You are on page 1of 80

WESTERN CAPE PRIMARY SCIENCE PROGRAMME

An example of a learning experience in the Natural Sciences

PLANET EARTH B EYOND &
Grade 4
e Piece of Earth l t t i L My

All living things depend on soil
1. What is topsoil? (LO2) 2. Soil particles come from rocks (LO2) 3. Finding out about garden topsoil (LO2) Assessment task for LO2 (AS 1 & 2) Comparing two different samples of topsoil 4. How much water does our soil hold? (LO1) Assessment task for LO1 (AS 1 & 2) How much water do different kinds of soils hold? 5. What do earthworms do in the soil? (LO2 & LO1) 6. Working with soil (LO2) 7. Sustaining my little piece of Earth (LO3) Assessment task for LO3 (AS 1 & 2) Sustaining my little piece of Earth 8. Farmers used the constellations of stars to tell them when to plant (LO3)
We welcome the wide use of these materials. Please acknowledge Western Cape Primary Science Programme © PSP (2008)

Developed by the Western Cape PSP team and teachers
Rationale
These materials were written to support teachers in their work with learners around the content area of Planet Earth and Beyond. This is not a complete work schedule. It offers possibilities for teachers to include other learning experiences and to extend and integrate it with other content strands of the Natural Sciences. This example learning experience shows how you can work towards the three Learning Outcomes in the Natural Sciences of the National Curriculum Statement (NCS). LO1: Scientific Investigations ࡯ The learner will be able to act confidently on curiosity about natural phenomena, and to investigate relationships and solve problems in scientific, technological and environmental contexts LO2: Constructing Science Knowledge ࡯ The learner will know and be able to interpret and apply scientific, technological and environmental knowledge LO3: Science, Society and the Environment ࡯ The learner will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationships between science and technology, society and the environment We know that children are naturally curious and observant. Children learn about the world by observing, asking questions and trying to make sense of what they experience. Encourage your learners to ask questions. Questions are an opportunity to engage the class in observations and discussions. In Science we want learners: ¼ to interact with real objects in the class and outside ¼ to develop a lively curiosity about the world around them ¼ to be confident to raise questions ¼ to link their questions to what they observe in their home environments and in the world. This can lead to a rich thinking, talking and writing environment. Children who have this curiosity will learn and become creative human beings too.

Assessment
The assessment tasks in this group of learning experiences are directly linked to the Learning Outcomes of the NCS. They are designed to encourage learners to show what they know, to show what they are thinking and to record and show you their questions. Courses presented by Rose Thomas and Nontsikelelo Mahote. Booklet designed by Welma Odendaal with illustrators Nicci Cairns and Janet Ranson.

Western Cape Primary Science Programme (PSP) Edith Stephens Wetland Park, Lansdowne Road, Philippi P .O. Box 24158, Lansdowne, 7779, South Africa Tel: 021 691 9039 e-mail: info@psp.org.za Fax: 021 691 6350 website: www.psp.org.za
The PSP is grateful for support from PETROSA

Contents
SECTION 1
All living things depend on soil
Learning experiences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Assessment tasks
LO2 (AS 1 & 2) Comparing two different samples of topsoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 LO1 (AS 1 & 2) How much water do different kinds of soil hold? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 LO3 (AS 1 & 2) Sustaining my little piece of Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Suggested workscheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

SECTION 2
Learner task cards to photocopy
Task Task Task Task card card card card 1 2 3 4 Different kinds of soil particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Describing our topsoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Analysing my soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Assessment task for LO2 (AS 1 & 2): Comparing two different samples of topsoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Assessment task for LO1 (AS 1, 2 and 3): How much water do different kinds of soils hold? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Observing our earthworms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 What do earthworms do in the soil? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Reading about how farmers work with the soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Assessment task for LO3: AS 1 & 2: Sustaining my little piece of Earth . . . . 63 Make a drawing to show the biosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Farmers used the constellations to tell them when to plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

Task card 5 Task Task Task Task Task Task card card card card card card 6 7 8 9 10 11

Readings and support materials
This is an Earthworm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 What do Earthworms eat? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Earthworms in the food chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Farming in rural areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Farming with tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Growing rice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Reading “Compost, my compost” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Make your own compost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 My little piece of Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Stories from the stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

SECTION 3
Extracts from the National Curriculum Statement for Natural Sciences Grades R – 9 Core Knowledge and Concepts for Planet Earth and Beyond (NCS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Learning Outcomes and Assessment Standards (NCS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

section 1
Learning experiences
All living things depend on soil
1. What is topsoil? (LO2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 2. Soil particles come from rocks (LO2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Finding out about garden topsoil (LO2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Assessment task for LO2 (AS 1 & 2) Comparing two different samples of topsoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4. How much water does our soil hold? (LO1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Assessment task for LO1 (AS 1, 2 & 3) How much water do different kinds of soils hold? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5. What do earthworms do in the soil? (LO2 and LO1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 6. Working with soil (LO2 and LO1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 7. Sustaining my little piece of Earth (LO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Assessment task LO3 (AS 1 & 2) Sustaining my little piece of Earth 8. Farmers used the constellations of stars to tell them when to plant (LO3) . . . 35 Suggested Workscheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

4

What is topsoil? (LO 2) Key Concepts ࡯ Topsoil is the thin layer of soil that lies on top of the ground ࡯ Topsoil is made of particles 1 Teacher Task 1. thin. Topsoil contains humus Topsoil is made of small grains (particles). So we must look after our soil. It is the loose top layer of the land. fragile layer. Draw the following diagram on the chalkboard to explain to the learners about topsoil. All living things depend on the soil as well as air. water and sunlight. Living things and soil All living things live on or in the topsoil. All living things get food from the plants that live in the soil and also from the animals that feed on the plants. Topsoil is a loose. It can be washed away or blown away very easily. It is usually only about 50-150 centimetres deep on average around the world. Learners copy the mind map into their books. Subsoil Rock Consolidation 3. Assist learners to make a class mind map of everything they know about soil. Explain about topsoil The soil that we live on is called the topsoil. 2. MIND MAP OF SOIL – WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT IT has a smell we walk on it it is dirty can blow in the wind we play with it moles live under it has stones in it SOIL we grow things in it 5 . but on the top of mountains it is only a few millimetres deep. In tropical rain forests it can be 5 metres deep. 4.

Provide vocabulary for them to do so. Note: many learners will bring pieces of brick or concrete. Make sure each group has two or three different rock samples to look at. These are manmade materials. They do not have to know the scientific names of the types of rocks. silt and clay are soil particles and they come from rock ࡯ Rock is broken down into pieces by a process of ‘weathering’ ࡯ It takes thousands of years to ‘weather’ rocks down to make only a small layer of soil ࡯ Different rocks make different kinds of soil particles ࡯ Most topsoil has particles from more than one kind of rock ࡯ Sand.2 Soil particles come from rocks (LO 2) Key Concepts ࡯ Sand. Help learners to distinguish between them. silt and clay particles have their own specific properties Teacher Task Introduction 1. Bring a selection of stones and rock samples to class (or ask learners to bring them). 3. 2. If they have samples of brick or concrete explain that they are not natural rocks. Remove these from the samples. 4. Help learners to describe their rocks. List of words gritty rough flaky smooth grainy sharp hard brown black grey yellow hlalutye rhabaza cwecwana igudile nkozwana bukhali qinile mdaka mnyama ngwevu mthubi grinterig grof vlokkerig glad korrelrig skerp hard bruin swart grys geel 6 . They are not natural rock samples.

Is your soil like sand? Yes my soil is like sand because it is gritty and I can’t roll it into rings and sausages. 7 . Take any two rocks and rub them together to make some soil particles. It feels gritty. Wet your soil particles with a few drops of water. Do the same with the sand and the clay. this r u me ho bbing is m t and aking tired. 4. And I can’t roll it into sausages or bend it into rings. 3. Learner Task Different kinds of soil particles Task Card to photocopy on page 42 1. Is your soil like clay? No my soil is not like clay because it is not sticky.Teacher Task Preparation Provide learners with the following materials: ࡯ Rock samples ࡯ Pieces of clean white paper ࡯ A few teaspoons of sand ࡯ A small piece of wet clay (you can buy clay at craft shops and at Cape Pottery Supplies or from a supplier in your area). Roll the soil particles in your hand and try to answer the questions in the table below. 2. it ’s di fficult ake k to m r o w rd it ’s ha oil ! it tle s l a n eve ! 2. Different soil particles QUESTIONS Soil particles from my rocks yes no no no no no yes yes yes yes Clay Sand Does it feel gritty? Does it feel sticky? Does it feel smooth? Can you roll it into sausages? Can you bend it into rings? yes no no no no 1.

Questions a. It feels gritty. very long time.Teacher Task Explain to learners that when they were looking at the soil. How long do you think it took Nature to make all the soil in your school garden? It took Nature millions of years to make all the soil in our school garden. It is like sand because it does not feel smooth. Assist learners to complete the following writing task and questions in their books. b. 8 . feeling it and finding out what it can do. Do all your soil particles look the same? Write to explain your answer. How long do you think it will take you to make one cup of soil? It will take a very. This is because they come from different rocks. Learner Writing Task 1. Start like this: Today we rubbed rocks together and made soil particles. c. all soil particles do not look the same. Describe some of the properties of the soil that you made from the rocks. 2. No. they were finding out about the properties of their soil. I can’t roll it into sausages and rings. These are the properties of my soil: The colour of my soil is grey.

