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de Silva Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 2000

1 Vibration Engineering Vibration is a repetitive, periodic, or oscillatory response of a mechanical sys tem. The rate of the vibration cycles is termed ªfrequency.º Repetitive motions that are somewhat clean and regular, and that occur at relatively low frequencies, a re commonly called oscillations, while any repetitive motion, even at high frequ encies, with low amplitudes, and having irregular and random behavior falls into the general class of vibration. Nevertheless, the terms ªvibrationº and ªoscillationº a re often used interchangeably, as is done in this book. Vibrations can naturally occur in an engineering system and may be representative of its free and natura l dynamic behavior. Also, vibrations may be forced onto a system through some fo rm of excitation. The excitation forces may be either generated internally withi n the dynamic system, or transmitted to the system through an external source. W hen the frequency of the forcing excitation coincides with that of the natural m otion, the system will respond more vigorously with increased amplitude. This co ndition is known as resonance, and the associated frequency is called the resona nt frequency. There are ªgood vibrations,º which serve a useful purpose. Also, there are ªbad vibrations,º which can be unpleasant or harmful. For many engineering syst ems, operation at resonance would be undesirable and could be destructive. Suppr ession or elimination of bad vibrations and generation of desired forms and leve ls of good vibration are general goals of vibration engineering. This book deals with 1. Analysis 2. Observation 3. Modi cation of vibration in engineering system s. Applications of vibration are found in many branches of engineering such as a eronautical and aerospace, civil, manufacturing, mechanical, and even electrical . Usually, an analytical or computer model is needed to analyze the vibration in an engineering system. Models are also useful in the process of design and deve lopment of an engineering system for good performance with respect to vibrations . Vibration monitoring, testing, and experimentation are important as well in th e design, implementation, maintenance, and repair of engineering systems. All th ese are important topics of study in the eld of vibration engineering, and the bo ok will cover pertinent 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Theory and modeling Analysis Design Exper imentation Control In particular, practical applications and design considerations related to modif ying the vibrational behavior of mechanical devices and structures will be studi ed. This knowledge will be useful in the practice of vibration regardless of the application area or the branch of engineering; for example, in the analysis, de sign, construction, operation, and maintenance of complex structures such as the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Note in Figure 1.1 that long and exible components, which would be prone to complex ªmodesº of vibration, are pre sent. The structural design should take this into consideration. Also, functiona l and servicing devices such as robotic manipu©2000 CRC Press

Such natural oscillatory response is not l imited. Before designing or controlling an engineering system for good vibr atory performance. Proper desig n and control are crucial in maintaining a high performance level and production ef ciency. and prolonging the useful life of machinery. structures. Even a system that can hold two reversible forms of energy may not necessarily d isplay free. purely thermal systems do not undergo free. natural oscillations. free vibration is a manifestation of the oscillatory behavior in mechan ical systems. VA. and will be continuously replenished. as a result of repetitive interchange of kinetic and potential ene rgies among components in the system.S. The reason for this would be the strong prese nce of an energy dissipation mechanism that could use up the initial energy of t he system before completing a single oscillation cycle (energy interchange). The approach used in the book is to introdu ce practical applications of vibration in the very beginning. the energy necessary to sustain the oscillations will com e from the excitation source. 1. again due to a repetitive exchange of two types of energy amon g system components. (Courtesy of NASA Langley Research Center. Space Shuttle and the International Space Station with the C anadarm. and is found in electrical and uid systems as well.FIGURE 1. and analyze the vibratory characteristics of the system. represent (model). In this case..1 The U. primarily because of the absence of two forms of reversible energy. Canadarm) can give rise to vibration interactions that need to be controlled for accurate performance. Hampton. With permission . But. Suc h dissipation is provided by damping or friction in mechanical systems. however. along with experim ental techniques. and then integrate these applications and design consideration s into fundamentals and analytical methods throughout the text.g. to purely mechanical systems.1 STUDY OF VIBRATION Natural.) lators (e. it is important to understand. and industria l processes. natural os cillations. and resi stance in electrical systems. Any engineering system (even a purely thermal one) is able to undergo forced oscillations. This can be ©2000 CRC Press . regardless of the degree of energy diss ipation.

