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Descriptions of strategies

1-10 is a strategy used to assess where students are in terms of their knowledge of a particular concept or skill. Teachers can ask students to give a number that represents what they know or are able to do in a particular area. For example, a student is asked to write a number from one to ten to reflect their knowledge of events contributing to crisis in the alkans.

30 Second Speech
The !0-"econd "peech is a strategy to give intentional and extended #think time$. %t allows students process time so that their thinking is more organi&ed and goes deeper than a surface response. !0-"econd "peech works like this' "tudents have (ust been given new information or content )maybe from reading, a video clip, a lecturette, etc.* and you know they need time to make sense of this new content. +ou, as the teacher, pose a ,uestion to the class and ask them to -.lan a !0-second speech/. "tudents can (ot down thoughts or (ust ,uietly examine their thinking. "tudents are then paired-up )01 partners2 shoulder buddies2 whatever grouping makes sense* and each person gives their !0-second speech to their partner. The opportunity to orally process information and engage in social interaction is aligned with brain research that informs us that much learning occurs during social interaction.

!-3-1 is an exit slip strategy that provides a ,uick -dipstick/ of students$ learning. "tudents are instructed to use a piece of paper or index card to record the following' Three things that are clearer to them regarding the day$s topic or concept2 two connections they are making to the new concept and their prior knowledge or experience2 and one ,uestion1piece that needs further clarification. The teacher collects the slips as students leave the room and uses the information to inform the next day$s lesson and1or to differentiate instruction for students.

A-B Each Teach
0- 4ach Teach is a shared reading strategy for processing information as participants read. 0- partners may be designated in any number of ways )example' shoulder partners, stand-up hand-up pair-up, shoe partners, etc.*. The strategy works like this. .airs designate one partner as 0 and one as .

.erson 0 reads one section of the text. .erson reads another section of the text. 5hen both are ready, they teach their section to their partner. 6ariations of this strategy include' .airs conclude by developing a summary of the text or pairs (oin another pair and develop another summary.

Air Traffic Controller
0ir traffic controllers manage the tower at the airport, directing the order in which planes are to land. %n the same way, teachers or facilitators can -manage/ their classrooms. This strategy works well when several individuals or students want to respond to a particular ,uestion. 0ir Traffic 7ontrol works like this' efore listening to any responses, the teacher assigns numbers to those with raised hands, and advises students to remember their numbers. The teacher then calls on 81 and he or she identifies him1herself and gives a response. Then the teacher calls, -839/ The person who has been assigned this number identifies him or herself and provides his1her response, and so on. This strategy works best when the facilitator does not comment on individual responses. .articipants will hear many responses in a short amount of time, and, since individuals know when they will be called, they will be less anxious.

Attention First
4ducational researchers report that the average classroom teacher can lose up to twenty days each year:.(ust getting students$ attention and redirecting their focus as they transition from one activity to the next. The good news, however, is that teachers can recapture eighteen of those lost days through the consistent use of an attention first signal. The 7enter generally uses a -hand-up/ signal and asks that when adults or students see the teacher or facilitator$s hand go up that they put their hand in the air and finish their sentence, and not start a new paragraph. The key to the success of this strategy is the 7;<"%"T4<T use of whatever attention first strategy that you use. %t is important to wait patiently until everyone has stopped will speed up over time= "o, if you feel that you are losing too much valuable time on task, give the attention first strategy a try.

This is a time management strategy that honors the groups$ work by not interrupting with verbal messages. illboard works like this. The facilitator or teacher walks around the room with a sign stating, for example -four minutes left to work./ This allows groups to continue working and monitor their own time.

This is a common, but sometimes misused strategy, to collect ideas from all participants. %t is intended to be free from (udgment and crosstalk:.we are going for ,uantity, not ,uality in this strategy. The goal is to

no cross-talk:.uares. The guidelines for brainstorming are . The second shape on the paper is a triangle with the following . and circles. and classbuilders are a way to get the entire group to stand. rainstorming protects the principle of one process at a time.uare or within the s. @ovement can be included in strategies such as "tand-up. 7ircle-Triangle-". or emotions9 "tudents use the space next to the s. <ote that brainstorming should not last more than > to ? minutes. knowledge. "tart the timer and use a flip chart )3 recorders speed up the process* and record the ideas. Corners 7orners is a 7lassbuilder strategy according to Bagan. The .uare to record their thinking. %t is important for teachers to remind students of the guidelines:no . 6isual-"patial learners respond well to graphic organi&ers such as this one to help them summari&e and make sense of text. what part of the reading matches my own thoughts. %t uses a simple graphic organi&er to foster clearer thinking regarding new information in any content area. beliefs.uare and the statement' What Squares with my thinking? %n other words.uite simple.air-up. "tudents with a strong need to interact will respond positively to an opportunity to share what they have written on their s.uestions. and .uestions.nce completed. while bodily-kinesethic learners will appreciate movement added to sharing their responds to the . The teacher or facilitator names a topic and offers a timeframe. Aand-up. 7orners involve posting .uestions they have about the concept or information presented in the text.uestion next to it' What three points (things) do I want to remember about this text? "tudents then summari&e their reading and record three things they wish to remember in or next to the triangle. The 7enter often uses 7orners as an -opener/ or at the beginning of a session. The third shape on the paper is a circle. What questions are still circling around in my head about what I read? "tudents then focus on what .(ust ideas= 7heck for understanding of the guidelines and allow about one minute for silent reflection. Teachers may want to add color to the shapes to increase student retention of information. no comments. move around. and engage with others throughout the room. . triangles. The teacher then encourages all ideas: everything goes2 there is no right or wrong answers. Circle-Triangle-S !are 7ircle-Triangle-". the graphic organi&ers can be used in con(unction with round robin or other cooperative learning strategies to engage students in conversation to debrief text.uare works like this' 4ach student is given a sheet of paper )or a sample can be drawn on a board and students recreate it for their own use* with a ".separate the generation of ideas from dialogue and discussion.uare is a strategy to help students focus their reading2 summari&e important information2 and make sense of informational text.uestion connected to the circle is.