002mm You can fit 1000s onto a pinhead All garden topsoils are a mixture of these three particles Sand ࡯ Large particle ࡯ Large air spaces in between the particles Silt ࡯ Smaller particles than sand. but bigger than clay ࡯ Smaller air spaces between the particles Clay ࡯ Small particles ࡯ small air spaces between the particles Clay Silt Sand Texture of the different particles ࡯ Sand feels sharp. You can find silt. 9 . It is the soil that blows up behind a car and dirties the back windscreen when you drive on a dusty road (sand is too heavy and clay is too sticky). The following are the particles that we find mixed together with humus to make our topsoil.002 mm You can fit 100s onto a pinhead Clay Size of particle is smaller than . which help to rot the dead plants and animals.05 to . The three types of particles that make up soil are: Sand Size of particle: up to 2mm You can fit 10s onto a pinhead Silt Size of particle: . Humus also contains micro-organisms. Silt feels very smooth and powdery. Humus is made from rotting dead plants and animals in soil. These are mixed with humus (compost). ࡯ Clay feels fine and powdery when it’s dry and it feels sticky when it’s wet. Note to teacher Silt ˿ We had no example of pure silt. grainy and gritty. ࡯ Silt feels very smooth and silky even when it’s wet.Consolidation Explain Topsoil is made of different kinds of particles. called bacteria and fungi.

this makes good soil. Smaller pieces of rock get broken off. – Sometimes trees grow near rocks. Their roots grow into cracks in the rocks and this slowly breaks the rocks apart. Weathering can take place in many different ways. Explain that we want to compare different soils from different places. For example – The wind blows sand against rocks and this slowly grinds the rocks into smaller particles. Soil is important to us. 10 . – Each kind of rock makes its own kind of soil particles. Preparation Ask learners to bring a packet of soil from home. texture and smell ࡯ Each different kind of topsoil has its own water holding properties ࡯ Soil is a mixture of – Fine particles such as sand. causes the rocks to crack and break. The particles get washed down in rivers and deposited after floods. clay and silt – Water – Rotting plant and animal matter (humus) – Minerals ࡯ Different soils have different proportions of particles and humus Teacher Task Introduction Explain the following to learners: Nature makes the soil by the weathering of rocks. 1. – Rocks fall from the side of mountains when there is exceptionally heavy rainfall. The rocks and stones that you find in these fast-flowing rivers are usually smooth and round from being rolled and bumped against each other by the water. When these particles mix with other soil particles. Rock is broken down into particles in nature by a process called weathering. which takes place over and over again. We all depend on soil for growing our food. 2.3 Finding out about garden topsoil (LO 2) Key Concepts ࡯ There are different kinds of topsoil ࡯ Each kind of topsoil has its own properties: appearance. Plants and animals also depend on soil. At night they cool down again. Make sure that you or the learners bring soils from different places and also from the school garden. The rocks are washed together in fast-flowing rivers. This heating and cooling. – Rocks become hot in the sun in the daytime.

It feels gritty – the particles are quite big (like big grains of sugar). Dit voel glad – die deeltjies is baie fyn. Write to explain what kind of soil you have. voel dit soos ‘n fyn poeier. Roll it in your hands. amahlalutye esanti mancinci. Xa womile uvakal nje nge phawda. When it is dry it feels like a fine powder.Learner Task Describing our topsoil Task Card to photocopy on page 44 1. Dit voel korrelrig – die sanddeeltjies is klein. Uvakala ncangathi xa umanzi. Unamatye amaninz i amancinci. Uvakala rhabaxa. sticky like clay. Use the table below to help you decide what kind of soil you have. My soil My soil is course. sandy soil because it feels gritty and the particles are big like grains of sugar. 11 . Discuss these questions: ࡯ How does it smell? ࡯ What can you see in it? ࡯ Where do you think it came from? ࡯ How was it made? 3. 5. Feel your soil. Dit voel taai as dit nat is – die deeltjies is baie klein. Uvakala mpuluswa unamahlalutyana. It feels gritty – the sand particles are small. Take a small sample of soil in your hand. It feels sticky when wet – the particles are very small. How does the soil feel between your fingers? Uvakala njani umhlaba xa gronduwuva ngesandla? Uvakala unezigaqa. amahlalutye mancinci. 2. Uvakala rhabaxa unamahlalutye amakhulwana. Hoe voel die grond as dit tussen jou vingers gevryf word? Dit voel grof – dit is vol klein klippies. As dit droog is. Dit voel korrelrig – die deeltjies is nogal groot (soos korrels suiker). TYPE OF SOIL It feels coarse – it is full of small stones. It feels smooth – the particles are very fine. Is it gritty like sand. or smooth and dusty like silt? 4.

– 1 soil sample (1 cup). Draw the jar and the layers of soil in it. 4. 3. 2.. The particles will always settle in the following way. Shake the jar very well to mix the soil and water. Wait for the mixture to settle for a few hours.. Explain When we want to find out what kind of particles make up our soil we can do a soil analysis. Preparation Provide the following equipment to learners in groups..Teacher Task 1... the particles will always settle in the following way … look! heavy stones at the bottom. then silt . Can you see the layers of different soil particles? Task Card to photocopy on page 45 6. In a soil analysis we add water to a cup of soil in a jar. Each group should have a sample from a different place – 1 big coffee jar with lid – Water to fill up the jar. Add water to fill the jar and put on the lid.tiny particles of clay and the humus floats on top! Learner Task Analysing my soil 1. 3. 5. 2. Label the layers. Pour 1 cupful of soil into an empty coffee jar. sand falls on top of them . We shake them up together and the particles in the soil will settle into separate layers after some time. 12 .

or is it an equal mixture of all three? Sandy 13 . Is your soil mostly sandy/silty/clay. What kind of particles made up the biggest layer in your soil? Sand 2.water add soil stir or shake wait … humus – sticks. leaves and grass water clay – smallest particles silt – small particles sand – bigger particles stones – biggest particles Questions 1.

࡯ The constituents of soil always settle in this order. They must complete the writing in their books. 14 . Consolidation 2. For example. Explain that this allows us to the see the different particles making up our soil because they have separated into layers. ࡯ The smallest particles (clay) stay suspended in the water for some time before they settle. sandy clay soil may only have sand and clay particles. ࡯ The humus (pieces of rotting plants) float on the top of the water. They are the biggest and heaviest particles. Finally the sticks.Teacher Task Explain 1. After the soil settled I could see five layers of particles. We can also see how much of each kind of particle we have by the thickness of the layer. After learners have mixed their soil with water in a coffee jar.they may only have two. leaves and grass float to the surface. Sand particles are smaller than stones. The clay makes the water look muddy. The sticks. which settle into layers when they are mixed with water. leaves and grass are called humus. Clay makes the water look muddy. Do the following writing task together with your learners. The next layer to settle is silt particles. ࡯ Smaller particles (silt) are the next to settle down. Explain the following: ࡯ Soil is a mixture of fine particles. The next layer to settle was the sand particles. ࡯ Some soil does not have all three types of particles . The small stones settled to the bottom layer. draw a picture on the chalkboard showing the different layers. Learner Writing Task Analysing my soil I mixed a cup of my soil with water. They are smaller than sand particles. ࡯ The biggest particles (stones and sand) are the first to settle at the bottom. The next layer to settle is the clay particles. Clay particles are the smallest particles.

˿ Soil is considered a poor soil when it does not contain a good mixture of all three particles. Note to teachers ˿ It is not necessary for learners to know these proportions. The sand particles allow excess water to drain out of the soil and the spaces between the particles trap air in the soil and make it light and soft.Teacher Task Explain that the best kind of soil for planting is called loam soil. Note to teachers Soils differ from each other ˿ Soil from one area can be very different to soil from another. The important thing for them to know is that loam soil is a mixture of all three soil particles and humus. The layer of silt is also very thin. ˿ Soils that have a large proportion of sand are called sandy soils. They are called clay soils. soil from Khayelitsha contains mostly sand because the town is built on a sand dune. The clay and silt and rotting humus contains mineral salts. That is why we add compost and fertiliser to the soil. We want the learners to see that soils from different places will have different proportions of the three particles. Loam soil is a mixture of sand. Silt is an essential component of fertile soils. People struggle to grow plants if the soil is poor. Other soils may contain mostly clay. 15 . which help plants to grow. which can be confusing. Why is loam soil best for planting? The clay particles hold the water so that the soil never dries out completely. This is the best kind of soil for planting. This means that you will not find a layer of clay when you analyse that soil. For example. Teacher task Preparing for the assessment task Provide two very different soil samples from different places for the learners to do the following task. silt and clay in the following proportions: ࡯ Clay: 8-28% ࡯ Silt: 28-50% ࡯ Sand: 25-52% Loam soil also contains humus. Other soils near river flood plains may contain a lot of silt. ˿ Textbooks often do not mention silt at all.

