects a set of community-based values. tries to decide how the system will be implemented before determining what the system is supposed to do In launching a new information system, the greatest risk occurs when a company ____. systems support and security In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, during ____, the IT staff maintains, enhances, and protects the system. methods In object-oriented design, built-in processes called ____ can change an object's properties.

business process reengineering (BPR) When companies attempt to simplify operations or reduce costs, a popular strategy is to have managers and systems analysts perform ____. business process modeling Systems analysts use a process called ____ to represent a company's operations and information needs. Legacy systems When planning an information system, a company must consider how a new system will interface with older systems, which are called ____. 24 months Over 40 years ago, a concept called Moore's Law accurately predicted that computer processing power would double about every ____. include e-mail, voice mail, fax, video conferencing, word processing, automated calendars, database management, spreadsheets, and high-seed Internet access User productivity systems ____. False In a knowledge management system, a knowledge base consists of logical rules that identify data patterns and relationships. False Because they focus on a longer time frame, middle managers need less detailed information than top managers, but somewhat more than supervisors who oversee day-to-day operations. True A corporate culture is the set of beliefs, rules, traditions, values, and attitudes that define a company and influence its way of doing business.

True In the systems analysis phase, the first step is requirements modeling, where business processes are investigated and what the new system must do is documented. structured analysis Roark has just joined the company and in his role as lead analyst, he will be responsible for determining which systems development method the team uses to create the new application for a major medical supplier. It is a new day at the firm. Roark has been in place for a few weeks, strengthening the communications skills of his employees, getting them to work much better together. Now, the challenge that he faces is not an internal one; it lies with the client, which is increasingly showing itself to be incapable of sticking with decisions. Roark, based on his past experience with other clients like this, is afraid that the client will throw them a curveball and want to make changes late in the game but that they also will be unwilling to absorb the costs of those changes. For this reason, Roark eliminates which of the following methods of development? agile/adaptive methods Roark has just joined the company and in his role as lead analyst, he will be responsible for determining which systems development method the team uses to create the new application for a major medical supplier. After Roark has spent a week getting to know the members of the team, including their strengths and weaknesses, and what has worked well (and not so well) for this particular team in the past, one theme keeps recurring: the team has particularly weak communications skills. Which of the following methods, then, is he least likely to use, given what he knows about the disadvantages of each method? economic A feasibility study includes tests for ____ feasibility, which means that the projected

benefits of the proposed system outweigh the estimated costs. have complex instructions A systems request form should not ____. introduction In a preliminary investigation report, the ____ contain(s) a brief description of the system, the name of the person or group performing the investigation, and the name of the person or group who initiated the investigation. user-friendly system that improves employee job satisfaction Examples of tangible benefits include all of the following except a(n) ____. Customer relationship management (CRM) ____ components can provide automated response to sales inquiries, Web-based order processing, and online inventory tracking. fishbone A popular technique for investigating causes and effects is called a(n) ____ diagram, which is an analysis tool that represents the possible causes of a problem as a graphical outline. Strategic ____ planning is the process of identifying long-term organizational goals, strategies, and resources. determine the people to interview, establish objectives for the interview, develop interview questions, prepare for the interview In sequence, the interviewing process involves a series of steps: ____, conduct the interview, document the interview, and evaluate the interview. SWOT

During strategic planning, top managers ask a series of questions that is called a(n) ____ analysis because it examines a company's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. conduct interviews The primary method of obtaining information during the preliminary investigation is to ____. Will the proposed system decrease revenue for the company? When assessing priorities for systems requests, a systems analyst should look for high scores in all of the following except ____. one person's bias is more likely to affect the decisions When evaluating systems requests, all of the following are disadvantages of a systems review committee except ____. define project scope as clearly as possible To avoid the problem of project creep, ____. fishbone When using a ____ diagram to investigate causes of a problem, an analyst first states the problem and then draws a main bone with subbones that represent possible causes of the problem. discretionary Projects where management has a choice in implementing them are called ____ projects. True Competition drives many information systems decisions. False Even if users have difficulty with a new system, it still will produce the expected benefits.

False When interacting with users, a systems analyst should focus on difficulties instead of questioning users about additional capability they would like to have. True Whenever possible, a systems analyst should evaluate a proposed project based on tangible costs and benefits that represent actual (or approximate) dollar values. Sales reps requested a more powerful sales analysis report. As part of the annual report for the fiscal year just ended, Lara is working on a grid that summarizes the major decisions that the small business for which she works made during the year. As part of her review, she is identifying whether a decision was impacted by factors internal to the company, or external. Which of the following does not appear on Lara's list of external factors? The new system is more user-friendly, thus increasing employee job satisfaction. Sam is the analyst with the responsibility for assessing the economic feasibility of the new system that his team has been hired to develop for Widgets, Inc. Sam's boss has asked for a quick list of the tangible benefits of the new system, because the client has expressed some concerns about the project and she wants to reassure him. Which of the following would NOT be on such a list as developed by Sam? TCO The estimated costs of a proposed system usually are considered the ____, which includes ongoing support and maintenance costs, as well as acquisition costs. operational feasibility

Of the measures of feasibility in the accompanying figure, ____ considers questions such as "Does management support the project?" and "Will the new system require training for users?" Creating a new report for a user ____ is an example of a discretionary project. preliminary A systems analyst conducts a(n) ____ investigation to study the systems request and recommend specific action. economic feasibility Of the measures of feasibility in the accompanying figure, ____ assesses tangible and intangible benefits to the company in addition to costs. greatest benefit, at the lowest cost, in the shortest period of time When setting priorities for systems requests, the highest priority goes to projects that provide the ____. technical A feasibility study includes tests for ____ feasibility, which refers to the practical resources needed to develop, purchase, install, or operate the system. findings In the preliminary investigation report, the ____ section contains the results of the preliminary investigation, including a description of the project's scope, constraints, and feasibility. Performance ____ limitations result when a system that was designed for a specific hardware configuration becomes obsolete when new hardware is introduced.

scope Determining the project ____ means to define the boundaries, or extent, of a project being as specific as possible. False The purpose of an interview, and of the preliminary investigation itself, is to convince others that a project is justified, not to uncover facts. False Data entry controls should be excessive without being effective. True If only one person has the necessary IT skills and experience to evaluate systems requests, that person should consult closely with users and managers throughout the company to ensure that business and operational needs are considered carefully. The new system is more user-friendly, thus increasing employee job satisfaction. Sam is the analyst with the responsibility for assessing the economic feasibility of the new system that his team has been hired to develop for Widgets, Inc. Sam's boss has asked for a quick list of the tangible benefits of the new system, because the client has expressed some concerns about the project and she wants to reassure him. Which of the following would NOT be on such a list as developed by Sam? identify all tasks The first step in creating a WBS is to ____. risk A ____ is an event that could affect a project negatively.

milestones When maintaining schedules, if enough ____ and frequent checkpoints exist, problems will be detected rapidly. successor When two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task, the concurrent tasks are called ____ tasks. identify all the project tasks The first step in the creation of a PERT/CPM chart is to ____. critical A ____ path includes all tasks that are vital to the project schedule. completion with the same personnel as were on the team at the outset All of the following are metrics of a successful project EXCEPT ____. critical Project managers always must be aware of the ____ path, so they can monitor the vital tasks and keep the project on track. milestones In addition to tasks, every project has ____, which are reference points used to monitor progress and manage the project. all of the above task time estimates, sequences, personnel assignments A project manager must balance ____ to achieve a workable schedule; graphical planning aids like the one in the accompanying figure can help in the process. includes identifying project tasks and estimating completion times and costs

A project manager's planning _____. includes monitoring the progress of the project, evaluating results, and taking corrective action when necessary to stay on target For a project manager, monitoring and controlling _____. the team member most vulnerable to a given risk Most risk identifications include a brief description of all of the following EXCEPT ____. all of the above project size and scope, prior experience with similar projects or systems, IT resources In developing time and cost estimates, project managers must consider _____. any of the above personality conflicts among team members, turnover of project personnel, poor control methods Problems with timetables and project milestones can indicate ____. groups The accompanying figure shows task ____, which each might represent several activities that can be shown in a more detailed chart. inaccurate TCO forecast All of the following are possible causes of cost overruns related to human resource factors EXCEPT ____. PERT/CPM Many project managers find ____ charts more helpful for scheduling, monitoring, and controlling projects. defining project constraints

Project scheduling involves all of the following EXCEPT ____. True Most managers recognize that problems do occur on most projects; it is better to alert management sooner rather than later. True System developers can initiate a formal project as early as the preliminary investigation stage, or later on, as analysis, design, and implementation activities occur. True Project planning is a dynamic task and involves constant change. False When tasks must be completed one after another, they are called concurrent tasks. They are predecessor tasks of each other. In discussing PERT/CPM charts, you discuss the types of task patterns that can occur in a project schedule. You give an example of two tasks, A and B, that can both begin as soon as task C is finished. Which of the following is NOT a true statement about tasks A and B? predecessor Two or more concurrent tasks often depend on a single prior task, which is called a(n) ____ task. dependent task A _____ cannot be started until one or more other tasks are completed. bottom-up PERT/CPM is called a(n) ____ technique, because it analyzes a large, complex project as a series of individual tasks. concurrent

When several tasks can start at the same time, each is called a ____ task. involves staffing, which includes selecting the project team and assigning specific tasks to team members A project manager's scheduling function _____. reference to successor tasks In a PERT/CPM chart, each task has all of the following EXCEPT a(n) ____. response A risk ____ plan is a proactive effort to anticipate a risk and describe an action plan to deal with it. False Using prior experience to make time and cost estimates works best for large projects. False When two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task, each of the concurrent tasks is called a predecessor task. True Although a Gantt chart provides more detailed information about a project, a PERT/CPM chart offers a rapid overview that graphically displays the timing, duration, and progress of each task. histogram A common tool for showing the distribution of a questionnaire or sampling results is a vertical bar chart called a(n) ____. use case diagram A(n) ____ is a UML technique that visually represents the interaction between users and an information system. more satisfied users

Greater user involvement in the system development process usually results in ____. range-of-response questions In an interview, ____ are questions that ask a person to evaluate something by providing limited answers to specific responses or on a numeric scale. actor In a use case diagram, the user becomes a(n) ____, with a specific role that describes how he or she interacts with a system. Student grades must be entered on machinescannable forms prepared by the instructor ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the input category. systematic sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select every tenth customer for review. informal In a(n) ____ structure, which usually is based on interpersonal relationships, some people have more influence or knowledge than appears on an organization chart. stratified sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ could ensure the sample is balanced geographically by selecting five customers from each of four zip codes. random sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select any 20 customers.

The contact management system must generate a daily reminder list for all sales reps ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the output category. FDD Using a(n) ____, an analyst can show business functions and break them down into lower-level functions and processes. Analytical skills ____ enable a systems analyst to identify a problem, evaluate the key elements, and develop a useful solution. FDD A(n) ____ is a top-down representation of a function or a process. give the interviewee easy access to supporting material that might be needed If an interviewee gives only short or incomplete responses to open-ended questions, a systems analyst should do all of the following EXCEPT ____. scrum In a(n) ____, team members prepare to lunge at each other to achieve their objectives. systems analysis The ____ phase of the SDLC includes four main activities: requirements modeling, data and process modeling, object modeling, and consideration of development strategies. both a and b prototyping, user involvement RAD relies heavily on ____. open-ended questions In an interview, ____ encourage spontaneous and unstructured responses.

True The ability to manage information is the mark of a successful systems analyst and an important skill for all IT professionals. False When fact-finding, asking what is being done is the same as asking what could or should be done. False In the early stages of systems analysis, interviews usually focus on specific topics, but as the fact-finding process continues, the interviews are more general. True IT professionals recognize that successful systems must be user-oriented, and users need to be involved, formally or informally, at every stage of systems development. control Perry has inherited an Excel sheet that lists all of the system requirements for his team's new project, but unfortunately, his predecessor did not label the requirements with categoriesor in some cases failed to categorize them correctly so he needs to take care of this so the requirements can be sorted correctly. Perry has found one system requirement that he thinks could fit into a couple of different categories. What is the best categorization of this requirement: An employee record must be added, changed, or deleted only by a member of the human resources department? questionnaire In projects where it is desirable to obtain input from a large number of people, a(n) ____, such as that shown in the accompanying figure, can be a valuable tool.

The student records system must produce class lists within five hours after the end of registration ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the performance category. random sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select any 20 customers. UML The ____ is a widely used method of visualizing and documenting software systems design. The system must maintain separate levels of security for users and the system administrator ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the control category. closed-ended questions In an interview, ____ limit or restrict the response. informal In a(n) ____ structure, which usually is based on interpersonal relationships, some people have more influence or knowledge than appears on an organization chart. TCO In addition to direct costs, systems developers must identify and document indirect expenses that contribute to the ____. stratified sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ could ensure the sample is balanced geographically by selecting five customers from each of four zip codes.

False When designing a questionnaire, arrange questions in a random order, intermixing simple and more complex topics. True The main objective of a sample is to ensure that it represents the overall population accurately. True A list of topics should be sent to an interviewee several days before the meeting, especially when detailed information is needed, so the person can prepare for the interview and minimize the need for a follow-up meeting. his own Kieran has finished compiling the list of the various members of the JAD group: He is the JAD project leader, Malia is the representative from top management, Simon is a manager, Alisa and Ian are users, Shakira and Max are systems analysts, and Devon is the recorder. As Kieran develops the agenda he wants to put the name of the appropriate person next to the agenda item. Whose name would he put next to the final task on the agenda, the task of preparing the report that will be sent to JAD team members? validity In a data dictionary, some data elements have ____ rules, such as an employee's salary must be within the range defined for the employee's job classification. logical In data and process modeling, a(n) ____ model shows what the system must do, regardless of how it will be implemented physically. no output A black hole process is a process that has ____.

a process step that is repeated until a specific condition changes A black hole process is a process that has ____. tree A decision ____ is a graphical representation of the conditions, actions, and rules found in a decision table. Leveling ____ is the process of drawing a series of increasingly detailed DFDs, until all functional primitives are identified. All of the above Spontaneous generation, Gray holes, Black holes ____ is/are logically impossible in a DFD because a process must act on input, shown by an incoming data flow, and produce output, represented by an outgoing data flow. horizontal form that resembles a tree with the roots at the left and the branches to the right Decision trees show the logic structure in a ____. capital DFD symbols are referenced by using all ____ letters for the symbol name. value for the data element if a value otherwise is not entered for it The data dictionary usually records and describes a default value, which is the ____. records In a data dictionary, data elements are combined into ____, which are meaningful combinations of data elements that are included in data flows or retained in data stores. domain

A data dictionary specifies a data element's ____, which is the set of values permitted for the data element. field In a data dictionary, a(n) ____ is the smallest piece of data that has meaning within an information system. rectangle with rounded corners In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson symbol for a process is a ____. exploded view Because diagram 0 is a more detailed or expanded version of process 0 on a context diagram, diagram 0 is called a(n) ____. alias In a data dictionary, any name other than the standard data element name is called a(n) ____. ensures that the input and output data flows of the parent DFD are maintained on the child DFD Balancing ____.
systems planning phase In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, the ____ usually begins with a formal request to the IT department, called a systems request, which describes problems or desired changes in an information system or a business process. business model A ____, or requirements model, describes the information that a system must provide. enterprise applications Examples of company-wide applications, called ____, include order processing systems, payroll systems, and company communications networks. Modeling ____ is a systems development technique that produces a graphical representation of a concept or process that systems developers can analyze, test, and modify. O-O Whereas structured analysis treats processes and data as separate components, ____ combines data and the processes that act on the data into things called objects. process-centered Because it focuses on processes that transform data into useful information, structured analysis is called a(n) ____ technique.

waterfall model Traditionally, the SDLC is pictured as a(n) ____, like that shown in the accompanying figure, where the result of each phase, which is called a deliverable or end product, flows sequentially into the next phase. object-oriented analysis The ____ method of developing systems produces code that is modular and reusable. SDLC Structured analysis is a traditional systems development technique that uses a series of phases, called the ____, to plan, analyze, design, implement, and support an information system. provide direction, necessary resources, and performance feedback to supervisors and team leaders In a typical company organizational model, middle managers ____. adaptive The ____ method of developing systems stresses team interaction and reflects a set of community-based values. tries to decide how the system will be implemented before determining what the system is supposed to do In launching a new information system, the greatest risk occurs when a company ____. systems support and security In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, during ____, the IT staff maintains, enhances, and protects the system. methods properties. In object-oriented design, built-in processes called ____ can change an object's

business process reengineering (BPR) When companies attempt to simplify operations or reduce costs, a popular strategy is to have managers and systems analysts perform ____. business process modeling Systems analysts use a process called ____ to represent a company's operations and information needs. Legacy systems When planning an information system, a company must consider how a new system will interface with older systems, which are called ____. 24 months Over 40 years ago, a concept called Moore's Law accurately predicted that computer processing power would double about every ____. include e-mail, voice mail, fax, video conferencing, word processing, automated calendars, database management, spreadsheets, and high-seed Internet access User productivity systems ____. False In a knowledge management system, a knowledge base consists of logical rules that identify data patterns and relationships. False Because they focus on a longer time frame, middle managers need less detailed information than top managers, but somewhat more than supervisors who oversee day-to-day operations.

