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# UNIT-IV

CONVENTIONAL AND SOLID STATE SPEED CONTROL OF D.C. DRIVES PART-A 1. What are the ways of speed control in dc motors? Field control by varying the flux per pole. -for above rated speed Armature control- by varying the terminal voltage -for below rated speed Voltage control 2. Give the Limitation of field control a. Speed lower than the rated speed cannot be obtained. b. It can cope with constant kW drives only. c. This control is not suitable to application needing speed reversal. 3. What are the 3 ways of field control in DC series motor? Field diverter control Armature diverter control Motor diverter control Field coil taps control Series-parallel control 4. What are the main applications of Ward-Leonard system? It is used for colliery winders. Electric excavators In elevators Main drives in steel mills and blooming and paper mills. 5. What are the merits and demerits of rheostatic control method? Impossible to keep the speed constant on rapidly changing loads. A large amount of power is wasted in the controller resistance. Loss of power is directly proportional to the reduction in speed. Hence efficiency is decreased. Maximum power developed is diminished in the same ratio as speed. It needs expensive arrangements for dissipation of heat produced in the controller resistance. It gives speed below normal, not above. 6. What are the advantages of field control method? More economical, more efficient and convenient. It can give speeds above normal speed. 7. Compare the values of speed and torque in case of motors when in parallel and in series. The speed is one fourth the speed of the motor when in parallel. The torque is four times that produced by the motor when in parallel. 8. What is the effect of inserting resistance in the field circuit of a dc shunt motor on its speed and torque? For a constant supply voltage, flux will decrease, speed will increase and torque will increase. 9. While controlling the speed of a dc shunt motor what should be done to achieve a constant torque drive? Applied voltage should be maintained constant so as to maintain field strength 10. What is meant by armature resistance control? A resistance is connected in series with armature. By varying the controller resistance R, the potential drop across the armature is varied. Therefore, the motor speed also varied.

The armature control can be achieved by varying the field of the DC generator. Single phase dc drives b. Time ratio control b. Define firing angle. Due to this. The variable output voltage can be obtained by varying the duty cycle of the chopper. . What is chopper? What are the different types of chopper? It convert the fixed dc voltage in to variable dc voltage. Field current 21. Phase controlled rectifier fed DC drives b. The firing angle is defined as the angle between zero crossing of the input voltage and the instant the thyristor is fired. DC motor speed can be changed. This method of speed control can be used for increasing the speed of the motor above its rated speed. Second quadrant chopper c.Current limit control 22. This variable voltage is fed to the motor.11. How is chopper used in speed control of dc motor? DC chopper converts fixed DC voltage in to variable DC output voltage.Machine tools e.Steel mills c. It is called as dc drives. Three phase dc drives c. Four quadrant chopper 17. 12. The firing angle is denoted as α. State control strategies of choppers. Write the applications of DC chopper. because the speed of the motor is inversely proportional to the field flux. Third quadrant chopper d. a. The flux control method can be achieved by varying the field of the controlled DC motor. a.Chopper fed dc drives 19. What is meant by Ward leonard control system? The speed of the DC motor is controlled by armature and field control method. What is meant by controlled rectifier? It converts fixed ac voltage in to variable dc output voltage. What are the electrical parameters affecting the speed of the DC motor? a. What are the different types of dc drives? a. What is meant by DC drives? A dc motor speed can be controlled by using power electronic converters. a. Paper mills d. First quadrant chopper b. 15. 20. Printing mills 23. 14. Name the solid state controllers used for the speed control of dc shunt motor and series motor. What is meant by flux control method? The speed of the dc motor can be controlled by varying the field flux. Electric traction b. 13. What are the different types of single phase dc drives? (i) Single phase half controlled DC drives (ii) Single phase full controlled DC drives 18. Chopper drives 16. Armature voltage b. a.