rather than different ial. and control. and digital s ignal analysis in the time domain. These transfor m techniques will be studied. the independent va riable of a vibration signal is frequency. The ride quality. then. In the frequency domain. This is an automated transit system that is opera ted without drivers. and control are all important aspects of study in mechanical vibration. whic h can be treated as a special case of the Laplace transformation. concepts of discrete o r digital Fourier transformation and techniques of fast Fourier transform (FFT) will be applicable in the frequency domain. the independent variable of a vibration signal is time. In practice. sensing. a schematic diagram of an innovative elevated guideway transit sys tem is shown in Figure 1. computer analysis of analytical mo dels. mob ility.º Any arbitrary motion of a vibrating system can be r epresented in terms of its natural frequencies and mode shapes. Both Newtonian (force-motion) and Lagrangian (energy) appro aches will be utilized in this book. testing. analysis. Modeling and vibration-signal analysis in both time and frequency domains will be studied in this book. A s an example. This frequency is termed a ªnatural frequencyº of the s ystem. can be analyzed using an appropriate model. Transfer function representations such as mechanical impedance. Once the ©2000 CRC Press .2(a) An elevated guideway transit system. Correspondingly. A model of a vibrating system can be formulated by applying either force-momentum rate relations (Newton's second law) or the concepts of kinetic and potential energies. and effectively used in vibration design and evaluation.2(b). and the corresponding shape (or motion ratio) of the moving parts of the system is termed a ªmode shape. exibility. It follows that modeling. The analysis of a vibrating system can be done either in the time domain or in the frequency domain. An engineering system. design. The two domains are connected by the Fourier transformation. receptance. as well as the vehic le.2(a). These concepts and techniques are al so studied in this book. Usually. and energy dissipation) of the guideway. accomplished through purely analytical means. In this cas e.FIGURE 1. A simpli ed model is shown in Figure 1 . or a combination of these approaches. will tend to do so at a particular ªpreferredº frequency and maintaining a particu lar ªpreferredº geometric shape. In this situa tion. In this case. must be incorporated into such a model. the system itself can be modeled as a set of differential equations with resp ect to time. testing and analysis of test data. The subject of m odal analysis primarily concerns determination of natural frequencies and mode s hapes of a dynamic system. models. the dynamics ( inertia. and transmissibility can be conveniently analyzed in the freq uency domain. one needs to employ concepts of discrete time. however. rst in the purely analytical and analog measurement situation of continuous time. which depends on the vibratory motion of the vehicle. sampled data. In the time domain. the system can be model ed by input-output transfer functions which are algebraic. digital electronics and com puters are commonly used in signal analysis. when given an initial disturbanc e and allowed to execute free vibrations without a subsequent forcing excitation .

The subject of modal testing.2(b) A model for determining the ride quality of the elevated guideway transit system. vibration suppression. modes are determined. and control.g. they can be used in understanding the dynamic nature of th e systems. Natural frequencies and mode shapes of a vibrating system can be determined experimentally through procedures of modal testing. a dynamic model (an experimental model) of the system can be determined in this manner. and associated analysis and design is known as experimental modal analysis. and heat generation. it has obvious undesirable effects such as energy wastage. It al ters the dynamic response of the system. Also..FIGURE 1. For ©2000 CRC Press . and has desirable effects such as stabi lity. and also in design and control. power transmission (e. expe rimental modeling (or model identi cation). and will be studied in this book. Energy dissipation (or damping) is present in any mechanical system. wear and tear. In fact. reduct ion of the process ef ciency. in friction drives). noise. This subject will also be treated in this book. Modal analysis is extremely important in vibration engineering.

