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Research Proposal

Impact of Source Credibility and Information Quality on Adoption of Electronic Word of Mouth

Submitted to: Sir Ahmad Arif Submitted By : M.Abdullah M.Shoaib M.Safdar Yaseer Zafar
11/11/2013

Electronic Word of Mouth Page |2

Contents
Chapter 1- Introduction ................................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Introduce the generalized topic ............................................................................................. 4 1.2 Importance and significance of the research area .................................................................. 6 1.3 Background information ........................................................................................................ 7 1.4 Problem Statement ................................................................................................................ 8 1.5 Aim or purpose of study ........................................................................................................ 8 1.6 Rationale of study .................................................................................................................. 8 1.7 Research questions ................................................................................................................ 9 1.8 Objectives of the study .......................................................................................................... 9 1.9 Significance of the Study....................................................................................................... 9 1.10 Delimitations ..................................................................................................................... 10 Chapter 2-Literature Review ......................................................................................................... 12 Chapter 3- Conceptual Model ....................................................................................................... 28 3.1 Theoretical framework ........................................................................................................ 28 Figure 1.................................................................................................................................. 28 3.2 Proposed Hypotheses........................................................................................................... 30 Chapter 4 - Research Methodology ............................................................................................... 32 4.1 Type & Approach of study .................................................................................................. 32 4.2 Population of study .............................................................................................................. 33 4.3 Sample of study ................................................................................................................... 33 4.3 Sample Size ......................................................................................................................... 34 4.4 Characteristics of Sample Size ............................................................................................ 34 4.5 Type of Data ........................................................................................................................ 34 4.6 Data collection ..................................................................................................................... 35 References ..................................................................................................................................... 35

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The internet came into the business industry as an information accessing tool in the early1990’s (Fourth Edition e-Marketing: The essential guide to digital marketing By Rob Stokes. This was hard to grasp with the traditional marketing techniques when web 2.Introduction 1. Still Word of mouth has always been very valuable to the marketers because of social structure that the human trusts and wishes to communicate. But since the emersion of web 2.1 Introduce the generalized topic Marketing has always tried to influence the product image and placement in customer’s minds.Electronic Word of Mouth Page |4 Chapter 1. controlling and influencing the customer’s views and opinions online over the internet has created drastic difficulties for the marketers. visual and pictorial sharing websites.0 provided the opportunity for marketers to publish their marketing messages through the internet. In the traditional marketing word of mouth was used to spread positive views about the company or products through the consumer’s referral and suggestion.0 web communication channels. Web 2.That is why it is the single handedly most . Web 1.0 was created. this is the time when the marketer’s breadth of functions increased by a large margin as web 1. 2011).0 thus paved the way for social networking sites such as Facebook and various other blogging.0 was launched where internet became a two way communication’s platform. This struggle to grip customer’s psychology has become more difficult since internet media has become a major participant in channeling information from the company to the customer.

as it also single handedly builds or destroys the relationship of trust with businesses. This research is focusing on the Electronic Word of Mouth adoption by the Pakistani students who have looked to read or watch reviews of portable electronic devices.Electronic Word of Mouth Page |5 important non paid promotion that the marketers always wish to increase. how much the student deems the . There have been various constructs and concepts examined in each of these four modules. Electronic Word of Mouth is in fact more important because brick stores have the leverage of firsthand experience meaning customers can touch and feel and the products where they can’t do the same online. Out of the World Economy of 70 trillion of US Dollars. receiver. There have been researches conducted on all the four communications modules which are communicator. stimulus and response. That is why the significance of Electronic Word of Mouth have enhanced so much. It is for this reason that marketers have started spending so heavily on the digital marketing and experts are predicting that in the near future Chief Marketing Officers would spend more of the company resources on the Information Technology then the Chief Information Technology Officer would (Jeffrey Bussgang). Therefore we are studying the two variables impacting Electronic Word of Mouth adoption. Marketing has 1 trillion US Dollar share (Jeffrey Bussgang) and this market budget is fast changing from a traditional marketing dominated budget to a digital marketing one. The first one is Source Credibility. but as the topic is relatively new being only about a decade old there needs extensive research on many parts of Electronic Word of Mouth to be widely accepted as a theory to base further deductive studies.