Explain the Speed control method of shunt motor We know that the speed of shunt motor is given by: where.. Iara drop increases making speed a little less than the no load speed n0. For fixed supply voltage and the motor connected as shunt we can vary Va by controlling an external resistance connected in series with the armature.e. armature current Ia is decided by the mechanical load present on the shaft. . namely by: 1. by varying Va and If we can vary n. In the discussion to follow we shall not disturb the field current from its rated value. As explained earlier. varying field resistance. Speed control by varying armature resistance The inherent armature resistance ra being small.PART-B 1. However. At no load (i. If of course can be varied by controlling external field resistance Rf connected with the field circuit. For a well-designed shunt motor this drop in speed is small and about 3 to 5% with respect to no load speed. Therefore. 2. Va is the voltage applied across the armature and ö is the flux per pole and is proportional to the field current If. as the motor is loaded. Thus for shunt motor we have essentially two methods for controlling speed. Ia = 0) speed is highest and Note that for shunt motor voltage applied to the field and armature circuit are same and equal to the supply voltage V. speed n versus armature current Ia characteristic will be a straight line with a small negative slope as shown in figure . This drop in speed from no load to full load condition expressed as a percentage of no load speed is called the inherent speed regulation of the motor. varying armature resistance.

this method provides smooth wide range speed control (from base speed down to zero speed). Te becomes simply proportional to Ia. operating point will be at C and motor speed will be n. new steady state operating speed will be n1 corresponding to the operating point D. Since for constant operation. armature curves as shown in figures for various values of rext. this method is suitable for controlling speed below the base speed and for supplying constant rated load torque which ensures rated armature current always. when rext2 is introduced in the armature circuit. a d. Variation of the speed is smooth and speed will decrease smoothly if rext is increased. Although. speed vs. which means Ia will not change.It is for this reason. This same load torque is supplied at various speed. Suppose rext = 0. . torque characteristic is also similar to speed vs. If additional resistance rext1 is introduced in the armature circuit. has a serious draw back since energy loss takes place in the external resistance rext reducing the efficiency of the motor. armature current characteristic as shown in figure. From these characteristics it can be explained how speed control is achieved. Obviously. Let us assume that the load torque TL is constant and field current is also kept constant.c shunt motor is said to be practically a constant speed motor (with no external armature resistance connected) since speed drops by a small amount from no load to full load condition. In this way one can get a speed of n2 corresponding to the operating point E. Therefore. then at rated load torque. since steady state operation demands Te = TL. The slope of the n vs Ia or n vs Te characteristic can be modified by deliberately connecting external resistance rext in the armature circuit. One can get a family of speed vs. Te = a k I ö too will remain constant. Therefore.

flux will change.the basic equation to understand the method. hence speed will vary. Speed versus armature current characteristic is shown in figure for two flux values Since no load speed for flux value is than the no load and speed no corresponding to .c shunt motor. To change If an external resistance is connected in series with the field windings. . So from the initial steady condition. Thus the speed of the motor will rise as we decrease the field current and speed control above the base speed will be achieved. will be suitable for a load whose torque demand decreases with the rise in speed keeping the output power constant as shown in figure. Therefore at higher speed main flux may become so weakened.Speed control by varying field current In this method field circuit resistance is varied to control the speed of a d. Let us rewrite . let us assume that the load torque is constant at rated value. we have remains constant and flux is reduced to obtained from Therefore new armature current is If load torque new armature current in the steady state is But the fraction. It should be understood that we can only decrease flux from its rated value by adding external resistance. However. If we vary If . that armature reaction effect will be more pronounced causing problem in commutation. To make this point clear. hence new armature current will be greater than the rated armature current and the motor will be overloaded. The field coil produces rated flux when no external resistance is connected and rated voltage is applied across field coil. . Obviously this method is based on flux weakening of the main field. this method will not be suitable for constant load torque. This method therefore.