signal conditioning and modi cation hardware (e. through component alig nment and balancing of rotating devices Ð is a common practice. plates. noise generated by c onstruction equipment.. Both passive and a ctive techniques are used in vibration control.these reasons. as well as how approximate lu mped-parameter models can be developed for continuous systems.. Vibration testing is useful in a variety of stages in the development and utilization of a product. mechanical and structural design for acceptable vibratio n characteristics will be important. nonlinear representations are discu ssed as well. elimination of sources of vibration Ð for example. actuators th at require external power sources are not employed. vibration testing can be used to design. as well as structures made of such components. vibration exciters or shakers). within the topic o f signal conditioning. in view of well-known dif culties of analyzing nonlinear behavior . analog-digital conversion means). beams. exibility (spring-like e ffect). develop. and various solids. modulators. dyna mic interactions between vehicles and bridges or guideways.. these models are partial differential equations in time and sp ace. modeling) of these distributed-parameter (or continuous) vibrati ng systems will require independent variables in space (spatial coordinates) in addition to time. Another use of vibration testing is in product quali cation. linear models are primarily used to repres ent damping in the analyses herein. This book studies vibration analysis. and how equivalent linear models can be determined for nonlinear d amping are described. energy dissipation is a nonlinear phenomenon. An example of a largescale shaker used for vibration testing of civil engineering structures is shown in Figure 1. Design is a subject of paramount signi cance in the practice of vi bration. using procedures such as modal analysis and energy equivalence. Properties such as mass (inertia). vibrati on testing can be used for screening of selected batches of products for quality control. Elimination or suppression of undesirable vibrations 2. In active control. In particular. and ©2000 CRC Press . ampli ers.e. damping is an important topic of study in the area of vibration. Modi cation of existing components and integr ation of new components and devices. The analysis of distributed-parameter models will require complex procedure s and special tools. Furt hermore.3. inert ia blocks. and control of vibration will require devices such as sensors and transducers. In the design and development stage. testing. Repres entation (i. isolators. both hardware and software (numerical) techniques will be presented. and damping (energy dissipation) are continuously distributed throughout practical mechanical devices and structures to a large extent. 1. vibration is controlled by means of actuators (which need power) to counteract vibration forces. However. and will be covered in this book. The underlying subject of vibratio n instrumentation will be covered in this book. particularly modal an alysis. The subject of vibration testing is addressed in some detai l in this book.2 APPLICATION AREAS The science and engineering of vibration involve two broad categories of applica tions: 1. Generation of the necessary forms and quantities of useful vibrations Undesirable and harmful types of vibration include structural motions generated due to earthquakes. membranes. lte rs. vibration transmitted from machinery to its supporting st ructures or environment. This is the case with distributed components such as cables. and because an equivalent representation of the overall energy dissipation is often adequate in vibration analysis. In passive control. s hells. But. and act uators (e. shafts. In the production stage. Here. can be incorporated into these practices. such as vibration dampers. and dynamic absorbers. of several types of continuous components. a pro duct of good quality is tested to see whether it can withstand various dynamic e nvironments that it may encounter in a specialized application.g. Particularly. demodulators. In general.g. and ve rify the performance of individual components of a complex system before the ove rall system is built (assembled) and evaluated. Monitoring.

Rigorous analysis and design are ne eded. unacceptable motions. and prolonging the useful l ife of industrial machinery.4) can cause structural prob lems as well as degradation in ride quality.FIGURE 1. and failure due to dynamic loading.3 A multi-degree-of-freedom hydraulic shaker used in testing civil engi neering structures. University of British Colum bia. maintenance of a high performance level and produc tion ef ciency. malfunction. C. For example. Ventura. and vibrator y material removers such as drills and polishers ( nishers). part feeders and sorters. reduction in user/operator discomfort. As an example. vibrators used in industrial mixers.) damage. a nd fatigue caused by vibration.E. dynamic interactions between an a utomated transit vehicle and a bridge (see Figure 1. particularly with regard to vibration. devices used in physical therapy and medical applicati ons. in the development of these ground transit systems. product alignment for ©2000 CRC Press . With permission. Desirable types of vibration include those generate d by musical instruments. Lowering the levels of vibration will result in reduced noise a nd improved work environment. (Courtesy of Prof.

. Canada. a modern automated transit system. of Walla Walla.) ©2000 CRC Press . (Key Technology.) FIGURE 1. WA. (Photo by Mark Van Manen.FIGURE 1. With permission. With permission. Inc.4 The SkyTrain in Vancouver. courtesy of BC Transit.5 An alignment shaker.

