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OSHA

Chapter12
Signs, Tags & Labels
OSHA Sign & Tag Requirements
OSHA requires the use of signs and tags to alert employ-
ees exposed to any type of hazard. Effective use of these
markings to warn employees depends upon their ability to
catch the attention of the worker even under emergency
conditions and be immediately and clearly understood.
Sections 1910.144 and 1910.145 require the use of several
techniques to improve the effectiveness of warning signs.
Color coding, key words, symbols and consistent applica-
tion of the same sign to the same hazard are aimed at mini-
mizing confusion and producing quicker, surer response.
Where other standards specifically call for the use of the
types of signs described in 1910.145, such references are
included under Specific Requirements. In addition, General
Industry standards covering Lockout/Tagout requirements
can be found in 1910.147 (see the Machine Guarding
section in Chapter 9 of this Directory). There are also nu-
merous requirements in the OSHA standards for equipment
that must be tagged or information that must be posted
where it is needed for immediate reference. Where special-
ized markings are required, such as clearance or load limits
on floors, cranes and forklift trucks, labels showing the con-
tents of equipment being used to handle hazardous sub-
stances, instructions to maintain ventilation, check
grounding, ride manlifts correctly, etc., the full text of the
standard should be consulted for full details.
Requirements from the General Industry
Standards
Safety Color Code for Marking Physical Hazards
(1910.144)
(a) Color identification. (1) Red. Red is the basic color for
identification for the following.
(a.1.ii) Danger. Safety cans or other containers of flam-
mable liquids with flashpoints below 80 degrees F (except
shipping containers) must be painted red with some other
clear identification such as a yellow band around the can or
the name of the contents clearly painted or stenciled on the
can in yellow. Red lights must be used at barricades and
temporary obstructions as specified in ANSI Safety Code
for Building Construction A10.2-1944. Danger signs must
be red.
(a.1.iii) Stop. Emergency stop bars on hazardous ma-
chines (rubber mills, wire blocks, flat work ironers, etc.) and
stop buttons or electrical switches for emergency stopping
must be red.
(a.3) Yellow. Yellow is the basic color used to designate
caution and mark physical hazards such as striking against,
stumbling, falling, tripping and caught-in-between.
Specifications for Accident Prevention Signs and
Tags (1910.145)
(a) Scope. (1) These specifications apply to the design,
application and use of signs and symbols to indicate and
define hazards that could, if not so indicated, lead to acci-
dental injury of employees or the public, or both, or to prop-
erty damage. They apply to all safety signs except those for
streets, highways, railroads and marine regulations. They
do not apply to plant bulletin boards or safety posters.
(a.2) All new and replacement signs must meet these
specifications.
(b) Definitions. Sign means a surface having letters or
markings to safeguard workers or the public exposed to
hazards. Excluded are news releases, safety posters and
employee bulletins.
(c) Classification of signs according to use. (1) Danger
signs. (i) Signs posted to warn of specific dangers and radi-
ation hazards must all have the same type of design and be
used only where an immediate hazard exists.
(c.1.ii) Employees must be instructed that these signs
indicate immediate danger and special precautions are
necessary.
(c.2) Caution signs. (i) Use caution signs only to warn
against potential hazards or caution against unsafe practices.
(c.2.ii) Instruct employees that caution signs indicate a
possible hazard against which proper precautions should
be taken.
(c.3) Safety instruction signs. Use these signs where
needed for general instructions and suggestions relative to
safety measures.
(d) Sign design. (1) All signs must have rounded or blunt
corners and be free of sharp edges, burrs, splinters or other
sharp projections. The ends or heads of fastening devices
must be located so as not to cause a hazard. All colors re-
ferred to in this section must be those of an opaque glossy
type as specified in Table 1 of Fundamental Specification
of Safety Colors for CIE Standard Source C, ANSI
Z53.1-1967.
(d.2) Danger signs. (i) Danger signs must be red, black
and white.