physical features. individual accountability. . Fan-n-.uestion out loud./ 7orners is a good way to get students or adults up and moving around the classroom as they engage in standing conversations around a chosen topic. Then students go to -their/ corner and discuss the topic with their classmates who chose the same -corner. and simultaneously interaction. These cards can be purchased .different words. or statements. 5hile fre. on large pieces of paper around the room. and cultural traditions* and ask participants to choose one and write down on a piece of paper along with why they wish to discuss it. Fan-#-$ic% Fan-n-. they are each given a dot of the same color and asked to place it in the appropriate . %t works like this. "tudent !' 0nswers the . 4ach individual is then asked to choose one that appeals to them and one about which they wish to have a conversation. etc.araphrases the answer given by "tudent 8 !. %t can be used to begin a topic or unit or as a review at the end of a lesson. The facilitator or teacher thus has a snapshot of where the whole is in terms of day$s concept. .ick encourages thinking skills2 teambuilding2 and listening . Fann-. "tudent 1' Fans the 7ards and turns to the person next to him and says.ick fosters positive interdependence. when participants or students enter a room or at the end of a lesson. synthesis and evaluation. 7ards are then rotated one person to the right and the steps are repeated.r.uadrants are labeled' <ew 7oncept2 "omewhat Familiar2 eginning Enderstanding2 and 7omfortable with the 7oncept. The four . pictures.ick a 7ard. "tudent G' . Dots in "!adrants Cot in Duadrant is a strategy for assessing the knowledge of a group. which character in the story do you most identify with and why9 4ach student has a role and the roles rotate after each hand of the card game. Fan-n-.uestion.ick is a Bagan 7ooperative Fearning strategy that helps engage all students in the learning process. For example. .uestions from Bagan.icks a card and reads the .uadrants is placed on the wall.ual participation. a teacher might post statements about different aspects of a country )such as economic system.uadrant. 0n example of a . Fan-n-.uotes. government.uestion might be' Aow might the city we$ve been studying be different if it was located on the ocean9 . "tudent 3' .ick can also be used to introduce a concept and encourage analysis. teacher constructed cards.ick uses a set of cards for each group of four students.uently used as a review strategy. Teachers sometimes use corners as sentence starters and prompts to -prime the pump/ for students$ writing. 0 poster or piece of paper containing four .uestions on index cards. e.ick 0ny 7ard. or student-developed .

-..and communication skills. %t works like this' "tudents are assigned a piece of text )story.after anything that is new learning for them.lace an exclamation point +. such as the Fish one assist learners with the relationship between parts or parts and the whole.articipants surround the seated models and observe the process. ankrupt 7ollapse of Aousing @arket 7urrent Iecession @ismanagement at corporate level "lowdown of auto industry Fish Bo*l Fish bowl is a modeling strategy that allows students or participants to observe a process or a dialogue among their peers. ./ This process helps students remain focused while they are reading informational text and it also allows the teacher to ask students to share with one another )stand-up1hand-up1pair-up or shoulder partner* to deepen their understanding of what they have read. . chapter. They are especially helpful to visual-spatial learners..after anything that makes sense to them in the reading.ften times students struggle with what it is they need to pay attention to when reading new material and Focused Read provides them with a lens for reading. The Fish one focuses on cause and effect. Folded 0al!e 1ine . the teacher may ask students to. aid in comprehension and memory. Fish Bone &raphic 'elational (rgani)er Hraphic organi&ers are visual frames used to represent and organi&e learning information. The debrief of the fish bowl is a critical part of the strategy with participants asked to notice consider what they are noticing about the content and depth of the dialogue Foc!sed 'ead Focused read is a reading strategy to help guide students as they read informational text. and a . Ieasons to use graphic organi&ers are numerous' foster higher-level thinking. and respond to intelligences other than verbal1linguistic. @ortgage 7o. and article* and instructed to make tracks in their reading. Fish bowl works like this' a group of individuals )usually G-? people* are seated in a circle to engage in dialogue or a protocol. Ielational .rgani&ers.after anything that is pu&&ling to them and a check mark +/. %t is generally done to allow participants to observe communication skills in action.uestion mark +. For example. align with brain research.

Free)e Frame Free&e frame is a facilitator move to engage the participants in metacognitive other words the two ends of the single line fold into the center to form two lines. 0s implied in the title.ur government should support genetic engineering research. This strategy also gives students a chance to practice listening and speaking skills and to think of rationale to support their statement1stance on an issue. it free&es participants at a point in conversation. Teacher then labels one line -0/ and the other . created a poster. Folded 6alue Fine works like this' The teacher poses a statement. The Hallery 5alk works like this' "tudents )often in cooperative groups* have created a chart. "tudents are then told to do a -Hallery 5alk/ of the room noticing the thinking of each group. constructed a graph. -. %t sharpens observations skills and serves to clarify students$ thinking./ 4ach student is asked to (ot down on a pieces of paper a number from 1 J 10 indicating their opinion on this issue:from a -1/ meaning they are absolutely opposed to government funding of this research2 to a -10/ indicating that they fully support this research funding. a class debate or other activities.uestion such as -5hat are you noticing about yourself or others engaged in this dialogue9/ &aller2 3al% The Hallery 5alk is a strategy that allows students to view other$s thinking and works. brainstormed a topic. "tudents now stand on an imaginary line )side by side* from 1 J 10. <ow $s paraphrase their -0/ partner and the process is reversed. First the -0/ partners have !0 seconds to share their opinion on the issue while their ./. %t is a great instructional strategy to add physical movement in your classroom.Folded 6alue Fine is a strategy to help students take a stand on an issue. The Hallery 5alk also provides the opportunity for movement during the class and gets the oxygen traveling to the brain= . +ou may ask students to make comments and post them on sticky notes during the Hallery 5alk or take notes for themselves as they travel around the room. or developed a graphic organi&er. "tudents are next asked to write down a couple of reasons for the number they have written on their paper./ partner listens. Follow-up to Folded 6alue Fine can include research. such as. 4ach end )person who is a -10/ or a -1/* now goes to stand in front a student who is approximately a ->/:. 4ach group is asked to post their work in an area around the room. The facilitator then encourages groups to take a balcony view by asking a . development of a paper.