The target population for our study is one of the fastest growing online communities as Asia has the most number of internet user’s worldwide covering 44. The social media alone has already captured millions of internet users with Facebook leading the group at more than 1 billion users. The second variable is Information Quality.Electronic Word of Mouth Page |6 source of the information review to be credible. LinkedIn at 300 plus million. We are measuring this phenomenon through the Expertise level of the review maker and the level of trustworthiness that the student denotes with the source of information. 1.com/socialmedia/blog/realtors-why-arent-you-using-social-media/). This research identifies how consumers . second comes Twitter at 500 plus million users.8 % of the world internet users (http://www. Relevance measures the relatedness of the electronic device’s review with the student’s requirements and Comprehensiveness denotes to the completeness of the review message covering all aspects which the student reading/viewing has in mind. Tumblr at 100 plus million blogs and Pinterest at 25 plus million users (http://giselleaguiar. The quality of information that the online review in questions represents. namely Relevance and Comprehensiveness. There are again two concepts.com/).internetworldstats.2 Importance and significance of the research area The emerging era of digital media has changed marketing altogether now marketers are focusing on digital media to influence current and potential customers across to the globe so this research will give insight to marketer how to capture consumers and what really affect them to adopt electronic word of mouth in order to make purchase intention of electronic devices. followed Google plus having 400 plus million.

this research also give insights to marketers how to market their brands and products while promoting them onto social media or websites. This will be beneficial for firms to know the perception of university students. but as the topic is relatively new being only about a decade old there needs extensive research on many parts of electronic word of mouth to be widely accepted as a theory to base further deductive studies. That is why it is the single handedly most important non paid promotion that the marketers always wish to increase.3 Background information Word of mouth has been very dear to the marketers because of social structure that the human trusts and wishes to communicate. as it also single handedly builds or destroys the relationship of trust with online businesses. stimulus and response.Electronic Word of Mouth Page |7 adopt electronic word of mouth in terms of source credibility and information quality. There have been various constructs and concepts examined in each of these four modules. Electronic Word of Mouth is in fact more important because brick stores have the leverage of first hand trust meaning customers can touch and feel and the products where they can’t do the same online. 1. In online community people have a different perception judging the quality of products and services. That is why the significance of electronic word of mouth has enhanced so much. There have been researches conducted on all the four communications modules which are communicator. receiver. .

Moreover students influence their peers and families as well in terms of purchasing electronic devices so .5 Aim or purpose of study This research finds out the perception of university students. Students are essential part of our economy and they contribute in society so this study evaluates for students how much message source credibility and information quality are influential for adoption of Electronic word of mouth. tablets.6 Rationale of study Electronic word of mouth is very popular and all business are operating through websites. 1. For making the right choice and effective targeting firms must know the most effective factors for adoption of electronic word of mouth by students in this fastly growing digital era.4 Problem Statement Although there has been momentous research done generally on Electronic word of mouth but almost none in Pakistan. iPods etc). laptops. This research checks that students of universities how much they pay attention to Electronic word of mouth and how message source credibility and information quality influence them to make an online purchase intention about electronic gadgets.Electronic Word of Mouth Page |8 1. marketers can obtain research data specifically on the Pakistani market to target this market. 1. The rate at which Pakistani internet community is growing. This research provides the trend of Electronic word of mouth in terms of usage and adoption in Pakistani technical-savvy young population and differentiate how students adopt electronic word of mouth while purchasing electronic gadgets (mobile phones. personal computer.

1.8 Objectives of the study 1. To know the impact of information quality on electronic word of mouth 3. To know the influence of electronic word of mouth for purchase intention.7 Research questions Q1. How electronic word of mouth effective for students to buy online? Q2. Especially this research will help how students evaluate electronic word of mouth and on what criteria do they adopt an online opinion either its source credibility or information quality or both.Electronic Word of Mouth Page |9 knowing their online purchase intention is an essential activity to make it pleasant for marketers in terms of targeting this huge segment.9 Significance of the Study This research will be significant to establish marketing norm of emphasizing electronic word of mouth marketing to capture consumer’s attention. This research even highlights the main indicators of source credibility and information quality for their effectiveness. How much source credibility is influential for adoption of electronic word of mouth? Q3. To know the impact of source credibility on the adoption of electronic word of mouth 2. . 1. What is impact of information quality on Electronic word of mouth? 1.

attractiveness and message appeal are not used in this research.10 Delimitations This research has used two variables like source credibility and information quality. . This research focuses on students of different universities and checks their attitudes regarding electronic word of mouth. This research has focused university students of Islamabad and more importantly universities are Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology Islamabad. IQRA University Islamabad and Islamic International University Islamabad. Other dimensions like website design.E l e c t r o n i c W o r d o f M o u t h P a g e | 10 1.