Measure one cup each of the two different soils. Which is the thinnest layer in this soil? (Stones) 2. Does this soil have all three kinds of soil particles in it? (Yes) 4.Task Card to photocopy on page 46 Assessment task for LO2 (AS 1 & 2) This assessment task can also be adapted as an investigation for LO1 (AS 2 & 3). 3. 2. Leave the mixtures to settle for a few hours. Comparing two different samples of topsoil 1. Comparing two different soils (LO2) SOIL A SOIL B humus humus water water clay silt sand sand stones stones 1. Put the lids on and shake the jars well. Which is the thickest layer? (Clay) 3. Draw and label each jar of soil. Which is the thickest layer? (Sand) 3. 5. Answer the questions about each soil. Show the different layers of particles. Which name describes this soil the best? „ Stony soil „ Coarse sandy soil „ Fine sandy soil „ Silty soil „ Clay soil „  Loam 16 . Place each cup of soil in a separate coffee jar and fill it up with water. Does this soil have all three kinds of soil particles in it? (No) 4. 4. Which is the thinnest layer in this soil? (Silt) 2. Which name describes this soil the best? „ Stony soil „  Coarse sandy soil „ Fine sandy soil „ Silty soil „ Clay soil „ Loam 1.

6.Assessment task for LO2 (AS 1 & 2) (cont. Explain why you found them interesting.) 5. Draw and write to explain about some things that you have learnt about soil. Bonus questions ࡯ What is loam soil? ࡯ Why is it the best kind of soil for growing things? 17 .

clay. ˿ Correctly show the different layers of soil. ˿ Correct understanding of how soils are named. ˿ Correct information about soil. Write and draw about what they have learnt ˿ Correct use of the terminology e.g. ˿ Give some idea in the drawing of the particle sizes and the order of size in which they settle. Label the layers of soil particles The labels must: ˿ Point correctly to each layer. – Silt and humus provide mineral salts for the plants. ˿ Loam soil is a mixture of all three particles and humus. Criteria 18 . silty soil.e.g. – There is air between the sand particles which makes the soil soft and light so the roots can grow and seeds can push their way out. – Humus keeps the soil damp. clay soil. ˿ The writing should also show the ability to link separate pieces of information into a clear and correct explanation of what they found interesting and why. E. followed by smaller particles above. etc. AS 2 Complete questions The answers must show: ˿ Correct interpretation of the thickness of the layers. humus. For a code 4 (80%) and above use bonus questions ˿ Plants grow well in loam because: – The clay particles trap water for the plants. stony soil. – Water can sink into the soil between the sand particles so tree roots can use it. silt. ˿ Have the correct name of each layer and the apparatus. sand. using key words such as: stones. and humus on top. clay. We name soils according to the type of particles that make up the biggest layer when we analyse soil. silt. bigger particles at the bottom. i. coffee jar. sandy soil contains a large proportion of sand particles. water.Assessment for LO2 Assessment tasks AS 1 & 2 Draw the layers of soil particles in the jar The drawing must: ˿ Have clear lines and be big enough to show details.

They are deposited near to the riverbank. This is because the river floods and the flooding makes the land fertile near the river. As the river floods and the water begins to flow over the banks. The floodwaters carry the silt and clay particles over the riverbanks. We all know that people have lived along the banks of the Nile River for many centuries. the lighter soil particles. So the flooding waters of the Nile River make it possible for people to live there successfully and get everything they need from the river. People use this clay for making pottery and bricks and plaster for their houses. Silt and clay. The silt settles next and makes fertile soil where the people can grow crops. remain suspended in the water. The clay only settles once the flood waters have spread further from the river. forming a sandy beach. What else do you think the Nile River provided for the people? Mediterranean Sea Cairo Fertile flood plain Nile River ear a river that flo ods in the r ainy season? ˿ Do all flo oding river s help people who live nea r it in the s ame way that the Nil e does? hink about ˿ Do you know of. or live n T hings to t Aswan Dam wall The great pyramids at Giza on the banks of the Nile A satellite picture of the Nile 19 . the first particles to sink down are the sand particles.A link with Social Sciences How soil particles settle along the banks of the Nile River Read and explain the following to the learners: You have all learnt about the Nile Rive in Geography and in History. When the river floods it picks up soil and carries it along in the water.

.T Teacher Task Explain to learners that we are going to investigate different soils to find out how much water they can hold.R * Why do some soils stay damp all the time? .R * Which soils hold water the best?.T * What kind of rocks do clay particles come from?.. Write these as questions under the second column....R * Why do some soils dry out quickly?......R * What kind of rocks do sand particles come from?.T * Why does humus enrich the soil?. Write an “R” next to these questions. What do we already know about soil? * * * * * * * * * We depend on soil Soil is made of particles Soil comes from weathered rocks Soil is a mixture of sand. Make a list of their ideas on the chalkboard.. Ask which questions we could investigate and find the answers to in the classroom – these are testable. 20 . 1. Then ask learners to say what they would still like to know and find out about soil. Ask learners to tell you which questions we could find the answers to in books – these would be researchable questions..4 How much water does our soil hold? (LO 1) Key Concepts ࡯ Different soils are able to hold different amounts of water ࡯ Sandy soil does not hold water well because the water runs away through the spaces between the particles ࡯ Clay soils hold water because the spaces between the particles are smaller ࡯ Humus in the soil also absorbs water Teacher Task Introduction Divide the chalkboard into two columns. clay and silt Soil contains humus Loam soil is good for growing plants Clay is sticky and we can roll it into sausages and rings Sand is course and grainy Silt is smooth and silky What would we still like to find out about soil? * What kinds of soil are best for growing plants?. 2.. Ask learners to tell you what they have learnt so far about soil. Write a “T” next to these questions.R * What makes the best kind of humus?....

Write down two things you could find out about your soil at home 21 . 4. Learner Task Task Card to photocopy on page 48 How much water do different kinds of soils hold? For AS 1 1. Assist learners to take the measurements and to do the calculation. Hand out the Learner Task Card and assist learners to read it. Provide the learners with the following apparatus. 3. Let the learners carry out the instructions and use the apparatus in groups.Preparing for the Investigation Assessment (for LO1 AS 1 & 2) 1. 3 beakers or baby food jars a beaker of water 3 measuring cylinders 3 funnels 3 filter papers a teaspoon a watch newspaper 2.

) 2. Measure how much water is in the measuring cylinder. 5. Is it a good or bad thing for soil to let the water drain away easily? (Sometimes it is a good thing that soil drains easily because the rain soaks into the ground and the plants with deep roots can use it. After a while the water will start dripping through the soil into the measuring cylinder. Fold the filter paper and place it in the funnel.) Bonus questions for 80% or more 1.) 22 . 3. Record your readings in the table and complete the calculation. Why do you think some soils let the water through easily? (If the soil has a lot of big sand particles then the water can sink through the air spaces between the particles. What can you say about loam soil and how it holds water? (The loam soil will hold more than the sand. 6. Copy the table below into your notebook to record your observations. 7. Calculate how much water remained in the soil. Then set up the funnel and measuring cylinder like this.For AS 2 Method 1. 9. Which soil holds the most water? (Clay soil) 5. but less than the clay. 4. Sometimes in drought conditions it is better if the soil does retain water as plants can slowly use it and so survive a drought. Fill the funnel with the dry. sandy soil (make sure there are no lumps). Measure 100ml of water into a beaker or baby food bottle. Clay is also used as a lining in farm dams so that the water does not drain away.) 8. Which soil lets the most water drip through? (Sandy soil) 2. Wait for the water to stop dripping and then record. Slowly pour the water into the middle of the soil. Which soil only lets a small amount of water drip through? (Clay soil) 4. Which soil holds the least water? (Sandy soil) 3. (The amount of water poured into the soil (100ml) – the amount of water in the cylinder = the amount of water held by the soil. 2. Do the same for the clay soil and the loamy soil Measurements How much water did you pour into the soil (ml)? How much water dripped through into the measuring cylinder (ml)? Calculate how much water stayed in the soil (ml)? Clay soil Sandy soil Loam soil For AS 3 Questions 1.

how much sand. To ‘drain’ means to let the water pass through. ˿ What kind of plants and animals are found growing and living in their soil? ˿ Etc. ࡯ Sandy soil drains quickly because it has large spaces between the large sand particles. Loam soils are the best for growing crops. their findings ˿ Clay soil will hold the most water.Assessment for LO1 Assessment task AS 1 What can we find out about soil at home? Criteria The learners’ ideas could include finding out about: ˿ Colour and texture of the soil. ˿ Record the measurements correctly. ˿ Correctly calculate the volume of water held by the soil. ˿ Use the apparatus correctly. Clay holds a lot of water so there is little space left for air. clay. ˿ Analysing the soil to show its composition. ˿ Make accurate measurements. ˿ The loam soil will hold more than the sand but less than the clay. AS 2 Carry out a procedure AS 3 Learners must show they understand the following: Answer questions about ˿ Sandy soil will hold the least water. Sandy soils do not hold water. but more air than clay 23 . Help them to write notes about this in their notebooks. What have we learnt? Some soils drain more quickly than others. Bonus questions for ˿ Understand and explain that sandy soil does not hold 80% or more water well because the air spaces between the particles are large and the water drains through them. They dry out quickly and so it is difficult to grow crops in sandy soils. ˿ Give at least one good reason why they think that it is good for soil to drain water easily and one bad reason. i.e. Sand – large particles give large air spaces Clay – small particles give small air spaces Loam – large and small particles give less air than sand. Consolidation Explain the following to the learners. Plants struggle to grow in soil that does not contain air. Learners must: ˿ Follow the instructions correctly. ࡯ Loam soil drains better than clay but not as much as sandy soil. ࡯ Clay soil drains slowly because the spaces between the particles are very small. Loam soils hold some water but there are also spaces left for air. silt and humus in the soil.