.rgani&ers include' 6enn Ciagrams2 Fine Hraphs2 @ind @aps2 T-7harts2 Fish ones2 . 7ommonly used Hraphic . &!m6 Che*ing 'atio The Hum' 7hew ratio is a metaphor for thinking about content and process. <ext. &raphic organi)er Hraphic . Ially Table. 7nside8(!tside Circle %nside1. 4ducators use H.utside 7ircle is a 7lassbuilding strategy identified by "pencer and Faurie Bagan. %n the classroom or at a meeting. Teachers and facilitators can add in paraphrasing to make sure he1she understands what is written on their partner$s card before traveling on to the next person to share the new information. creating connections among participants and exchanging information.s to encourage higher-level thinking. demonstration. students retain K>L more information. %n the same way. such as Iound Iobin. The chewing. "tudents might be asked to recall one of the laws of physics or to list one of the core democratic values and give an example of it. or the is a strategy for mixing a group. lecturette. Het . participants might be asked think about school improvement goal that they feel is important and to write it on the card. @ix M @atch. %nside1. Then partners exchange cards and circulate around the room again until the music stops and the process is repeated.. H. Dui&-Dui&Trade. etc. For example. video.rgani&ers are visual frames used to represent and organi&e learning information..utside 7ircle. "ome research suggests that when students create graphic organi&ers using color and symbols or pictures. or content. %t is intended to get all students )or participants* up . read aloud. 4ach person then finds a partner2 reads his1her card and listens to their partner$s card. can be any number of cooperative learning strategies. etc. may be delivered in any of the following ways' reading.s respond to students as visual learners and they increase the retention of information.. students need to process the new information and can only handle so much content before they begin processing it also provides participants with a structured opportunity to move around the room:get on their feet and get the blood flowing to their brains= 4ach participant is generally given a !x> card and asked to respond in writing to a prompt. %t reminds us that we can only get a certain amount of -gum/ in our mouths before we need to start -chewing/ it.@% 7harts2 . music is played and participants walk around the room greeting one another until the music stops.&i4e (ne5 &et (ne Hive .yramids2 and @atrix. The gum.

The teacher places students into groups of >. threes. etc.utside circle move two persons to your right/. . 7onsider the following phrases' • -%$m inviting you to think about:/ • -5e welcome your ideas for:/ • -7onsider your perspective on the following:/ <otice how the language used in the phrases above provides an invitational and safe environment for sharing. the (igsaw strategy enables each student of a base group to become an -expert/ and bring the information back to other group members.utside 7ircle also works well as a get-ac. The newly formed partners then respond to a . %t also allows students to interact with several other students in an organi&ed. The Nigsaw works like this' 1.riginally developed by 4lliot 0ronson. ecause participants are standing and moving it helps gets the blood flowing to their brains and breaks the #sitting at their desks$ routine.utside 7ircle works like this' one-half of the participants stand and form a circle facing (9T. %n the . also known as 4xpert Hroups.uestion. therefore. -%nside circle rotate three persons to your left/ and then ask. -. as opposed to challenging. The other half of the participants forms a circle around )outside* of the first group. Nust like a pu&&le. 0ll of the number ones. "tudents number off 1 to >. <ext the teacher instructs one circle to rotate. %nvitational language helps open thinking and provides respect and appreciation for the different perspectives of participants. -. and each number is assigned a reading2 !. %nside1. %nside1. :igsa* Nigsaw strategy. the teacher may say. <ext the teacher may say. known as base groups2 3.utside 7ircle works well as a review strategy and it can also be used at the beginning of a lesson or unit to bring to mind previous knowledge regarding a concept or topic. communicates respect.utside partner predict how the read-aloud story we are reading might end/.it helps students build community. %nside1.moving around the room and interacting with one another. productive manner. twos. For example' -%nside partner explain to your outside partner one possible cause of erosion/. communicates respect to the participants and allows them the -decision/ to participate. For example. each piece of information is necessary for the final product to be complete. is a cooperative learning strategy for working together and sharing new information. and the words that are used send the brain important messages. %nviting. 7n4itational lang!age The tone in which information is provided. move into -expert/ groups of like numbers2 G.uainted strategy at the beginning of the semester or the year:. the o!tside circle participants face inside so that each participant is facing a person from the #other$ circle. %nvitational language.