Associated downt ime (production loss) and cost can be quite signi cant. analysis. Many of the recent developments in the eld of vibration were motivated perhaps for two primary reaso ns: 1. but also to achieve required levels of ride quality and comfort.g. and chimneys directly incorporate theor y and practice of vibration. In the area of production and manufacturing engineering. vehicles are designed by incorporat ing vibration engineering. and will require more frequent maintenance. Machine tool vibrations are known to not only degrade the dimensional accurac y and the nish of a product. aeronautical and aerospace. as shown in Figure 1.8 shows a test setup used in the development of an automotive suspen sion system. not only to ensure structural integrity and functiona l operability. 2. as noted before. mechanical. One c an then visualize several practical applications where modeling. prope r design and balancing can reduce helicopter vibrations caused by imbalance in t heir rotors.industrial processing or grading can be carried out by means of vibratory convey ors or shakers. and production and ma nufacturing. energy. For example. and control. for example. vib rations in production machinery will generate noise problems and also will be tr ansmitted to other operations through support structures. and the corresponding applications are numerous. monitoring. Concepts of vibration have been used for many centuries in practical applications. A ne example of an elongated building where vibratio n analysis and design are crucial is the Jefferson Memorial Arch. Figure 1. both active and passive. vibration will result in other mechanical problems in pr oduction machinery. overh ead telephone lines) can result in faults. thereby interfering wi th their performance as well. forging machines. pr opeller and rudder design. falls within the eld of vibration engineerin g. consequently. control. me chanical vibration has direct implications of product quality and process ef cienc y. where limits on root-mean-squar e (rms) levels of vibration (expressed in units of acceleration due to gravity. optimal designs of machinery and structures consisting of thin members wit h high strength. Speci cations such as the one shown in Figure 1. and given rise to the need for sophisticated procedures of analysis and design that govern distributed-parameter exible structures. and testing. g) for different frequencies of excitation (expressed in cycles per second. and extruders.6. or h ertz. or Hz) and different trip durations. and ef ciency considerations have resulted in lightwe ight. Recent advances of vibration are quit e signi cant. Oscillatio n of transmission lines of electric power and communication signals (e. related to vibration are important. mechanical and structural compon ents of aircraft are designed for good vibration performance. and sometimes major structural damage. the design of suspensi on systems. the vibration loads generated due to rotational excitations a nd unbalances would have quadrupled if proper actions of design and control were not taken.5. Balancing of internal combustion engines is carried out using principles of design for vibration suppression. Associated structural exibility has made the rigid-structure ass umption unsatisfactory. In general. desig n. In addition to reducing the tool life. In particular. guideways. but also will cause fast wear and tear and breakage of tools. Mass. The speeds of operation of machinery have doubled over the past 50 years and. Vibrations in ships can be suppressed through structural design. Milling machines. In the area of ground transportation. tall buildings. lathes. Also.7.. service interruptions. shown in Figur e 1. In the area of air transportation. are used to specify ride quality requ irements in the design of transit systems. Stabilization of transmission lines involves direct app lication of the principles of vibration in cables and the design of vibration da mpers and absorbers. A range of applications of vibration can be found in various branches of engineering: p articularly civil. Modal analysis and design of exible civil engineering structures suc h as bridges. should be designed for achieving low vibration levels. vibration can degrade performance and production ef ciency of ©2000 CRC Press . drills.

FIGURE 1. ©2000 CRC Press . MO.7 A typical specification of vehicle ride quality for a specified trip duration.6 Jefferson Memorial Arch in St. Louis. FIGURE 1.

Although the dyn amic loading in these machines is generally random. mountings) will be ne eded to reduce these transmissibility problems. and bulldozers) rely on structural integrity. the American Society of Mechani cal Engineers International. excavators. The Chinese developed a mechanical seismograph (an instrument to detect and r ecord earthquake vibrations) in the 2nd century A. (Copyright Mechanical Engineering magazine.C. utes. Als o. and safety.3 HISTORY OF VIBRATION The origins of the theory of vibration can be traced back to the design and deve lopment of musical instruments (good vibration). reliability. who studied vibration of s trings and also explored the energy approach to formulating equations of dynamic s.C.g. while Egyptians had known of a harp since at least 3000 B. who studied ©2000 CRC Press .. 1. It is known that drums.. Daniel Bernoulli (1700±1782) and Leonard Euler (1707±1783).. Charles Coulomb (1736±1806). and reducing the cost and frequency of ma intenance. With permission. pile drivers. ancient Egyptians and Greeks explored sound and vibration from both practical and analytical points of view. who gave us calculus and the laws o f motion for analyzing vibrations. impacting and compacting m achinery. expe rimented on sounds generated by blacksmiths and related them to music and physic s. the Greek philosopher. mathematician.D. Joseph Lagrange (1736±1813).C.FIGURE 1. an d stringed instruments existed in China and India for several millennia B.) manufacturing processes. who experimented on the vibra tion of strings. For example. cranes. Heavy machinery in the construct ion industry (e. Design based on vibration and fatigue is an important requirement for these machines: for maintaining satisfactory pe rformance. The foundation of the moder n-day theory of vibration was probably laid by scientists and mathematicians suc h as Robert Hooke (1635±1703) of the Hooke's law fame.g.. Sir Isaac Newton (1642±1727). and musician Py thagoras (of the Pythagoras theorem fame) who lived during 582 to 502 B. who studied beam vibrations (Bernoulli-Euler beam) and also explored dynamics and uid mechanics. Proper vibration isolation (e. it is also quite repetitive from the point of view of both the excitation generated by the engine and the fu nctional operation of the tasks performed. prolonging the useful life. Their design must be based on sound principles of engineering.8 Cone suspension system installed on a Volvo 480ES automobile for test ing.