It also contains humus (pieces of dead plants and animals). Assist learners to make a mind map about good soil. Good soil also has earthworms living in it. 24 . Ask What makes good soil? Why must we have good soil? What must good soil have? 2. Teacher Task Introduction 1. some clay. For example: loose is soft easy to dig mixture of particles we can grow things in it good soil compost fine water About good soil Good soil always has some sand. air and water.5 What do earthworms do in the soil? (LO 1 & LO 2) Key Concepts ࡯ Earthworms live in the soil ࡯ Earthworms are essential for keeping the soil good ࡯ Earthworms help the soil in the following ways: – They turn and mix the soil – Water and air can enter the soil through their burrows – They eat dead leaves and grass and fertilize the soil with their droppings. We need good soil so plants can grow and supply all animals (including people) with food and shelter. and some silt in it.

˿ Decide if you think the le to know th e scientific arners need nam parts of the earthworm es of the . It holds on with its front part and then pulls its back part forward towards the front. Earthworms breathe through their skin and they will die if they dry out. ooh! it feels cold! 25 . Give each group an earthworm. It gets long and thin. Place your earthworm on a clean plastic lid. This is how it moves. t like light and so we keep them don’t out return them of the soil for long. It pushes its front end forwards as if it is stretching. In your own language describe how the earthworm moves. How my earthworm moves nooo! hayi bo! I watched my earthworm move. 2.Teacher Task Preparation 1. This part is the head ˿ Explain to learners that earthw are comple orms tely harmle ss. Put a few drops of water on it. Label the front and the back end and any other parts that you can see. When it is pulling it gets short and fat. Assist learners to label their earthworms and to describe how they move. This part is the tail Note to teachers Clitellum or saddle (where we find sexual openings for egg and sperm) Segments Soft slimy skin Very small hairs (setae) on each segment help with movement Learner Task Learner task Observing our earthworms 1. 2. W e to observed th the soil after we hav e em. They ca bite you or nnot infect you. Draw a picture of your earthworm. Look carefully at your earthworm: ࡯ Which is the front end and which is the back end? Task Card to photocopy on page 50 why is it so wiggly? ࡯ How can you tell which is the front end and which is the back end? ࡯ Watch how the earthworm moves. Place a drop of water on the earthworm. which cate they use fo r breathing They do no . Place it on a clean plastic ice cream box lid (or other lid) with enough space for the earthworm to move around. 3. We handle carefully b them ecause the y have deli skin. 4.

Cover the whole house with newspapers (earthworms like to live in the dark). Show learners how to set up a worm house as shown with alternating layers of loam and sand. 4. Investigate what earthworms do in the soil 1. 5. 2. See page 44-46. Check after a week and thereafter every few days. Assist learners to set up a worm house. Put fresh leaves on top for food. Cut cooldrink bottle Leaves for food Sand Soil Sand Soil Stones Holes 26 . Add the earthworms. 2. 3. Keep the soil moist by adding a little water. Setting up a worm house This assessment task could also be adapted as an investigation for LO1 (AS 2 & 3). Stones must be placed at the bottom.Teacher Task Read and explain about earthworms 1. Read “This is an earthworm” with the learners.

Set up a worm house with your group. The earthworms made holes. 3. Why must we have good soil? We must have good soil so that plants can grow in it. 4. tunnels and nests in the soil. They also fertilise the soil with their droppings.Learner Task Task Card to photocopy on page 51 1. What do earthworms do in the soil? Before Draw The worm house before we added the earthworms Cut cooldrink bottle Leaves for food Sand Soil Sand Soil After Draw The worm house some time after we added the earthworms Earthworms have pulled some leaves into the soil Soil is mixed with the sand Earthworms in their burrows Stones Holes 2. such as trees. We need good soil so that seeds can grow. Cover it with newspaper and leave for 1–3 weeks. Earthworms mixed the soil and took dead leaves and grass into the soil. Without good soil we would all die because we would not be able to grow our food. Consolidation Questions for discussion ࡯ Why is soil so important? ࡯ Why should we all look after our soil? ࡯ What can we add to our soil so we can make it better? ࡯ What is the best way to look after our soil? 27 . are places where animals can live and hide. Plants. We grow plants for food. Why must we have earthworms in our soil? We must have earthworms in our soil because they mix it and make holes for air and water. Write sentences to explain what earthworms did to the soil.

humus. 1. tractor Fertiliser . plant in rows. animal droppings Planting . Examples of vocabulary about working the soil: * * * Tools . C. Introduce vocabulary about working the soil. Read about “Growing rice” . 1. hoe. fork. 2. Read about “Farming with tools” .seeds.chemicals. Match each paragraph with its correct picture.spade. Match each paragraph with its correct picture. preparing the soil. Match each paragraph with its correct picture. loosening. ࡯ “Farming in rural areas” ࡯ “Farming with tools” ࡯ “Growing rice” Learner Task A. Read about “Farming in rural areas” . scatter seeds. digging. 2.6 Working with soil (LO 1 & LO 2) Key Concepts ࡯ All over the world people work with soil to prepare it for planting ࡯ In different parts of the world people use different tools to work the soil ࡯ People also fertilise the soil before they plant crops Teacher Task 1. 28 . 2. making soil loose and soft. seedlings (small young plants). B. tilling (turning over) the soil. rake. 2. Task Card to photocopy on page 55 1. compost. Hand out photocopies of the following readings from page 56.

Ideas for integration with Life and Living Growing plants When you study vegetative and sexual reproduction in plants. It will take about a month to make good compost in a black bag. Ask each child to make up their own soil in a foam cup. my compost” on page 59 with learners. After their seeds have grown they will then be able to decide which soil was the best for growing seeds. 29 . get learners to make compost.Teacher Task Read “Compost. which they can mix with their soil from home. Then each learner can grow seeds in their soil. Assist them to read “Make your own compost” on page 61. Consolidation Suggest to learners that they make some compost at home. Which mix of soil is the best for growing? (LO1) A good investigation to find this out could be: ˾ Provide learners with a selection of samples of poor and good soil and sand and humus. Then they can use this to grow cuttings and seeds for Life and Living. They must mix different amounts from each sample of soil and make up what they think is the best mixture.

soil surface. ࡯ We sustain the soil so that it provides for our needs at present. where will we find the soil on the Earth? ࡯ Point out that the soil is just the very smallest layer of loose material on the surface of the Earth (ball). 2. See page 64 to photocopy. under the soil. ࡯ Hand out the paper segment of the Earth. Point to the round object and ask: if this is the Earth.7 Sustaining my little piece of Earth (LO 3) Key Concepts ࡯ We must look after the piece of Earth we live on so that it can sustain us and the plants and animals around us for the future Teacher Task Introduction Ask learners: ࡯ Could we live without soil? ࡯ What would happen to us if our soil became dry and lifeless? ࡯ What would happen if all our soil was washed away or blown away? ࡯ Why should we try to look after our soil? Introduce the word sustainable. Make sure it has something that is shaped like a ball. If we look after the soil in a sustainable way it means we do not harm the soil. ࡯ Point out the following on the segment: above the soil. and so it can meet the needs of generations to come. 5. Preparation 1. Ask them to point out the object that has the same shape as the Earth (a sphere). 3. Bring a box of objects to class. 30 . Ask learners to look at the objects in the box. Explain that it means the following: ࡯ To sustain something means to develop and keep something going without breaking down the environment. ࡯ Tell learners that you are going to give them their very own piece of the Earth to look after. 4.

My Little Piece of Earth above the soil soil surface under the soil Show the line that represents the surface of the soil. slice of Earth 31 . Then explain that the learners must not draw onto it like a slice of pizza. Instead they must draw some things on top of the line showing the surface of the soil and some things growing just under the soil (not too far as the soil is a very thin layer). Explain that afterwards you will put all the segments together again to get a picture of the whole Earth.

Task Card to photocopy on page 63 Assessment task for LO3 (AS 1 & 2) Sustaining my little piece of Earth Learner Task 1. Show all the things that will be living together on top of your soil and in your soil. Show how they live together and get food and water and shelter. 3. 2. Draw your own little farm on your piece of Earth. Write about why you will look after your soil to keep it good so that you can always live there. Explain what you will use each tool for. Draw the tools you will use to prepare and look after your soil. 32 .

Point out how important the soil is in helping to maintain life on Earth. and this is why we must look after it. etc. ࡯ Have a label or a few sentences explaining correctly what each tool will be used for. ants. Criteria Consolidation Teacher Task 1. 2. AS 2 Drawing tools and explaining their uses The drawing and writing must: ࡯ Show tools for working with and looking after the soil. mice burrowing. hoses. mining. birds nesting. ploughs. grow plants in it. e. animals and people living in and on the soil. windmills. For example: insects pollinating.Assessment for LO 3 Assessment task AS 1 Drawing of things living together on or in the soil The drawing must: ࡯ Show a variety of plants. This thin layer where there is life with its soil. 4. air and water is called the biosphere (bio= life. 33 . snakes. Put them together again to make a whole Earth and display them on a large wall or ceiling in the school. water and fertilise it. Show learners that the only place where there is life on our planet is where the soil. Collect all the learners’ illustrated “slices” or segments of the Earth. air and water meet. AS 1 Writing about looking after the soil The writing must show understanding: ࡯ Of how to look after soil. earthworms. e. moles. growing food crops. etc. watering cans. forks. sphere=round ball).g. ࡯ Show aspects of the relationship between plants. earthworms eating. 3. etc. ࡯ That animals living in the soil help to keep it healthy. such as spades. animals and people living on top of and under the soil. 5. This whole Earth should look very rich and interesting.g. plough it.