or -% am good at math/ etc. %t also guides students to acknowledge what they already knew and had affirmed )confirmed* and this builds student efficacy.uence steps or processes. or popular movies or music. students might list the order of operations in an algebra class2 or the steps in a laboratory procedure. 1adder The Fadder is a graphic organi&er to help students se. Aigh "chool teachers might want to ask about current events and stances on issues. Finally the whole class may debrief what was learned. 1earned Affirmed Challenged Fearned. The teacher provides students with a paper containing a graphic of a ladder with boxes for rungs that allow students to fill in each step of a process. help get students$ voices in the room. viewed. or challenged. -% went to the beach this past summer/2 -% have an older sibling/2 -% will be playing a sport this year/.e 7lassbuilders are critical at the start of the year. Finally students are asked to identify . affirmed. :!st 1i%e . or heard. .uestions that remain for them and1or how the new learning may be challenging their thinking:perhaps their misconceptions. stand and say -Nust Fike @e/. 4xpert group members determine what ideas should be shared with their base groups2 O. or printed on a groups. 0ffirmed. help students to get to know one another. students who identify with the statement. 4ach time a statement is made. This helps students to identify with the whole class and make connections with other students. and get them up and moving around. .nce students complete the reflection individually. "tudents return to their base groups and share what they have learned in their expert groups. 7lassbuilders help build community. The final touch to Nust Fike @e is to ask students think about -what they are noticing/ and what are they learning about their classmates. For example. "tudents and teachers alike will agree this is an efficient way to learn. -Nust Fike @e/ and it goes like this' The teacher makes statements such as. with accountability as well as support in place in the classroom. 5hile 4lementary teachers might want to use statements such as -@y first name begins with the letter N/ or -% have a pet/. F07 is helpful in nudging students to identify new learning from what they have read. The three . @iddle "chool students desperately want to -fit in/ so it is important to make positive statements and add enough variety to ensure that everyone stands on several of the choices.uestions for F07 can be posted on the board. 7hallenged )F07* is a strategy for engaging in debriefing and1or reflecting on written content. .ne great 7lassbuilder is called. students read the material and have dialogue about its meaning2 >. they may be asked to share with a partner or with a group of four students.

or find a random group or partner. estimates. 0 visual barrier is set up between the students )such as a folder*.uilateral triangle. alphabetical order. The teacher may wish to put parameters on the activity. the then describe it accurately to their partner so he1she can replicate on their own paper. This strategy stretches the brain and fosters deeper and more divergent thinking. 0 Fine up can be used in a variety of ways to promote communication and to develop certain concepts as movement is incorporated into the day. etc.ine @atch @ine is a 7ooperative Fearning strategy in which students work in pairs to communicate to one another without the use of visuals. and number of blocks from school. Fego pieces.atch . %t is a great instructional strategy to add physical movement in your classroom. For example. 4ach student then finds their place in the line. take a stand on an issue. visual1kinesthetic manner.uickly as possible. This strategy also gives students a chance express themselves in a tangible. or trying to finish as . and the receiver attempts to match the pattern described to them by the -sender/. for instance. @atch @ine works like this' 4ach student has an identical set of figures )tanagrams. such as no talking. %t is important for students to be instructed to use correct terminology. "tudents could also draw a snowman. Ae1she then describes the pattern as clearly as possible. "ets of Fegos can also be used to create matching configurations. to practice using the terms or identifying locations on an axis. Simile Spea%ing "imile "peaking is a thinking strategy used to engage participants in analy&ing information and making new connections. teachers might have them use different shapes and colors. The -sender/ sets his1her figures in a pattern. if students are lining up according to their birthdays. Fine Ep works like this' The teacher asks students to line up in any number of ways. or graph paper. such as' order of height. This strategy is often used with tanagrams or coordinates on an P and + axis and resembles the popular game of attleship. for example*. . they would stand on an imaginary line )side by side* with Nanuary birthdays at one end and Cecember at the opposite. values or other assigned items. for example' parallelogram. e. characteristics. For elementary students.ften "imile . birthdays. .1ine 9p Fine Ep is a Bagan 7ooperative Fearning strategy to help students understand ordering. The barrier is then removed and pairs check to see if they are -a match/. %t also sharpens students$ ability to follow verbal directions. %t is a great strategy to increase accuracy of verbal communication.

saying -% see one minute2 % see . For example they may signal with a closed fist indicating that they do not need more time2 with an index finger raised if they need one more minute2 or two fingers for two more minutes. . depending on the concept or topic of lesson or meeting. a book. <ext. a book. because RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR. This helps elementary students think about how two very different things or concepts might be the same:.articipants are given photos1pictures of four different ob(ects.articipants are given photos1pictures of four different ob(ects. groups come up with creative and uni. . .ften @etaphorically Thinking is used with adults and students as an QopenerQ to begin participants in thinking about a particular concept. %nvariably. %t works this way:. Hroups of four to six are then asked to come to consensus choosing one of the ob(ects. This is how the strategy works' ."peaking is used with adults and students as an QopenerQ to begin participants in thinking about a particular concept.etaphoricall2 Thin%ing @etaphorically Thinking is a thinking strategy used to engage participants in analy&ing information and making new connections.nce each group has raised their hands indicating the number of minutes they need. %nvariably. a pair of glasses. a pair of glasses.uest. This strategy stretches the brain and fosters deeper and more divergent thinking.4ach group completes their sentence and shares it with the whole class or group. each group completes a metaphor such as Cemocracy is like RRRRRRRRRRRR because RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR2 or 7ommunication is like RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR. . and an electrical plug on the screen. 4ach student then chooses an ob(ect )picture1graphic* and completes a metaphor such as -Fearning is like RRRRRRRRRRRR because RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR/2 or -0 friend is like RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR. The teacher asks each group to come to consensus about how much time they need to complete their work:. This is how the strategy works' . because RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR. 4ach group completes their sentence and shares it with the whole class or group.The key is to give the groups parameters about how much time they may re. For example a group may see a flashlight. . the teacher or facilitator calls out each.ue sentences that can be a catalyst for further conversation and learning about a particular important thinking skill throughout!te Fingers 4ver have students working in cooperative groups and need to know how much time each team needs to finish their work9 @inute Fingers is a great strategy to provide the teacher with feedback to guide his1her decision about moving forward with the lesson. groups come up with creative and uni.ue sentences that can be a catalyst for further conversation and learning about a particular concept. and an electrical plug on the screen. For example a group may see a flashlight.uest. 0lways give groups a maximum number of minutes that they can re.