Distinguished engineers who made signi cant contributions to the published l iterature and also to the practice of vibration include Timoshenko. de Laval (1845±1913). Fourier transform is interpreted as a special case of Laplace transform. who studied critical speeds of shafts. and Fourier transform is the freque ncy response function. Joseph Fourier (1768±1830). The book consists of 12 chapters and 5 appendices. and continuous sys tems. bearings. The r esponse analysis using transform techniques is presented. and then integrating these applications. The present introductory chapter prov ides some background material on the subject of vibration engineering. First. translatory. The link between the time domain an d the frequency domain. who analyzed vibration of membranes and also analyzed elasticity (Poisson's ratio). who made contributions to the theory of sound and vibration and developed computational techniques for det ermining natural vibrations. Some background material is presented in the appendices. modi cation. Chapter 2 provides the basics of time response analysis of vibrating systems. analysis of both f ree (unforced) and forced response is given. and sets the course for the study. In particular . The half-power bandwidth approach of measuring damping is given. Much credit should go to scientists a nd engineers of more recent history. and control of vibration. A s a result of the industrial revolution and associated developments of steam tur bines and other rotating machinery. Also. instrumentation and monitoring. the underlying con cepts can be easily extended to multi-degree-of-freedom systems. The ch apters have summary boxes for easy reference and recollection. to electrical and uid oscillatory systems Ð are introduced. along with the associa ted basic ideas of convolution integral. rather than in the main text. and Crandall. who developed the t heory of frequency analysis of signals. who analyzed vibration of plates.4 ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK This book provides the background and techniques for modeling. Rayleigh (1842±1919). an urgent need was felt for developments in the analysis. regardl ess of the application area or the branch of engineering. design. along with experimental techniques and instrumentation. analysis. It gives the objectives and motivation of the study an d indicates key application areas. and Simeon-Dennis Poisson (1781±1840). measurement. and control of vibration in engineer ing systems.torsional vibrations and friction. Den Hartog. in order to avoid interference with the continuity of the subject matter. design. Motivation for many aspects of the existing techniques of vibration can be traced back to related a ctivities since the industrial revolution. who analyzed nonlinear vibrations. who studied the balancing probl em of rotating disks. as well. is highlighted. ©2000 CRC Press . and control considerations into fundamentals and analytical method s throughout the text. 1. Chapter 3 conce rns frequency response analysis of vibrating systems. This knowledge will be useful in the practice of vibration. primarily using the time-domain concepts developed in Chapter 2. The logarithmic decrement method of damping measurement is developed. A uniform and coherent treatment of the subject is given by introducing practical applications of vibr ation in the very beginning of the book. who studied vibrations of rotors. The concept of a state variable is introduced. and S todola (1859±1943). the response of a v ibrating system to harmonic (sinusoidal) excitation forces (inputs) is analyzed. Both undamped and damped systems are studied. force transmiss ibility. and torsional. design and experimenta l techniques. Clough. Poincaré (1854±1912). Some analogies of purely mechanical and structural vibrating systems Ð speci cally. Although the chapter primarily considers single-degree-of-freedom systems. Special types of frequency transfer functions Ð speci cally. Then. its inte rpretation in the frequency domain is given. Many worked examp les and problems (over 300) are included. and the impulse response function whose Laplace transform is the transfer function. A brief history of the eld of vibration is giv en as well. An energy-based approximation of a distributedparameter system (a heavy spring) to a lumped-parameter system is developed in detail. through Fourier transform. Among the notable contributors are Rankine (1820±1872). exural. Kirchhoff (1824±1887).