3. Write a few sentences to explain why we must look after our soil.Our little pieces of Earth joined together T he Earth Biosphere Learner Task Task Card to photocopy on page 66 1. Make a sketch of the Earth showing where we find the biosphere. Label the biosphere. 34 . 2.

The Southern Cross is a constellation. The stars of the Southern Cross constellation are always in the following pattern: © Akira Fujii/DMI The Southern Cross Constellation 35 . 3. 1. What are these patterns of stars called? Constellations. 4. Do the stars make patterns in the sky? Yes. the stars make patterns in the sky. Do we see the same stars in the sky each night? Yes. These patterns do not change. over the course of a year we will see the same stars. 2. the patterns of stars stay the same. These patterns of stars are called constellations ࡯ The constellations slowly move across the sky through the year from season to season ࡯ People used to tell the time of year from the position of particular constellations in the sky 8 Introduction Discuss the following questions with the class. The stars appear in fixed patterns or arrangements in the sky.Farmers used constellations of stars to tell them when to plant (LO 3) Key Concepts ࡯ When we look up at the sky we can see stars. Do the stars stay in these same patterns all the time? Yes.

Explain In the past. 36 . The constellations always stay in the same pattern. it was time to reap the harvest. Use a copy of the Astronomy card “Stories from the stars” (see page 68) and /or make copies for the learners. You can use a bought doily or make one of your own to represent a group of stars or constellation or you can draw the Southern Cross constellation (see previous page) on a piece of paper. The stars and constellations were also used in the same way by many other cultures . 2. 3. before we had clocks and calendars. Use a paper doily or drawing to represent a constellation.) The whole constellation moves across the sky as we move from season to season. we will see a constellation in a certain part of the sky. (Point to the pattern of the doily or drawing. They looked for a familiar constellation and when they saw it in a certain position in the sky.Teacher Task Explain 1. This movement is repeated year after year. This means that at a certain season. Hold it in your hand and move it in an arc to show it moving across the sky. 6. they knew it was time for planting. Demonstrate Use a doily to demonstrate the movement of a constellation across the sky. Later in the year. 4. people used the position of the stars and constellations to tell what time of the year it was. 5. when the same constellation had moved to another part of the sky. Help learners to complete the task card “Farmers used the constellations to tell them when to plant” (task card to copy on page 67).

Pleiades. Taurus. 1. The Southern Cross and the pointers” a. b.Learner Task for LO 3 Task Card to photocopy on page67 Farmers used the constellations of stars to tell them when to plant Read the following paragraphs from “Stories from the stars” (Astronomy Card 11) and answer the questions about them. Read “8. Name two constellations? The Southern Cross. Why were constellations important to people in the past? They helped people to know the time of year. b. What did people have to do when they saw these stars just above the trees? They had to hurry up and finish planting. Read “5. Why did people call these stars Giraffes? Because the people could see them just above the trees like the heads of giraffes. d. isiLimela 2. write a paragraph about why the constellations were important to people who were farming and looking after their piece of Earth. Orion. 37 . Read “6. Telling time by the stars” a. What did the people do when they saw isiLimela (the Pleiades) constellation? They knew it was the right time for planting. What is a constellation? A group of stars that form a fixed pattern in the sky. What is the other name for the stars in the story of isiLimela? “The digging stars”. 4. c. 3. Patterns in the sky” a. Read “2. Draw the pattern of these stars below: Consolidation With the learners. In the story of the “Southern Cross and the pointers” what did the Venda people name these stars? Thutlwa or giraffes. b. isiLimela or the Pleiades” a.

See poster to photocopy on page 68 38 .

Grade 4 PERIOD 1 Activity 1 What is topsoil? ț Teacher draws diagram on board and explains about topsoil. PERIOD 4 Activity 2 contd.Suggested work scheme for Planet Earth and Beyond. Make time to give draw and write about learners feedback after you their earthworms. Make time to give ble investigations. ț Assessment task for LO3 ț Learners draw and write about sustaining their little piece of Earth. She explains what to do with the ‘slice’ of the Earth. of soil and write a paragraph describing the layț Learners do the soil ers. PERIOD 9 Activity 3 contd. learners feedback after you ț And decide which can be have marked the assesstested and which would ment task. ț Teacher prepares learners for the assessment task. ț Learners follow instructions to do the assessment task for LO1. ț Teacher asks learners to choose objects shaped like the Earth. ț Learners write sentences about why we must care for our soil. ț Learners answer questions about their results. ț Teacher reads about earthworms with learners. NB. ț Learners read the readings and match up the pictures. ț Teacher consolidates. ț Teacher consolidates by explaining about particle size and texture. PERIOD 21 Activity 7 contd. ț Teacher helps learners to NB. ț Teacher assists learners to do writing task and answer questions in their books. ț Teacher consolidates by explaining. ț Teacher explains about ț Learners draw the layers soil analysis. ț Learners draw a sketch of Earth showing the biosphere. PERIOD 5 Activity 3 Finding out about garden topsoil ț Teacher explains the processes of weathering. PERIOD 17 Activity 6 Working with soil ț Teacher introduces vocabulary about working the soil and hands out readings about agriculture. ț Teacher prepares learners for assessment task. PERIOD 10 Activity 4 How much water does our soil hold? ț Teacher and learners raise questions for possiNB. ț Teacher consolidates. ț Teacher makes a mind map on board with learners. PERIOD 24 Activity 8 contd. PERIOD 23 Activity 8 Farmers used the constellations of stars to tell them when to plant ț Teacher introduces idea of constellations and demonstrates how a constellation moves across the sky. “What have we learnt?” PERIOD 14 Activity 5 What do earthworms do in the soil? ț Teacher introduction about good soil. PERIOD 15 Activity 5 contd. ț Teacher introduces the idea of loam soil and why it is best for planting. NB make time for learners to observe the houses and draw and write about what they see after one week. ț Teacher collects all the ‘slices of Earth’ and helps learners to put them together to make a picture of the whole Earth for display. PERIOD 18 Activity 6 contd. Make time to give learners feedback after you have marked the assessment task. PERIOD 20 Activity 7 contd. PERIOD 11 Activity 4 contd. PERIOD 13 Activity 4 contd. ț Teacher supplies learners with apparatus. ț Learners finish reading the stories and answering the questions about the constellations. PERIOD 3 Activity 2 contd. PERIOD 6 PERIOD 7 Activity 3 contd. PERIOD 22 Activity 7 contd. ț Teacher assists learners to set up an earthworm house. Period 19 Activity 7 Sustaining my little piece of Earth ț Teacher introduces questions about sustaining our soil. ț Learners read the stories from the stars and answer the questions. PERIOD 2 Activity 2 Soil particles come from rocks ț Teacher and learners examine rocks and describe them. have marked the assessment task. ț Teacher prepares learners for assessment task. PERIOD 8 Activity 3 contd. ț Teacher reads about compost and making compost to learners. ț Learners draw the earthworm house before earthworms are placed in it. ț Learners observe earthworms. 39 . ț Learners do the assessment task for LO2. PERIOD 12 Activity 4 contd. PERIOD 16 Activity 5 contd. ț Learners make soil particles by rubbing rocks together. have to be researched in books. analysis by mixing it with water. ț Teacher helps learners to calculate the amount of water retained by the soil. ț Learners fill in table about soil particles. ț Learners examine samples of garden soil and write to describe their textures. Activity 3 contd. ț Learners add earthworms to the earthworm house and cover them up.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 Readings and support materials This is an Earthworm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . my compost” . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 TASK CARD 10 Make a drawing to show the biosphere . . . . . . . . . .57 Growing rice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 What do earthworms do in the soil? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Earthworms in the food chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 Stories from the stars . . 2 and 3) How much water do different kinds of soils hold? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Analysing my soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Describing our topsoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 What do Earthworms eat? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 Reading “Compost. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .section 2 Teacher resources Learner task cards to photocopy TASK CARD 1 TASK CARD 2 TASK CARD 3 TASK CARD 4 TASK CARD 5 TASK CARD 6 TASK CARD 7 TASK CARD 8 TASK CARD 9 Different kinds of soil particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 Observing our earthworms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Reading about how farmers work with the soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Assessment task for LO3: AS 1 & 2 Sustaining my little piece of Earth . . . . . . . . . .56 Farming with tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 Make your own compost . . . . . . . . . .54 Farming in rural areas . . . . . . . . . 66 TASK CARD 11 Farmers used the constellations of stars to tell them when to plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Assessment task for LO2 (AS 1 & 2) Comparing two different samples of topsoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 My little piece of Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Assessment task for LO1 (AS 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

... Is your soil like sand? .......... Different soil particles QUESTIONS Does it feel gritty? Does it feel sticky? Does it feel smooth? Can you bend it into rings? 1..... SOIL PARTICLES FROM MY ROCKS CLAY SAND 42 ..................” 2.............. .......... Take any two rocks and rub them together to make some soil particles.......... Roll the soil particles in your hand and try to answer the questions in the table below................................................. 2.............. Is your soil like clay? ........................................ Do the same with the sand and the clay.” c i f f di “it ’s h ard w ork to make even a lit tle soil !” g is rubbin and s i h t “ me hot g n i k ma tired.......................................................... .................................. .........Learner task card to photocopy Learner task card 1 Different kinds of soil particles 1........... .......... 4...................................... “it ’s ult......................... 3... Wet your soil particles with a few drops of water.........................................................................................