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(d.4) Caution signs. (i) The background of caution signs
must be yellow and have a black panel with yellow letters.
Any letters on the yellow background must be black.
(d.6) Safety instruction signs. The background of safety
instruction signs must be white and have a green panel with
white letters. Any letters on the white background must be
black.
(d.10) Slow-moving vehicle emblem. Slow-moving ve-
hicle emblems are special warning symbols to identify and
be used only on vehicles that, by design, move slowly (25
m.p.h. or less) on public roads. The emblemmust consist of
a fluorescent yellow-orange triangle with a dark red reflec-
tive border. It is neither a clearance marker for wide ma-
chinery, nor should replace other required lighting or
marking of slow-moving vehicles. The design, dimen-
sions and backing must not be altered to permit advertis-
ing or other markings. Its use must conform to American
Society of Agricultural Engineers Emblem for Identifying
Slow-Moving Vehicles, ASAE R276, 1967, or ASAE S276.2
(ANSI B114.1-1971).
OSHA Instruction (issued 10-30-78) STD 1-7.2
The use of slow-moving vehicle emblems that meet the
requirements of ASAE S276.3, the revised version of ASAE
S276.2, is considered a de minimis violation. Under the
newer standard, emblems must have improved durability
and fluorescence and a permanent marking that shows the
manufacturers name and address.
(e) Sign wordings. (2) Nature of wording. The wording of
any sign should be easily read and concise. The sign must
have enough information to be easily understood. The
wording should make a positive rather than a negative sug-
gestion and be accurate in fact.
(e.4) Biological hazard signs. These signs must be used
to signify the actual or potential presence of a biohazard
and identify equipment, containers, rooms, materials, ex-
perimental animals or combinations thereof that contain, or
are contaminated with, viable hazardous agents. The term
biohazard refers only to those infectious agents that pres-
ent a risk or potential risk to humans.
(f) Accident prevention tags. (1) Scope and applica-
tion. (i) This paragraph applies to all accident prevention
tags used to identify hazardous conditions and provide a
message to employees, with respect to hazardous condi-
tions as set forth in (f.3), or meet specific tagging require-
ments of other OSHA standards.
(f.1.ii) This paragraph does not apply to construction,
maritime or agriculture industries.
(f.2) Definitions. Biological hazard or BIOHAZARD
means those infectious agents presenting a risk of death,
injury or illness to employees.
Major message is the portion of a tags inscription that is
more specific than the signal word and indicates the spe-
cific hazardous condition or instruction to be communi-
cated to the worker, such as High Voltage, Do Not Start
or Do Not Use, or a pictograph used with a written text or
alone.
Pictograph is a pictorial representation used to identify a
hazardous condition or safety instruction.
Signal word is the portion of a tags inscription that con-
tains the word or words intended to capture the workers
immediate attention.
Tag is a device usually made of paper, pasteboard,
card, plastic or other material used to identify a hazard-
ous condition.
(f.3) Use. Tags must be used as a means to prevent acci-
dental injury or illness to workers who are exposed to haz-
ardous or potentially hazardous conditions, equipment or
operations that are out of the ordinary, unexpected or not
readily apparent. Tags must be used until the identified haz-
ard is eliminated or the hazardous operation is completed.
Tags do not have to be used where signs, guards or other
positive means of protection are used.
(f.4) General tag criteria. All required tags must meet the
following criteria:
(f.4.i) Tags must containa signal wordanda major message.
(f.4.i.A) The signal word must be either Danger, Cau-
tion, Biological Hazard, BIOHAZARD or the biological
hazard symbol.
(f.4.i.B) The major message must indicate the specific
hazardous condition or instruction to be communicated.
(f.4.ii) The signal word must be readable at a distance of
not less than 5 feet, or such greater distance as warranted
by the hazard.
(f.4.iii) The tags major message must be presented in ei-
ther pictographs, written text or both.
(f.4.iv) The signal word and major message must be un-
derstandable to all workers who may be exposed to the
identified hazard.