True A corporate culture is the set of beliefs, rules, traditions, values, and attitudes that define a company and influence its way of doing business. True In the systems analysis phase, the first step is requirements modeling, where business processes are investigated and what the new system must do is documented. structured analysis Roark has just joined the company and in his role as lead analyst, he will be responsible for determining which systems development method the team uses to create the new application for a major medical supplier. It is a new day at the firm. Roark has been in place for a few weeks, strengthening the communications skills of his employees, getting them to work much better together. Now, the challenge that he faces is not an internal one; it lies with the client, which is increasingly showing itself to be incapable of sticking with decisions. Roark, based on his past experience with other clients like this, is afraid that the client will throw them a curveball and want to make changes late in the game but that they also will be unwilling to absorb the costs of those changes. For this reason, Roark eliminates which of the following methods of development? agile/adaptive methods Roark has just joined the company and in his role as lead analyst, he will be responsible for determining which systems development method the team uses to create the new application for a major medical supplier. After Roark has spent a week getting to know the members of the team, including their strengths and weaknesses, and what has worked well (and not so well) for this particular team in the past, one theme keeps recurring: the team has particularly weak communications skills. Which of the following methods, then, is he least likely to use, given what he knows about the disadvantages of each method? economic A feasibility study includes tests for ____ feasibility, which means that the projected benefits of the proposed system outweigh the estimated costs. have complex instructions A systems request form should not ____.

introduction In a preliminary investigation report, the ____ contain(s) a brief description of the system, the name of the person or group performing the investigation, and the name of the person or group who initiated the investigation. user-friendly system that improves employee job satisfaction of the following except a(n) ____. Examples of tangible benefits include all

Customer relationship management (CRM) ____ components can provide automated response to sales inquiries, Web-based order processing, and online inventory tracking. fishbone A popular technique for investigating causes and effects is called a(n) ____ diagram, which is an analysis tool that represents the possible causes of a problem as a graphical outline.

Strategic ____ planning is the process of identifying long-term organizational goals, strategies, and resources. determine the people to interview, establish objectives for the interview, develop interview questions, prepare for the interview In sequence, the interviewing process involves a series of steps: ____, conduct the interview, document the interview, and evaluate the interview. SWOT During strategic planning, top managers ask a series of questions that is called a(n) ____ analysis because it examines a company's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. conduct interviews The primary method of obtaining information during the preliminary investigation is to ____. Will the proposed system decrease revenue for the company? When assessing priorities for systems requests, a systems analyst should look for high scores in all of the following except ____. one person's bias is more likely to affect the decisions When evaluating systems requests, all of the following are disadvantages of a systems review committee except ____. define project scope as clearly as possible To avoid the problem of project creep, ____.

fishbone When using a ____ diagram to investigate causes of a problem, an analyst first states the problem and then draws a main bone with sub-bones that represent possible causes of the problem. discretionary projects. True False Projects where management has a choice in implementing them are called ____

Competition drives many information systems decisions. Even if users have difficulty with a new system, it still will produce the expected benefits.

False When interacting with users, a systems analyst should focus on difficulties instead of questioning users about additional capability they would like to have. True Whenever possible, a systems analyst should evaluate a proposed project based on tangible costs and benefits that represent actual (or approximate) dollar values. Sales reps requested a more powerful sales analysis report. As part of the annual report for the fiscal year just ended, Lara is working on a grid that summarizes the major decisions that the small business for which she works made during the year. As part of her review, she is identifying whether a decision was impacted by factors internal to the company, or external.

Which of the following does not appear on Lara's list of external factors?

The new system is more user-friendly, thus increasing employee job satisfaction.Sam is the analyst with the responsibility for assessing the economic feasibility of the new system that his team has been hired to develop for Widgets, Inc.

Sam's boss has asked for a quick list of the tangible benefits of the new system, because the client has expressed some concerns about the project and she wants to reassure him. Which of the following would NOT be on such a list as developed by Sam? TCO The estimated costs of a proposed system usually are considered the ____, which includes ongoing support and maintenance costs, as well as acquisition costs. operational feasibility Of the measures of feasibility in the accompanying figure, ____ considers questions such as "Does management support the project?" and "Will the new system require training for users?" Creating a new report for a user ____ is an example of a discretionary project. preliminary A systems analyst conducts a(n) ____ investigation to study the systems request and recommend specific action. economic feasibility Of the measures of feasibility in the accompanying figure, ____ assesses tangible and intangible benefits to the company in addition to costs. greatest benefit, at the lowest cost, in the shortest period of time When setting priorities for systems requests, the highest priority goes to projects that provide the ____. technical A feasibility study includes tests for ____ feasibility, which refers to the practical resources needed to develop, purchase, install, or operate the system. findings In the preliminary investigation report, the ____ section contains the results of the preliminary investigation, including a description of the project's scope, constraints, and feasibility. Performance ____ limitations result when a system that was designed for a specific hardware configuration becomes obsolete when new hardware is introduced. scope Determining the project ____ means to define the boundaries, or extent, of a project being as specific as possible. False The purpose of an interview, and of the preliminary investigation itself, is to convince others that a project is justified, not to uncover facts. False Data entry controls should be excessive without being effective.

True If only one person has the necessary IT skills and experience to evaluate systems requests, that person should consult closely with users and managers throughout the company to ensure that business and operational needs are considered carefully. The new system is more user-friendly, thus increasing employee job satisfaction.Sam is the analyst with the responsibility for assessing the economic feasibility of the new system that his team has been hired to develop for Widgets, Inc.

Sam's boss has asked for a quick list of the tangible benefits of the new system, because the client has expressed some concerns about the project and she wants to reassure him. Which of the following would NOT be on such a list as developed by Sam? identify all tasksThe first step in creating a WBS is to ____. risk A ____ is an event that could affect a project negatively.

milestones When maintaining schedules, if enough ____ and frequent checkpoints exist, problems will be detected rapidly. successor When two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task, the concurrent tasks are called ____ tasks. identify all the project tasks The first step in the creation of a PERT/CPM chart is to ____.

critical A ____ path includes all tasks that are vital to the project schedule. completion with the same personnel as were on the team at the outset All of the following are metrics of a successful project EXCEPT ____. critical Project managers always must be aware of the ____ path, so they can monitor the vital tasks and keep the project on track. milestones In addition to tasks, every project has ____, which are reference points used to monitor progress and manage the project. all of the above task time estimates, sequences, personnel assignments A project manager must balance ____ to achieve a workable schedule; graphical planning aids like the one in the accompanying figure can help in the process. includes identifying project tasks and estimating completion times and costs planning _____. A project manager's

includes monitoring the progress of the project, evaluating results, and taking corrective action when necessary to stay on target For a project manager, monitoring and controlling _____. the team member most vulnerable to a given risk description of all of the following EXCEPT ____. all of the above project size and scope, prior experience with similar projects or systems, IT resources time and cost estimates, project managers must consider _____. any of the above personality conflicts among team members, turnover of project personnel, poor control methods Problems with timetables and project milestones can indicate ____. groups The accompanying figure shows task ____, which each might represent several activities that can be shown in a more detailed chart. inaccurate TCO forecast All of the following are possible causes of cost overruns related to human resource factors EXCEPT ____. PERT/CPM Many project managers find ____ charts more helpful for scheduling, monitoring, and controlling projects. defining project constraints Project scheduling involves all of the following EXCEPT ____. In developing Most risk identifications include a brief

True Most managers recognize that problems do occur on most projects; it is better to alert management sooner rather than later. True System developers can initiate a formal project as early as the preliminary investigation stage, or later on, as analysis, design, and implementation activities occur. True False Project planning is a dynamic task and involves constant change. When tasks must be completed one after another, they are called concurrent tasks.

They are predecessor tasks of each other. In discussing PERT/CPM charts, you discuss the types of task patterns that can occur in a project schedule. You give an example of two tasks, A and B, that can both begin as soon as task C is finished. Which of the following is NOT a true statement about tasks A and B? predecessor ____ task. Two or more concurrent tasks often depend on a single prior task, which is called a(n)

dependent task A _____ cannot be started until one or more other tasks are completed.

bottom-up PERT/CPM is called a(n) ____ technique, because it analyzes a large, complex project as a series of individual tasks. concurrent When several tasks can start at the same time, each is called a ____ task.

involves staffing, which includes selecting the project team and assigning specific tasks to team members A project manager's scheduling function _____. reference to successor tasks ____. response deal with it. False In a PERT/CPM chart, each task has all of the following EXCEPT a(n)

A risk ____ plan is a proactive effort to anticipate a risk and describe an action plan to

Using prior experience to make time and cost estimates works best for large projects.

False When two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task, each of the concurrent tasks is called a predecessor task. True Although a Gantt chart provides more detailed information about a project, a PERT/CPM chart offers a rapid overview that graphically displays the timing, duration, and progress of each task. histogram A common tool for showing the distribution of a questionnaire or sampling results is a vertical bar chart called a(n) ____. use case diagram A(n) ____ is a UML technique that visually represents the interaction between users and an information system. more satisfied users ____. Greater user involvement in the system development process usually results in

range-of-response questions In an interview, ____ are questions that ask a person to evaluate something by providing limited answers to specific responses or on a numeric scale. actor In a use case diagram, the user becomes a(n) ____, with a specific role that describes how he or she interacts with a system. Student grades must be entered on machine-scannable forms prepared by the instructor a typical example of a system requirement for the input category. ____ is

systematic sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select every tenth customer for review. informal In a(n) ____ structure, which usually is based on interpersonal relationships, some people have more influence or knowledge than appears on an organization chart.

stratified sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ could ensure the sample is balanced geographically by selecting five customers from each of four zip codes. random sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select any 20 customers. The contact management system must generate a daily reminder list for all sales reps example of a system requirement for the output category. ____ is a typical

FDD Using a(n) ____, an analyst can show business functions and break them down into lower-level functions and processes. Analytical skills ____ enable a systems analyst to identify a problem, evaluate the key elements, and develop a useful solution. FDD A(n) ____ is a top-down representation of a function or a process.

give the interviewee easy access to supporting material that might be needed If an interviewee gives only short or incomplete responses to open-ended questions, a systems analyst should do all of the following EXCEPT ____. scrum In a(n) ____, team members prepare to lunge at each other to achieve their objectives. systems analysis The ____ phase of the SDLC includes four main activities: requirements modeling, data and process modeling, object modeling, and consideration of development strategies. both a and b prototyping, user involvement RAD relies heavily on ____. open-ended questions In an interview, ____ encourage spontaneous and unstructured responses. True The ability to manage information is the mark of a successful systems analyst and an important skill for all IT professionals. False When fact-finding, asking what is being done is the same as asking what could or should be done. False In the early stages of systems analysis, interviews usually focus on specific topics, but as the fact-finding process continues, the interviews are more general. True IT professionals recognize that successful systems must be user-oriented, and users need to be involved, formally or informally, at every stage of systems development. control Perry has inherited an Excel sheet that lists all of the system requirements for his team's new project, but unfortunately, his predecessor did not label the requirements with categoriesor in some

cases failed to categorize them correctlyso he needs to take care of this so the requirements can be sorted correctly.

Perry has found one system requirement that he thinks could fit into a couple of different categories. What is the best categorization of this requirement: An employee record must be added, changed, or deleted only by a member of the human resources department? questionnaire In projects where it is desirable to obtain input from a large number of people, a(n) ____, such as that shown in the accompanying figure, can be a valuable tool. The student records system must produce class lists within five hours after the end of registration ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the performance category. random sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select any 20 customers. UML The ____ is a widely used method of visualizing and documenting software systems design. ____ is

The system must maintain separate levels of security for users and the system administrator a typical example of a system requirement for the control category. closed-ended questions In an interview, ____ limit or restrict the response.

informal In a(n) ____ structure, which usually is based on interpersonal relationships, some people have more influence or knowledge than appears on an organization chart. TCO In addition to direct costs, systems developers must identify and document indirect expenses that contribute to the ____. stratified sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ could ensure the sample is balanced geographically by selecting five customers from each of four zip codes. False When designing a questionnaire, arrange questions in a random order, intermixing simple and more complex topics. True The main objective of a sample is to ensure that it represents the overall population accurately.

True A list of topics should be sent to an interviewee several days before the meeting, especially when detailed information is needed, so the person can prepare for the interview and minimize the need for a follow-up meeting. his own Kieran has finished compiling the list of the various members of the JAD group: He is the JAD project leader, Malia is the representative from top management, Simon is a manager, Alisa and Ian are users, Shakira and Max are systems analysts, and Devon is the recorder.

As Kieran develops the agenda he wants to put the name of the appropriate person next to the agenda item. Whose name would he put next to the final task on the agenda, the task of preparing the report that will be sent to JAD team members? validity In a data dictionary, some data elements have ____ rules, such as an employee's salary must be within the range defined for the employee's job classification. logical In data and process modeling, a(n) ____ model shows what the system must do, regardless of how it will be implemented physically. no output A black hole process is a process that has ____.

a process step that is repeated until a specific condition changes A black hole process is a process that has ____. tree A decision ____ is a graphical representation of the conditions, actions, and rules found in a decision table. Leveling ____ is the process of drawing a series of increasingly detailed DFDs, until all functional primitives are identified. All of the above Spontaneous generation, Gray holes, Black holes ____ is/are logically impossible in a DFD because a process must act on input, shown by an incoming data flow, and produce output, represented by an outgoing data flow. horizontal form that resembles a tree with the roots at the left and the branches to the right Decision trees show the logic structure in a ____. capital DFD symbols are referenced by using all ____ letters for the symbol name. value for the data element if a value otherwise is not entered for it records and describes a default value, which is the ____. The data dictionary usually

records In a data dictionary, data elements are combined into ____, which are meaningful combinations of data elements that are included in data flows or retained in data stores. domain A data dictionary specifies a data element's ____, which is the set of values permitted for the data element. field In a data dictionary, a(n) ____ is the smallest piece of data that has meaning within an information system. rectangle with rounded corners In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson symbol for a process is a ____.

exploded view Because diagram 0 is a more detailed or expanded version of process 0 on a context diagram, diagram 0 is called a(n) ____. alias In a data dictionary, any name other than the standard data element name is called a(n) ____.

ensures that the input and output data flows of the parent DFD are maintained on the child DFD Balancing ____. line with a single or double arrowhead In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson symbol for a data flow is a ____. False False In most data dictionaries, records are defined together with the data flows and data stores. Two data stores can be connected by a data flow without an intervening process.