...... .............. .. .. ..... ....... .......... ...... .............. . ............... ....... .................. ................. . ... .. ............. .......... ..... . .. .... .... ....... .. .... ... These are the properties of my soil: The colour of my soil is ... .. ... . ........ ..... .................. ....... ...................... ......... .... .......... .................... ........ .... ..... It feels ..... ...........Learner task card 1 continued Writing task ࡯ Describe some of the properties of the soil that you made from the rocks........ . .... ............ ..... ........... ... .. ............................... ....... .... ... . .......... ........... ............. . . ........ .... .. ...... ................................. ............. ... . . .... ............ .... ............... ....... ................. ..... ........ ........................... . ......... . ...... . ...... .. ........... ................ ..... ....... .. . .. ... .... ..................... .... .......... ........... ...... ............ ................... . ......... ............. ... ... ........ ...... ...... .... ........... ......... .......... How long do you think it took Nature to make all the soil in your school garden? ............ .......... . It is like ... .... .. ... ...... ....... ....... ........ . . ..... ....... . ....... .... ............ ......... ........................ . .. Start like this: Today we rubbed rocks together and made soil particles.. .................. ......... .......................... ... .. . ..... .... .. 43 .because . ........ . .... .... .. .... .... ....... ........ 3............... ....... .. .. .... .. ........ .. . ... How long do you think it will take you to make one cup of soil? .. ....... .............. .......... ........ . ..... ................ . 2...... .. ....... ..... .... ..... Questions 1.................... ..... .......... . ...... . .. ........ ....... . Do all your soil particles look the same? Write to explain your answer... ... ......... .. ..... ...... ..

When it is dry it feels like a fine powder. Roll it in your hands.... or smooth and dusty like silt? 4..... Uvakala ncangathi xa umanzi. amahlalutye mancinci.Learner task card to photocopy Learner task card 2 Describing our topsoil 1... Uvakala rhabaxa. Write to explain what kind of soil you have.. Dit voel korrelrig – die sanddeeltjies is klein....... Use the table below to help you decide what kind of soil you have. How does the soil feel between your fingers? Uvakala njani umhlaba xa gronduwuva ngesandla? Hoe voel die grond as dit tussen jou vingers gevryf word? Dit voel grof – dit is vol klein klippies.. Discuss these questions: – How does it smell? – What can you see in it? – Where do you think it came from? – How was it made? 3. Uvakala mpuluswa unamahlalutyana. Xa womile uvakal nje nge phawda.... It feels sticky when wet – the particles are very small.. voel dit soos ‘n fyn poeier... It feels gritty – the sand particles are small. It feels gritty – the particles are quite big (like big grains of sugar). amahlalutye esanti mancinci. . Uvakala rhabaxa unamahlalutye amakhulwana. TYPE OF SOIL It feels coarse – it is full of small stones. Dit voel korrelrig – die deeltjies is nogal groot (soos korrels suiker)... Dit voel taai as dit nat is – die deeltjies is baie klein. Take a small sample of soil in your hand. Is it gritty like sand. 2..... As dit droog is.. sticky like clay... It feels smooth – the particles are very fine.. Uvakala unezigaqa.. 5... Dit voel glad – die deeltjies is baie fyn. Unamatye amaninz i amancinci..... Feel your soil. 44 .

.............. ..... .. Add water to fill the jar and put on the lid...................... ... 5. . Draw the bottle and the layers of soil in it............. or is it an equal mixture of all three? ..... ...... ............ .... .. ...... Label the layers..... .......... ................................................. Write to explain the sequence in which your soil particles settled in the coffee jar............ ....................... ... . .... ................... 4... 45 ... 2.............................. ..... . ...... Pour 1 cupful of soil into an empty coffee jar.............. The different kinds of particles in my soil Questions 1............... .. .. Wait for the mixture to settle for a few hours..... ....... Shake the jar very well to mix the soil and water. ................ 2............. Can you see the layers of different soil particles? 6.. .... ............. ............................................. .... .. 3................................Learner task card to photocopy Learner task card 3 Analysing my soil 1....... Is your soil mostly sandy/clay/silty....... 3.... .............. What kind of particles made up the biggest layer in your soil? .. .

(AS 2 & 3) Comparing two different samples of topsoil 1. Which is the thickest layer? 3. Measure one cup each of the two different soils. Which name describes this soil the best? „ Stony soil „ Coarse sandy soil „ Fine sandy soil „ Silty soil „ Clay soil „ Loam soil Soil B 1. Put the lids on and shake the jars well. Answer the questions about each soil. Which name describes this soil the best? „ Stony soil „ Coarse sandy soil „ Fine sandy soil „ Silty soil „ Clay soil „ Loam soil 46 .Learner task card to photocopy Learner task card 4 Assessment task for LO2 (AS 1 & 2) can also be adapted for LO1. 5. Which is the thinnest layer in this soil? 2. Leave the jars to settle for a few hours. 2. Which is the thickest layer? 3. 4. Draw and label each jar of soil. Which is the thinnest layer in this soil? 2. Show the different layers of particles. A B Soil A 1. Does this soil have all three kinds of soil particles in it? 4. Place each cup of soil in a separate coffee jar and fill it up with water. Does this soil have all three kinds of soil particles in it? 4. 3.

............................................................................................ ........................................... 47 ................................................................ Explain why you found them interesting..... b.......................... What is loam soil? ............... 6...................... Bonus questions for 80% or more a........................... Why is it the best kind of soil for growing things? ......................................................................................................Learner task card 4 continued 5....... .................... .......... ....... Draw and write to explain about some things that you have learnt about soil.....

9. Calculate how much water stayed in the soil.... Write down two things you could find out about your soil at home......... 6.... Measure 100ml of water into a beaker or baby food bottle... Measurements How much water did you pour into the soil (ml)? Clay soil Sandy soil Loam soil How much water dripped through into the measuring cylinder (ml)? Calculate how much water stayed in the soil ml)? 48 ............. Copy the table below into your notebook to record your observations........... Do the same for the clay soil and the loam soil.. Wait for the water to stop dripping and then record............ Fill the funnel with the dry sandy soil (make sure there are no lumps)................ (Amount of water poured into the soil (100ml) – amount of water in the cylinder = amount of water held by the soil.. 4.... ..) Record your readings in the table and complete the calculation.......... 7. . 8.Learner task card to photocopy Learner task card 5 Assessment task for LO1 How much water do different kinds of soils hold? 1........ Measure how much water is in the measuring cylinder... Then set up the funnel and measuring cylinder like this.. Fold the filter paper and place it in the funnel........... Method 2............... After a while the water will start dripping through the soil into the measuring cylinder. 5.. Slowly pour the water into the middle of the soil. 10................. 3...............

.......................... .................................................................... ............................................................................... ....................................... Is it a good or bad thing for soil to let the water drain away easily? ...................................................................................... ............................................... 2......................... ................................ 49 .................................Learner task card 5 continued Questions 1.......................... ........... Bonus questions for 80% or more 1...... 4............................................................................................. 5..................................................................................... Why do you think some soils let the water through easily? ... Which soil holds the least water? ... Which soil lets the most water drip through? .................................................................................................. Which soil only lets a small amount of water drip through? . 2........................... What can you say about loam soil and how it holds water? ............................................................................................................................. Which soil holds the most water? ................................................................................................. 3... .................

........ 2................ .......... ࡯ Which is the front end and which is the back end? ࡯ How can you tell which is the front end and which is the back end? ࡯ Watch how the earthworm moves. Place your earthworm on a clean plastic lid.......... Put a few drops of water on it. .............................. 4...............................Learner task card to photocopy Learner task card 6 Observing our earthworms 1...................................................................... In your own language describe how the earthworm moves.......................... Look carefully at your earthworm.............................................. Label the front and the back end and any other parts that you can see.................... 3... nooo! hayi bo! ooh! it feels cold! why is it so wiggly? 50 ........................... How my earthworm moves .......... .. .......... Draw a picture of your earthworm.................... .....................................

8. Discuss these questions with your teacher. 5. Add water to keep the worms damp. write to explain what earthworms did to the soil. Put fresh leaves on the top.Learner task card to photocopy Learner task card 7 What do earthworms do in the soil? 1. Check to see what has happened after a week. ࡯ Why is soil so important? ࡯ Why should we all look after our soil? ࡯ What can we add to our soil so we can make it better? ࡯ What is the best way to look after our soil? 51 . Why must we have earthworms in our soil? 9. Add your earthworms and cover the house with damp newspaper. 3. 2. Set up a worm house with your group. Keep checking every few days for about two weeks. Why must we have good soil? 10. In your book. 6. 4. Make layers of different soils like this. Add a little water to make the soil damp. sand soil sand soil stones holes What do earthworms do in the soil? Before Draw The worm house before we added the earthworms After Draw (about 2 weeks later) The worm house after we added the earthworms 7.