The strategy also allows teachers1facilitators to honor the need for more time to complete . These can be digital or analogue clocks or elementary students2 percent and their matching fractions for older elementary1middle school students2 chemical elements and symbols for high school students. This strategy can also be used to review content. . can be either content or get-ac. 4ach person is given a card with -half/ of a pair or set. %t can be used to practice or review content or to simply get-ac. The music stops and each participant must then find their partner: the one with the matching card.based. groups form and share their answers. This allows the facilitator or .uestion to answer with their partner. The facilitator or teacher then poses a . The teacher might ask a .oint )@%. %t allows for movement.atch This is a classbuilder )7ooperative Fearning* strategy to get everyone up and moving and interacting with other members of the class or group.articipants 1 students move around the room until the music stops )a variation without music is to have the teacher call SFree&eS*.uainted with others. These are generally written on post-it notes )can post on the board as a Ticket . "o.i< = . of course. .uality work. @ix and @atch works like this' 4ach person is given a card with a word.articipants mix around the room )often to music* and exchange cards as the greet one another. The teacher then gives students a . S5hat were some of the factors leading to the 7risis in the alkins9S 5hen the music stops or the teacher calls SFree&eS.uestion such as.uestion or sentence starter. The strategy works like this' . picture.uestions. we are going to take 1 minute 1> seconds more to complete your work.ost 7mportant $oint @ost %mportant . and the opportunity to talk with others in the room in a structured format. . and formative assessment. music.i<-Free)e-&ro!p @ix-Free&e-Hroup is a classbuilding and content mastery strategy developed by Bagan.uainted.. "tudents or adult participants reflect on the content of the session or lesson and summari&e their @%. such as SThe best thing about my summer was RRRRRRRR. . or "panish and 4nglish words for foreign language. The intention is to create an opportunity to share either content or noncontent information. etc. %t is important to call out the -minute fingers/ because it allows everyone in the room to gage how every group may be at a different place in the work.&ero minutes2 % see two minutes2 % see one minutes.S "tudents are asked to Sgroup upS or find a partner and share their responses. review.* is a strategy used for reflection. The .ut the Coor* or on ! x > cards and shared at table groups. or symbol on it.

4ach group numbers off so that each person has a number or letter )1.air "hare/ strategy. This process is repeated several times with different .uestions that are asked are critical:whether it is an elementary classroom or a senior course. %t is particularly good for the kinesthetic learning as it integrates body movements with learning.uestion for groups to consider.uestions such as analysis. or G or 0.airs ".uared is a cooperative learning strategy for information sharing which builds on the familiar -.uestions that foster higher-level thinking . a person might be person 8 ! at Table 7. Teams or groups decide on a sound and motion to represent understanding of the concept.articipants or students dialogue and come to consensus about the answer )given two or three minutes* and then the teacher spins a spinner or draws a table number out of the hat and a participant number or letter out and asks for that person to stand and report their table$s answer.rchestra is a strategy for processing information that allows students to organi&e their thinking. Then each pair is asked to form a foursome by matching with another pair. <ext.ual . !. %t is important to note that the . <umbered Aeads works this way' Hroups of four or five participants or students form a team and are seated together. or C*. it is important to create .airs s. . "o.uared works like this' 0. . and evaluation.articipation2 and simultaneously %nteraction. 3.uestions.ositive %nterdependence2 %ndividual 0ccountability2 4. share information around a given . 4ach table or group is also given a collective number or letter. #!mbered >eads This Bagan 7ooperative Fearning strategy includes the four principles of cooperative learning' . the teacher poses a . $airs S !ared . For example' 5hat are two ways that -Nohn/ and -"am/ )characters in the story* are alike and different9 . <umbered Aeads is used to promote full attention and to check for understanding.uestion or topic. The new group then shares information and synthesi&es the collaborative thought of the four individuals.teacher to -dip-stick/ and check for content or concepts that have -stuck/ with students. "!ic% 3rite . synthesis. (rchestra . The orchestra conductor )teacher* allows teams to -warm-up/ and then conducts a short musical piece allowing each group to express their learning through a sound and motion.

uestions.uestion. This strategy is most often used as a review strategy and helps students clarify their understanding of the content without the overly-used worksheet approach. a concept.uestions written on cards.uestions they have. drawing. teachers may need to guide students to ask good . a portion of a story or book.uestions may be about a specific chapter of the book. and two pencils. .uires. "tudents then form pairs and ask one another their . or writing stem from which to work.uestion on the front of the card. The teacher plays music and the students walk around the room greeting each other and swapping cards until the music stops. Ially Table works well in solving math problems2 working one step at a . his1her partner can use -tip. tip. and interacting with other students. the music starts again and the process is repeated several times.nce students have their . %t encourages -freedom/ in writing and promotes focus. %t also gives students time to collect their ideas before verbali&ing them to others. and the room is completely silent for that amount of time. The . 0 note of caution. tell/ to help their partner. working steps of problems. etc.uestions that prompt higher-level thinking and are not true1false or yes1no . "!i)-"!i)-Trade Dui&-Dui&-Trade is also a Bagan 7ooperative Fearning strategy that gets students up. . and then passing the paper to their partner who continues the next part of the assignment. %t can also be used at the end of a lesson to promote synthesis and reflection. The Duick 5rite strategy can be used to introduce topics and have students focus on what they already know or what .uestion on the back of the card. The Duick 5rite strategy is often followed by some sharing of the information students have been writing. vocabulary words: whatever it is you want students to learn. "tudents take turns writing. Duick 5rite works like this' %ndividuals are given a .uestions: . "tudents are each given an index card or a small slip of paper and instructed to write a . one map or whatever the lesson re. topic. %f a student is stuck. moving around the room. one worksheet.airs then trade cards. Ially Table works like this' 4ach pair of students has one piece of paper.uestion. 'all2 Table Ially Table is a cooperative learning strategy that has students working in pairs to engage in processing new content or to practice a new skill. "tudents are asked to simply write whatever comes into their heads.0 strategy called -Duick 5rite/ is used with the intention of opening up thinking and allowing participants to -go deep/ with their thoughts. %ndividuals are provided a set amount of time for responding )usually between one and ten minutes*. they are instructed to turn the card or paper over and write the answer to their .