E l e c t r o n i c W o r d o f M o u t h P a g e | 11 .

2011) discusses that word of mouth satisfaction and service quality are related to each other. Many organizations consider word of mouth as a powerful tool for marketing and that’s why organizations cutting their budgets on other marketing approach. Marketer’s emphasis on customer’s feedback to service quality because they know that consumers will spread a word of mouth about their product and services as word of mouth gives more without investing. Hence word of mouth is not a simple activity as it cannot be measured by number of occasion a comment is passed about a product or a service. Sweeney.E l e c t r o n i c W o r d o f M o u t h P a g e | 12 Chapter 2-Literature Review Word of mouth (Jillian C. . 2012) discusses that Word of mouth is known as informal communication between different parties about the evaluation goods and services. (Lang. Satisfied customer tells to five people while people who are dissatisfied they tell to 15 other people. Three most important dimensions of word of mouth are 1) Cognitive content 2) Richness of content 3) Strength of delivery The message content should be cognitive it should be rationale base and base on logic. It depends on what type of service is encountered. message should provide every detail related to goods and services.

2011) further discusses that service quality perception is very important to make a purchase intention. . (Tim Mazzarol. When positive word of mouth is generated prior to purchase or usage then it will effect on to buying decision of a consumer. 2013) discusses the loyalty factor in generating a word of mouth. (Wang. It is not necessary that satisfied customers will engage in positive word of mouth but somehow dissatisfied customers will communicate negative message about product and service which can be a big challenge for company to avoid altogether (Wang.E l e c t r o n i c W o r d o f M o u t h P a g e | 13 Their study suggests that the engagement level of satisfied and less satisfied customers in word of mouth is different. The cognitive message bases on the rationale and logical point which appeal to the consumer and make sense to them in order to adopt the word of mouth and give that particular product and service a try. Similarly word of mouth from the loyal consumer will be considered more efficient and will be adopted. The cognitive appeal of the message tells how much person is into the usage of product and service and how much loyal he/she is. consumers who are satisfied will engage more in word of mouth as compare to consumers who are not satisfied. loyalty generates when a consumer consistently repeats the usage of a product of service. Finally service quality and purchase intention gets affected by word of mouth which are almost in the end. 2011) says final word of mouth has greater impact on consumer purchase intention as compare to initial word of mouth because in the end all opinions are cumulated and consumers can easily recognize that which type of opinions are more about product and services.

E l e c t r o n i c W o r d o f M o u t h P a g e | 14 (Tim Mazzarol. These days’ people are highly engaging in online community’s discussions and these discussions influence purchase intention of a lot of people. 2006) discusses that there is a lot of importance of peer opinion and recommendation about any product or service. Word of mouth sometimes considered more effective for services as compare to products. Electronic Word of Mouth (Burton. (Cheng-Hsi Fang. Different website are dedicated for this purpose and different type of content is uploaded onto them. These . 2013) further says that cognitive message reduces the related risk of the product and service that’s why a word of mouth with cognitive appeal is considered effective. Due to digital world people have a lot of peers across the borders and oceans and people are connected. People these days do discussion electronically about products before buying them. Word of mouth reduces perceived risk either functional or financial and when perceived risk is considered low about a product and services their adoption level will be high. Some website is purely dedicated in terms of quality and features and some website are for general discussions. 2011) discusses that word of mouth weighs differently for different product types. Some products are adopted due to positive word of mouth some are not. Since services are not tangible in nature so their outcomes are not accurate that’s why consumer rely onto other’s opinion how the service is? products and services that are really high in quality and which are not a part of daily buying consumer do rely on their word of mouth before purchase.

