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# UNIT-IV

CONVENTIONAL AND SOLID STATE SPEED CONTROL OF D.C. DRIVES PART-A 1. What are the ways of speed control in dc motors? Field control by varying the flux per pole. -for above rated speed Armature control- by varying the terminal voltage -for below rated speed Voltage control 2. Give the Limitation of field control a. Speed lower than the rated speed cannot be obtained. b. It can cope with constant kW drives only. c. This control is not suitable to application needing speed reversal. 3. What are the 3 ways of field control in DC series motor?  Field diverter control  Armature diverter control  Motor diverter control  Field coil taps control  Series-parallel control 4. What are the main applications of Ward-Leonard system?  It is used for colliery winders.  Electric excavators  In elevators  Main drives in steel mills and blooming and paper mills. 5. What are the merits and demerits of rheostatic control method?  Impossible to keep the speed constant on rapidly changing loads.  A large amount of power is wasted in the controller resistance.  Loss of power is directly proportional to the reduction in speed. Hence efficiency is decreased.  Maximum power developed is diminished in the same ratio as speed.  It needs expensive arrangements for dissipation of heat produced in the controller resistance.  It gives speed below normal, not above. 6. What are the advantages of field control method?  More economical, more efficient and convenient.  It can give speeds above normal speed. 7. Compare the values of speed and torque in case of motors when in parallel and in series.  The speed is one fourth the speed of the motor when in parallel.  The torque is four times that produced by the motor when in parallel. 8. What is the effect of inserting resistance in the field circuit of a dc shunt motor on its speed and torque? For a constant supply voltage, flux will decrease, speed will increase and torque will increase. 9. While controlling the speed of a dc shunt motor what should be done to achieve a constant torque drive? Applied voltage should be maintained constant so as to maintain field strength 10. What is meant by armature resistance control? A resistance is connected in series with armature. By varying the controller resistance R, the potential drop across the armature is varied. Therefore, the motor speed also varied.

Three phase dc drives c. DC motor speed can be changed. What is meant by DC drives? A dc motor speed can be controlled by using power electronic converters. State control strategies of choppers. The firing angle is defined as the angle between zero crossing of the input voltage and the instant the thyristor is fired. 13. Third quadrant chopper d. This variable voltage is fed to the motor. Paper mills d. Name the solid state controllers used for the speed control of dc shunt motor and series motor. The firing angle is denoted as α. because the speed of the motor is inversely proportional to the field flux. What is meant by controlled rectifier? It converts fixed ac voltage in to variable dc output voltage.Machine tools e. a. a. What is meant by flux control method? The speed of the dc motor can be controlled by varying the field flux. Chopper drives 16. . Second quadrant chopper c.Current limit control 22. The flux control method can be achieved by varying the field of the controlled DC motor. Due to this. 12. Time ratio control b. How is chopper used in speed control of dc motor? DC chopper converts fixed DC voltage in to variable DC output voltage.Steel mills c. Armature voltage b. a. It is called as dc drives. What is meant by Ward leonard control system? The speed of the DC motor is controlled by armature and field control method. What are the electrical parameters affecting the speed of the DC motor? a. a. Phase controlled rectifier fed DC drives b. First quadrant chopper b. Define firing angle. Electric traction b. Printing mills 23. The variable output voltage can be obtained by varying the duty cycle of the chopper.Chopper fed dc drives 19. Four quadrant chopper 17. Single phase dc drives b. 15. The armature control can be achieved by varying the field of the DC generator. What are the different types of dc drives? a. Field current 21. This method of speed control can be used for increasing the speed of the motor above its rated speed.11. 14. Write the applications of DC chopper. What is chopper? What are the different types of chopper? It convert the fixed dc voltage in to variable dc voltage. What are the different types of single phase dc drives? (i) Single phase half controlled DC drives (ii) Single phase full controlled DC drives 18. 20.