"tudents then respond to the . 4ach group member )using the round-robin strategy* then comments on the portion of the article read by the first participant. Iound Iobin allows a large percentage of students to process information at once and is aligned with brain research that informs educators that much learning occurs during social interaction.everyone makes their own comment in response to the stated sentence or phrase and then the next person comments on the same phrase. Curing this process. and works like this' . offer an idea.uali&es air time for all participants and eliminates pingpong conversations. . 0fter everyone has had a chance to speak about the sentence highlighted by participant number one. 'o!nd 'obin Iound Iobin is a strategy developed by Bagan 7ooperative Fearning which encourages social interaction and verbal processing of information. such as -student 0/ or the student with the brightest colored shirt. The teacher then identifies which student will start the process. %t might be that students respond to a .articipants are placed in groups )G-O usually works best* and each person reads the article or other material individually. "ave The Fast 5ord also e.time2 constructing a paragraph or piece of writing2 in science for identifying steps in a process. 5hen everyone has completed their reading and highlighted their sentences.<4 of his1her highlighted items )reading the highlighted section without making comment*. "ave The Fast 5ord.articipants are each asked to highlight two or three sentences or phrases that seem important to them while they are reading. Sa4e the 1ast 3ord +first t!rn last t!rn"ave The Fast 5ord is a strategy used to debrief an article. sometimes called First Turn. 4veryone comments before he1she has his1her Fast 5ord. no cross talk is permitted:. Iound Iobin works like this' "tudents are placed in groups of four. . or complete a stem offered by the teacher. "ometimes teachers have each student use a different colored pen1pencil to complete the work so that individually accountability is increased.hence the name -"ave the Fast 5ord/. %t provides a structure for deep dialogue and provides everyone with an opportunity to be part of the conversation. Fast Turn.uestion in a clockwise manner. one person shares . %t also gives readers a focusing strategy for their independent reading. This process is then repeated around the table with person number two sharing one of his1her highlighted passages. or other written material. chapter of a book. and the teacher offers a . he or she gets to share their own thinking about the importance of this passage in the article:.uestion or a sentence stem.uestion.

ose a .to go from auditory learning to visual learning. . Con$t "ay is a focusing strategy that causes students to use a new modality:. heels. "hoe . Sho*5 Don?t Sa2 "how.erson then has the opportunity to do the same. the teacher raises his1her hand with a number of fingers extended indicating the number of minutes left.Sa2 Something "ay "omething is a shared reading strategy used to -chunk/ up the text and provide an opportunity for students to -chew/ on the content in pieces.uestion. boots. This strategy provides opportunity for physical movement and standing conversations./ "tudents must look up to see how much time is left. For example. "tudents then read the first portion of the text independently and silently and then "tudent 0 -"ays "omething/. %t is effective in refocusing students so that they look up to see the hand signal from the teachers. interactive strategy that is nonthreatening and engaging for all students. %t works like this' 4ach individual is asked to look around the room and find an individual who is wearing shoes similar to their own. -+ou have this many minutes left to complete your work. flats. For early elementary students the teacher may read aloud each part of the text1story and then have pairs add a comment before continuing the story.uestion about what has been read T @ake a summary comment about the reading . "ay "omething works like this' "tudents are placed in pairs )"tudent 0 and "tudent * and then the class decides together on dividing the reading material into to -chunks/: usually no more than a few paragraphs in a -chunk/.artners is a strategy to pair up students or participants in a random manner. The next -chunk/ is then read silently and independently and the -say something/ process continues until the complete text has been read and discussed in pairs. . This student can do one of the following' T @ake a personal connection to the reading T . participants may match by color. style. "how. etc. Teacher then says to the class. Con$t "ay works like this' 5hen wanting to let students know how much time they have for a task. Shoe $artner "hoe . 4lementary students are often asked to make a prediction about the next part of the story during their say something time.artners is a fun.nce participants find their shoe partners they then share or exchange information around a particular concept or . %t helps students verbali&e their thoughts and thus focus on the content.