(f.4.v) All workers must be informed of the meaning of var-
ious tags used in the workplace and any special necessary
precautions.
(f.4.vi) Tags must be affixed as close as safely possible to
their respective hazards by a positive means (such as
string, wire or adhesive) that prevents their loss or uninten-
tional removal.
(f.5) Danger tags. Danger tags must be used in major
hazard situations where an immediate hazard presents a
threat of death or serious injury to workers. They must be
used only in these situations.
(f.6) Caution tags. Caution tags must be used in minor
hazard situations where a non-immediate or potential haz-
ard or unsafe practice presents a lesser threat of employee
injury. They must be used only in these situations.
(f.7) Warning tags. Warning tags may be used to repre-
sent a hazard level between Caution and Danger, in-
stead of the required Caution tag, provided they have a
signal word of Warning, an appropriate major message
and otherwise meet the general tag criteria of (f.4).
(f.8) Biological hazard tags. (i) Biological hazard tags
must be used to identify the actual or potential presence of
a biological hazard, and equipment, containers, rooms, ex-
perimental animals or combinations thereof that contain or
are contaminated with hazardous biological agents.
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(f.8.ii) The symbol design for biological hazard tags must
conform to the symbol configuration developed for this
purpose.
(f.9) Other tags. Other tags may be used in addition to the
required tags of this section or in other situations where
tags are not required provided they do not detract from the
impact or visibility of the signal word and major message of
a required tag.
Appendix A Recommended Color Coding
This appendix details a color scheme recommended by
OSHA for meeting the requirements of (f).
SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS
Portable Wood Ladders (1910.25)
(d.1.x) Care and use of ladders. Tag or mark defective
wooden ladders as DANGEROUS, DO NOT USE.
General Requirements (Means of Egress)
(1910.36)
(b.5) Exits must be clearly visible or exit routes conspicu-
ously marked to show the direction and complete path of
escape from any point. Any doorway or passageway that
could be mistaken for an exit must be arranged or marked
to avoid confusion.
Means of Egress, General (1910.37)
(q) Exit markings. The requirements for exit signs in this
section are summarized in the Fire Fighting & Rescue
section in Chapter 14 of this Directory.
Powered Platforms for Building Maintenance
(1910.66)
(f.7.vi) A corrosion-resistant tag must be securely at-
tached to one of the wire rope fastenings when a suspen-
sion wire rope is used at a specific location and will remain
in that location. The tag must include the diameter, con-
struction classification, whether the wire rope is
nonpreformed or preformed, the grade of material, the
manufacturers name, the rated strength, the month and
year the ropes were installed and the name of the person or
company that installed the ropes.
(f.7.vii) A newtag must be installed at each rope renewal.
(f.7.viii) The original tag must be stamped with the date of
the resocketing, or the tag retained and a supplemental tag
provided showing the date and name of the person or com-
pany that resocketed the rope.
Nonionizing Radiation (1910.97)
Paragraph (a.3) refers to warning symbols and is de-
tailed in the Radiation Protection section in Chapter 6 of
this Directory.
Hydrogen (1910.103)
(b.1.v) Hydrogen storage locations must be permanently
placarded Hydrogen Flammable Gas No Smoking
No Open Flames or equivalent.
(c.1.iii) Hydrogen containers must be marked to legibly in-
dicate Liquefied Hydrogen Flammable Gas.
(c.2.i.e) Storage sites must be posted to keep out unautho-
rized personnel. Sites must be placarded Liquefied Hydro-
gen Flammable Gas No Smoking No Open Flames.
Oxygen (1910.104)
(b.8.viii) Placarding. Bulk oxygen storage locations must
be permanently placarded Oxygen No Smoking No
Open Flames or equivalent.
Spray Finishing Using Flammable and
Combustible Materials (1910.107)
(g.7) No Smoking signs in large letters on a contrasting
color background must be conspicuously posted at all
spraying areas and paint storage rooms.