Speed control by varying armature resistance The inherent armature resistance ra being small. Ia = 0) speed is highest and Note that for shunt motor voltage applied to the field and armature circuit are same and equal to the supply voltage V. As explained earlier. This drop in speed from no load to full load condition expressed as a percentage of no load speed is called the inherent speed regulation of the motor.PART-B 1.. namely by: 1. by varying Va and If we can vary n.Explain the Speed control method of shunt motor We know that the speed of shunt motor is given by: where. If of course can be varied by controlling external field resistance Rf connected with the field circuit. However. armature current Ia is decided by the mechanical load present on the shaft. Va is the voltage applied across the armature and ö is the flux per pole and is proportional to the field current If. Therefore. For a well-designed shunt motor this drop in speed is small and about 3 to 5% with respect to no load speed. speed n versus armature current Ia characteristic will be a straight line with a small negative slope as shown in figure . Thus for shunt motor we have essentially two methods for controlling speed. 2. In the discussion to follow we shall not disturb the field current from its rated value. as the motor is loaded. For fixed supply voltage and the motor connected as shunt we can vary Va by controlling an external resistance connected in series with the armature. Iara drop increases making speed a little less than the no load speed n0.e. varying armature resistance. . varying field resistance. At no load (i.

Variation of the speed is smooth and speed will decrease smoothly if rext is increased. Let us assume that the load torque TL is constant and field current is also kept constant. In this way one can get a speed of n2 corresponding to the operating point E. One can get a family of speed vs. If additional resistance rext1 is introduced in the armature circuit. when rext2 is introduced in the armature circuit. torque characteristic is also similar to speed vs. armature current characteristic as shown in figure. From these characteristics it can be explained how speed control is achieved. speed vs. This same load torque is supplied at various speed. Therefore. The slope of the n vs Ia or n vs Te characteristic can be modified by deliberately connecting external resistance rext in the armature circuit. Obviously. armature curves as shown in figures for various values of rext. Suppose rext = 0. . operating point will be at C and motor speed will be n. since steady state operation demands Te = TL. Te = a k I ö too will remain constant. has a serious draw back since energy loss takes place in the external resistance rext reducing the efficiency of the motor. Te becomes simply proportional to Ia. this method provides smooth wide range speed control (from base speed down to zero speed). a d.It is for this reason. Since for constant operation.c shunt motor is said to be practically a constant speed motor (with no external armature resistance connected) since speed drops by a small amount from no load to full load condition. Therefore. which means Ia will not change. new steady state operating speed will be n1 corresponding to the operating point D. then at rated load torque. this method is suitable for controlling speed below the base speed and for supplying constant rated load torque which ensures rated armature current always. Although.

The field coil produces rated flux when no external resistance is connected and rated voltage is applied across field coil. Thus the speed of the motor will rise as we decrease the field current and speed control above the base speed will be achieved. Speed versus armature current characteristic is shown in figure for two flux values Since no load speed for flux value is than the no load and speed no corresponding to . that armature reaction effect will be more pronounced causing problem in commutation. However. . let us assume that the load torque is constant at rated value. This method therefore.Speed control by varying field current In this method field circuit resistance is varied to control the speed of a d. To make this point clear. Therefore at higher speed main flux may become so weakened.c shunt motor. will be suitable for a load whose torque demand decreases with the rise in speed keeping the output power constant as shown in figure. Obviously this method is based on flux weakening of the main field. hence speed will vary.the basic equation to understand the method. To change If an external resistance is connected in series with the field windings. this method will not be suitable for constant load torque. . flux will change. we have remains constant and flux is reduced to obtained from Therefore new armature current is If load torque new armature current in the steady state is But the fraction. If we vary If . Let us rewrite . So from the initial steady condition. It should be understood that we can only decrease flux from its rated value by adding external resistance. hence new armature current will be greater than the rated armature current and the motor will be overloaded.

c voltage source. Since the no load speed the speed versus Ia characteristic will shift parallely as shown in figure for different values of Va. Here the armature resistance and field current are not varied. armature is supplied from a separate variable d.Speed control by armature voltage variation In this method of speed control. while the field is separately excited with fixed rated voltage as shown in figure. .