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The basic assumption made is that distributed effects of inertia and exibility in a vibrating system can be represented by an i nterconnected set of lumped inertia and spring elements. torque and force sensors. The state-space approach of representing and analyzing a vibrating syst em is presented. is discussed. Their use in the practice of vibration. with examples. For this reason. The conditions of existence of r eal modes for damped systems are explored. The in uence of damping on the modal analysis problem is discuss ed.. Practical problems of modal analysis are presented. is given. Chapter 8 studies instrumentation issues in the practice o f vibration. Performance speci cation . Chapter 7 exc lusively deals with the problem of energy dissipation or damping in vibrating sy stems. For holonomic systems. The ideas of static modes and rigid bo dy modes are explored. rods. through modal analysis. The idea of random signals is introduced. but for non-holonomic systems. Computatio nal techniques of signal analysis are given and various sources of error. and receptance Ð are studied and their complementary rela tionships are highlighted. and other types of transdu cers are addressed. and useful analytical techniques for these signals are presented. In particular. particularly in vibration isolation. and the procedure for determining these characteristic quantities. Chapter 6 s tudies distributed-parameter vibrating systems such as cables. incremental motions of these inertia elements is the number o f degrees of freedom of the system. Damped lumpedparameter vibrating systems are st udied from the point of view of modal analysis. the in uence coef cient approach is g iven for determining the mass and stiffness matrices. Various types and classi cations of signals encountered in vibration en gineering are discussed. Methods of representation or modeling of damping in the analysis of vibrating systems are indicated. Apart from the Newtonian and Lagrangian approaches. this is also equal to the total number of independent coordinates needed to represent an arbitrary co n guration of the system. The orthogonal ity property of natural modes is derived. Various types of damping present in mechanical and structural systems are discussed. are indicated. shafts. and methods of obtaining such a model are discussed. such a s aliasing and truncation. with practical examples. the idea of frequency spectrum of a time signal is given. In addition to the standard formulation of the modal analysis problem. with speci c reference to proportional damping. and the causes of these conditions will be indicated. the concepts of holonomic and non-hol onomic systems and the corresponding types of constraints are discussed. Applications range from monitoring and fault diagnosis of industria l processes. industrial practices pertaining to vibration exciters.g. moti on sensors and transducers. basics of operati on. The concepts of natural fr equencies and mode shapes are discussed. control systems. experimen tal modal analysis for developing experimental models and for designing of vibra ting systems. bea ms. discussed in Chapter 5. The analysis of the problem of forced vibration. to product testing for quality assessment and quali cation.motion transmissibility. Chapter 5 deals with the modal analysis of lu mped-parameter vibrating systems. Practical issues pertaining to vibration signal analysis are raised. with special emphas is on ªinertialº boundary conditions (e. First. two other mo dal formulations are developed. and particular emphasis on interface dampin g. the required number of co ordinates will be larger. Vibration of continuous systems is treated as a generalization of lumped-parameter systems. Instrumentation types. and ways of improving the accuracy of digital signal analysis are given. and control of vibration. Techniques and principles of measurement of damping are given. The rep resentation of a general lumped-parameter vibrating system by a differential equ ation model is given. Practical examples of associated vibration problems a re indicated. The technique of Fourier analysis is formally introduce d and linked to the concepts presented in Chapter 3. The issue of orthogonality of modes is studied. The total number of pos sible independent. The analysis of response to a forcing excitation is performed. using modal analysis. is developed. The in uence of system boundary conditions on the modal problem in general and the orthogonality in particular is discussed. the modal analy sis of continuous systems is addressed in detail. Chapter 4 presents the fundamentals of ana lyzing vibration signals. membranes. continuous systems with lumped masses at the boundaries). and plates.

©2000 CRC Press .