(l.4.iii) No Smoking signs in large letters on a color con-
trasting background must be conspicuously posted at all
powder coating areas and powder storage rooms.
(m.2) No Smoking signs must be prominently displayed
where organic peroxides are stored, mixed or applied.
Explosives and Blasting Agents (1910.109)
(c.2.iii) Post signs reading Explosives Keep Off on
property where Class I magazines are located or Class II
magazines are located outside of buildings.
(c.4.iv) Class II magazines must be painted red with letter-
ing, in white, on all sides and on top, at least 3 inches high,
stating Explosives Keep Fire Away.
(d.2.ii) Transportation vehicles. Every vehicle used for
transporting explosives and oxidizing materials listed in
(d.2.ii.A) must be marked as follows: (A) exterior markings
or placards required on applicable vehicles must be as fol-
lows for the various classes of commodities:
Commodity Type of marking
or placard
Explosives, Class A, any Explosives A (Red letters on
quantity or a combination of white background).
Class A and Class B
explosives.
Explosives, Class B, any Explosives B(Red letters on
quantity. white background).
Oxidizing material (blasting Oxidizers (Yellow letters on
agents, ammonium nitrate, black background).
etc.), 1,000 pounds or more
gross weight.
(d.2.ii.C) Such markings or placards must be displayed at
the front, rear and on each side of the motor vehicle or
trailer or other cargo carrying body while it contains explo-
sives or other dangerous articles of such type and in such
quantity as specified in (d.1.ii.A). The front marking or plac-
ard may be displayed on the front of either the truck, truck
body, truck tractor or the trailer.
(d.2.ii.D) Any motor vehicle, trailer or other cargo-carrying
body containing more than one kind of explosive as well as
an oxidizing material that requires a placard under the pro-
visions of (d.2.ii.A), the aggregate gross weight of which to-
tals 1,000 pounds or more, must be marked or placarded
Dangerous as well as Explosive A or Explosive B as
appropriate. If explosives Class A and explosives Class B
are loaded on the same vehicle, the Explosives B marking
need not be displayed.
(d.2.ii.E) In any combination of two or more vehicles that
contain explosives or other dangerous articles, each vehi-
cle must be marked or placarded as to its contents and in
accordance with (d.2.ii.A) and (d.2.ii.C).
(e.1.vii.B) Use of explosives and blasting agents.
Warning signs must be posted against the use of mobile
radio transmitters on all roads within 350 feet of the blast-
ing operation.
(f.3) Railcars containing explosives that have reached
their destination or are stopped in transit so as no longer to
be interstate commerce must have cards attached to both
sides and ends of the car stating Explosives Handle
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Carefully Keep Fire Away in red letters at least 1 1/2
inches high on a white background.
Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum
Gases (1910.110)
(b.15.ii) Tank car loading or unloading. There must be a
Tank Car Connected sign, as required by DOT, at the ac-
tive ends of the siding while the tank car is connected.
(h.12) Post conspicuous signs prohibiting smoking within
sight of the customers being served at liquefied petroleum
gas service stations in the dispensing and unloading areas.
Such signs must have letters at least 4 inches high.
Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia
(1910.111)
(b.13.iii) Post caution signs on the track or tank car to give
warning to people approaching until the car is unloaded
and disconnected. Signs must be of metal or other suitable
material, at least 12 x 15 inches and bear the words STOP
Tank Car Connected or STOP Men at Work with the
word STOP at least 4 inches high and other words at least
2 inches high.
(g.5) Mark containers mounted on farm vehicles not
used to apply ammonia to the soil on all sides and on the
rear with the words Caution Ammonia in letters at
least 4 inches high, or in such a way that complies with
DOT regulations.
Permit Required Confined Spaces (1910.146)
(c.2) If the workplace contains permit spaces, the em-
ployer must inform exposed employees by posting danger
signs, or any other equally effective means, of the exis-
tence, location and danger posed by the permit space.