True In addition to describing each data element, data flow, data store, record, entity, and process, the data dictionary documents the relationships among these components. False In modular design, a rectangle represents a condition or decision, a diamond shape represents a step or a process, and the logic follows the lines in the direction indicated by the arrows. Costs may be high. The analysts at Novel Systems Worldwide are considering the four-model approach to system development for a new client.

If they pursue the four-model approach, which of the following is a likely outcome? A teleological model of the current system The analysts at Novel Systems Worldwide are considering the four-model approach to system development for a new client.

Which of the following will NOT be developed if they decide to use the four-model approach? repository A data ____ is a central storehouse of information about a system's data.

line with a single or double arrowhead In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson symbol for a data flow is a ____. one or more process steps based on the results of a test or condition completion of ____ The selection structure is the

process descriptions If processes must be performed in a specific sequence, you document the information in the ____. Balancing ____ maintains consistency among DFDs by ensuring that input and output data flows align properly. context diagrams Typical process description tools include all of the following EXCEPT ____.

pseudocode Structured English might look familiar to programming students because it resembles ____, which is used in program design. decision A(n) ____ table shows a logical structure, with all possible combinations of conditions and resulting actions. rectangle, which may be shaded to make it look three-dimensional symbol for an entity is a ____. In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson

type In a data dictionary, ____ refers to whether the data element contains numeric, alphabetic, or character values. True What makes one system more complex than another is the number of components, the number of levels, and the degree of interaction among its processes, entities, data stores, and data flows. True In a DFD, a data flow must have a process symbol on at least one end.

iteration Evan is an expert on all of the different kinds of process description tools, so when his colleagues have questions, they know where to turn.

One of the firm's beginner analysts is working on a financial process that will continue to print vendor payments until it reaches the end of the file. Which of the following processes will Evan suggest that the analyst use? association oval The line from the actor to a use case is called a(n) ____.

The UML symbol for a use case is a(n) ____ with a label that describes the action or event. A ____ is a command that tells an object to perform a certain method. A use case ____ is a visual summary of several related use cases within a system or

message diagram subsystem. attributes 0..*

An object has certain ____, which are characteristics that describe the object.

The UML notation ____ identifies a zero or many relation.

object A(n) ____ represents a real person, place, event, or transaction. Relationships ____ describe what objects need to know about each other, how objects respond to changes in other objects, and the effects of membership in classes, superclasses, and subclasses. instance Your red Mustang is a(n) ____ of the CAR class.

child Inheritance enables an object, called a ____, to derive one or more of its attributes from another object.

inherit In an object-oriented system, objects can ____ certain attributes from other objects. class All objects within a(n) ____ share common attributes and methods.

Encapsulation ____ allows objects to be used as modular components anywhere in the system. class An object belongs to a group or category called a(n) ____.

Relationships ____ enable objects to communicate and interact as they perform business functions and transactions required by the system. methods actor state An object's ____ are the tasks or functions the object performs.

In a use case, an external entity is called a(n) ____. The ____ of an object is an adjective that describes the object's current status.

True A major advantage of O-O designs is that systems analysts can save time and avoid errors by using modular objects. False False An object treats data and processes separately. Use cases cannot interact with other use cases.

False Just as objects are similar to adjectives, attributes resemble verbs that describe what and how an object does something. True Class diagrams evolve into code modules, data objects, and other system components.

microwave oven Alex is getting a little confused by the terminology in the object-oriented world, so he consults his roommate, who has been doing a lot of work in object modeling in previous coursework.

Which of the following does Alex's roommate use as an example of an instance of the APPLIANCE class? methods Alex is getting a little confused by the terminology in the object-oriented world, so he consults his roommate, who has been doing a lot of work in object modeling in previous coursework.

The following examplesbake cakes, self-clean, and reheat pastaare all what with regard to the oven object, according to Alex's roommate? Methods ____ resemble verbs that describe what and how an object does something.

method Your car performs a(n) ____ called OPERATE WIPERS when you send a message by moving the proper control.

UML actor

____ is a widely used method of visualizing and documenting an information system. In a use case, an external entity is called a(n) ____.

True By limiting access to internal processes, an object prevents its internal code from being altered by another object or process. False False True The same message to two different objects produces the same results. An object treats data and processes separately. A gas pump is an example of a black box.

0..* Jaime, the newest analyst at Novel Systems Worldwide, is responsible for assigning the appropriate UML notations to a given class diagram.

In a given diagram, Jaime is marking up a relationship in which a given employee can have no payroll deductions or she can have many deductions. Which of the following notations will Jaime write to mark this relationship? ASP A(n) ____ is a firm that delivers a software application, or access to an application, by charging a usage or subscription fee. fixed fee model When determining outsourcing fees, a ____ uses a set fee based on a specified level of service and user support. vendorsCompanies that develop software for sale are called software ____. request for proposal (RFP) A ____ is a document that describes a company, lists the IT services or products needed, and specifies the features required. service A firm that offers outsourcing solutions is called a ____ provider. transaction A(n) ____ model is an outsourcing fee model that charges a variable fee based on the volume of transactions or operations performed by the application. data duplication should be encouraged Guidelines to follow when determining data entry and storage considerations include all of the following except ____. build or buy decision. The choice between developing versus purchasing software often is called a ____

systems design The physical design is developed during the ____ phase of the SDLC. 4GL In a ____, the commands tend to resemble natural statements that people use.

middleware Web-based software usually requires additional layers, called ____, to communicate with existing software and legacy systems. obtain input from other companies who already have implemented the software Typically, companies choose in-house software development for all of the following reasons except to ____. parameter A ____ is a value that the user enters whenever a query is run, which provides flexibility, enables users to access information easily, and costs less. default A ____ is a value that a system displays automatically. satisfaction of unique business requirements Advantages of purchasing a software package over developing software in-house include all of the following except ____. package provider. A software ____ is software that is obtained from a vendor or application service

cloud Some industry leaders predict that ____ computing will offer an overall online software and data environment supported by supercomputer technology. all of the above negotiating directly with the software vendor to make enhancements to meet the buyer's needs by paying for the changes, purchasing a basic package that vendors will customize to suit the buyer's needs, purchasing the software and making their own modifications, if this is permissible under the terms of the software license Buyers can customize a software package by ____. False The decision to develop software in-house will require less participation from the systems analyst than outsourcing or choosing a commercial package. False A subscription model charges a variable fee based on the volume of transactions or operations performed by the application. True Many firms feel that in-house IT resources and capabilities provide a competitive advantage because an in-house team can respond quickly when business problems or opportunities arise. True Mission-critical IT systems should be outsourced only if the result is a cost-attractive, reliable, business solution that fits the company's long-term business strategy. True Software vendors regularly upgrade software packages by adding improvements and enhancements to create a new version or release. design In an approach called ____ prototyping, systems analysts use prototyping to verify user requirements, after which the prototype is discarded and implementation continues. benchmark A ____ measures the time a package takes to process a certain number of transactions.

interface In addition to configuring software, an IT staff can create a user ____, which includes screens, commands, controls, and features that enable users to interact more effectively with the application. Web-based Building an application in a ____ environment can offer greater benefits, and sometimes greater risks, compared to a traditional environment. Prototyping ____, like that illustrated in the accompanying figure, produces an early, rapidly constructed working version of a proposed system. Outsourcing ____ is the transfer of information systems development, operation, or maintenance to an outside firm that provides these services, for a fee, on a temporary or long-term basis. read-only properties Some data files should be totally hidden from view, while others should have ____ so users can view, but not change, the data. .NET Microsoft's ____ is one of the major Web-based development environments.

True Building an application in a Web-based environment might involve different risks and benefits, compared to a traditional environment. False A request for quotation (RFQ) is less specific than an RFP (request for proposal).

True By designing a system in-house, companies can develop and train an IT staff that understands the organization's business functions and information support needs. True The primary objective of an evaluation and selection team is to eliminate system alternatives that will not work, rank the system alternatives that will work, and present the viable alternatives to management for a final decision. Data duplication should be encouraged. Now that they have joined the firm, Priscilla is providing the junior analysts on the team with some real-world illustrations to explain some of the system design concepts that they have studied in their coursework, to solidify their understanding.

Which of the following is NOT a guideline Priscilla will impart to the new class of analysts? When Marny is tasked with the job, her output can involve outright purchase or a variety of leasing options. You have started the process of selecting a new system for the firm and you are weighing all of the various issues that need to be considered and the resources you have at your disposal as you make this important decision.

As you prepare to winnow the field in your selection of a new system, you want a quick refresher on the difference between RFPs and RFQs. If you need an RFP, Simone will write it, and if you need an RFQ, Marny is responsible for writing that. Which of the following is true?

systems planning phase In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, the ____ usually begins with a formal request to the IT department, called a systems request, which describes problems or desired changes in an information system or a business process. business model A ____, or requirements model, describes the information that a system must provide. enterprise applications Examples of company-wide applications, called ____, include order processing systems, payroll systems, and company communications networks. Modeling ____ is a systems development technique that produces a graphical representation of a concept or process that systems developers can analyze, test, and modify. O-O Whereas structured analysis treats processes and data as separate components, ____ combines data and the processes that act on the data into things called objects. process-centered Because it focuses on processes that transform data into useful information, structured analysis is called a(n) ____ technique. waterfall model Traditionally, the SDLC is pictured as a(n) ____, like that shown in the accompanying figure, where the result of each phase, which is called a deliverable or end product, flows sequentially into the next phase.

object-oriented analysis The ____ method of developing systems produces code that is modular and reusable. SDLC Structured analysis is a traditional systems development technique that uses a series of phases, called the ____, to plan, analyze, design, implement, and support an information system. provide direction, necessary resources, and performance feedback to supervisors and team leaders In a typical company organizational model, middle managers ____. adaptive The ____ method of developing systems stresses team interaction and reflects a set of community-based values. tries to decide how the system will be implemented before determining what the system is supposed to do In launching a new information system, the greatest risk occurs when a company ____. systems support and security In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, during ____, the IT staff maintains, enhances, and protects the system. methods In object-oriented design, built-in processes called ____ can change an object's properties. business process reengineering (BPR) When companies attempt to simplify operations or reduce costs, a popular strategy is to have managers and systems analysts perform ____. business process modeling

Systems analysts use a process called ____ to represent a company's operations and information needs. Legacy systems When planning an information system, a company must consider how a new system will interface with older systems, which are called ____. 24 months Over 40 years ago, a concept called Moore's Law accurately predicted that computer processing power would double about every ____. include e-mail, voice mail, fax, video conferencing, word processing, automated calendars, database management, spreadsheets, and high-seed Internet access User productivity systems ____. False In a knowledge management system, a knowledge base consists of logical rules that identify data patterns and relationships. False Because they focus on a longer time frame, middle managers need less detailed information than top managers, but somewhat more than supervisors who oversee day-to-day operations. True A corporate culture is the set of beliefs, rules, traditions, values, and attitudes that define a company and influence its way of doing business. True In the systems analysis phase, the first step is requirements modeling, where business processes are investigated and what the new system must do is documented.

structured analysis Roark has just joined the company and in his role as lead analyst, he will be responsible for determining which systems development method the team uses to create the new application for a major medical supplier. It is a new day at the firm. Roark has been in place for a few weeks, strengthening the communications skills of his employees, getting them to work much better together. Now, the challenge that he faces is not an internal one; it lies with the client, which is increasingly showing itself to be incapable of sticking with decisions. Roark, based on his past experience with other clients like this, is afraid that the client will throw them a curveball and want to make changes late in the game but that they also will be unwilling to absorb the costs of those changes. For this reason, Roark eliminates which of the following methods of development? agile/adaptive methods Roark has just joined the company and in his role as lead analyst, he will be responsible for determining which systems development method the team uses to create the new application for a major medical supplier. After Roark has spent a week getting to know the members of the team, including their strengths and weaknesses, and what has worked well (and not so well) for this particular team in the past, one theme keeps recurring: the team has particularly weak communications skills. Which of the following methods, then, is he least likely to use, given what he knows about the disadvantages of each method? economic A feasibility study includes tests for ____ feasibility, which means that the projected benefits of the proposed system outweigh the estimated costs. have complex instructions A systems request form should not ____. introduction

In a preliminary investigation report, the ____ contain(s) a brief description of the system, the name of the person or group performing the investigation, and the name of the person or group who initiated the investigation. user-friendly system that improves employee job satisfaction Examples of tangible benefits include all of the following except a(n) ____. Customer relationship management (CRM) ____ components can provide automated response to sales inquiries, Web-based order processing, and online inventory tracking. fishbone A popular technique for investigating causes and effects is called a(n) ____ diagram, which is an analysis tool that represents the possible causes of a problem as a graphical outline. Strategic ____ planning is the process of identifying long-term organizational goals, strategies, and resources. determine the people to interview, establish objectives for the interview, develop interview questions, prepare for the interview In sequence, the interviewing process involves a series of steps: ____, conduct the interview, document the interview, and evaluate the interview. SWOT During strategic planning, top managers ask a series of questions that is called a(n) ____ analysis because it examines a company's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. conduct interviews The primary method of obtaining information during the preliminary investigation is to ____.