The procedure of developing a complete experimental model of a vibrating system is presented. The emphasis here is in the ways of designing. The related topic of balancing multi-cylinder reciprocating machines is add ressed in some detail. It draws from the analytical procedures presented in previo us chapters. Appendix D further explores the topic of digital Fourier analysis. for further reading. Issues and implications of component int erconnection in the practical use of instrumentation are addressed. Available te sting procedures are presented. The topic of product quali cation testing is addressed in some length. Analogies between mechanical. with a discussion of appropriateness. and design. Frequency domain formulation of the problem is given. advantages . The subject of design through modal testing. These considerations are closely related to the subject of instrumentation discussed in Chapter 8 and signal analysis discussed in Chapter 4. Practical procedures and applications of digital Fourier analysis ar e given. Seve ral laboratory experiments in the area of vibration testing (modal testing) are described. modifying. Development procedure of state-space models for these systems is indicated. el ectrical. Various methods of representing a vibration environment in a test program are discussed. The background material that is not given in the main body of the text. is given in the appendices. modulators and demodulators. As the background theory. Ap pendix A deals with dynamic models and analogies. quality assessment and control. Both passive control and active control of vibration are studied. and product quali cation. analo g lters. Static and dynamic balancing of r otating machinery is studied by presenting both analytical and practical procedu res. Commercial spectrum analyzers and digital oscilloscopes co mmonly employed in the practice of vibration are discussed as well. Chapter 11 studies experimental modal analy sis. are discussed. Appendix E addresses reliability considerations for multicom©2000 CRC Press . with particular emphasis on the cause of free natural oscillations. Procedures of curve tting of frequency transfer f unctions.. experimental m odeling. Procedures that need to be followe d prior to testing an object (i. bridge circuits. Ways of speci cation of vibration limits for proper perf ormance of an engineering system are discussed. with an emphasis on the use of tra nsmissibility concepts developed in Chapter 3. with a special emphasis on the computational proce dure of fast Fourier transform (FFT). This is a practical topic that is directly applicab le to product design and development. digital-to-an alog converters. and discrete Fourier transform are d iscussed and integrated. particularly Chapters 5 and 6. Appendix C review s the basics of linear algebra. Vectormatrix techniques that are useful in vibra tion analysis and practice are summarized. anal yzing.of an instrumented system is discussed. giving details of the applicable instrumentation. pre-test procedures) are given. The topic of whirling of rotating components and shafts i s studied. and other types of signal modi cation circuitry. Particular emphasis is given to commercial instruments and hardware that are useful in monitoring.e. and thermal systems are presented. which is directly related to vibration testing (Chapter 10). Main steps of developing analy tical models for dynamic systems are indicated. giving procedures and practical example s. and a comparative evaluation is given. and disadvantages of various test procedures. experimental modeling. Appendix B summarizes Newtonian and Lagrangian approaches to writing equations of motion for dynamic systems. or controlling a system for good performance with regard to vibration. but i s useful in comprehending the underlying procedures. which leads the digital computation of these quantities using FFT. the concepts of Fourier series. and control of vibration. analog-to-digital converters. Chapter 9 ad dresses signal conditioning and modi cation for practical vibration systems. is discussed. uid. which are essential in model parameter extraction. Reference is made in the main text to these appendices. Chapter 10 d eals with vibration testing. linearizing devices. Chapter 12 addresses practica l and analytical issues of vibration design and control. Features and capabi lities of several commercially available experimental modal analysis systems are described. Techniques and practical conside rations of vibration isolation are described. Fourier integral transform. which is directly relate d to the material in chapters 10 and 11. Speci c devices considered include ampli ers.