Overhead and Gantry Cranes (1910.179)
(l.2.i.D) Maintenance. Before adjustments or repairs are
started on a crane, place warning or out of order signs on
the crane and on the floor beneath or on the hook such that
it is visible from the floor.
Other Portable Tools and Equipment (1910.244)
(a.2.viii) Tag jacks that are out of order.
Welding, Cutting and Brazing (1910.252)
For the warning and caution signs required for work with
gas cylinders and materials that may release toxic fumes
and gases during use, see the Welding Safety section in
Chapter 9 of this Directory.
Pulp, Paper and Paperboard Mills (1910.261)
(c.16) Signs. Where conveyors cross walkways or road-
ways in the yards, post signs reading Danger Overhead
Conveyor, or an equivalent warning, in accordance with
ANSI Z35.1-1968.
Sawmills (1910.265)
(d.2.i.D) Post signs prohibiting unauthorized foot or vehi-
cle traffic in log unloading and storage areas.
(e.1.v) Post warning signs where employees could enter
log carriage runways.
Telecommunications (1910.268)
(d.1) Before work is begun in the vicinity of vehicular or
pedestrian traffic that may endanger employees, conspicu-
ously post warning signs and/or flags or other traffic control
devices.
(d.2) Post danger signs if work exposes energized or
moving parts that are normally protected.
(n.4) Poles unsafe to climb must be tagged in a con-
spicuous place.
Equipment (for diving) (1910.430)
(a.2) General. Each equipment modification, repair, test,
calibration or maintenance service must be recorded using
a tagging or logging system and include the date and na-
ture of the work performed and the name or initials of the
person performing the work.
Ionizing Radiation (1910.1096)
Paragraphs (e, g and h) of this section reference signs,
tags and labels, and some exceptions to requirements, and
are detailed in the Radiation Protection section in Chapter
6 of this Directory.
(Editors note: All of the Air Contaminant standards in
Subpart Z include some requirements for signs, tags and/or
labels. For summaries of these standards, see the In-Plant
Air Monitoring and Analysis section in Chapter 6 of this Di-
rectory. The Bloodborne Pathogens standard, 1910.1030,
also contains several requirements for signs, tags and la-
bels. For a complete explanation of these requirements,
see the Bloodborne Pathogens Biohazard Protection
section in Chapter 8 of this Directory. For the labeling re-
quirements of the Hazard Communication standard,
1910.1200, see the OSHA Hazard Communication sec-
tion in Chapter 11 of this Directory.)
Requirements from the Construction Standards
The Construction standards section on signs and tags,
1926.200, still includes the more detailed specifications that
have been deleted from the General Industry standards. In
addition, Subpart Z, Toxic and Hazardous Substances, also
has numerous requirements for posting signs to warn em-
ployees about the presence of hazardous materials.
Accident Prevention Signs and Tags (1926.200)
(a) General. Required signs and symbols must be visible
at all times while work is being done and must be removed
or covered promptly when the hazards no longer exist.
(b) Danger signs. (1) Use danger signs (Figure G-1) only
where an immediate hazard exists.
(b.2) Danger signs must have red as the predominant
color for the upper panel, black borders and a white lower
panel for additional wording.
(c) Caution signs. Use caution signs (Figure G-2) only to
warn against potential hazards or unsafe practices.
(c.2) Caution signs must have yellow as the predominant
color, black upper panel and border, yellow lettering of the
word Caution on the black panel, yellow lower panel and
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black lettering for additional wording on the lower yellow
panel.
(d) Exit signs. Exit signs must have legible red letters at
least 6 inches high on a white field. Principal strokes of the
letters must be at least 3/4 inch in width.
(e) Safety instruction signs. These signs must be white
with a green upper panel with white letters to convey the
principal message and black letters for additional wording
on the white lower panel.
(f) Directional signs. These signs must be white with a
black panel and a white directional symbol. Additional
wording must be on the white background in black letters.
(g) Traffic signs. (1) Construction areas must be posted
with traffic signs at points-of-hazard.