mood enhancement effect on ingroup and off. Some social networks focus on in-group discussion and some social networks indulge out of group discussions. Hence difference websites have different power of influence on consumers regarding products with different country of origins. Social interaction and electronic word of mouth are very important because if people are not fully interacted then they don’t trust each other’s reviews. In order to provide most relevant information to consumer it takes a lot of time to search relevant . 2013) discusses that different social networks have different paradigm to work and they have different settings. Conversation context also impact on the adoption of electronic word of mouth such as conversation is done in a context of usage experience. (Jose´ Luı´s Abrantes and Cla´udia Seabra. (Tor W. When consumers receive experienced based reviews then they start enjoying because they think that their learning level is increasing about product in discussion and they feel joy and due to feeling of joy they make a favorable decision about product. Andreassen.E l e c t r o n i c W o r d o f M o u t h P a g e | 15 websites have people from all around the globe with different culture and different point of views about products. Moreover different factors such as experience learning. Experience learning has proven more effective in group discussion and electronic word of mouth. 2009) discusses that electronic word of mouth become persuasive when a non commercial sender of information is indulged in communication with a product or service concerned information receiver. and commercial usage of that product and services.group discussions and level of interaction among people also is an important factor.

In these kind of settings people are of with different experiences and with different knowledge and each gives opinion according to their own perception. Organic and amplified sources of electronic word of mouth are coproduced in the online social setting. 2010) discusses that the high quality of electronic word of mouth generates consumer trust. Social media is considered as a source of information capital so a lot of people engage themselves to get the opinion. affiliation with that electronic word of mouth. Consumers who seek electronic information have different motives and expectations example in tourism industry consumers seek online information about destination and they adopt information about that place online and even online ticket transaction happens. (Song. This thing facilitates consumers a lot. Electronic word of mouth can be generated either consumer (non commercial) organic source or by company personnel which is known as amplified source of electronic word of mouth . (Mohammad Reza Jalilvand. 2012) discusses that in online communities different people engage so it becomes very crucial to trust on whom. association.E l e c t r o n i c W o r d o f M o u t h P a g e | 16 information needed. (Marianne Kulmala. Organic source of electronic word of mouth is generated when a consumer gives his/her opinion to other person it is a non paid form. This electronic word of mouth then change purchases intention of consumer regarding a particular brand. .organic source tells brand related tips features and different usage styles while amplified source tells brand related advices problems to solutions. 2013) discusses different level of electronic word of mouth. Amplified source occurs when some personnel is getting paid for his recommendation and tips given to different consumers.

different consumers react differently to source. these factors contribute a lot in adoption of electronic word of mouth. relationship etc. 2013) discusses extension to Mehrabian and Russell’s StimulusOrganism-Response model which include both internal and external source of . network. 2012) discusses different factors which effect electronic word of mouth. Coulter.E l e c t r o n i c W o r d o f M o u t h P a g e | 17 This electronic word of mouth can be about any shopping mall and brand outlet. People do evaluate others reviews about brand image and it shapes their purchase intentions. Online shopping has more risk as compare to online shopping because consumers are virtually ordering things and they are not physically checking product hence a quality based electronic word of mouth is more useful. (Jiyoung Kim. When shopping mall will have good reputation among consumers then consumers will go a shop there. Hence online trust is very important and that’s why companies focus on building it. When electronic word of mouth is effective then it surely effects on brand image and consumer purchase intention as well. Factors Effecting Electronic Word of Mouth (Keith S. Closeness to an online member isn’t an important factor like it’s in traditional word of mouth in which person rely on friends and family or peers reviews but in electronic word of mouth consumers don’t rely on it rather than it consumers see what is the source network of that person and whether that person is a friend of any member or not? Hence to evaluate any electronic word of mouth a long term relationship is very important either consumer to consumer or consumer to business.