Earthworms rest in burrows.52 head small mouth plant soil earthworm burrow tail This is an earthworm the earthworm is made up of many segments Earthworms live under the soil. They make holes called tunnels in the soil. . These tunnels can go down as far as 45cm under the soil. Earthworms also lay eggs in the soil.

What do earthworms eat?

Earthworms eat anything from dead plants and animals. Their food is dead leaves, dead grass, stems, sticks and animal droppings. They also eat soil which contains pieces of dead plants and animals.

These are worm casts

You find worm casts on top of the soil in damp weather.
An earthworm takes a dead leaf into the soil.

Earthworms get some of their food from the soil they eat. They digest the food in the soil but not the soil particles. These soil particles are passed out of the worm’s tail as droppings. These worm droppings are called worm casts. Sometimes the worm closes the top of its burrow with worm casts.

mouth

Can you see worm casts in your soil?
Enlarged view of the mouth parts

53

54 humus helps plants grow plants animals eat plants animals droppings earthworms feed on droppings and dead plants an earthworm in a burrow As earthworms feed, they play an important part in the food chain of nature. Earthworms make good soil into better soil. Better soil makes healthier plants. Healthier plants make healthier food for people and other animals. dead leaves and grass from plants

Earthworms in the food chain

Earthworms make tunnels into the soil. While they are making their tunnels, they mix the humus into the soil. The humus helps the plants grow. Worm tunnels also help air reach the roots of plants. They help rainwater run into the soil.

Soil is home to many different animals and plants

Learner task card to photocopy

Learner task card 8
Reading about how farmers work with the soil
A.
1. Read “Farming in rural areas.” 2. Match each paragraph with its correct picture.

B.
1. Read “Farming with tools.” 2. Match each paragraph with its correct picture.

C.
1. Read “Growing rice.” 2. Match each paragraph with its correct picture.

D.
1. Read “Compost, my compost” with your teacher. 2. Read “Make your own compost.”

55

Farming in rural areas
1 In Kenya, some farmers plough their land with oxen. They use cattle droppings to fertilise their soil. 2 Some farmers in Kenya use a hand-hoe to till (turn over) their soil. This hand-hoe is called a jembe. Look at the picture. You can see the farmers using them to turn the soil. 3 The farmer is scattering the seeds. He does not plant the seeds in rows.

A

B

࡯ Look at the pictures ࡯ Read the sentences ࡯ Match the sentences with the correct picture.

C

56

2 Sometimes farmers plant their crops in straight rows. 57 . 4 Some farmers use aeroplanes to spray fertiliser onto their land. 3 A farmer uses a tractor and a plough to turn and mix the soil. Then they plant the seeds.Farming with tools and machines A B C D 1 People use spades to turn and mix the soil.

These fields of water are called paddies. 2 When the paddies are covered with water the farmers bring their cattle to the paddy. Many people must help to plant the rice. Their feet make the soil soft and muddy so that the roots of the rice plant can grow well. Then they make a wall around each field.Growing rice A C B 1 Rice plants grow in warm wet places. D 58 . 4 We eat rice. Each planter carries a bunch of rice seedlings and places each plant into the mud. After that they allow water to run into the fields and cover the soil. 3 Planting rice is very hard work. The droppings of the cattle fertilise the soil. Rice farmers dig their fields. Their roots must be under the water. The cattle walk round and round in the water of the paddy. The rice comes from the seeds of the rice plant.

Funny enough. potato peels. It is a fact that the concept environment has broadened over time. you can visit me with a garden fork and turn me around. if it becomes too dry. it’s not a problem for me. Some call you manure. leave me on a flat ground but get supporting structures around me. Even in this backyard garden. while others go a mile further and call you a rubbish heap or pit. I also play a leading role in supporting the life of other living organisms (both plants and animals). However. They are troublesome to the vegetables but beneficial to me. Just dump it on my small site. I also welcome the leaves which fall from the orchard and from other types of trees found in the yard during winter. I am 59 . If you see me as part of nature or the biophysical elements of our surroundings. social and political. you do not have to travel places and long distances looking for ingredients. you may add a little water for my consumption. the economic. What else? I welcome the weeds you pull out regularly from the vegetable garden. and live in the environment. communities have come up with different understandings of environment over time. I wonder why you are so special to me. By using language and interacting. In addiOccasionally. tion. Who are you? Are you part of the Environment? It all depends on where you want to place or categorise me. BUT you occupy a very large part of my heart.Compost – My Compost You occupy a very small place at the corner of my backyard garden. What are you made of? Oh! It’s a very easy recipe. I am convinced that I am part of the environment. sustain me. I operate on a zero budget which implies that you don’t have to buy or purchase anything. For all I know is that the concept ‘environment’ is human-made. since you are part of my life I simply call you my compost. others call you organic matter. If you like. tea leaves and tea bags. it is the environment. Are you environmentally friendly? If there is anything I respect more than anything in this universe. but why? By Fourten Khumalo Calling you names People call you different names. but you may end up laughing at some of the ingredients. I utilize them to produce more vegetables during the following season. So the message is clear. I repeat. I make use of any material which is decomposable and found in and around your home yard. As part of the environment I am always prepared to interact with the other related Rain normally provides enough moisture to dimensions of the environment namely. You may use the mulch you used for protecting your vegetable seedlings during their tender stage. I need those remains of vegetables which accumulate when harvesting is taking place. you can begin by digging a very shallow pit in order to make me comfortable or if you so wish. I also thrive from any kitchen waste like eggshells. You can now use the grass cuttings which give you a headache after mowing the lawn. However.

For this reason. I am become loose and more friable. solid waste managealmost all the macronutrients essential for ment. children even your relatives the basic versal fertiliser’. etc. can be taught through me. namely: nitrogen. For instance. always there to give your family. enormous num. ide which is used by the plants or crops for Other knowledgeable good friends of mine photosynthesis. If you don’t mind you may my heap. and comthrough the compost.munity based organisations in your area. other related societies. enviroclubs and • Fourten Khumalo can be contacted at: Tel: 013 947 2060 Fax: 013 947 2755 EE Bulletin No 18 October 1999 60 . Some of the physical effects are that I maintain and increase the organic content of the soil. for example. post listed above create very favourable In summary. Most of the micronutriTeach your family to sort out waste and ents are also found in me. Chemically. I am also a good resource for call me a balanced fertiliser. then dump the decomposable waste onto iron. drainage and aeration of the soil. as compost I want to extend conditions for mass multiplication of the an invitation to everyone interested in bacteria in the soil. and phosphorus. The effects of com. soil erosion. which can be contacted for more information are the organic gardeners and permaEnvironmental education and culturalists. myself There is a myth that EE belongs to the formal education in schools. zinc. potassium mental issues. environmental education lessons and projIn the biological sphere. with my assistance soils strongly believe that the best roots or foundations of EE are found at home. small enviroclubs bers of soil bacteria are added to the soil found in the immediate vicinity. as environplant growth.ects for your neighbours. littering. husband. This is because I contain lessons. These processes feel free to ask questions pertaining to all result in the production of carbon dioxenvironmental education and compost.here to take care of the environment. it improves the structure (crumb structure and friability) which in turn improves the water absorption capacity. whereby the nutritive environmental education to visit me and value of soil is improved. As compost I Therefore. I could aptly be called the ‘uniwife.

humus is another name for compost! 61 .

62 .

........... ................... Show all the things that will be living together on top of your soil and in your soil. . ...............................Learner task card to photocopy Learner task card 9 Assessment task for LO3: AS 1 &2 Sustaining my little piece of Earth 1.......... ..... ..... Draw your own little farm or place on your piece of Earth........................................................................................................... Write about why you will look after your soil to keep it good so that you can always live there.. Explain what you will use each tool for....................... 3............................................ .................................................................................................. 63 ............................................ Show how they live together and get food and water and shelter...................... Draw the tools you will use to prepare and look after your soil...................................... 2.............. ..............................................

64 My little piece of Earth air surface of the soil .

65 .

........... ................... .............................Learner task card to photocopy Learner task card 10 Make a drawing to show the biosphere 1.................................................................................................. ......................................................... ........................................................... . make a drawing of the Earth to show where we find the biosphere................................ .... 2....................................... 66 ............... ........................... Write a few sentences to explain why we must look after our soil............................................. ............................................ After you have all put your pieces of Earth together........................... Label the biosphere............................................................................................................ 3................. .................................

.. 2.............. The Southern Cross and the pointers” a............ d.... Telling time by the stars” a.... isiLimela or the Pleiades” a............................................. Draw the pattern of these stars below: 67 ............................................. 1...................................... Read “6.................................................. b............................................................................... Read “5........ b............................ Why were constellations important to people in the past? .................... Patterns in the sky” a.... Read “8....... Name two constellations? ........Learner task card to photocopy Learner task card 11 Farmers used the constellations of stars to tell them when to plant Read the following paragraphs from “Stories from the stars” and answer the questions about them......... Why did people call these stars giraffes? ............................ What is the other name for the stars in the story of siLimela? ................ What did people have to do when they saw these stars just above the trees? ............................................................... c................... b...... What is a constellation? .................................................... Read “2.................. In the story of the “Southern Cross and the pointers” what did the Venda people name these stars? ... What did the people do when they saw isiLimela (the Pleiades) constellation? ...... 3........ 4.......