uickly identify if every student has a partner. "imultaneous Ioundtable work like this' "tudents are given something to write about )a story starter for creative writing2 a description of a process or insect in science2 a mult-step problem in math2 an issue in social studies*. 4ach member of the team begins a two-minute write.uck is a decision-making strategy to help students prioriti&e choices without polari&ing the decision. "imultaneous Ioundtable provides students with chance to learn from other students while building on another$s thinking. a constitutional amendment2 the scientific method2 or The Three Fittle . This process continues until all students on the team have added to each other$s work. Stand-!p5 >and-!p5 $air !p This is a grouping strategy identified by Bagan in their 7ooperative Fearning work. 7hoices are then spread around the room or on a chart and students can place their dollars on their top choices. The dollars are totaled for each choice and the winner is selection with the most -dollars/ on it. . . three on another. %t teaches students that we are varying degrees opinions regarding choices that we make. "tudents then are asked to draw symbols or figures )can also use some words* to capture the essence of the concept or story. and two on another and not spend any money on the other choices offered.apers are then read aloud by the team and shared with the whole class.ual sum of -play money/:for example. The advantage of this particular grouping strategy is that the teacher can easily and . For example students might create a snow globe of photosynthesis.Sim!ltaneo!s 'o!ndtable "imultaneous Ioundtable is a Bagan 7ooperative Fearning "trategy that students en(oy because they are working in groups )usually G persons to a team* and have structured interaction. Time is called and students pass their unfinished work on to the student on their student might want to spend five dollars on one choice. "pend-0. "tudents love this 0<C they are writing==== Spend a B!c% "pend-0. "tudents are given 1 minute to review the work given to them and another two minutes to add to their peer$s work. ten one dollar bills. This strategy is important because it helps students express their learning on paper as they write and then read what their peers have written. 5hile another student might spend all of his1her dollars on one choice. . Sno* &lobe "now Hlobe work like this' "tudents are either given an outline of a snow globe or asked to draw one on a blank piece of paper. This activity can be done as a group or individually.uck works like this' 4ach student is given an e.igs story.

+ou may debrief this activity by inviting the whole group )class* to share some of their significant noticings from the reading. graphics. "tudents or . The teacher asks a .uestion. etc.ue for students. Text-Iendering works like this' "tudents are given an article. "tudents with their hands in the air. .ne person is 1. another 3.articipants then move around the room )can be done with music* to meet and greet and exchange -excerpts/ by reading aloud their excerpt and explaining why it was important to them. Stir-the-Class "tudents stand in groups of four.uestion or presents a problem. charts. the teacher call a number and ask the students with that number to take a step forward. students unhuddle and form a line so the teacher knows they are ready. !. Tea $art2 or .articipants1students are given a copy of a chapter or article without any text features. Te<t-'endering Text-Iendering is a strategy to foster reading comprehension and shared understanding among participants. still need to find a partner. %t is also a summari&ing techni. "tudents1. such as' title.articipants use an index cards to record a significant excerpt from the text. Text Featuring helps students see the value of the features that are included in their textbooks. bolded words. Those students then rotate to a new group. Aand-up. etc. like a football huddle. Text-Iendering helps readers focus on important concepts and ideas in the text.air-up provides students with a way to process information and share it with another student.eet = &reet 1.uestion or problem. 5hen everyone has something to share. Aave students huddle again with their new group and share their ideas. "tudents then work in pairs or groups to cut and paste the article1chapter adding the features that would normally support the text. "tudents in each group turn to face each other and put hands on each other$s shoulders. 3. . a portion . The groups stand in a circle around the classroom. and discuss the problem or .The teacher asks students to "tand-up and put their Aand-up while traveling around the room )can be done to music* and when the teacher calls -stop/ students are to find a partner near by them and put their hands down. Iepeat with new groups and a new . "tand-up. %t forces the mind to condense the information and make decisions about the importance of various concepts in the text. Te<t Feat!ring Text Featuring is a strategy to foster reading comprehension and is particularly applicable for students learning to read text books. . sub-titles. 5hen the groups all unhuddle.

.of a chapter.oral $lot . and responding more thoughtfully to classroom .uestions to enhance creativity and deeper understanding of content.articipants are then given three strips of chart paper )one long2 one medium strip2 and one shorter strip*. Frank Fyman. Following the gallery walk to see the thinking of each group the class can engage in dialogue about what themes are emerging from the text. The matrix teaches students a simple and concrete system for thinking. summari&es the text2 one phrase that speaks to them2 and one word that seems the most reflective of the total message of the text. thinking . .uestions can be crafted. 4ach student is instructed to highlight or underline the following three things' one sentence that.n the vertical axis of the matrix are seven fundamental types of thinking.uestioning. Thin%ing . . . <ext students in groups of four or five share their strips and the thinking behind their choices and following this they come to consensus on one sentence. one word that they will post for other groups to view. "tudents use markers to write their sentences on long strips2 their phrases on medium strips2 and the shortest strip to write their word.n the hori&ontal axis of the matrix are the Focus 0reas of the sub(ect. one phrase. elow is an example. The Thinking @atrix provides a framework for teachers and students to generate powerful . Foc! s Area s Characte r Conflict Setting T2pes of Thin%ing 'ecall Ca!se8Effec t Similarit2 Difference 7deas to E<ample E<ample to 7dea E4al!ation .atri< Thinking @atrix is a thinking skill strategy developed by Cr.uestions. for them. or a story to read individually. 0t the intersection of the Type of Thinking and the Focus 0reas.