in the pre power electronic era. In a way armature voltage control method is similar to that of armature resistance control method except that the former one is much superior as no extra power loss takes place in the armature circuit. both field and armature control are integrated as shown in figure. By controlling the field current of the generator.c generator was used to supply the motor armature. which is higher than the rated voltage. the generated emf.Explain Ward Leonard method: combination of Va and If control In this scheme. One has to simply connect an appropriate rheostat in the field circuit for this purpose. Armature voltage control method is adopted for controlling speed from base speed down to very small speed. a prime mover is required.As flux remains constant. 2. this method is suitable for constant torque loads. A 3-phase induction motor is used as the prime mover which is supplied from a 3-phase supply. obtaining a variable d. However.c supply was not easy and a separately excited d. as one should not apply across the armature a voltage. Arrangement for field control is rather simple. Obviously to run this generator. .

c generator and a 3-phase induction motor of simialr rating as that of the d. excitation of the d.hence Va can be varied. To control the speed of the d. The potential divider connection uses two rheostats in parallel to facilitate reversal of generator field current. Although. .c supply by using controlled rectifiers thus avoiding the use of additional induction motor and generator set to implement Ward leonard method.c motor whose speed is intended to be controlled.c motor below base speed by armature voltage. while to control the speed above base speed field current of the d. First the induction motor is started with generator field current zero (by adjusting the jockey positions of the rheostats). The applied voltage to the motor Va.c motor is varied maintaining constant Va. Field supply of the motor is switched on with motor field rheostat set to zero. the cost involved is rather high as we require one additional d.c motor as the applied voltage to the armature is gradually increased. variable d. In present day. can now be gradually increased to the rated value by slowly increasing the generator field current. wide range smooth speed control is achieved. In this scheme. no starter is required for the d.c generator is varied.c supply can easily be obtained from a. Reversal of direction of rotation of the motor can be obtained by adjusting jockeys of the generator field rheostats.

3. the applied voltage across each motor is V/2 while in parallel connection shown in figure. In series connection of the motors shown in figure . speed is proportional to Va. Therefore. Series-parallel connection of motors If for a drive two or more (even number) of identical motors are used (as in traction). hence flux also remains constant. the back emf Eb is approximately equal to the armature terminal voltage Va. Explain the Speed control method of Series motor Speed control below base speed For constant load torque. Since the machine resistance a s r +re is quite small. The back emf in the former case will be approximately half than that in the latter case. This Va can be controlled either by connecting external resistance in series or by changing the supply voltage. the applied voltage across each motor is V. steady armature current remains constant. . If Va is reduced. For same armature current in both the cases (which means flux per pole is same). the motors may be suitably connected to have different applied voltages across the motors for controlling speed. speed will be half in series connection compared to parallel connection. speed too will be reduced.

Speed control above base speed Flux or field current control is adopted to control speed above the base speed. a portion of the armature current is diverted through the diverter resistance. . in fact it is less than the armature current. this can be achieved by the following methods: 1. Changing number of turns of field coil provided with tapings. When number of turns changes. In a series motor. field mmf se f N I changes. 2. Flux weakening thus caused. However provision is kept to change the number of turns of the field coil. independent control of field current is not so obvious as armature and field coils are in series. changing the flux hence speed of the motor.However. Using a diverter resistance connected across the field coil. armature and field currents are same. raises the speed of the motor.20. In this method. In this case shown figure 39. So field current is now not equal to the armature current.

flux will be doubled in the second case and naturally speed will be approximately doubled as back emf in both the cases is close to supply voltage V. the 4 coils could be connected in parallel or parallel combination of 2 in series and other 2 in series as shown in figure 39. Generally the field terminals of a d.21.Connecting field coils wound over each pole in series or in. n figure For series connection of the coils (figure 39. The four coils could be connected in series as in figure 39. for same armature current Ia. Thus control of speed in the ratio of 1:2 is possible for series parallel connection. .21) flux produced is proportional to Ia and for series-parallel connection (figure 39.22. If the terminals of the individual coils are brought out. Consider a 4-pole series motor where there will be 4 individual coils placed over the poles. parallel.3. then there exist several options for connecting them.c machine are brought out after connecting the field coils (wound over each pole) in series.22) flux produced is proportional to Therefore.