Here the armature resistance and field current are not varied. armature is supplied from a separate variable d. while the field is separately excited with fixed rated voltage as shown in figure.Speed control by armature voltage variation In this method of speed control. Since the no load speed the speed versus Ia characteristic will shift parallely as shown in figure for different values of Va. .c voltage source.

both field and armature control are integrated as shown in figure. the generated emf. However. .Explain Ward Leonard method: combination of Va and If control In this scheme. Armature voltage control method is adopted for controlling speed from base speed down to very small speed. 2. in the pre power electronic era. obtaining a variable d. Arrangement for field control is rather simple. In a way armature voltage control method is similar to that of armature resistance control method except that the former one is much superior as no extra power loss takes place in the armature circuit. Obviously to run this generator.As flux remains constant. By controlling the field current of the generator. One has to simply connect an appropriate rheostat in the field circuit for this purpose. A 3-phase induction motor is used as the prime mover which is supplied from a 3-phase supply. a prime mover is required. as one should not apply across the armature a voltage. this method is suitable for constant torque loads.c supply was not easy and a separately excited d. which is higher than the rated voltage.c generator was used to supply the motor armature.

wide range smooth speed control is achieved. In this scheme. excitation of the d. Reversal of direction of rotation of the motor can be obtained by adjusting jockeys of the generator field rheostats.c motor as the applied voltage to the armature is gradually increased.c generator and a 3-phase induction motor of simialr rating as that of the d. The applied voltage to the motor Va. To control the speed of the d. the cost involved is rather high as we require one additional d. Although. The potential divider connection uses two rheostats in parallel to facilitate reversal of generator field current. Field supply of the motor is switched on with motor field rheostat set to zero. First the induction motor is started with generator field current zero (by adjusting the jockey positions of the rheostats).c motor whose speed is intended to be controlled.c supply can easily be obtained from a.c supply by using controlled rectifiers thus avoiding the use of additional induction motor and generator set to implement Ward leonard method. . no starter is required for the d. while to control the speed above base speed field current of the d.c motor is varied maintaining constant Va. variable d.hence Va can be varied.c generator is varied.c motor below base speed by armature voltage. In present day. can now be gradually increased to the rated value by slowly increasing the generator field current.

The back emf in the former case will be approximately half than that in the latter case. speed is proportional to Va. steady armature current remains constant. the applied voltage across each motor is V/2 while in parallel connection shown in figure. the motors may be suitably connected to have different applied voltages across the motors for controlling speed. the applied voltage across each motor is V.3. This Va can be controlled either by connecting external resistance in series or by changing the supply voltage. . Explain the Speed control method of Series motor Speed control below base speed For constant load torque. speed too will be reduced. the back emf Eb is approximately equal to the armature terminal voltage Va. If Va is reduced. For same armature current in both the cases (which means flux per pole is same). Since the machine resistance a s r +re is quite small. In series connection of the motors shown in figure . speed will be half in series connection compared to parallel connection. Therefore. hence flux also remains constant. Series-parallel connection of motors If for a drive two or more (even number) of identical motors are used (as in traction).

independent control of field current is not so obvious as armature and field coils are in series. Changing number of turns of field coil provided with tapings. changing the flux hence speed of the motor.Speed control above base speed Flux or field current control is adopted to control speed above the base speed. raises the speed of the motor. a portion of the armature current is diverted through the diverter resistance. Using a diverter resistance connected across the field coil. Flux weakening thus caused. in fact it is less than the armature current. field mmf se f N I changes. 2.However. .20. this can be achieved by the following methods: 1. In a series motor. However provision is kept to change the number of turns of the field coil. In this case shown figure 39. In this method. So field current is now not equal to the armature current. When number of turns changes. armature and field currents are same.

flux will be doubled in the second case and naturally speed will be approximately doubled as back emf in both the cases is close to supply voltage V. then there exist several options for connecting them.21) flux produced is proportional to Ia and for series-parallel connection (figure 39.c machine are brought out after connecting the field coils (wound over each pole) in series. If the terminals of the individual coils are brought out. .22. for same armature current Ia.Connecting field coils wound over each pole in series or in. Thus control of speed in the ratio of 1:2 is possible for series parallel connection. Consider a 4-pole series motor where there will be 4 individual coils placed over the poles.3. the 4 coils could be connected in parallel or parallel combination of 2 in series and other 2 in series as shown in figure 39. The four coils could be connected in series as in figure 39.21. parallel.22) flux produced is proportional to Therefore. n figure For series connection of the coils (figure 39. Generally the field terminals of a d.