recorder. or reading and asked to write one term on each of the index cards. %t can also be used after a particular piece of reading or discussion. 3. Tic-Tac-Toe "entences is a powerful strategy for determining knowledge and skills ac. lesson. G. %t makes directions and steps in processes much easier to understand and remember. spokesperson. "tudents are placed in groups )groups of ! work best*./ Then the teacher pauses2 and silently . O. "tudents can also do it alone or with partners. >. For example' The teacher says. 4ach member is asked to imagine that they have three balloons on which they have space to write a word or phrase capturing an important idea from the day$s work.uired before the formal assessment. 4ach group member is then assigned an appropriate role. Hroups place cards face up into a !x! pattern that resembles a tic tac toe board. -"tudents please take out your (ournals from yesterday.Three Balloons This is an information processing strategy. 4ach group$s spokesperson shares their best sentence with the entire class. down or diagonally to synthesi&e the concepts into complete thoughts. Tic-Tac-Toe Sentences Tic-Tac-Toe "entences is a summari&ing strategy to help students synthesi&e information obtained during a lesson or unit. Three balloons works like this. use the words in a specific order. etc. 6isual . %t provides -space/ or containers for participants to store and access information. Three balloons helps students and participants organi&e and integrate information. such as facilitator. "tudents mix up the index cards. 4ach group is given a set of U blank index cards. For example' -"tudents. "tudents are provided with )or determine on their own* the nine most important terms and1or concepts from the unit.aragraphing works like this' The teacher stands in one spot and gives the first step in the process or first message. !. K. %t works like this' 1. Tic-Tac-Toe "entences has multiple variations' "tudents can be challenged to be as creative as possible. 0is!al paragraph This strategy is a great one2 especially for bodily kinesthetic and visual1spatial learners. or come up with more words to make a GxG or >x> grid./ Then the teacher pauses and moves )without speaking* one step to the students$ or audience$s right and then gives the second step in the directions. @embers then record their ideas and then report to the group. the second thing you will be doing is to exchange (ournals with you$re 01 partners. "tudents are now challenged to make true sentences using three concepts across. ?.

uiry.articipants are now seated and will work with their partner who is facing them to debrief the article while taking notes on their shared dialogue. chapter. -Co you have any . 0s they stop. or book and makes tracks in their reading. The facilitator or teacher then indicates that the inner circle should rotate one person to their right and the process continues until each person as dialogued with each three other individuals. %t may also be helpful to provide individuals with graphic organi&ers to help them pull specific content from the reading. "ometimes when we ask students. stopping at each posted concept or idea.uiry in the classroom. . 3al% Abo!t 0 -5alk 0bout/ is a strategy for engaging participants in conversation as they have dialogue about various concepts or ideas that are posted around the room.resupposes that students will have .uire more= . Hive this simple rephrasing a try and see if your students in. %t is important for participants to highlight key concepts or ideas.uestions9/ -5hat Duestions Co +ou Aave9/ . Duestions are good2 they provide clarity and allow deeper thought and dialogue.uestions. 3hat !estions do 2o! ha4e.uestions. Teams of !-> people are matched up and asked to travel together around the room.moves one step further to the participants$ right and proceeds to give the next step in the process or directions. This is absolutely magic in helping students focus on content and directions= 3agon 3heel The 5agon 5heel is strategy to debrief text as a group. This is a simple and powerful strategy to open thinking and invite in.uestions9/ %t sounds to them like' -Co you have any . -5hat Duestions Co +ou Aave9/ invites in./ %t is important to move from the students$ left to right and not to speak in between the steps in the process. %t works like this' 4ach student or participant individually reads an article. Teams are given a graphic organi&er and asked to identify a recorder and a facilitator for the group. 5alk 0bout fosters standing dialogue to engage in deep thinking around school improvement or other concepts. Duestions mean students are thinking. they are invited to engage in dialogue about the relationship of that particular concept to their work. %nstead of the usual' -Co you have any . For example' -the last step is that you will read your partner$s entry and write a summary paragraph beneath their entry. Cummy9/ 0sking. <ext four chairs are placed back-to-back facing outward and another four chairs are placed in an outer circle )like inside1outside circle only seated instead of standing*.

or mud-covered9/ "tudents raise their hands to indicate how well they comprehend a concept and use the analogy a car windshield. or Fearning 0greements help establish guidelines in your classroom. the students should be the ones who identify the working . %n our &eal to -get control/ educators often begin by slamming students with the book of rules. cloudy. 3indo* Closing This is a time management strategy that provides a visual to let participants know how much time will be used for a particular activity or set of responses. 0ll individuals may respond. 4ach student is asked to respond to the . 0s less time is available. 5hip 0round is generally used after groups or individuals have been working independently on the same topic. as participants know the time available for responses is limited. announcing. <orms. "he gestures by moving her hands closer or farther apart. -%s RRRRRRRRRRR )concept* clear. 3indshield 5indshield is a strategy for assessing each student$s understanding of a particular concept. There is no cross-talk. establishing agreements in your classroom:.S . or one representative may speak on behalf of the group. and starts at one end of the room calling on individuals for a response. the facilitator moves his or her hand closer together.whether in elementary school or high school physics should #E0E' take place until after you have begun building community in the classroom with classbuilders and other ice breaker types of activities. sometimes referred to as Hroup 0greements.ften this strategy will Sbring out late shoppersS2 in other words.uestions. representing the amount of SspaceS available for responses. and no comments from others2 only responses given from participants as the facilitator calls on them.uestion that should have a short answer. and it works like this' The facilitator asks a . 3or%ing Agreements81earning Agreements 5orking agreements. the facilitator or teacher holds her hands straight out in front of her. 5hip 0round can generally be completed in less than five minutes and gets many voices in the room.3hip Aro!nd The 5hip 0round strategy is one used when the goal is to hear from many voices in the class without taking more time than the group has available. "econdly.uestion. The most powerful aspect of working agreements is that they are respect ul to students and set a tone of building community in the classroom. SThe window is closing. it encourages them to share their response. no . There are two important notes about developing 7lassroom 0greements' First. The strategy works like this' 5hen eliciting responses from the group.

begin charting ideas from class members and once you have a list of perhaps five or six guidelines. Aave students -go inside their heads/ and think about possible norms or agreements that would make the classroom both productive and en(oyable. +ou might ask them to think of a great learning environment or a favorite class from the past year and to think about what made that great. "ome teachers post the agreements and have all students sign the poster signaling their willingness to follow and help maintain the agreements. ask students if these are ones we can all agree to #live by$. .agreements. <ext.