Will the proposed system decrease revenue for the company? When assessing priorities for systems requests, a systems analyst should look for high scores in all of the following except ____. one person's bias is more likely to affect the decisions When evaluating systems requests, all of the following are disadvantages of a systems review committee except ____. define project scope as clearly as possible To avoid the problem of project creep, ____. fishbone When using a ____ diagram to investigate causes of a problem, an analyst first states the problem and then draws a main bone with subbones that represent possible causes of the problem. discretionary Projects where management has a choice in implementing them are called ____ projects. True Competition drives many information systems decisions. False Even if users have difficulty with a new system, it still will produce the expected benefits. False When interacting with users, a systems analyst should focus on difficulties instead of questioning users about additional capability they would like to have. True Whenever possible, a systems analyst should evaluate a proposed project based on tangible

costs and benefits that represent actual (or approximate) dollar values. Sales reps requested a more powerful sales analysis report. As part of the annual report for the fiscal year just ended, Lara is working on a grid that summarizes the major decisions that the small business for which she works made during the year. As part of her review, she is identifying whether a decision was impacted by factors internal to the company, or external. Which of the following does not appear on Lara's list of external factors? The new system is more user-friendly, thus increasing employee job satisfaction. Sam is the analyst with the responsibility for assessing the economic feasibility of the new system that his team has been hired to develop for Widgets, Inc. Sam's boss has asked for a quick list of the tangible benefits of the new system, because the client has expressed some concerns about the project and she wants to reassure him. Which of the following would NOT be on such a list as developed by Sam? TCO The estimated costs of a proposed system usually are considered the ____, which includes ongoing support and maintenance costs, as well as acquisition costs. operational feasibility Of the measures of feasibility in the accompanying figure, ____ considers questions such as "Does management support the project?" and "Will the new system require training for users?" Creating a new report for a user ____ is an example of a discretionary project.

preliminary A systems analyst conducts a(n) ____ investigation to study the systems request and recommend specific action. economic feasibility Of the measures of feasibility in the accompanying figure, ____ assesses tangible and intangible benefits to the company in addition to costs. greatest benefit, at the lowest cost, in the shortest period of time When setting priorities for systems requests, the highest priority goes to projects that provide the ____. technical A feasibility study includes tests for ____ feasibility, which refers to the practical resources needed to develop, purchase, install, or operate the system. findings In the preliminary investigation report, the ____ section contains the results of the preliminary investigation, including a description of the project's scope, constraints, and feasibility. Performance ____ limitations result when a system that was designed for a specific hardware configuration becomes obsolete when new hardware is introduced. scope Determining the project ____ means to define the boundaries, or extent, of a project being as specific as possible. False The purpose of an interview, and of the preliminary investigation itself, is to convince

others that a project is justified, not to uncover facts. False Data entry controls should be excessive without being effective. True If only one person has the necessary IT skills and experience to evaluate systems requests, that person should consult closely with users and managers throughout the company to ensure that business and operational needs are considered carefully. The new system is more user-friendly, thus increasing employee job satisfaction. Sam is the analyst with the responsibility for assessing the economic feasibility of the new system that his team has been hired to develop for Widgets, Inc. Sam's boss has asked for a quick list of the tangible benefits of the new system, because the client has expressed some concerns about the project and she wants to reassure him. Which of the following would NOT be on such a list as developed by Sam? identify all tasks The first step in creating a WBS is to ____. risk A ____ is an event that could affect a project negatively. milestones When maintaining schedules, if enough ____ and frequent checkpoints exist, problems will be detected rapidly. successor When two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task, the concurrent tasks are called ____ tasks.

identify all the project tasks The first step in the creation of a PERT/CPM chart is to ____. critical A ____ path includes all tasks that are vital to the project schedule. completion with the same personnel as were on the team at the outset All of the following are metrics of a successful project EXCEPT ____. critical Project managers always must be aware of the ____ path, so they can monitor the vital tasks and keep the project on track. milestones In addition to tasks, every project has ____, which are reference points used to monitor progress and manage the project. all of the above task time estimates, sequences, personnel assignments A project manager must balance ____ to achieve a workable schedule; graphical planning aids like the one in the accompanying figure can help in the process. includes identifying project tasks and estimating completion times and costs A project manager's planning _____. includes monitoring the progress of the project, evaluating results, and taking corrective action when necessary to stay on target For a project manager, monitoring and controlling _____. the team member most vulnerable to a given risk

Most risk identifications include a brief description of all of the following EXCEPT ____. all of the above project size and scope, prior experience with similar projects or systems, IT resources In developing time and cost estimates, project managers must consider _____. any of the above personality conflicts among team members, turnover of project personnel, poor control methods Problems with timetables and project milestones can indicate ____. groups The accompanying figure shows task ____, which each might represent several activities that can be shown in a more detailed chart. inaccurate TCO forecast All of the following are possible causes of cost overruns related to human resource factors EXCEPT ____. PERT/CPM Many project managers find ____ charts more helpful for scheduling, monitoring, and controlling projects. defining project constraints Project scheduling involves all of the following EXCEPT ____. True Most managers recognize that problems do occur on most projects; it is better to alert management sooner rather than later. True System developers can initiate a formal project as early as the preliminary investigation stage,

or later on, as analysis, design, and implementation activities occur. True Project planning is a dynamic task and involves constant change. False When tasks must be completed one after another, they are called concurrent tasks. They are predecessor tasks of each other. In discussing PERT/CPM charts, you discuss the types of task patterns that can occur in a project schedule. You give an example of two tasks, A and B, that can both begin as soon as task C is finished. Which of the following is NOT a true statement about tasks A and B? predecessor Two or more concurrent tasks often depend on a single prior task, which is called a(n) ____ task. dependent task A _____ cannot be started until one or more other tasks are completed. bottom-up PERT/CPM is called a(n) ____ technique, because it analyzes a large, complex project as a series of individual tasks. concurrent When several tasks can start at the same time, each is called a ____ task. involves staffing, which includes selecting the project team and assigning specific tasks to team members A project manager's scheduling function _____. reference to successor tasks In a PERT/CPM chart, each task has all of the following EXCEPT a(n) ____.

response A risk ____ plan is a proactive effort to anticipate a risk and describe an action plan to deal with it. False Using prior experience to make time and cost estimates works best for large projects. False When two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task, each of the concurrent tasks is called a predecessor task. True Although a Gantt chart provides more detailed information about a project, a PERT/CPM chart offers a rapid overview that graphically displays the timing, duration, and progress of each task. histogram A common tool for showing the distribution of a questionnaire or sampling results is a vertical bar chart called a(n) ____. use case diagram A(n) ____ is a UML technique that visually represents the interaction between users and an information system. more satisfied users Greater user involvement in the system development process usually results in ____. range-of-response questions In an interview, ____ are questions that ask a person to evaluate something by providing limited answers to specific responses or on a numeric scale. actor

In a use case diagram, the user becomes a(n) ____, with a specific role that describes how he or she interacts with a system. Student grades must be entered on machinescannable forms prepared by the instructor ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the input category. systematic sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select every tenth customer for review. informal In a(n) ____ structure, which usually is based on interpersonal relationships, some people have more influence or knowledge than appears on an organization chart. stratified sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ could ensure the sample is balanced geographically by selecting five customers from each of four zip codes. random sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select any 20 customers. The contact management system must generate a daily reminder list for all sales reps ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the output category. FDD Using a(n) ____, an analyst can show business functions and break them down into lower-level functions and processes.

Analytical skills ____ enable a systems analyst to identify a problem, evaluate the key elements, and develop a useful solution. FDD A(n) ____ is a top-down representation of a function or a process. give the interviewee easy access to supporting material that might be needed If an interviewee gives only short or incomplete responses to open-ended questions, a systems analyst should do all of the following EXCEPT ____. scrum In a(n) ____, team members prepare to lunge at each other to achieve their objectives. systems analysis The ____ phase of the SDLC includes four main activities: requirements modeling, data and process modeling, object modeling, and consideration of development strategies. both a and b prototyping, user involvement RAD relies heavily on ____. open-ended questions In an interview, ____ encourage spontaneous and unstructured responses. True The ability to manage information is the mark of a successful systems analyst and an important skill for all IT professionals. False When fact-finding, asking what is being done is the same as asking what could or should be done.

False In the early stages of systems analysis, interviews usually focus on specific topics, but as the fact-finding process continues, the interviews are more general. True IT professionals recognize that successful systems must be user-oriented, and users need to be involved, formally or informally, at every stage of systems development. control Perry has inherited an Excel sheet that lists all of the system requirements for his team's new project, but unfortunately, his predecessor did not label the requirements with categoriesor in some cases failed to categorize them correctly so he needs to take care of this so the requirements can be sorted correctly. Perry has found one system requirement that he thinks could fit into a couple of different categories. What is the best categorization of this requirement: An employee record must be added, changed, or deleted only by a member of the human resources department? questionnaire In projects where it is desirable to obtain input from a large number of people, a(n) ____, such as that shown in the accompanying figure, can be a valuable tool. The student records system must produce class lists within five hours after the end of registration ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the performance category. random sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select any 20 customers.

UML The ____ is a widely used method of visualizing and documenting software systems design. The system must maintain separate levels of security for users and the system administrator ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the control category. closed-ended questions In an interview, ____ limit or restrict the response. informal In a(n) ____ structure, which usually is based on interpersonal relationships, some people have more influence or knowledge than appears on an organization chart. TCO In addition to direct costs, systems developers must identify and document indirect expenses that contribute to the ____. stratified sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ could ensure the sample is balanced geographically by selecting five customers from each of four zip codes. False When designing a questionnaire, arrange questions in a random order, intermixing simple and more complex topics. True The main objective of a sample is to ensure that it represents the overall population accurately. True

A list of topics should be sent to an interviewee several days before the meeting, especially when detailed information is needed, so the person can prepare for the interview and minimize the need for a follow-up meeting. his own Kieran has finished compiling the list of the various members of the JAD group: He is the JAD project leader, Malia is the representative from top management, Simon is a manager, Alisa and Ian are users, Shakira and Max are systems analysts, and Devon is the recorder. As Kieran develops the agenda he wants to put the name of the appropriate person next to the agenda item. Whose name would he put next to the final task on the agenda, the task of preparing the report that will be sent to JAD team members? validity In a data dictionary, some data elements have ____ rules, such as an employee's salary must be within the range defined for the employee's job classification. logical In data and process modeling, a(n) ____ model shows what the system must do, regardless of how it will be implemented physically. no output A black hole process is a process that has ____. a process step that is repeated until a specific condition changes A black hole process is a process that has ____. tree A decision ____ is a graphical representation of the conditions, actions, and rules found in a decision table. Leveling

____ is the process of drawing a series of increasingly detailed DFDs, until all functional primitives are identified. All of the above Spontaneous generation, Gray holes, Black holes ____ is/are logically impossible in a DFD because a process must act on input, shown by an incoming data flow, and produce output, represented by an outgoing data flow. horizontal form that resembles a tree with the roots at the left and the branches to the right Decision trees show the logic structure in a ____. capital DFD symbols are referenced by using all ____ letters for the symbol name. value for the data element if a value otherwise is not entered for it The data dictionary usually records and describes a default value, which is the ____. records In a data dictionary, data elements are combined into ____, which are meaningful combinations of data elements that are included in data flows or retained in data stores. domain A data dictionary specifies a data element's ____, which is the set of values permitted for the data element. field In a data dictionary, a(n) ____ is the smallest piece of data that has meaning within an information system. rectangle with rounded corners In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson symbol for a process is a ____.

exploded view Because diagram 0 is a more detailed or expanded version of process 0 on a context diagram, diagram 0 is called a(n) ____. alias In a data dictionary, any name other than the standard data element name is called a(n) ____. ensures that the input and output data flows of the parent DFD are maintained on the child DFD Balancing ____.
1.____ is the measure of a systems ability to expand, change, or downsize easily to meet thechanging needs of a business enterprise. Scalability 2. Every information system involves ____. all of the above 3. A system design where the server performs all the processing is described as ____. mainframe architecture 4. In a(n) ____ design, the remote users keystrokes are transmitted to the mainframe, whichresponds by sending screen output back to the users screen. Centralized 5. a client/server design, a database server ____. Processes individual SQL commands 6. In an n-tier system, special utility software called ____ enables the tiers to communicate and pass data back and forth. Middleware 7. In a client/server architecture, just as processing can be done at various places, data can bestored in more than one location using a(n) ____. DDBMS 8. When developing e-business systems, an in-house solution usually requires a ____ for acompany that must adapt quickly in a dynamic e-commerce environment. greater initial investment but provides more flexibility 9. A ____ is an entrance to a multifunction Web site. portal 10. During business hours, a salesperson can enter a sale on a ____ terminal, which is part of an information system that handles daily sales transactions and maintains the online inventoryfile. POS

11. A batch processing system has all of the following characteristics

except
____. the information system is available whenever necessary to support business operations

A) describe how the project team will go about developing the proposed system The project plan is the document that is used to _____. A) describe how the project team will go about developing the proposed system B) outline the tasks to be addressed in developing the proposed system and develop a time estimate for each task. C) outline the technical, economic, and organizational feasibility of the proposed system D) summarize the business need and explain how the proposed system supports that need and creates value E) all of the above B) design Deciding how the hardware, software, and network infrastructure will operate occurs during the _____ phase of the SDLC. A) analysis B) design C) implementation D) planning E) strategy D) system request The _____ is generated by the department or person that has an idea for a new information system.

A) economic feasibility analysis B) requirements document C) project charter D) system request E) project plan B) UML Overall, the consistent notation, integration among the diagramming techniques, and application of the diagrams across the entire development process makes ________ a powerful and flexible tool set for analysts and developers. A) CASE B) UML C) DFDs D) EPCs E) Flow Charts C) create value for the organization The primary goal of the systems analyst is to _____. A) acquire a working tool B) create a wonderful system C) create value for the organization D) establish the phases of the SDLC E) identify opportunities for improvement B) design

Interfaces (e.g., menus, reports, forms) are specified during the _____ phase of the SDLC. A) analysis B) design C) implementation D) planning E) system delivery E)all of the above Developing an information system is similar to building a house because you have to A) start with a basic idea of what is needed B) create simple drawings of what is needed and allow the customer to provide feedback C) develop a detailed set of blueprints D) actually build the project, often with some changes directed by the customer E) all of the above E) planning Understanding why an information system should be built and determining how the project team will build it is part of the _____ phase of the SDLC. A) analysis B) system request C) gathering D) initiating E) planning

E) none of the above _____ development is a structured design methodology that proceeds in a sequence from one phase to the next. A) analysis B) design C) implementation D) all of the above E) none of the above B) person or department that requested the system The project sponsor is the _____. A) lead systems analyst on the project team B) person or department that requested the system C) lead computer programmer charged with writing the code for the system D) project team leader in charge of developing the system E) any of the above may fill the role of the project sponsor D) implementation The phase of the SDLC when the system is actually built or purchased is the _____. A) analysis B) construction C) design D) implementation E) planning

B) Design In which phase of the SDLC is the system specification developed? A) analysis B) design C) implementation D) planning E) system delivery D) all of the above The principal disadvantages(s) with the waterfall development methodology is (are) _____. A) a long time elapses between completion of the system proposal and the delivery of the system B) if the team misses important requirements, expensive post-implementation programming may be needed C) the design must be completely specified on paper before programming begins D) all of the above E) none of the above C) Process-Centered A development methodology that focuses on the processes as the core of the system is said to be _____. A) action-oriented B) structure-oriented C) process-centered D) object-oriented

E) data-centered D) Systems development life cycle The process of understanding how an information system can support business needs, design the system, build it, and deliver it to users is the _____. A) analysis phase of the SDLC B) object oriented approach C) rule for creating a CASE tool D) systems development life cycle E) waterfall development methodology True The business analyst serves as the primary contact point with the project. A) True B) False False An analyst that focuses on the technical issues of the organization (hardware, software, databases and networks) is commonly called a change management analyst. A) True B) False True Determining who will use the system, what the system will do, and where and when it will be used is performed during the analysis phase of the SDLC. A) True B) False

True The primary advantage of the Waterfall Development methodology is requirements are completely specified and held relatively constant prior to programming. A) True B) False False An analyst with business skills that understands the business issues surrounding a system is commonly called a project manager. A) True B) False True In the Unified Process, the analysis phase follows requirements. A) True B) False False The primary objective of the systems analyst is to create a wonderful system. A) True B) False True The new information system is purchased or built during the implementation phase of the SDLC. A) True B) False False

The planning phase is the fundamental process of understanding how an information system should be built and determining who on the project team will build it. A) True B) False True Phased development is considered a special case of RAD approach to developing systems. A) True B) False False A project manager most likely would not have worked as a systems analyst in the past, since project management career track is independent of the system analyst's career track. A) True B) False True In extreme programming programmers pair up to write the code. A) True B) False False Parallel development relies on only one iteration of the analysis phase. A) True B) False True For urgent projects, it is a good idea to use a prototyping methodology.