Customer services. Reliability. According researcher perceived risk has negative impact on the consumer emotions and both these perceived risk and emotions have a positive relation with buying decision of the customer. Researcher show the all dimension which effect the consumer intention. Website quality is most important for the perceived information which is given on the website that motivate to consumer buying decision/intention. 2012) discusses that this research shows that how website design influence the consumer emotional and cognitive response that leads to satisfaction and generating positive word of mouth. Security/privacy. All four dimension of the website which discuss in this study have negative effect on the perceived risk and have positive impact on the consumer emotion excluding customer services. According to these dimensions this study shows that reputation of website has positive effects on consumer emotions and has negative impact on the perceived risk.E l e c t r o n i c W o r d o f M o u t h P a g e | 18 information which contains reputation and website quality. Dimensions. Website design (Young Ha. and what customer perceived about quality is indirectly influence the customer satisfaction and generating positive word of mouth . Website design. When customer willing to buy? Which thing motivate them to buy and generate positive word of mouth? What is the satisfaction level of customer? Which content/dimension of website influence more? After the research conducted researcher give results that showed website design quality has direct and positive relation with customer joy and stimulation.

2012) discusses that in digital media information speedily flow from one place of the world to another place. and also both perceived ease of use and the quality of website effects to perceived usefulness. 2012) discusses that this study trying to mix up all the factors which affect in online buying. This study shows that minimum amount of risk has maximum effect on purchase intention through online group buying. For building great image electronic word of mouth through social media is very important when great and positive image is built about a brand more favorable results will be for that brand in any industry. This study also focus on the customer perception regarding perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. On different social media a lot . From this study it is clear that perceived risk has negative relation with online buying/intention. Perceived risk (Shu-Yun Cheng. The result of this research showed satisfaction mediate the relationship of positive word of mouth and cognitive and emotional response. (Neda Samiei. if electronic word of mouth is about that a particular brand is better in usage in comparison to other brand then the prior brand will be sold even more. The finding of this study shows that perceived usefulness and community on the website have positive effect on the online buying. If the information is positive then the impact will be positive and if the information is negative the impact will be negative and its effect ultimately on the purchase intention of a consumer. It contains perceived risk and how social group influence the buying intentions of customer.E l e c t r o n i c W o r d o f M o u t h P a g e | 19 intention.

2013) discusses that different incentive strategies also effect on adoption of electronic word of mouth. Wu. Wu. 2011) discusses that there are different factors of message appeal that make electronic word of mouth effective and results in adoption of electronic word of mouth. Which deals with the logical part of information and it is based on facts. There are a lot of other factors are influencing on electronic word of mouth in which one of them is following. 2) emotional appeal in which message deals with the emotional part of message to influence the reader of comments.S. When the involvement level will be high the electronic word of mouth will be useful more and when level of involvement is low electronic word of mouth is considered less. The message appeal has two types 1) rational appeal.S. Incentives (Jan Ahrens. when higher incentives will be given to consumer more consumers will adopt electronic word of mouth more signups will be done on websites . Level of Involvement (Paul C. Message Appeal (Paul C. 2011) further says that level of product involvement also effects on adoption of electronic word of mouth. In this message focuses to evoke feelings about brand or product.E l e c t r o n i c W o r d o f M o u t h P a g e | 20 of consumer who are satisfied they contribute with pleasant words about positive brand image.

2007) discusses that in social media and digital world consumers reviews are considered as an informants. Not every information is going to be adopted but only information will quality will be considered by consumers. This equity concept tells that higher will be incentives more the effective will be strategy and more people will adopt electronic word of mouth. These reviews will be effected on the basis of information given. mainly due to the reason that online businesses do not have the strategic advantage of providing the tangible touch and feel but online reviews have provided that customer oriented feedback or analysis giving confidence to the consumer leading to purchase intention . the quality of information makes up a consumer mind to adopt the review and ultimately consumer buy that product. Since quality is subjective term so every consumer evaluate message quality onto their own judgment level. (Do-Hyung Park. 2007) further discusses The importance of online reviews have impacted the e-commerce industry significantly. Electronic word of mouth whether as a source of information or recommendation contribute largely to a product sales or decision making.E l e c t r o n i c W o r d o f M o u t h P a g e | 21 for adoption of electronic review. First of them being that . Regarding quality generally a comment with more logics and persuasion will be considered as a more quality comment. By this strategy consumers feel encouraged and get attracted. Information Quality (Do-Hyung Park. The level of involvement as a moderating factor for the relationship between electronic word of mouth and purchase intention and they came up with three findings with this study.