(g.2) Traffic control signs or devices used to protect con-
struction workers must conform to ANSI D6.1-1971.
(h) Accident prevention tags. (1) Use accident preven-
tion tags for temporary warnings of existing hazards. Do
not use tags as a substitute for accident prevention signs.
(h.2) Accident prevention tags must be similar to those in
Table G-1.
(i) Additional rules. ANSI Z35.1-1968 and Z35.2-1968
apply to signs not covered in this subpart.
SPECIFIC CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS
Nonionizing Radiation (1926.54)
(d) Post standard laser warning placards where lasers are
in use.
Fire Prevention (1926.151)
(a.3) Conspicuously post No Smoking or Open Flame
signs around operations that constitute a fire hazard.
Flammable and Combustible Liquids (1926.152)
(b.2.iii) Label indoor flammable or combustible liquid stor-
age cabinets Flammable Keep Fire Away.
(g.9) Post signs prohibiting smoking in areas used for fuel-
ing, servicing fuel systems, receiving or dispensing flam-
mable or combustible liquids.
General Requirements (Installation Safety)
(1926.403)
(i.2.iii) Post conspicuous warning signs forbidding unau-
thorized personnel to enter rooms or other guarded loca-
tions containing exposed live parts.
Wiring Design and Protection (1926.404)
(d.2.ii) Post warning signs of high voltage where unautho-
rized employees may contact live parts.
(f.7.iv.C.6) Tools or appliances that utilize a system of
double insulation must be distinctly marked.
Wiring Methods, Components and Equipment for
General Use (1926.405)
(b.3.ii) Covers. Covers for pull and junction boxes for sys-
tems over 600 volts must be permanently marked High
Voltage on the outside box cover and be readily legible
and visible.
(j.5.ii) The operating voltage of exposed live parts of trans-
former installations must be indicated by warning signs or
visible markings on the equipment or structure.
General Requirements (Safety-Related Work
Practices) (1926.416)
(a.3) Post and maintain proper warning signs where an
energized electric power circuit, exposed or concealed,
exists.
Material Hoists, Personnel Hoists and Elevators
(1926.552)
(b.1.i) Operating rules, including signal system and allow-
able line speed for various loads, must be posted at the op-
erators station and on the car frame or crosshead. No
Riders Allowed must also be posted on the car frame or
crosshead.
Conveyors (1926.555)
(a.7) Do Not Operate tags must be used during repair
and when operation would be hazardous to maintenance
personnel.
Concrete and Masonry Construction (1926.701)
(c.2) Signs and barriers must be used to limit employee ac-
cess to post-tensioning areas during tensioning operations.
Underground Construction (1926.800)
(b.3) Unused chutes, manways and other openings must
be posted with Keep Out signs.
(i.3) Post warning signs at all entrances to gassy operations.
(j.1.vi.A) Post prominent signs at all entrances to the un-
derground jobsite when air monitoring determines contami-
nants may be present in quantities dangerous to life.
(m.2.ii) Post signs prohibiting smoking and open flames in
all areas having fire or explosion hazards.
(q.11) Post Buried Line signs where air lines are buried
or hidden by water or debris.
(t.1.iv.B) When performing maintenance work, post warn-
ing signs at the shaft collar, the operators station and each
underground landing.
Preparatory Operations (Demolition) (1926.850)
(h) Post warning signs at each level where debris is
dropped through floor holes without chutes.
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General Provisions (Blasting and the Use of
Explosives) (1926.900)
(k.3) Post signs warning against the use of mobile ra-
dio transmitters on all roads within 1,000 feet of blasting
operations.
Surface Transportation of Explosives (1926.902)
(h) Motor vehicles or conveyance used for transporting
explosives must be marked or placarded on both sides, the
front and the rear with the word Explosives in red letters,
at least 4 inches high, on a white background. In addition,
they may display a red flag, readily visible from all direc-
tions, 18 x 30 inches, with the word Explosives painted,
stamped or sewn on in white letters at least 6 inches high.