A) True B) False False Project team members focus on getting the project done, leaving change management to the business managers. A) True B) False False The creation of a design prototype that is not a working information system, but represents a part of the system that needs additional refinement happens with the prototyping methodology. A) True B) False True Extreme programming is founded on core principles such as communication, simplicity, feedback, and courage A) True B) False True Scott has been assigned to focus on the users during the upcoming information systems installation. Scott will provide user training and documentation. His role is to serve as a change management analyst. A) True B) False True

The analyst that develops ideas and suggestions to improve the application of information technology is commonly called a systems analyst. A) True B) False True You are carrying out a project that involves information systems for the operation of controls in a passenger jet craft. This is an ideal project for you to follow a throwaway prototyping methodology. A) True B) False False The waterfall development methodology derives its name from the salmon that swim up the waterfall against the current. A) True B) False False The business analyst is responsible for ensuring that the project is completed on time and within budget and that the system delivers all benefits that were intended by the project sponsor. A) True B) False False The infrastructure analyst is responsible for the design of the new business policies and processes. A) True B) False

True Throwaway prototyping balances the benefits of well-thought-out analysis and design phases with the advantages of using prototypes to refine key issues before the system is built. A) True B) False True Systems analysts Lori and Mark are employed by the local hospital. They have been assigned to develop a very complex patient monitoring system for the cardio-care unit using a new display technology. Throwaway prototyping is a very suitable methodology for this project. A) True B) False True Kim repeatedly performs the analysis, design, and implementation phases concurrently in a cycle until the system is completed. She then goes back and from scratch does a thorough design and implementation to complete the project. She is following a throwaway prototype methodology. A) True B) False True The role of the change management analyst includes ensuring that adequate documentation and support are available to the users. A) True B) False True

The role of the project manager includes managing the team members, developing the project plan, assigning resources and serving as the primary point of contact for people outside the project team. A) True B) False False For complex systems, throwaway prototyping is not a suitable methodology, since it will lead to problems with maintaining the system. A) True B) False True Agile development methodology aims at eliminating the modeling and documentation overhead in IS projects, while emphasizing simple, iterative application development. A) True B) False D) Project Manager Most system requests include all of the following except _____. A) business need B) business requirements C) project sponsor D) project manager E) business value C) guide to determining whether to proceed with a project

Feasibility analysis may be defined as a(n)_____. A) assessment of ability of the ultimate users of the system to accept the system and incorporate it into the ongoing operations of the organization B) determination of the extent to which the system can be technically designed, developed, and installed C) guide to determining whether to proceed with a project D) identification of only the costs and benefits associated with the project E) none of the above B) the high level functionality of the system. In order to approve a system request, the approval committee must know A) all of the details of the ultimate system to be developed. B) the high level functionality of the system. C) what the screens and reports will look like in the final system. D) who the end users of the system will be and exactly how they will use it in their jobs. E) all of the above. B) large project size Which of the following factors would tend to increase the technical risk of a project? A) familiarity with the technology B) large project size C) creating an application that is familiar to the users and analysts

D) small project size E) the number of other applications under development in the firm C) No previous experience with Java within the IS department Which of the following factors could be included in a technical risk assessment? A) Cost of a new Web server B) Cost of hiring a Webmaster C) No previous experience with Java within the IS department D) Some fear of job loss among order entry department personnel E) All of the above A) Organizational Peter is the vice president of accounting and finance. For the past year he has solely provided the resources necessary to get the just-in-time accounting system through the planning and analysis phases of the SDLC. Other managers have openly stated that the JIT system is not worth the investment. The SEC has just placed Peter under investigation for insider trading and the board has asked him to resign. This project is failing _____ feasibility analysis. A) organizational B) champion C) functional D) economic E) technical

C) high-level non-IS executive who is usually but not always the project sponsor who initiated the system request The project champion is a(n)_____. A) high-level IS executive who is usually but not always the project sponsor who initiated the system request B) mid-level IS manager who has the responsibility of controlling and directing the development process C) high-level non-IS executive who is usually but not always the project sponsor who initiated the system request D) senior member of the user group who participated in the RAD sessions E) none of the above B) Tangible _____ value can be quantified during the project initiation phase. A) Expected B) Tangible C) Intangible D) Real E) Salvage D) Equipment Upgrade Operational costs that are examined during feasibility analysis include _____. A) data conversion cost B) development training C) user training D) equipment upgrades

E) initial consultant fees A) Economic _____ feasibility is determined by identifying costs and benefits associated with the system. A) Economic B) Functional C) Organizational D) Intangible E) Technical D) Software Licensing Fees Examples of development costs include all EXCEPT _____. A) consultant fees B) hardware expenses C) salaries for the project team D) software licensing fees E) none of the above C) Business Requirements Explaining "the business capabilities of the information system" is written in the _____ section of the system request. A) business need B) business value C) business requirements D) project need E) special issues

B) project sponsor, business need, business requirements, and business value The four elements commonly found on a system request are _____. A) economic, organizational, technical, and operational feasibility B) project sponsor, business need, business requirements, and business value C) risk analysis, familiarity, project size, and costbenefit analysis D) training, software, installation, and equipment E) upgrades, licensing fees, repairs, and charges B) Feasibility Analysis _____ is the process of examining the technical, economic, and organizational pros and cons of developing a new system. A) Committee approval B) Feasibility analysis C) Functionality determination D) Risk analysis E) System request E) Return On Investment The calculation that measures the amount of money an organization receives in return for the money it spends is called the _____. A) cash flow B) net present value C) total investment D) tangible costs E) return on investment

True ROI calculations do not consider the present value of future money. A) True B) False True It is not necessary to assign dollar values to intangible costs and benefits; it is almost impossible to come up with reasonable numbers for all of the costs and benefits that haven't happened yet. A) True B) False False Kelly Smith, the vice president of marketing, has provided resources and political support for the new production management information system. She has acted as the project manager for the project. A) True B) False False A feasibility analysis includes whether the project has been permitted by the CIO of the company. A) True B) False True Cost benefit analysis identifies the financial costs and benefits associated with a systems project. A) True

B) False False System requests often include the project team members including the project manager and the analysts. A) True B) False True Organizational feasibility can be evaluated by conducting a(n) stakeholder analysis. A) True B) False False The return on investment (ROI) should be used as the sole indicator of a project's worth because it considers the end points of the investment, not the cash flow in between. A) True B) False False The formula for net present value (NPV) is the ratio of (Total benefits - Total Costs) to Total Costs. A) True B) False True User participation should be promoted throughout the development process to make sure that the final system will be accepted and used. A) True

B) False False The champion is a high-level IS executive who initiates the system request and supports the project by providing time, resources, and political support within the organization by communicating the importance of the system to other organizational decision makers. A) True B) False False Happy customers is a tangible cost that can be included in a cost-benefit analysis. A) True B) False False How well a system is accepted by the users and incorporated into the ongoing operations of the business is defined in the technical feasibility. A) True B) False False Economic feasibility focuses on whether the system can be built by examining the risks associated with the users' and analysts' familiarity with the application, familiarity with the technology, and project size. A) True B) False False Familiarity with the application and technology are major factors considered under economic

feasibility. A) True B) False True Project size is an important consideration in technical feasibility. Larger projects create more risk, both because they are more complicated to manage and because there is a greater chance that some important system requirements will be overlooked or misunderstood. A) True B) False False During organizational feasibility analysis the system users are the stakeholders that are responsible for providing enough budget and promoting the project. A) True B) False False A limitation of a formal cost-benefits analysis is that it contains the costs and benefits for just one year. A) True B) False True Calculating the break-even point helps in understanding how long it will take before the system creates real value for the organization. A) True B) False

True A high return on investment (ROI) results when benefits far outweigh the cost of a new project or information system. A) True B) False False The organizational management of a business is involved in hands-on activities related to the project. A) True B) False False To identify the costs and benefits related to the computer technology for a project the systems analyst should rely on the business users. A) True B) False True Economic feasibility is determined by identifying costs and benefits associated with the system, assigning values to them, and then calculating the cash flow and return on investment for the project. A) True B) False False Determining whether the new system will be compatible with the existing technology that already exists in the organization is part of the organizational feasibility study. A) True B) False

True Present value calculation takes inflation and time into account. A) True B) False C) Industry Standards Kathryn has little experience estimating the time it will take to complete a systems project. She has just completed the planning phase of the project. What method should she use to estimate the time required to build the system? A) adjusted project complexity B) function points C) industry standards D) Microsoft Project E) more complex approach A) Project Management _____ is the process of planning and controlling the development of a system within a specified time frame at a minimum cost with the right functionality. A) Project management B) Symantic timeline C) Task identification D) Time estimation E) Work plan B) 20 Months One method of estimating project time is to use industry standard factors for each project phase. With this method, if the planning phase typically takes 15% of total project time, and a particular

project requires three months for planning, then the remainder of the project will require _____. A) 15 months B) 20 months C) 3.5 months D) 4.5 months E) 3 months B) end-user efficiency, data communications, and reusability When using a function point estimation worksheet, there are 14 factors that impact the complexity of a project. These factors include _____. A) data communications, time tradeoffs, and estimated effort B) end-user efficiency, data communications, and reusability C) performance and programming language D) reports printed and PCA E) x-rays, extensibility, and operational conversion D) All the Above Adding people to a project team in order to speed up total development time _____. A) organized in a standard manner across all projects B) created in an iterative and incremental manner C) designed so one can compare the current project to past projects D) all of the above E) none of the above

B) creating the work plan, staffing the project, and controlling and directing the project The three steps of project management are _____. A) controlling the project, directing the project, and creating the work plan B) creating the work plan, staffing the project, and controlling and directing the project C) directing the project, creating the work plan, and naming the tasks D) naming the tasks, creating the work plan, and completing the deliverables E) setting the start date, estimating the time, and reading the actual time D) unrealistic schedule demands by project sponsors The most significant challenge to project managers is _____. A) lack of project management training B) no one really understands how to manage a complex systems development project C) the lack of tools that can assist in controlling project progress D) unrealistic schedule demands by project sponsors E) all of the above E) Much Less Assume a systems development project effort calculation determines that the system will require 240 function points. If the developers choose to implement this system in the C programming language, approximately 31,200

lines of code will have to be written. If the developers choose Visual Basic to implement the system, the number of lines of code will be _____. A) about the same B) can't tell without more information C) exactly the same D) much greater E) much less D) list the four phases of the SDLC and the steps that occur in each To identify the tasks for a work plan the project manager can _____. A) control and direct the project B) estimate the size, staff the project, and remember technical skills C) establish a possible reporting structure D) list the four phases of the SDLC and the steps that occur in each E) set conservative numbers for the project software A) Function Point A(n) ____________ is a measure of program size based on the number and complexity of inputs, outputs, queries, files, and program interfaces. A) function point B) line of code C) project plan D) standard module

E) workplan C) 400 A normal system with 400 unadjusted function points would have _____ adjusted function points when the shortcut method is use to determine the complexity of the project. A) 200 B) 260 C) 400 D) 540 E) 600 B) Estimation The process of assigning values for the time and effort needed to perform a system project is called _____. A) analysis B) estimation C) identifying D) planning E) preparation E) Work Plan The _____ is a dynamic schedule that logs and monitors all of the tasks that need to be accomplished for the length of the project. A) margin of error B) project manager C) project objective D) timebox

E) work plan E) start with a realistic assessment of the work A critical success factor for project management is to _____. A) create a work plan B) follow the three steps of project management C) identify most project tasks D) manage the hundreds of tasks E) start with a realistic assessment of the work A) established methodologies Project managers can develop task lists for a project with the help of _____. A) established methodologies B) system proposals C) system requests D) user application hardware E) user requirements True A highly effective motivational technique for technical staff is to provide recognition for each team member's accomplishments. A) True B) False True The underlying cause of many missed project deadlines is scope creep. A) True

B) False True The most common reason for schedule and cost overruns that surface after the project is underway is scope creep. A) True B) False True When planning a systems project, overly optimistic timetables are the cause of project completion delays. A) True B) False True Using typical industry standards for estimating project time schedules, the estimated analysis phase would be 10 person-months for a systems project where the planning phase was completed in 7.5 person-months. A) True B) False False Scope creep is only a minor factor in projects running over schedule, and every effort should be made to incorporate any changes into the present system if they would truly be beneficial. A) True B) False False The project charter describes the qualifications of the people who will work on a project and the reporting structure of the project team.

A) True B) False False Lower CASE tools are used to create integrated diagrams of the system and store information about system components during the analysis phase. A) True B) False False The COCOMO model to convert lines of code estimates into person-month estimates was designed by Allen Albrecht of IBM. A) True B) False True Matching people's skills with the needs of the project, motivating employees, and minimizing personnel conflict are all part of the staffing process. A) True B) False True Sergei, the project manager, is worried about completing the project on time. To increase the productivity of his 15-person team he should create subteams with no more than 10 people on a subteam. A) True B) False True

A function point is a measure of program size based on the number and complexity of inputs, outputs, queries, files and program interfaces. A) True B) False False One of the greatest weaknesses of systems consulting firms is that they try to apply estimates and methodologies that they have developed over time and applied to other projects, most of which are very different from the current project. A) True B) False False The project team has just determined that the deadline for completion will not be met. In order to deliver a high quality system on schedule, the team has requested that the features be prioritized and that a fixed deadline be imposed for the project. This technique is referred to as SDLC methodology. A) True B) False True A good technique to help minimize conflict among team members is to hold team members accountable for their tasks. A) True B) False False The document that describes the project's objectives and rules is called the project charter. A) True

B) False True Christine does not have the skills that her project manager feels are necessary and no money has been budgeted for outside consultants. Mentoring is a good option to improve Christine's skills in this situation. A) True B) False False Creating a work plan requires three steps: identify the tasks that need to be accomplished, estimate the time that it will take to complete the tasks, and record the task completion time in a Gantt Chart. A) True B) False False It is not wise to identify tasks for a current project using existing methodology, because methodologies that have been used by an organization for other projects probably will not work for this project without extensive changes. A) True B) False False CASE tool is a popular graphic depiction of the work plan that lists project tasks along a y-axis, time along an x-axis, and uses shaded boxes to represent tasks. A) True B) False

True Integrated CASE tools are used to support tasks that happen throughout the SDLC. A) True B) False False Jim Smith, the project manager for a highprofile project, has permitted the users to add additional features to the systems project. The schedule and costs are now running over. This project suffers from poor standards. A) True B) False False To complete a 20 person-month project in 10 months, a team should have 4 full-time staff members assigned to the project. A) True B) False True Project management is the second major component of the planning phase of the systems development life cycle (SDLC), and it includes three steps: creating the work plan, staffing the project, and controlling and directing the project. A) True B) False True According to leading experts in software development, the margin of error when estimating project costs is 100% and the margin of error in project scheduling time is 25%. A) True

B) False False A key factor in staffing a project involves motivating people to meet the project's objectives, and the most effective way to do this is through the use of money and bonuses. A) True B) False True Using the shortcut method to determine the complexity of a systems project, a very complex system having 300 unadjusted function points would have 405 adjust function points. A) True B) False True The work plan records and keeps track of all of the tasks that need to be accomplished over the life of the project, listing each task, along with important information about it, such as when it needs to be completed, the person assigned to do the work, and any deliverables that will result. A) True B) False True Timeboxing is a popular technique which sets a fixed deadline for a project and delivers the system by that deadline no matter what, even if functionality needs to be reduced. A) True B) False