2008) discusses that Chinese online customers’ shopping satisfaction and what factors influence that satisfaction. 2012) discusses that it is the digital world everything is available on the internet so it is very difficult to distinguish which is relevant and which is irrelevant .information is available in different language so it is need of time to access different libraries to understand the meaning to check relevancy of information available on internet. merchandise attributes. the online consumer review content must be persuasive through quality and quantity (Xia Liu. These are customer service. security/privacy. secondly the quantity of customer reviews in terms of number of reviews also increases positively the chances of customer’s purchase intention. This paper deals with a holistic perspective in terms of variables affecting online consumer satisfaction. The results found eight constructs and indicated that response time for customer satisfaction isn’t very significant. delivery. information quality. website design layout.g. and the rest seven main constructs have considerable positive effect on customer online shopping satisfaction. low involvement leads to considering the quantity of reviews rather than the quality of those reviews. So in a nutshell for a consumer to consider a product in terms of purchase intention. payment. and l astly the customer’s level of involvement e. transaction capability. . Relevance (Dan Wu.E l e c t r o n i c W o r d o f M o u t h P a g e | 22 the quality of the stimulus (online review) directly and positively affects the purchase intention of consumers.

Cheung M. logic of reviews.. the number of online posts. K. 2008) discusses that in online communities consumer adopt that information which is relevant to the topic and precise. Their findings found out that tech-savvy receivers were now inclining more towards the clicks from the bricks. Their sample population targeted youngsters who were tech-savvy so they could find out the impact of such population in adoption and assessing electronic word of mouth. Other findings included that receivers assessed online reviews credibility by examining the polarity of reviews (difference in views). Cheung M. Comprehensiveness (Christy M. 2011) discuses that the characteristics of the information seeker.E l e c t r o n i c W o r d o f M o u t h P a g e | 23 In this study researcher aim is to study the effectiveness of relevant information and translation enhancement to get the maximum information from online. specifically how they assess and credibility leading to adoption. Source Credibility (Kelley O’Reilly. They indulge in online reviews to increase their knowledge and self enhancement as well as to avoid any online risks. (Christy M.K. 2008) discusses that the information should be complete and full so that consumer may relate to them and this will affect the overall quality of information and eventually electronic word of mouth will be adopted. articulation of online reviews..K. their ability to discover corroborating sources (supporting statements)and the past experiences the receivers have had with certain sellers . K.

2011) discusses that the relationship of message appeal and the credibility of the source affecting the brand attitude in terms of brand trust. Information quality is also . Cheung M.K. Positive electronic word of mouth settings have been used to effectively study this relationship. particularly comprehensiveness and relevance were found to be most effective in terms of argument quality. K. Wu.. brand affection and purchase intention. The results indicated that positive message plus higher message source credibility leads to improved brand attitude but with positive message and lower source credibility the brand attitude has a decreasing effect. R. This study also focuses on the extent by which opinion seekers would adopt online information and what persuasive factors would lead them to do so.S. (Christy M. (Christy M. The study also found out that with high-involvement in products the rational appeal in messages met with more favorable brand attitude result than emotional appeal.E l e c t r o n i c W o r d o f M o u t h P a g e | 24 (Paul C. Source credibility and information quality effect on adoption of electronic word of mouth as consumers adopt that suggestion which they find most authentic and complete. They found out that argument quality engages and attracts customer to adopt information.. 2008) discusses that the impact of electronic word of mouth in relation to adoption of online reviews in online customer communities. 2010) discusses that on electronic word of mouth source credibility and information have a significant effect. Source credibility is going to be determined by expertise and trustworthiness of a message source means message source must have a experience about that product in consideration.K. Cheung D.

some half the subjects were told that the information was reviewed by experts and the other half was told that it was reviewed by customers. there are so much advertised messages flashing in the direction of consumers through various marketing communication channels.E l e c t r o n i c W o r d o f M o u t h P a g e | 25 impactful on adoption of electronic word of mouth and information relevance. To determine the effectiveness of the message. (Frost. and lastly the presentation order where subjects were given positive information either in the beginning of the product information and others were given positive information at the end. This has caused a red flag for marketers as the message’s effectiveness is becoming more and more questionable. source credibility and presentation order. In an experiment.g. the presentation of the message being positive or negative information presented. Source Credibility:Do We Really Believe Everything We're Told?. the credibility of the source of information e. 2002) discusses that there have been always stories told down by the generations so these stories slowly become rumors and from there legends and myths. three variables were selected namely the message framing. accuracy and information completeness are dimension which also effect on electronic word of mouth. (Richard Buda. The result showed that these variables alone are not sufficient to understand the full effect of advertised information to the consumer. 2000) discusses that many studies on consumer reacting to different product messages as in this era of information. There is of course another type of information that is passed on by looking at facts and figures of past and .

