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LecLure 3: ArLlculaLlons

1. SynarLhroses
- !""#$%&'(
2. AmphlarLhroses
- *'+,-.'/ "#$(%&'(
3. ularLhroses
- 01(('/ "#$(%&'(

luncLlonal
ClasslflcaLlon
AXIAL APPENDICULAR
SLrucLural ClasslflcaLlon
!"#$%&' )%"*+'
tight, no joint cavity, no hyaline
llLLle Lo no movemenL 2(34( 5#33(5.+$( .+446(
SuLures, Sydesmoses, Comphoses
skull, lnLerossesus membranes, LeeLh
,-$+".-/"*%&' )%"*+'
sLlll no [olnL cavlLy, mlghL have hyallne
arLlculaLlon bones are unlLed wlLh carLllage
noL very moveable
Synchondroses, Symphyses
wlLh hyallne, wlLhouL hyallne
01*%2"-. )%"*+'
Have it alljoint cavity, hyaline, movement
MosL [olnLs ln Lhe body are synovlal [olnLs.
Lets look at the general structure of these joints
llbrous !olnLs
SuLures
Syndesmoses
Comphoses
lnLerosseus
membrane
LlgamenLs
CarLllaglnous !olnLs
Synchondroses

Lplphyseal
Llne
Symphyses

Cartilaginous Joints Contd
Synovlal !olnLs
ArLlcular CarLllage (whaL klnd?)
-dlscs or menlscl may be presenL.

!olnL CavlLy (aka Synovlal CavlLy)
-unlque poLenLlal space holdlng fluld

ArLlcular Capsule
-ouLer flbrous capsule (lrregular dense)
and lnner synovlal membrane

Synovlal lluld
- egg whlLe Lype fluld
- nourlshes/lubes arLlcular
surfaces

8elnforclng LlgamenLum
- lnLra or exLracapsular

nerves and vessels
-feedback abouL sLreLch allow proprlocepLlon
-vessels ln synovlal membrane allow fluld
producLlon 7((8+3, '6&1+5%.+#3
Synovlal Membrane
ArLlcular CarLllage
!olnL CavlLy
CpLlonal ArLlcular ulsc
llbrous Capsule
May have llgamenLum
Synovlal lluld ls a fllLraLe of blood

erlosLeum
8ursae and 1endon SheaLhs
noL parL of synovlal [olnL proper buL a common and
frlendly nelghbour!
bursa where layers of bone, muscle, skln or Lendons may
rub LogeLher
1endon sheaLh bursa wlLh a Lendon Lhrough lL Pigs in a
Blanket
Synovlal !olnL
Lxamples
8evlew: 1ypes of MovemenLs
Special Movements
Ex. Protraction/Retraction
Ma[or Synovlal !olnLs
uescrlbe Lhe sLrucLural and
funcLlonal componenLs of
Lhe ma[or [olnLs:
1emporomandlbular
(1M!)
Clenohumeral
Llbow and 8adlal/ulnar
Plp, knee, Ankle
1M!
ArLlcular ulSC
LaLeral Lemporomandlbular
llgamenL
ArLlcular
Capsule
SLylomandlbular
llgamenL
Sphenomandlbular
llgamenL
Rotator Cuff
ComponenLs
LxLrlnslc LlgamenLs
and muscle Lendons
conLrlbuLe Lo sLablllLy

Cnly one dedlcaLed llgamenL
Clenohumeral
!olnL
Clenold
Labrum
Clenold lacLs
Lhe mosL moblle [olnL ln Lhe body
sacrlflces sLablllLy
ofLen ln[ured
sLablllzed superlorly by bones and assoclaLed
llgamenLs
coracohumeral, coracoclavlcular,
acromloclavlcular, coracoacromlal
ma[or sLablllLy comes from muscles (Lendons)
of roLaLor cuff
1he Llbow
!olnL Capsule
Synovlal Membrane
ArLlcular CarLllage
1he Llbow
.a little
deeper
Plnge and lvoL !olnL
Plnge [olnL ls easy Lo see abouL Lrochlear
noLch buL whaL ls Lhe plvoL [olnL on Lhe
Lhe radlal head abouL?
WhaL arLlculaLes here?
S P
1he WrlsL
ulnar
CollaLeral
LlgamenL
8adlal
CollaLeral
LlgamenL
Hip
ubofemoral
3'45"&6
3."&6
lllofemoral
?
Posterior View
Anterior View
Synovlal
cavlLy
Carrles Lhe arLery Lo
Lhe head of Lhe femur
Its synovial
ArLlcular surface
Capsule
LlgamenL
of Lhe
Pead of Lhe lemur
Plp ulslocaLlons
90 are posLerlor

flexed knee and
force LransmlLLed
along long axls

blood supply?
1he 7*88 )%"*+
largesL and mosL
complex [olnL ln Lhe
body

ma[or hlnge [olnL
(l/L) buL also plvoL
(roLaLlonal)

compllcaLed llg/
capsular
arrangemenL ln
Lhls, you guessed lL,
synovlal [olnL.
Menlscl
medlal and laLeral
help Llblal plaLeau cup
femoral condyles

LlgamenLs
(med & laL) collaLeral
(anL & posL) cruclaLes
paLellar llgamenL
7*88
AnLerlor
ueep and Shallow osLerlor knee
Cbllque opllLeal llgamenL
?
opllLeus muscle
osLerlor
osLerlor cruclaLe llg.
conLrols posLerlor
dlsplacemenL of Lhe
Llbla C8 conversely,
anLerlor dlsplacemenL
of Lhe femur.
Pow lL Works
vlew of Lhe
laLeau
unhappy
1rlad
Deltoid
9"/-68*+
9%*/ :.-*+-$ 9"/
3 consLlLuenL parLs
- Llblonavlcular
- Llblocalcanlal
- LlbloLalar
0;$"*/ 9"/-68*+ <4-.4-*8%*-2"4&.-$=
Muscle 1endons
achllles
Llblalls anLerlor
Llblalls posLerlor
Medlal Ankle !olnL and Arch SupporLs
Calcaneoflbular
1endons of peroneus longus/brevls
LaLeral LlgamenLs
1aloflbular
anLerlor
posLerlor
Calcaneofibular
Ligament