False When estimating project time schedules using industry standards for a systems project, the following values are acceptable: 15% for planning, 25% for analysis, 50% for design, and 10% for implementation. A) True B) False C) Business Process Reengineering Which of the following analysis strategies incurs the highest risk yet has the potential to provide high value to the business? A) Business Process Automation B) Business Process Improvement C) Business Process Reengineering D) Business Process Renovation E) Root cause analysis D) Observation What information-gathering strategy enables the analyst to see the reality of the situation rather than listen to others describe it? A) document analysis B) interviewing C) joint application design (JAD) sessions D) observation E) questionnaires C) joint application development The information gathering technique that is most effective in combining information from a variety of perspectives, building consensus, and

resolving discrepancies is a(n) _____. A) document analysis B) interview C) joint application development D) observation E) questionnaire D) 50% A JAD session can reduce scope creep by _____. A) 10% B) 20% C) 40% D) 50% E) 75% D) business process reengineering The goal of this analysis strategy is to change the fundamental way the organization operates and to make major changes by taking advantage of new ideas, methods and technology. A) business process automation B) business process benchmarking C) business process improvement D) business process reengineering E) business process systemization A) BPA The analysis strategy that results in the existing business processes being left essentially the same, but with a new system that makes them

more efficient is _____. A) BPA B) BPI C) BPR D) BPU E) Top-down approach C) Open-Ended Sarah would like to give the interviewee more control over the interview and to gather rich information. She should ask _____ questions. A) closed-ended B) inappropriate C) open-ended D) opinion E) probing E) activity elimination and outcome analysis Two BPI techniques used to identify possible improvements in the current system are _____. A) activity based costing and activity elimination B) duration analysis and formal benchmarking C) outcome analysis and problem analysis D) problem analysis and root cause analysis E) activity elimination and outcome analysis A) the person who sets the meeting agenda and guides the discussion A JAD facilitator is _____. A)

the person who sets the meeting agenda and guides the discussion B) the person who records the discussion C) participates in the discussion D) is also a power user E) none of the above D) problem analysis and root cause analysis Two BPA techniques commonly used to identify possible problems in the current system are _____. A) activity based costing and benchmarking B) duration analysis and formal benchmarking C) outcome analysis and duration analysis D) problem analysis and root cause analysis E) process simplification and proxy benchmarking A) Analysis Understanding the as-is system, identifying improvements, and developing requirements for the to-be system are the steps of the _____ phase. A) analysis B) design C) implementation D) planning E) SDLC A) document analysis The examination of existing paperwork in order to better understand the As-Is system is an

example of what information-gathering strategy? A) document analysis B) interviewing C) joint application design (JAD) sessions D) observation E) questionnaires A) interviewing The most commonly used information-gathering technique is _____. A) interviewing B) joint application design (JAD) sessions C) document analysis D) observation E) questionnaires E) questionnaire The information gathering technique that enables the analyst to collect facts and opinions from a wide range of geographically dispersed people quickly and with the least expense is the _____. A) document analysis B) interview C) JAD session D) observation E) questionnaire

C) business process improvement The goal of ______ analysis strategy is to make minor or moderate changes to the business processes so that they will become more efficient and effective. A) business process automation B) business process benchmarking C) business process improvement D) business process reengineering E) business process systemization False The two general analysis techniques performed by the analyst for BPA during the analysis phase are problem analysis and revise and resubmit modeling. A) True B) False True The interview schedule lists all the people who will be interviewed, when, and for what purpose. A) True B) False False When you begin an interview, the first goal is to establish control and let the interviewee know that you have a mastery of the subject. A) True B) False True

Kristin, a systems analyst, needs to know detailed information about the accounts receivable process, but she is not concerned with accounts payable or general ledger, or the integration of this information. Her analysis will assist her in designing a To-Be system for the accounts receivable department. The appropriate requirements-gathering technique to be used would be interviewing. A) True B) False

1.In a ____ processing system, data is collected and processed in groups. A: distributed B: data entry C: central D: batch 469 2.The ____ stores the data and provides data access and database management functions. A: client B: server C: either a. or b. D: neither a. nor b. 456 3.The system design ____ is a document that presents the complete design for the new information system, along with detailed costs, staffing, and scheduling for completing the next SDLC phase - systems implementation. A: summary B: specification C: request for proposal D: evaluation 479 4.Computers supported by a server are called ____. A: servers B: clients C: both a. and b. D: neither a. nor b. 453 5.The most popular wireless networks are based on IEEE ____, which is a family of standards developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for wireless LANs. A: 802.11 B: 802.16 C: 802.19 D: 802.21 476 6.The objective of ____ is to establish a company-wide strategy for using IT resources. A: ARP

B: TRP C: ERP D: LRP 448 7.A ____ client design locates all or most of the processing logic at the server. A: fat B: thin C: tall D: short 458 8.In legacy systems, a ____ included a keyboard and display screen to handle input and output, but lacked independent processing capability. A: terminal B: PC C: server D: modem 453 9.When using the ____ configuration, a central wireless device called an access point is used to serve all wireless clients A: Basic Service Set B: Extended Service Set C: Independent Service Set D: Dependent Service Set 477 10.____ refers to a system's ability to expand, change, or downsize easily to meet the changing needs of a business enterprise. A: Roaming B: Enterprising C: Switchability D: Scalability 450 11.You can think of the middle layer in an n-tier design as a(n) ____, because it provides the application logic, or business logic, required by the system. A: functional server B: application server C: data server D: file server 458 12.A ____ spans long distances and can connect LANs that are continents apart. A: CAN B: TAN C: WAN D: BAN 454 13.A(n) ____ Service Set is made up of two or more Basic Service Set networks. A: Distributed B: Extended C: Dependent D: Independent 477 14.____ architecture follows Internet design protocols and enables a company to integrate the new application into its e-commerce strategy. A: Server-centric

B: Web-centric C: User-centric D: PC-centric 451 15.Just as processing can be done at various places in a client/server design, data can be stored in more than one location using a distributed ____. A: database centric B: database access C: database gateway D: database management 461 16.Although no standard definition exists, the term ____ architecture generally refers to systems that divide processing between one or more networked clients and a central server. A: client/server B: server/client C: host/terminal D: parent/child 455 17.In addition to Wi-Fi, another form of wireless transmission called ____ is very popular for short-distance wireless communication that does not require high power. A: Bluetooth B: Redtooth C: Blueconnect D: Redconnect 479 18.Every information system involves three main functions that does NOT include ____. A: data storage and access methods B: wireless networking C: application programs D: user interface 452 19.In the past, a device known as a ____ was used to connect star networks, but a switch offers advanced technology and much better performance. A: portal B: peer network C: gateway D: hub 474 20.____ translates the logical design of an information system into a physical structure that includes hardware, software, network support, processing methods, and security. A: Network architecture B: System architecture C: Open architecture D: Data architecture 446

System Architecture Translates the logical design of an information system into a physical structure . Between systems analysis and design Environment/platform

ensures connectivity and easy integration of future systems Scalability/extensibility a systems ability to expand change or downsize easily to meet changing needs of company applications programs that handle the input, manage processing logic, and provide required output Server a computer that supplies data, processing services, or other support to one or more computers called clients Mainframe architechture system design where the server performs all the processing Data processing center system that perform all data input and output at central locaiton termial included a keyboard and display screen Stand alone workstation performs all functions of server by storing and processing data and providing a user interface Local arean network LAN sharing of data and hardware such as printers and scanners Wide area network WAN spans long distance and connects LANs transparent user sees data as if it were stored on his own workstation

distributed systems company wide systems that connect one or more LAN or WAN Client/server architecture systems that divide processing bewtwwn clients and central server where the client handles user interface and the server stores the data. legacy data base of data fat client/thick client locates all to most of the application processing logic at the client thin client * locates most of processing logic at the server Two tier design user interface=client all data=server application server middle layer of two and three tier three tier (n tier) includes application server which reduces servers work load and relives clients processing tasks middleware in n tier system, enable tiers to communicate and pass data back and forth (glue of clients and servers) DDBMS Distributed database management systemallows data to be stored in more than one location Portal an entrance to a multi function web site

cloud computing a users computer does not perform processing or computing tasks. the cloud does. "third party" (more bandwidth) Scaling on demand matches resources to needs at any given time bandwidth amount of data that can be transfered in a fixed time period Web 2.0 a shift to internet based collaboration (facebook, twitter) Wiki web based information repository anyone can access and change Internet Operating system new layers of information are added in an overall environment Online system handles transactions when a where they occur and provide output directly to users Batch Processing data is collected and processed in groups POS point of sale-provide customer sales support and transaction processing capability OSI model Open systems interconnection- describes how data actually moves form an application on one computer to a networked computer protocol

set of standards that govern network data transmission TCP/IP backbone of internet/popular network protocol FTP file transfer protocol-provides a reliable means of copying files from one computer to another over TCP/IP network Network topology the way a network is configured physical topology actual network cabling and connections logical topology describes the way the components interact Hierarchical network one or more powerful severs contorl the entire network bus network single communication path connects the central server, departmental servers. workstations, and peripheral devices Ring network bus network with ends connected resembling a circle. Info transfer only goes one way Multistation access Unit internally wires the workstations into logical ring and manages the flow of data form one device to the next Star network has central networking device called a switch, departmental server, and a connected workstation

hub used to connect star network but was replaced by a switch data fromes data traffic broadcasted by hub to all connected devices switch communication conduit and sends traffic only to specific network device that needs data mesh network used where high degree of redundancy is needed such as military. multipe data paths router device that connects network segments and determines the best data path gateway any network topology can connect to a larger dissimilar network like the internet proxy server provides internet connectivity for internal LAN users WLAN wireless local area network Mbs megabits per second MIMO multiple input/output-relies on multiple data paths called multi path design to increase bandwidth range BBS Basic service set(infrastructure mode) connected to an access point

access point or WAP central wireless device ESS extended service set-made of of two or more BSS's roaming moving from one access point closer to the next ISS independent Service set (peer to peer mode) no access point is use and the clients connect to each other SCM Supply chain management ERP Enterprise resource planning The three fundamental parts to a user interface design are: 1. Navigation Mechanism 2. Input mechanism, 3. Output mechanism Which is NOT a user interface design principle? Four click rule Typically, the first step in the user interface design process is: Examine DFDs and use cases to develop use scenarios All but one of the following should be avoided in a message. Which one is it? Acknowledgement of a delay User interfaces are defined in the nonfunctional requirements during the analysis phases of the SDLC. False

The authors mention that the greatest problem facing experienced designers is using colors and fonts appropriately. False Omar has designed a paper form using 'sans serif' fonts and for his screen (or web) forms he has used 'serif' fonts. . He is exercising good user interface design practices. True Juan uses the term 'patient' on an appointment form, but uses the word 'client' on the payment entry screen. This violates the consistency principle of user interface design. False Capturing data at the source is highly recommended. True Consistency is probably the single most important factor in making a screen simple to use. True Using a piggy bank icon on interactive forms to represent the 'save' operation is a reasonable choice. False This report is a good choice when users want to compare data. Graphs This report is a good choice when users want to identify something that went wrong. Exception report Which is NOT one of the fundamental parts to a user interface design? navigation mechanism Chapter 10

... Program Design ___________________. Is done by analysts and then the design is passed on to programmers to code Program design is part of which SDLC phase? Design When changing a logical DFD into a physical DFD, it might be necessary to ________. Add system-related data stores, data flows and processes Which is NOT a consideration when designing programs in the program design step? Use COBOL for pseudocoding Which is NOT true of Structure Charts when designing programs? They are generally implemented with control flags that pass from the control modules to the subordinate modules Because project teams rely more on packaged software, program design is no longer needed. False Because (a) preexisting code needs to be understood, organized, and pieced together; and (b) it is still common for the project team to have to write some code and adapt packages to the business environment, it is therefore good for analysts to fully understand program design. True The Human-Machine boundary is part of the Human-Computer Interface into usability systems. False An audit control / audit logfile might be a system related process, data flow and data store

that would be added when creating physical DFDs. True A structure chart is a high-level diagram showing the organization and interactions of the different pieces of code within the program. False In program design, which is NOT an activity done by analysts? Develop the database schema As analysts move from logical design to physical design, one of the actions they will do is: Create physical DFDs A higher-level component that contains the logic for performing other modules and the components that it calls and controls is called a _____. control module The 'transform structure' on a structure chart has a control module that calls several subordinate modules, after which something happens. True Library modules are encouraged as their reusability can save programmers from rewriting the same piece of code over and over. True Chapter 11 ... 1. Generally, the best way to optimize data storage for efficiency is: Normalization 2. Null values Threaten data integrity because they are difficult to interpret

3. Which is not an element of a CRUD matrix? Combine or join One of the goals of the data storage design activity in the Design Phase of the SDLC is to revise logical use cases into physical use cases. False Changing the logical data model into a physical data model is one of the activities of data storage design. True The data storage design activity is done in which phase of the Systems Development Life Cycle? Design Which is NOT a type of database file? Federal database The acronym for the standard language used to access data in relational databases is: SQL A type of relational database that is used extensively in data warehousing is: Multidimensional databases The most efficient tables (in terms of storage efficiency) in relational database management systems: Have no redundant data The most popular kind of database for applications development today is the relational database. True Applications are of little use without the data that they support. True

Although TJ did a lot of work normalizing the database so that it is in third normal form (3NF), he may want to 'denormalize' it so that access might be faster. True Brian wants an e-commerce system to be able to do a lot of rapid processing - like search for particular keywords in documents; return the price of an item; update quantities in the shopping cart. He is probably building an Expert System. False Chapter 12 ... The final phase of the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is Implementation. True Even if there were flaws in the analysis and design phases, those can easily be overcome in the implementation phase. False Sometimes a project manager can help programmers acquire additional skills through training or through working with more skilled programmers who serve as mentors. True Type of documentation teaches people how to use major components of the system (like an introduction to the basic operations of the system): Tutorials Creating user manuals, training manuals, and online help system are related to: User documentation

Carlos is working on testing and documentation for a new systems project. What phase of the SDLC is he in? implementation One of the mistakes of system development is: Thinking that programming is the focal point of systems development Bridget is managing a systems development project. The programmers have gotten farther and farther behind in the schedule. One thing she should NOT do is: Add more programmers to the development team On test plans: Each individual test has a specific objective and describes a set of very specific test cases to examine The two fundamental documentation types are: System documentation and User documentation During the implementation phase of the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC), systems analysts will probably be designing a variety of tests that will be performed on the new system. As programs are finalized, the systems analysts may conduct these tests to verify that the system actually does what it was designed to do. (false.....designing tests, working on documentation, selecting a conversion strategy, and implementing the new system.) true During project planning, the project manager identified the programming tasks and assigned them to programming staff for programming. true Online documentation will probably be the dominant form of user documentation in the near future.