E l e c t r o n i c W o r d o f M o u t h P a g e | 26 present and how would they formulate in the future. Others are how the source’s accountability and how independent that source is from any external influences (Kenneth E. One is the message itself showcases the level of quality and authenticity with information that the message receiver is already aware of. journalist which of course give most of their published information as news based on facts and figures but if the story poses enough interest and is likely to be true. These two types of information have everything common in each other as far as it’s going viral is concern and the demand for both type of this information. This is creating a problem and may impact how message receiver would look at source credibility in the future. 2007) discusses that Source credibility is evaluated by message receiver through an articulation of various methods to judge the credibility of the source of the message. these stories are also passed on to the receiver of this published media who holds high credibility of its source. Therefore to make the source of that message more credible different models and celebrities are used. 2006) discusses that the message design for services is far difficult as products can be shown through the presentation of their physical attributes. (Schwarzkopf. It also requires the perception that the message receiver develops or has of the service quality . Clow. Nowadays the news and rumors are both fed to the public by the same source of information e. So the only difference between the two is the truth.g. But the source credibility through such influencers on its own cannot impact the attitude towards the message appeal.

2013) further discusses that personal identifying information has a great influence on information receiver like how much time a information sender spend on online community how quickly that person sends information this also increase source credibility . Trust worthiness (Wu. 2012) how much the severity of negative messages presented to message recipients formulate their perception of it. 2013) discusses that skills competency and knowledge of a person about product is very important. given the brand attachment the recipient has and the credibility of the source of information that the recipient holds. The results showed that negative message information contributes more to the negative image of the company about which the message refers given the source of that message is deemed credible by the message recipient Expertise (Wu.E l e c t r o n i c W o r d o f M o u t h P a g e | 27 (Jyh-Shen Chiou. the more source will be expert the more information will be considered as a credible and authentic.

1 Theoretical framework Figure 1 Theoretical Framework of Effectiveness of Electronic Word of Mouth .Conceptual Model 3.E l e c t r o n i c W o r d o f M o u t h P a g e | 28 Chapter 3.

Similarly information quality is being quantified by relevance . This research model shows that the source credibility is being measured in terms of expertise and trustworthiness and they all together effect on source credibility and then source credibility effects on adoption of electronic word of mouth.E l e c t r o n i c W o r d o f M o u t h P a g e | 29 Figure 1 shows that the information quality and source credibility has an impact on electronic word of mouth in an online community.

E l e c t r o n i c W o r d o f M o u t h P a g e | 30 and comprehensiveness and information quality then effects on adoption of electronic word of mouth 3. H2a: The more the relevance of information. H2b: The more comprehensiveness of information. the more the source will be credible. the more the source will be credible. Hıa: The higher the perceived expertise of a message source. the higher information quality will be perceived. H2: Information quality has positive relationship on electronic word of mouth. Source expertise means that the person who is providing information has experience with that related product and trustworthiness is the trust of consumer on source that whether the source is capable of delivering what has been promised and how much promised value is delivered.2 Proposed Hypotheses H1: Source credibility has positive relationship with electronic word of mouth. . Hıb: The higher the perceived trustworthiness of a message source. This research studies that source expertise and trustworthiness are important dimension of source credibility to investigate in detail. The source credibility and information quality have positive effect on adoption of electronic word of mouth. the higher information quality will be perceived.

In this research two dimension are used for information quality: relevance and comprehensiveness. Comprehensiveness shows the completeness of a message by which student’s perceived detailed information. . Students want maximum information in less time with little bit of efforts. The more the information and reviews generated by others consumers in complete and detail way the more the student will acquire and retain that information. Students scan the web-pages to get the desire information instead of reading every web page in detail because they don’t have enough time. When students think that the information fulfill their criteria. In virtual environment students buying intention about electronic devices can be identified by the perceived quality of information which they get from source. It is very important to know the perception of the students about the information quality in online community to know their purchase intention. people are free to give their opinion about product and services without telling about themselves. If a person views that opinions and reviews are uploaded by high credible individual then he/she will adopt electronic word of mouth. they adopt the information. Hence relevancy of information is more preferable in online communities as relevance of information is important indicator in buying intention. Students are more concerned about their time therefore relevance of message is very crucial. It is on to users to judge the expertise and trustworthiness of the message source regarding the adoption and rejection of information given.E l e c t r o n i c W o r d o f M o u t h P a g e | 31 In online community.