Underground Transportation of Explosives
(1926.903)
(m) The powder car or conveyance built for transporting
explosives or blasting agents must have a reflectorized sign
on each side with the word Explosives in letters at least 4
inches high on a background of a sharply contrasting color.
Loading of Explosives or Blasting Agents
(1926.905)
(p) Warning signs, indicating a blast area, must be main-
tained at all approaches to the blast area. The warning sign
lettering must be at least 4 inches high and appear on a
contrasting background.
Firing the Blast (1926.909)
(a) A code of blasting signals must be posted at one or
more conspicuous places, and all employees must be fa-
miliar with, and conformto, the code. Place danger signs at
all suitable locations.
General Requirements (Power Transmission &
Distribution) (1926.950)
(d.1.vi) When more than one independent crewmust have
the same line or equipment deenergized, each crew must
prominently tag the line or equipment.
Underground Lines (1926.956)
(a.1) When covers of manholes, handholds or vaults are
removed, promptly place warning signs.
Construction in Energized Substations (1926.957)
(c.2) Post warning signs complying with 1926.200 where
accidental contact with energized lines or equipment is
possible.
Ladders (1926.1053)
(b.17.i.) Defective ladders withdrawn from service must
be immediately tagged Do Not Use, unless another form
of removal is performed.
Requirements from the Maritime Standards
Shipyard standard sections 1915.12-16 all contain warn-
ing sign requirements focusing on classifications, such as
Not Safe for Workers and Not Safe for Hot Work. Such
classifications detail what actions may or may not be per-
formed in certain areas and when employees must be kept
out. The standards also specify that signs prohibiting igni-
tion sources must be posted in areas of combustibles or
flammables (1915.13).
The section of the standard that covers Ships Boilers,
1915.162, calls for warning signs and tags to be used
whenever employees must perform work in the fire, steam
or water spaces of a boiler where they would be subject to
injury from the direct escape of a high temperature me-
dium (steam, water, oil) entering from an interconnecting
system. Valves must be tagged and a warning sign posted
in the engine room.
Subpart Z of the Shipyard standard, Toxic and Hazardous
Substances, also has various requirements for posting
signs to warn employees about the presence of hazardous
substances.
The Marine Terminals standard includes various require-
ments for signs, tags and labels. Warning signs are required
at dangerous points in railroad facilities (1917.17(n-o)), and
where hazardous atmospheres exist (1917.23(d.4) and
1917.25(f)). Stop signs are required at blind intersections
and entrances and exits where visibility is impaired, and pe-
destrian traffic signs must be posted at vehicular check-in
and check-out lines, etc., (1917.44(e and h)). Warning signs
must be posted at the foot of a ladder or stairway that may
be affected by a moving crane (1917.45(f.4.iv)).
Lockout/tagout is required for conveyors (1917.48(i)),
spouts, chutes, hoppers, bins and associated equipment
(1917.49(h.2 and i.2)) and machines (1917.151(b.7)). Sec-
tion 1917.113 requires the posting of clearance heights for
vehicles and equipment. Section 1917.122 requires that
employee exits be clearly marked. No Smoking signs must
be posted in paint spraying and storage areas
(1917.153(c.9)).
The Marine Terminals standard also contains an entire
section on Signs and Marking, summarized here.
Signs and Marking (1917.128)
(a) General. Required signs must be clearly worded, legi-
ble and have a key word or legend indicating the reason for
the sign.
(a.1) Key words must be those such as Danger, Warning,
Caution, etc.
(a.2) Legends must be more specific, such as High Volt-
age, Close Clearance, Pedestrian Crossing, etc.
(b) Every marine terminal must conspicuously post the fol-
lowing signs: (1) location of first-aid facilities; (2) location of
telephones; (3) telephone numbers of the closest ambulance
service, hospital or other source of medical attention, police,
fire department and emergency squad; and (4) locations of
fire fighting and emergency equipment and fire exits.