True Alpha and beta tests are part of systems testing True Programming -Resources -Coordination -Schedule Testing -test plan -test cases -test types Documentation -User: manuals, training, tutorials, help (msdn for c#) - System: specs, DFDs, ERDs, Feasibility, Project Plan Aggregations figures out "how much did we do in sales today" Volumetrics Process of estimating the amount of data that the hardware will need to support. Is used for determining how much space is needed for database. Record Size x Overhead = _______ (add this to orig. record size) Sandbox environment for developers/programmers. An isolated computing environment that works and looks just like the real business environment. This is important bc you don't want testing being done where people are trying to run the business. Two reasons we would use data files: Complexity and Cost DBMS "Database Management System"

software that creates and manipulates these databases. A software system that is used to create, maintain, and provide controlled access to user databases. end user DBMS Microsoft Access- small-scale databases that are used to enhance personal productivity enterprise DBMS A product that processes large organizational workgroup databases. These products support many users, perhaps thousands, and many different database applications. Such DBMS products support 24/7 operations and can manage databases that span dozens of different magnetic disks with hundreds of gigabytes or more of data. (Ex: IBM's DB2, Microsoft's SQL Server, and Oracle's Oracle are examples of enterprise DBMS products,) files electronic lists of data that have been optimized psuedocode talking the same language as programmers, without using syntax Chapter 13 ... What are the two 'conversion styles' to use on a project? direct and parallel In a parallel conversion: both the old and new systems are run for a period of time Which of the following conversion options is the most risk-filled? the direct conversion style

One of the activities when considering postimplementation activities of a new system is to include systems maintenance. True Project assessment is part of postimplementation. True What is NOT normally part of transitioning to a new system? Developing the user interface screens Which is NOT a step in Lewin's model for managing organization change Program Lewin's Change Management Model Unfreeze- first stage of change involves preparing the organization to accept that change is necessary, which involves break down the existing status quo before you can build up a new way of operating. Change- the change stage is where people begin to resolve their uncertainty and look for new ways to do things. People start to believe and act in ways that support the new direction. Refreeze- the organization is ready to refreeze when the changes are taking shape and people have embraced the new ways of working, The outward signs of the refreeze are a stable organization chart, consistent job descriptions, and so on. The refreeze stage also needs to help people and the organization internalize or institutionalize the changes. This means making sure that the changes are used all the time; and that they are incorporated into everyday business. With a new sense of stability, employees feel confident and comfortable with the new ways of working. Plans to handle potential business disruption due to technical problems during conversion are covered in the:

Business Contingency Plan One of the problems with a parallel conversion is: the users have to enter data into both systems If a trainer has been hired to train all staff before the new system goes 'live', it might be best to use: phased conversion Frequently, as people get used to certain ways of doing things, they view their job in terms of those processes rather than in terms of the business goals of serving customers. True Knowing that sometimes things happen due to technical problems when implementing a new system is a great reason to have a business contingency plan. True Part of the migration / transition plan should include helping people adopt the new system. True Post-implementation activities include: Support: providing assistance in the use of the new system Maintenance: continuing the refine and improve the system Project Assessment: analyzing the project to understand what activities were done well- and should be repeated-and what activities need improvement in future projects. The three key roles in any major organization change are: 1. Project sponsor is the person or organizational unit that wants the change. 2. Change agent is the person or group who leads the change effort. 3. Potential adopter is the person or group who must actually do the changing.

Two basic strategies to motivating adoption: Informational strategy- to convince potential adopters that the change is for the better. (works best when more benefits than costs) Political strategy- organizational power, not information, is used to motivate change. (this is used when the cost-benefit set of the target adopters has more costs than benefits) Change requests typically come from five sources: 1. most common is problem reports from the operations group that identifies bugs in the system that must be fixed. 2. enhancements to the systems from users. 3. other system development projects 4. those that occur when underlying software or networks change. 5. Senior management. (driven by changes in the organization's strategy) Four types of databases that are likely to be encountered during a project: legacy, relational, object, and multidimensional. Legacy- use older and sometimes outdated technology and are rarely used to develop new technology. Relational- most popular kind of database for app dev. today. (based on collections of tables that are related to each other through common fields known as foreign keys) Object- contain data and processes that are represented by object classes, and relationships btw object classes are shown by encapsulating one object class within another and are mainly used for multimedia applications (graphics, video & sound) Multidimensional- popular with the increase in data warehousing. it stores pre-calculated quantitative information (totals, averages) at the intersection of dimensions (time, salesperson, product) to support appl that require data to be sliced and diced. Direct Conversion strategy style

stopping the old system and starting the new system on a given date (high risk, Low resources, Low time, Hi Cost) Parallel Conversion strategy style using both old and new systems until it is evident that the new system performs correctly. (Low risk, high Resources, Hi potential/time , Hi Cost) Pilot Conversion location style implementation process that introduces the new system in one part of the organization on a trial basis; when new system is working properly, it is introduced in other parts of the organization. (Med Risk, Med resources, Med time, Med cost) Phased Conversion location style implementation process that introduces components of the new system in stages, until the entire new system is operational. (ex: start with all the colorado locations, and if it works, then do all the other locations) (Low Risk, Hi resources, High time, Med cost) Simultaneous Conversion converting all locations at the same time. High risk, high cost, short time. (Hi Risk, Low resources, Low time, Med cost) In older systems, often the user interface mainly consisted of ____-control screens that allowed a user to send commands to the system. process 2 A key physical design element is the ____, which describes how users interact with a computer system. UI 3 ____ describes the relationship between computers and the people who use them to perform business-related tasks. HCI

4 A(n) ____ is a user interface that allows users to interact with graphical objects and pointing devices. GUI 5 Initial screen designs can be presented to users in the form of a(n) ____, which is a sketch that shows the general screen layout and design. storyboard 6 Interface designers can obtain data, called ____ metrics, by using software that can record and measure user interaction with a system. usability 7 Good user interface design is based partly on ____, which describes how people work, learn, and interact with computers. ergonomics 8 Good interface design is based partly on ____, which focuses on how an interface can be made attractive and easy to use. aesthetics 9 Good interface design is based partly on ____, which provides the operational structure required to carry out the design objectives. interface technology 10 Input ____ are templates that make it easier for users to enter data. masks 11 The ____ is a control feature at the top of a data entry screen that displays the main menu options. menu bar 12

In a data entry screen, such as that shown in the accompanying figure, a(n) ____ is a control feature that initiates an action such as printing a form or requesting help. command button 13 In a data entry screen, such as that shown in the accompanying figure, a(n) ____ is a control feature that is used to represent on or off status and switches to the other status when clicked. toggle button 14 In a data entry screen, such as that shown in the accompanying figure, a ____ is a control feature that displays the current selection and, when a user clicks the arrow, a roster of available choices displays. drop-down list box 15 In a data entry screen, such as that shown in the accompanying figure, a ____ can display messages or provide a place for a user to enter data. text box 16 In a data entry screen, such as that shown in the accompanying figure, a ____ is a control feature that is used to select one or more choices from a group. check box 17 Printed output is used in ____ documents, which are output documents that are later entered back into the same or another information system. turnaround 18

Although the vast majority of reports are designed graphically, some systems still produce one or more ____ reports that use a character set with fixed spacing. character-based 19 A(n) ____ produces one or more lines of output for each record processed. detail report 20 A(n) ____ displays only those records that meet a specific condition or conditions. exception report 21 For upper-level managers who often want to see total figures and do not need supporting details, a(n) ____ is appropriate. summary report 22 In a well-designed detail report, a field called a(n) ____ field controls the output. control 23 A ____ report is a type of detail report in which a control break causes specific actions, such as printing subtotals for a group of records. control break 24 Some firms use ____ facsimile to allow a customer to request a fax using e-mail, the company Web site, or by telephone. automated 25 ____ is often used by large firms to scan and store images of original documents to provide high-quality records management and archiving. COM 26 The concept that the quality of the output is only as good as the quality of the input, which sometimes is known as ____, is familiar to IT

professionals, who recognize that the best time to avoid problems is when data is entered. garbage in, garbage out (GIGO) 27 On a source document, the ____ contains codes, identification information, numbers, and dates that are used for storing completed forms. control zone 28 In a source document, if totals are included on a form, they appear in the ____ zone. totals 29 On a source document, the main part of the form, called the ____, usually takes up at least half of the space on the form and contains captions and areas for entering variable data. body zone 30 Because users tend to skim a Web page, picking out individual words and sentences, Web designers must use ____ to capture and hold a users attention. scannable text 31 When designing data entry screens, provide an on-screen instruction to let users know the date format, and provide an example if the user must enter ____. separators 32 An existence check is a data validation check that ____. is used for mandatory data items 33 A range check is a data validation check that ____. tests data items to verify that they fall between a specified minimum and maximum value 34

A reasonableness check is a data validation check that ____. identifies values that are questionable, but not necessarily wrong 35 A combination check is a data validation check that ____. is performed on two or more fields to ensure that they are consistent or reasonable when considered together 36 ____ protects privacy rights and shields an organizations proprietary data from theft or unauthorized access. output security 37 Companies use various output ____ methods to maintain output integrity and security. control 38 A ____ workstation is a network terminal that supports a full-featured user interface, but limits the printing or copying of data, except to certain network resources that can be monitored and controlled more easily. diskless 39 In most organizations, the ____ department is responsible for output control and security measures. IT 40 Because every piece of information should be traceable back to the input data that produced it, a(n) ____ trail must be provided that records the source of each data item and when it entered the system. audit 41 detail line In a detail report, each line of output printed.

42 controls To build an interface that is easy to learn and use, select only those images that users can understand easily, if images are used to identify these. 43 report header Identifies the report, and contains the report title, date, and other necessary information. 44 existence Type of check that is used for mandatory data items. 45 report footer Can include grand totals for numeric fields and other end-of-report information. 46 dialog box Allows a user to enter information about a task that the system will perform. 47 source document In this, information should flow on the form from left to right and top to bottom, in accordance with the way users read documents naturally. 48 exception Type of report that is useful when the user wants information only on records that might require action. 49 input volume To reduce this, do not input data that the user can retrieve from system files or calculate from other data. 50

interface When designing this, to provide feedback to users, display messages at a logical place on the screen, and be consistent. In an object-oriented system, objects can ____ certain attributes from other objects. inherit 2 ____ is a widely used method of visualizing and documenting an information system. UML 3 An objects ____ are the tasks or functions the object performs. methods 4 ____ allows objects to be used as modular components anywhere in the system. Encapsulation 5 The concept that a message gives different meanings to different objects is called ____ polymorphism 6 Your red Mustang is a(n) ____ of the CAR class. instance 7 Objects can have a specific attribute called a(n) ____, which describes the objects current status. state 8 As shown in the accompanying figure, objects within a class can be grouped into ____, which are more specific categories within a class. subclasses 9 A use case ____ is a visual summary of several related use cases within a system or subsystem.

diagram 10 A(n) ____ defines specific tasks that an object can perform. method 11 A(n) ____ represents a real person, place, event, or transaction. object 12 A class can belong to a more general category called a ____. superclass 13 A(n) ____ is a specific member of a class. instance 14 ____ are characteristics that describe the object. attributes 15 ____ enable objects to communicate and interact as they perform business functions and transactions required by the system. relationships 16 A major advantage of O-O designs is that systems analysts can save time and avoid errors by using ____ objects. modular 17 In a use case, an external entity is called a(n) ____. actor 18 The UML represents an object as a(n) ____ with the object name at the top, followed by the objects attributes and methods. rectangle

19 A(n) ____ is a group of similar objects. class 20 An object has certain ____, like the make, model, and color of a car. attributes 21 A firm that offers outsourcing solutions is called a ____ provider. service 22 Typically, companies choose in-house software development for all of the following reasons EXCEPT to ____ obtain input from other companies who already have implemented the software 23 A(n) ____ is a firm that delivers a software application, or access to an application, by charging a usage or subscription fee. ASP 24 Web-based software usually requires additional layers, called ____, to communicate with existing software and legacy systems. middleware 25 Some industry leaders predict that ____ computing will offer an overall online software and data environment supported by supercomputer technology. cloud 26 Companies that develop software for sale are called software ____. vendors 27 Although the traditional model of software acquisition still accounts for more software

acquisition, a new model, called ____, is changing the picture dramatically. Software as a Service 28 Some firms offer ____, which provide powerful Web-based support for transactions such as order processing, billing, and customer relationship management. IBS 29 A software ____ is software that is obtained from a vendor or application service provider. package 30 Building an application in a ____ environment can offer greater benefits, and sometimes greater risks, compared to a traditional environment. web-based 31 The choice between developing versus purchasing software often is called a ____ decision. build-or-buy 32 ____ is the transfer of information systems development, operation, or maintenance to an outside firm that provides these services, for a fee, on a temporary or long-term basis. outsourcing 33 When determining outsourcing fees, a ____ has a variable fee based on the number of users or workstations that have access to the application. subscription model 34 The software that a companys IT department makes, builds, and develops is called ____ software. in-house 35

A(n) ____ model is an outsourcing fee model that charges a variable fee based on the volume of transactions or operations performed by the application. transaction 36 When determining outsourcing fees, a ____ uses a set fee based on a specified level of service and user support. fixed fee model 37 Microsofts ____ is one of the major Web-based development environments. .NET 38 A firm that enhances a commercial software package by adding custom features and configuring it for a particular industry is called a(n) ____. VAR 39 Oracle Corporation offers a service called ____, which provides e-business applications on a fixed fee basis. Oracle On Demand 40 A ____ is a document that describes a company, lists the IT services or products needed, and specifies the features required. request for proposal (RFP) 41 A key physical design element is the ____, which describes how users interact with a computer system. UI 42 A(n) ____ is a user interface that allows users to interact with graphical objects and pointing devices. GUI 43

Initial screen designs can be presented to users in the form of a(n) ____, which is a sketch that shows the general screen layout and design Storyboard 44 Good interface design is based partly on ____, which provides the operational structure required to carry out the design objectives. interface technology 45 Input ____ are templates that make it easier for users to enter data. masks 46 In a data entry screen, such as that shown in the accompanying figure, a(n) ____ is a control feature that initiates an action such as printing a form or requesting help. command button 47 In a data entry screen, such as that shown in the accompanying figure, a(n) ____ is a control feature that is used to represent on or off status and switches to the other status when clicked. toggle 48 In a data entry screen, such as that shown in the accompanying figure, a ____ can display messages or provide a place for a user to enter data. text 49 In a data entry screen, such as that shown in the accompanying figure, a ____ is a control feature that is used to select one or more choices from a group. check box 50 A(n) ____ displays only those records that meet a specific condition or conditions. exception report

51 The concept that the quality of the output is only as good as the quality of the input, which sometimes is known as ____, is familiar to IT professionals, who recognize that the best time to avoid problems is when data is entered. garbage in, garbage out 52 On a source document, the ____ contains codes, identification information, numbers, and dates that are used for storing completed forms. control zone 53 On a source document, the main part of the form, called the ____, usually takes up at least half of the space on the form and contains captions and areas for entering variable data. body zone 54 Because users tend to skim a Web page, picking out individual words and sentences, Web designers must use ____ to capture and hold a users attention. scannable text 55 When designing data entry screens, provide an on-screen instruction to let users know the date format, and provide an example if the user must enter ____. separators 56 An existence check is a data validation check that ____. is used for mandatory data 57 A range check is a data validation check that ____. tests data items to verify that they fall between a specified minimum and maximum value 58 A reasonableness check is a data validation check that ____.

identifies values that are questionable, but not necessarily wrong 59 A ____ workstation is a network terminal that supports a full-featured user interface, but limits the printing or copying of data, except to certain network resources that can be monitored and controlled more easily. diskless 60 In most organizations, the ____ department is responsible for output control and security measures. IT 61 A data ____ language controls database operations, including storing, retrieving, updating, and deleting data. manipulation 62 A(n) ____ is a collection of tools, features, and interfaces that enables users to add, update, manage, access, and analyze the contents of a database DBMS 63 In a file-oriented information system, a transaction file ____. stores records that contain day-to-day business and operational data 64 When a primary key combines two or more fields, it is called any of the following EXCEPT a ____ key. constructed 65 When a system reads a physical record, it loads the data from storage into a ____, which is a segment of computer memory. buffer 66

A data ____, which is a framework for organizing and storing data, consists of one or more files or tables. structure 67 In the event of a file catastrophe, ____ can be used to restore the file or database to its current state at the time of the last backup. recovery procedures 68 ____ is the process of creating table designs by assigning specific fields or attributes to each table in a database. normalization 69 One type of validity check, called ____ integrity, is a set of rules that avoids data inconsistency and quality problems. referential 70 The complete definition of a database, including descriptions of all fields, tables, and relationships, is called a(n) ____. schema 71 Any field that is not a primary key or a candidate key is called a ____ key. nonkey 72 A(n) ____, which is used to access stored data, allows a user to specify a task without specifying how the task will be accomplished. query language 73 ____ is an industry-standard protocol that makes it possible for software from different vendors to interact and exchange data ODBC 74 Most date formats now are based on the model established by the International Organization

for Standardization (ISO), which requires a format of ____. YYYYMMDD 75 In the accompanying figure, a ____ is a field or combination of fields that uniquely and minimally identifies a particular member of an entity. primary key 76 ____ describes how instances of one entity relate to instances of another entity. cardinality 77 In the accompanying figure, any field that could serve as a primary key is called a ____. candidate key 78 A(n) ____ is a set of letters or numbers that represents a data item. code 79 ____ means that a system can be expanded, modified, or downsized easily to meet the rapidly changing needs of a business enterprise. scalability 80 In a file-oriented information system, a security file ____. is created and saved for backup and recovery purposes 81 At the center of the network shown in the accompanying figure is the ____, which manages the network and acts as a communications conduit for all network traffic. switch 82 The ____ section in a typical system design specification describes the constraints, or conditions, affecting a system, including any

requirements that involve operations, hardware, systems software, or security. system environment 83 In a(n) ____ design, the remote users keystrokes are transmitted to the mainframe, which responds by sending screen output back to the users screen. centralized 84 ____ describes how data actually moves from an application on one computer to an application on another networked computer. OSI 85 The ____ topology allows the expansion of wireless access over a wide area. ESS 86 When developing e-business systems, an inhouse solution usually requires a ____ for a company that must adapt quickly in a dynamic e-commerce environment. greater initial investment but provides more flexibility 87 Most business WLANs use access points and do not utilize the ____. ISS 88 A batch processing system has all of the following characteristics except ____. the information system is available whenever necessary to support business operations 89 All of the following use access points except ____. ISS 90 The ____ standard is compatible with the 802.11b standard.