68 .

69 .

.section 3 Extracts from the National Curriculum Statement for Natural Sciences Grades R –9 Core Knowledge and Concepts for Planet Earth and Beyond (NCS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71 Learning Outcomes and Assessment Standards (NCS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 71 . . .

relationships what some of the factors involved and trends. might be. planets and sometimes predicted. Examples are Weather changes from day to day Soil and rocks vary in appearance birds. the Sun. This makes the paragraphs easier to work with. They could investigate determining patterns. learners can find satellites. soil types support plant life better investigated with a view to than others. lakes and oceans and which transfers energy and water from place to place. Atmosphere and Weather Unifying statement: The atmosphere is a system which interacts with the land. Foundation Phase 1. Observing the sky 2. floods or tornados easily than others do. while some movements that can be which impact on people’s lives. Observing and investigating Many different objects can be predicting the weather soil and rocks observed in the sky. the Moon. CORE KNOWLEDGE AND CONCEPTS IN PLANET EARTH AND BEYOND Our Place in Space Unifying statement: Our planet is a small part of a vast solar system in an immense galaxy. 72 . recording and 3. The paragraphs describe the knowledge and concepts the learners must know. in ways that can be recorded and and texture from place to place. All these objects have occasional unusual weather events out that some soils erode more properties. Observing. We have numbered each paragraph and supplied a heading for each paragraph.Planet Earth and Beyond The paragraphs below have been extracted from the NCS policy documents. aeroplanes. There are By investigation. clouds. locations and like storms. stars. The Changing Earth Unifying statement: The Earth is composed of materials which are continually being changed by forces on and under the surface.

An example of this type of medium-term change is annual seasonal changes. A small portion of the planet is covered by land that is separated into continents. Star patterns and cultural traditions The stars’ apparent positions in relation to each other do not change. water. (Links with Life and Living) 12. 8. At the poles there are ice caps. 5. Igneous. Many cultures recognise and name particular star patterns. 6. and factors affecting the quality of water resources and catchment areas may be investigated. This classification is based on the origins and history of the rocks. Phases of the Moon and cultural traditions The Moon’s apparent shape changes in a predictable way and these changes may be explained by its motion relative to the Earth and Sun. length of day or night and average maximum and minimum temperatures. Fossils Fossils are the remains of life forms that have been preserved in stone. (Links with Life and Living) 73 . Soil forms by natural processes. Only a small amount of the water is available for living things on land to use and only a small portion of the land is easily habitable by humans. Annual and seasonal changes in the weather Other changes take longer to occur. Weather can be described by measurable quantities. sedimentary and metamorphic types. sedimentary and metamorphic rocks Rocks may be classified into igneous. 10. wind direction and speed. and ability to support the growth of many kinds of plants. Continents. Many cultural traditions and special occasions are related to the shape or position of the Moon. and the gases of the atmosphere. and bacteria. The water cycle Water changes its form as it moves in a cycle between the hydrosphere. Soils have properties of colour and texture. but it takes an extremely long time to form. average wind direction. 11. Earth’s rotation – day and night Day and night may be explained by the rotation of the Earth on its own axis as it circles the Sun.Our Place in Space Atmosphere and Weather The Changing Earth Intermediate Phase 1. animals. and have used them for navigation or calendars. Rocks. and precipitation. water and air Earth materials are solid rocks and soils. Water resources The quality of water resources is determined by the quality of the catchment area. (Links with Life and Living) 13. deposition and landforms Erosion of the land creates the landforms that we see and also results in the deposition of rock particles that may be lithified to form sedimentary rocks. oceans and polar ice caps Most of planet Earth is covered by water in the oceans. 7. Erosion and deposition can be very slow and gradual or it can occur in short catastrophic events like floods. 9. soils. which may be described in terms of changes in rainfall. Erosion. climates and environments in the past were very different from those of today. such as temperature. but the nightly position of the star pattern as a whole changes slowly over the course of a year. Fossils are evidence that life. atmosphere and lithosphere in what is known as the ‘water cycle’. 4. 2. Measuring changes in the weather Weather may change from day to day. Soils and their properties Soil consists of weathered rocks and decomposed organic material from dead plants. including those in our food supply. Proper care and management of catchment areas and water resources is essential. capacity to retain water. 3.

8. such as asteroids biosphere. metallic core. with a lithosphere. atmosphere has different sediment. 11. Atmosphere. Composition of the landforms phases of the Moon. Layers of the Earth The Earth is the third planet from lithosphere and biosphere The planet Earth has a layered the Sun in a system that includes The outer layers of the Earth are structure. Gravity alone include water vapour. and small Constructive forces include and governs the rest of the motion quantities of other gases that crustal deformation. 2. Formation of the crust and phenomena as the day. 74 . Climate varies in different parts of at rates of centimetres per year. We live in the dense.Our Place in Space Atmosphere and Weather Senior Phase The Changing Earth 1. hydrosphere. and Moon explain such with Life and Living) 13. the hydrosphere hot. eight other the atmosphere. Continental drift and and comets. Major geological events. smaller objects. The Earth and solar system 6. and and the lithosphere. Gravity The atmosphere is a mixture of combination of constructive and Gravity is the force that keeps nitrogen and oxygen in fairly destructive forces. It tends to be cold in in response to movements in the Moon the polar regions and hot in the mantle. Most objects in the solar system tropics. is the life. while destructive properties at different elevations. Climatic regions some continents constantly move solar system. Movement of the Earth and the globe. forces include weathering and erosion. these layers interact to support geological events The Sun. The motions of the Earth in different climatic regions. volcanic in the solar system. which is where all 12. a the Moon. and eclipses. Different types of plants such as Earthquakes. planets in orbit around the Sun constant proportions. the year. volcanic are in regular and predictable and animals are adapted to living eruptions and mountain building. an average star. the Sun. motion. The eruption. atmosphere Landforms are the result of a 3. Lithospheric plates larger than central and largest body in the 7. and deposition of holds us to the Earth’s surface. convecting mantle and a planets and their moons. (Links result from these plate motions.

The atmosphere is present-day conditions would not telescopes the most important factor in be suitable for them. essential raw materials for other industries. 16. Space exploration and Earth’s surface. Legislation controls mining. and research is the atmosphere. patterns and long-term changes in Change) rainfall and climate. This is Space exploration programmes keeping the Earth’s surface evidence that life and conditions involve international collaboration temperature from falling too low on the surface of Earth have in the use of Earth-based teleor rising too high to sustain life. with regard to safety and environmental effects. 75 . with local examples in all the nine provinces. A great number of other industries depend on the mining industry. These being done on ways to send these small changes may be fuels are not renewable in our people to investigate the planet changes in annual weather lifetimes. Mining Mining is a major industry in South Africa. (Links scopes (such as SALT in South 10. and some the water cycle. Some effects of fossilised at high pressures. winds. atmosphere 15. (Links with Energy and Mars.Our Place in Space Atmosphere and Weather Senior Phase The Changing Earth 4. changed through time. employment and earnings for the country. Effects of human activities on with Life and Living) Africa) and telescopes in orbit. Role of the atmosphere in 14. that would otherwise strike the are found in places where 5. gas and distances to send back data about events can slightly change the oil are the remains of plants and the planets and other bodies in composition and temperature of animals that were buried and our solar system. Sun as a source of energy 9. SA’s fossil record The Sun is the major source of regulating Earth’s temperature Many of the organisms in South energy for phenomena on the The atmosphere protects the Earth Africa’s fossil record cannot be Earth’s surface. ocean currents. and most objects from outer space organisms alive today. Formation of Fossil fuels Robotic spacecraft travel long Human activities and natural Fossil fuels such as coal. It is important in terms of the supply of coal for energy. such as growth of from harmful radiation and from easily classified into groups of plants.

Learning Outcome 1: Scientific Investigation 76 .

77 .

78 .

79 .

80 .

81 .

and include good suggestions for assessment. learner task cards and display material.za NPO: 015-822 . The PSP has a vision of an excellent primary schooling for all South Africa’s children.org. the PSP produces innovative materials.psp. We focus on the critical learning areas of the Natural Sciences (including Environmental Education). develops learning experiences together with teachers and offers support in their classes.za Website: www. The PSP offers a variety of courses. Mathematics and the Social Sciences. Language. PO Box 24158 Lansdowne 7779 South Africa Tel: 021 691 9039 Fax: 021691 6350 Email: info@psp. The PSP is an in-service education organisation that aims to improve the quality of teaching and learning in the most disadvantaged primary schools. many activities and investigations. Contact us for more information Western Cape Primary Science Programme (PSP) Edith Stephens Wetland Park Lansdowne Road Philippi. including teacher resource books. and are well prepared and resourced to teach. Based on this interaction with teachers. All our materials are written in easily accessible language. where all educators are highly skilled.WESTERN CAPE PRIMARY SCIENCE PROGRAMME (PSP) The Western Cape Primary Science Programme (PSP) has been operating since 1985.org. committed and confident. We develop teachers’ knowledge and skills and support them in their work with learners. include careful concept progression.

Related Interests