The reason to limit as such the Sample of this study is to create better Quantifiable data as time and resources spent on this sample would be efficiently processed and taken care of.Research Methodology 4.E l e c t r o n i c W o r d o f M o u t h P a g e | 32 Chapter 4 .1 Type & Approach of study This study is quantitative in nature as we are using empirical method where the primary data is converted into numerical form to quantify the results for unbiased analysis by measuring through its dimensions and statistical analysis which is being achieved through a questionnaire that will end in conversion of information into numerical data. we might get filled questionnaires but not filled information as these questionnaires would be haphazardly filled due to lack of time and resources and therefore we might get biased data as ample time would not be spent in the questionnaire’s consideration. The other Independent variable. Iqra University and Islamic International University. Information Quality is also concluded by its two concepts which are the relevance of the . The testing population for this research’s hypothesis is university students mainly from the institutes of Islamabad namely Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology. Source Credibility is concluded through its two concepts which is the Expertise of the source and the level of trustworthiness that the message recipient has on the message source. The second type of this study is Causal as two independent variables called Source Credibility and Information Quality are studied of their effect in terms of Adoption of Electronic Word of Mouth. If we increase the sample population any further than three to four Universities.

E l e c t r o n i c W o r d o f M o u t h P a g e | 33 message information with the message recipient and the Comprehensiveness of the message. Due to limited resources and other delimitations. 4.0 and its applications. These units are both male and female and they spent at least 1 hour on the internet using some web 2. All of these Universities and the sample is taken from Islamabad again due to scarce resources. The relationship of Source Credibility and Information Quality is analyzed in this study as causes to the effect of adopting that message information through electronic word of mouth. Iqra University and Islamic International University.0 applications such as social media.3 Sample of study The sample crafted out of the population has same characteristic but most of the dimensions of characteristics of these units have been further defined and narrowed down in the below sections. These are technology savvy individuals meaning they have basic knowledge of the usage of Web 2. 4. These students are pursuing some academic degree and have exposure to urban living life style. The qualification level of the units in sample is in pursuit of Bachelor’s . These units of population are literate and understand reasonable level of written and verbal English language so they can interact online and receive electronic word of mouth. the sample for this study is taken from 3 universities which are Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology (SZABIST).2 Population of study The population of this research is young students belonging from the middle and upper middle class.

These students come between the age group of eighteen to twenty three years. . The other data that we have used is of course the primary data to test our hypothesis and to conclude results and implications through tangible facts and figures which are numerically measured. 4. This type of data is taken from universities in Islamabad. 4.4 Characteristics of Sample Size Gender: Male and Female Age: 18-24 years 4.3 Sample Size One hundred students are used as our sample size to quantify our independent variables by students of the above mentioned three Universities. Our circle of research is around these students. we have used secondary data presented in the literature review.5 Type of Data To view and understand the developments of the framework of this topic. which is taken mostly from marketing journals and books published in the context of digital marketing or conventional marketing.E l e c t r o n i c W o r d o f M o u t h P a g e | 34 Degree from one of these universities. We have collected data in shape of questionnaires from these one hundred students and we chose one hundred samples size due to lack of time and resources as well as to not decrease the quality of the filled questionnaire through haphazard filling.

E l e c t r o n i c W o r d o f M o u t h P a g e | 35 4. Online Word-of-Mouth:A Comparison of American and Chinese Discussion Boards. J. (2006). and convenience sampling is used to select units of the sample but these units of course would be in a setting of university that satisfies all the criteria and characteristics set for the sample of the study. The data is collected by visiting the three universities mentioned above in the research paper. . References Burton. F.6 Data collection This research has used questionnaire to gather data from student of Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology Islamabad. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing . IQRA University Islamabad and Islamic International University Islamabad. 18 (02).

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