802.11g 802.11n 91 A system design where the server performs all the processing is described as ____. mainframe architecture 92 A ____ is an entrance to a multifunction Web site. portal 93 In a ____, one or more powerful servers controls the network, and departmental servers control lower levels of processing and network devices. hierarchical network 94 A(n) ____ is relatively inexpensive to install and is well-suited to workgroups and users who are not anchored to a specific desk or location. WLAN 95 A ____ resembles a circle of computers that communicate with each other. ring network 96 In the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model, the presentation layer ____. ssures that data is uniformly structured and formatted for network transmission 97 The ____ section in a typical system design specification contains the complete design for a new system, including the user interface, outputs, inputs, files, databases, and network specifications system components 98 In the ____ configuration, a central wireless device is used to serve all wireless clients. BSS

99 In a client/server design, a database server ____. processes individual SQL commands 100 In the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model, the application layer ____. provides network services requested by a local workstation 101 A module that performs a single function or task has a high degree of ____, which is desirable. cohesion 102 Application ____ is the process of constructing the programs and code modules that serves as the building blocks of an information system. development 103 Software ____ is a software development process that stresses solid design, effective structure, accurate documentation, and careful testing. engineering 104 In addition to analyzing logic and program code, a project team usually holds a session with users, called a ____ walkthrough, to review the interface with a cross-section of people who will work with the new system and ensure that all the necessary features have been included. design 105 In a technique called ____ testing, the programmer simulates each program outcome or result and displays a message to indicate whether or not the program executed successfully. stub 106

In a(n) ____ approach, the systems analyst defines the overall objectives of a system and then breaks them down into subsystems and modules. top-down 107 ____ describes the degree of interdependence among modules. coupling 108 ____ graphically represent the logic and interaction between program modules using a series of symbols connected by arrows. flowcharts 109 In sequence, the four steps typically followed to create a structure chart are ____. review the DFDs; identify modules and relationships; add couples, loops, and conditions; analyze the structure chart and the data dictionary 110 ____ requires that a software supplier document all testing and maintain records of test results. ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 111 ____ measures a modules scope and processing characteristics. cohesion 112 A class diagram includes the class ____, which describe the characteristics of objects in the class. attributes 113 As the accompanying figure illustrates, the ____ changeover method involves implementing the complete new system at a selected location of the company. pilot operation

114 The objective of ____ testing is to identify and eliminate execution errors that could cause a program to terminate abnormally, and logic errors that could have been missed during desk checking. unit 115 A Web site for the ____ describes a variety of IT education and training resources. Center for the Application of Information Technologies (CAIT) 116 Successful completion of system testing is the key to user and management approval, which is why system tests sometimes are called ____. acceptance tests 117 Many organizations require a more formal type of desk checking called a structured walkthrough, or ____ review. code 118 In a structure chart, a control couple shows a message, also called a status ____, which one module sends to another. flag 119 Unless a problem must be corrected, or modifications or enhancements must be made, access to the operational environment is limited to ____ and must be strictly controlled. users 120 To achieve better, faster, and less expensive methods of software development, ____ designed the Capability Maturity Model (CMM), which improves quality, reduces development time, and cuts costs. SEI (Software Engineering Institute)

Chapter 7 Development Strategies MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Although the traditional model of software acquisition still accounts for more software acquisition, anew model called ____ is changing the picture dramatically.a. Hardware as a Help c. Processing as a Productb. Software as a Service d. Storage as a Solution2. Microsofts ____ is one of the major Web -based development environments.a. WebSphere c. NetSphereb. .NET d. .WEB3. Building an application in a ____ environment can offer greater benefits, and sometimes greater risks,compared to a traditional environment.a. GUI c. cloudb. Web-based d. multinational4. Web-based software usually requires additional layers, called ____, to communicate with existingsoftware and legacy systems.a. freeware c. middlewareb. shareware d. public domain software5. Some industry leaders predict that ____ computing will offer an overall online software and dataenvironment supported by supercomputer technology.a. interpolated c. outsourcedb. mainframe d. cloud6. ____ is the transfer of information systems development, operation, or maintenance to an outside firmthat provides these services, for a fee, on a temporary or longterm basis.a. Outsourcing c. Subscriptionb. Commission d. External provision7. A firm that offers outsourcing solutions is called a ____ provider.a. subscription c. serviceb. software d. resource8. A(n) ____ is a firm that delivers a software application, or access to an application, by charging a usageor subscription fee.a. ASP c. ISPb. OSP d. USP9. Some firms offer ____, which provide powerful Web-based support for transactions such as orderprocessing, billing, and customer relationship management.a. ASP c. fixed usageb. IBS d. fixed-fee transfer 10. Oracle Corporation offers a service called ____, which provides e-business applications on a fixed feebasis.a. WebSphere c. Business

Process Outsourcingb. .NET d. Oracle On Demand11. When determining outsourcing fees, a ____ uses a set fee based on a specified level of service and usersupport.a. fixed fee model c. subscription modelb. usage model d. transaction model12. When determining outsourcing fees, a ____ has a variable fee based on the number of users orworkstations that have access to the application.a. fixed fee model c. subscription modelb. usage model d. transaction model13. A(n) ____ model is an outsourcing fee model that charges a variable fee based on the volume of transactions or operations performed by the application.a. method c. transactionb. administrative d. interpolated14. The choice between developing versus purchasing software often is called a ____ decision.a. build or make c. transactionalb. subscription d. build or buy15. The software that a companys IT department makes, builds, and develops is called ____ software. a. in-house c. externalb. internal d. indexed16. A software ____ is software that is obtained from a vendor or application service provider.a. package c. subscriptionb. cluster d. aggregate17. Companies that develop software for sale are called software ____.a. VARs c. vendorsb. resellers d. packages18. A firm that enhances a commercial software package by adding custom features and configuring it for aparticular industry is called a(n) ____.a. BRE c. OSPb. IRH d. VAR19. Typically, companies choose inhouse software development for all of the following reasons except to____.a. minimize changes in business procedures and policiesb. meet constraints of existing systems and existing technologyc. develop internal resources and capabilitiesd. obtain input from other companies who already have implemented the software 20. Advantages of purchasing a software package over developing software in-house include all of thefollowing except ____.a. satisfaction of unique business requirementsb. lower costs and less time to

implementc. proven reliability and performance benchmarksd. less technical development staff 21. A user ____ utilizes standard business software, such as Microsoft Word or Microsoft Excel, which hasbeen configured in a specific manner to enhance user productivity.a. application c. interfaceb. configuration d. interpolation22. In addition to configuring software, an IT staff can create a user ____, which includes screens,commands, controls, and features that enable users to interact more effectively with the application.a. montage c. interfaceb. index d. package23. Buyers can customize a software package by ____.a. negotiating directly with the software vendor to make enhancements to meet the buyers needs by paying for the changesb. purchasing a basic package that vendors will customize to suit the buyers needs c. purchasing the software and making their own modifications, if this is permissible under theterms of the software licensed. all of the above24. Some data files should be totally hidden from view, while others should have ____ so users can view,but not change, the data.a. no-access properties c. full-access propertiesb. read-only properties d. write-only properties25. A ____ is a document that describes a company, lists the IT services or products needed, and specifiesthe features required.a. request for quotation (RFQ) c. request for proposal (RFP)b. net present value (NPV) d. return on investment (ROI)26. When companies use a ____, they already know the specific products or service they want and need toobtain price quotations or bids from vendors.a. request for quotation (RFQ) c. request for proposal (RFP)b. net present value (NPV) d. return on investment (ROI)27. A ____ measures the time a package takes to process a certain number of transactions.a. newsgroup c. benchmark b. parameter d. default28. When planning a slide presentation to management at the end of the systems analysis phase, systemsanalysts should keep all of the following suggestions in mind except

____.a. summarize the primary viable alternativesb. ignore time for discussion and questions and answers

A data ____, which is a framework for organizing and storing data, consists of one or more files or structure tables. One problem in a file processing environment is ____, which means that data common to two or data redundancy more information systems is stored in several places. In a typical file processing environment, ____ problems can occur if updates are not applied in data integrity every file. stores records that contain dayIn a file-oriented information system, a to-day business transaction file ____. and operational data is a temporary file created by an In a file-oriented information system, a work file information ____. system for a single task A(n) ____ is a collection of tools, features, and interfaces that enables users to add, update, DBMS manage, access, and analyze the contents of a database. ____ means that a system can be expanded, modified, or downsized easily to meet the rapidly Scalability changing needs of a business enterprise. A(n) ____, which is used to access stored data, allows a user to specify a task without specifying query language how the task will be accomplished. With a(n) ____ language, the user provides an QBE example of the data requested. A data ____ language controls database operations, including storing, retrieving, manipulation updating, and deleting data. The complete definition of a database, including descriptions of all fields, tables, and schema relationships, is called a(n) ____.

____ is an industry-standard protocol that makes it possible for software from different vendors to interact and exchange data JDBC enables ____ applications to exchange data with any database that uses SQL statements and is compliant with the standard. A ____ is a text document written in HTML. HTML uses formatting codes called ____, which specify how the text and visual elements on a Web page will be displayed in a Web browser. To bridge the gap between a database and the Web and enable data to be viewed and updated, it is necessary to use ____, which is software that integrates different applications and allows them to exchange data. During the systems design phase, ____ fields are used to organize, access, and maintain data structures.

ODBC

java web page tags

middleware

key

A) When a primary key combines two or more fields, constructed B) it is called any of the following EXCEPT a ____ composite C) key. combination D) concatenated Any field that is not a primary key or a candidate nonkey key is called a ____ key.

primary key

In the accompanying figure, a ____ is a field or combination of fields that uniquely and minimally identifies a particular member of an entity.

candidate key

In the accompanying figure, any field that could serve as a primary key is called a ____.

foreign key

In the accompanying figure, a ____ is a field in one table that must match a primary key value in another table in order to establish the relationship between the two tables. One type of validity check, called ____ integrity, is a set of rules that avoids data inconsistency referential and quality problems. A(n) ____ is a graphical model of an information system that depicts the relationships among ERD system entities. In an entity-relationship diagram, entities are rectangles represented as ____.

____ describes how instances of one entity relate to instances of another entity. One common method of indicating ____ is called crow's foot notation because of the shapes, which include circles, bars, and symbols that indicate various possibilities. ____ is the process of creating table designs by assigning specific fields or attributes to each table in a database. A(n) ____ is a set of letters or numbers that represents a data item. Some abbreviation codes are called ____ codes because they use a specific combination of letters that are easy to remember. ____ codes are numbers or letters assigned in a specific order. ____ codes combine data from different item attributes, or characteristics, to build the code. ____ codes use a keyword to encode a number.
1.____ is the measure of a systems ability to expand, change, or downsize easily to meet thechanging needs of a business enterprise. Scalability 2. Every information system involves ____. all of the above 3. A system design where the server performs all the processing is described as ____. mainframe architecture 4. In a(n) ____ design, the remote users keystrokes are transmitted to the mainframe, whichresponds by sending screen output back to the users screen. Centralized 5. a client/server design, a database server ____. Processes individual SQL commands 6. In an n-tier system, special utility software called ____ enables the tiers to communicate and pass data back and forth. Middleware 7. In a client/server architecture, just as processing can be done at various places, data

Cardinality

cardinality

Normalization code mnemonic Sequence Derivation Cipher

can bestored in more than one location using a(n) ____. DDBMS 8. When developing e-business systems, an inhouse solution usually requires a ____ for acompany that must adapt quickly in a dynamic e-commerce environment. greater initial investment but provides more flexibility 9. A ____ is an entrance to a multifunction Web site. portal 10. During business hours, a salesperson can enter a sale on a ____ terminal, which is part of an information system that handles daily sales transactions and maintains the online inventoryfile. POS 11. A batch processing system has all of the following characteristics except ____. the information system is available whenever necessary to support business operations 12. In the OSI (open system interconnection) model, the application layer ____. provides network services requested by a local workstation 13. ____ describes how data actually moves from an application on one computer to anapplication on another networked computer. OSI 14. In the OSI (open system interconnection) model, the presentation layer ____. assures that data is uniformly structured and formatted for network transmission 15. In the OSI (open system interconnection) model, the session layer ____. defines control structures that manage the communications link between computers 16. In a ____, one or more powerful servers controls the network, and departmental serverscontrol lower levels of processing and network devices. hierarchical network

17. In a ____, a single communication path connects the network server, departmental servers,workstations, and peripheral devices. bus network 18. A disadvantage of a bus network is that ____. performance can decline as more users and devices are added 19. A ____ resembles a circle of computers that communicate with each other. ring network 20. A ____, such as that illustrated in the accompanying figure, has a central networkingdevice that manages the network. star network 21. At the center of the network shown in the accompanying figure is the ____, which managesthe network and acts as a communications conduit for all network traffic. Switch 22. In all cases, a network must use a(n) ____, which is a set of standards that govern datatransmission. Protocol 23. A popular network protocol is ____, which today is the backbone of the Internet. TCP/IP 24. A(n) ____ is relatively inexpensive to install and is well-suited to workstations and userswho are not anchored to a specific desk or location. WLAN 25. The maximum speed for wireless network standards is measured in ____. Mbps 26. To increase bandwidth, the IEEE created two ____ to its initial standard to offer considerable improvement in transmission speed. Amendments 27. The ____ standard is compatible with the 802.11b standard. both B and C 28. The ____ standard is used by most WLANs. 802.11g 29. The ____ technology is compatible with earlier 802.11 versions. MIMO

30. In its wireless configuration, the ____ point is similar to a hub in the LAN star topology,except it provides network services to wireless clients instead of wired clients. Access 31. In the ____ configuration, a central wireless device is used to serve all wireless clients. BSS 32. The ____ topology allows the expansion of wireless access over a wide area. ESS