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Brie y describe ve practical examples of good vibrations and also ve practical exa mples of bad vibrations.4 1.C.. MA. Heath and Co.. Control Sensors and Actuators. D. De Silva. experimental modal analysis) Ð is quite important in the design and de velopment of a product. with respect to mechanical vibration. 4. Journal of Sound and Vib ration. Van de Vegte. 17. Indicate how a dynamic model can be utilized in the vibration design of a device. C.g. Englewood Cliffs.ponent devices. De Silva C. some selected publications are listed below. 485-493. 417-425. 1976. directly and indirectly. and Wormley. 4. and should pe rform better than the older designs. In general. 1983. failure diagnosis. Automated Trans it Guideways: Analysis and Design. AUTHOR'S WORK 1. Civil engineering Aeronautical and aerospace engineering Mechanical engineering Manufacturing engineering Electrical enginee ring 1. A technique to model the simply suppo rted timoshenko beam in the design of mechanical vibrating systems. Measurements and Data Corp. C. in its evolut ion and development. Control System Modeling.W.. and design optimizat ion. Lexington.W.1 Explain why mechanical vibration is an important area of study for engineers . C. and de Silva. modern machi nes are designed with sophisticated procedures and computer tools. Journal of Sound and Vibration. 389-393. 3. Under some conditions it may be necessary to modify or redesign a machine with respect to its performance under vibrations.N.W.W.5 REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING The book has relied on many publications.. The author's own work as well as other excellent books have p rovided a wealth of knowledge. 1983. 3. Indicate some reasons for this. Pittsburgh. PROBLEMS 1. N J.C. De Silva. modern machines have to operate under more stringent speci cations a nd requirements in a somewhat optimal fashion. 2. What are po ssible reasons for this? What are some of the modi cations that can be carried out on a machine in order to suppress its vibrations? On the one hand.. PA. Heath a nd Co. 2. C. D. Prentice-Hall. 47(4). 6. Mechanical vibrations are known to have harmful effects as well as useful ones . Optimal estimation of the response of internally damped beam s to random loads in the presence of measurement noise.W. 1989. These considerations have a direct relationship to vibration mon itoring and testing. D. 5. C. Design of passive vibration controls for internally damped beams by modal control techniques.. Dynamic modeling Ð both analytical and experime ntal (e. product quali cation.. J. 1976. 7. Outline one practical application of mechanical vibration in each of the following bran ches of engineering: 1. 5. C. 45(3). Lexington.W.3 1.W.. . De Silva.. On th e other hand. 1989. Dynamic Testing and Seismic Quali cation Practice. for good performance with regard to vibration. design for satisfacto ry performance under vibration takes an increased importance for modern machiner y. ©2000 CRC Press . Although it is not possible or useful to list all such material. De Silva. MA.. D e Silva. Internationa l Journal of Mechanical Sciences. 1975.2 1.

C. Material optimization in a torsional guideway transit system. C. 1979.S. De S ilva. and Palusamy. De Silva.M.W.. The Shock and Vibration Digest.W. Shock and Vibration Bulletin. C. 26. 29. 4. 24.D. 1987. 143-148. 1976.. S. and Control. and Do lejsi. ASME.E.N. Journal of the Structural Division. Hardware and software selection for experimental modal analysis.. 41-60. De Silva. Measurement. 676-680. The Shock and Vibration Digest. 21-26. J. An algorithm for the optimal design of passive vibrat ion controllers for exible systems. 16. Caron.W. and Wormley. 29(1).F.. 35-51. 1980. 1984. New York. The digital processing of acceleration measurements for m odal analysis. C. ASME. De Silva. C. ASCE. 1994. 1933-1946. Buyukozt urk. and Dynamics. C. R. 106(ST9). 10. ASME.. 106(2). and Vashi. 457-461 .. A torque sensor for direct-drive manipulator s. 1984. Journal of Engineering for Indus try.W. 1987. Henning. C. 1979. De Silva. 14(5). Flow-Induced Vibration. A. Trans. 112(4). Jour nal of Advanced Transportation. 3-12. ASCE. Modi.W. rotatory inertia an d shear deformation. 1990. Postcracking compliance of RC beams. 105(ST1). ASME.... De Silva. F. S. Beards.. De Silva. C. De Silva. 1980.. Random testing with digital control Ð Application in the distributio n quali cation of microcomputers.K. Trans.. Random Da ta: Analysis and Measurement Procedures. 1971.W. Trans.J. 13. 109(2). and Brown.J. The Fast Fourier Transform. 56-65.W.W. 74(4). Sei smic quali cation of electrical equipment using a uniaxial test.. Mechanism and Machine Theory.. Journal of Dynamic Systems.W. 2. Improvement of re sponse spectrum speci cations in dynamic testing. De Silva. 198 6. De Silva. Measurement. M. NJ. 5. C. D. Wiley-Interscience. New York. Schultz. De Silva.. Measurements and Control. The Shock and Vibration Digest. 1983. De Silva. 25. Trans. De Silva. V.W. ASME.G. 1994. and Piersol.. De Silva. C.. Trans. 152-155. C. C. The Shock and Vibration Digest.W. D.D.. D. 1982... 1982. 1980. 3-10. C. Dynamic beam model with internal damping. Journal of the Structural Division..xture design.W. 15. Pradhan. Journal of Sound and Vibration. 1983.. New York. OTHER USEFUL PUBLICATIONS 1.. 20.. Earthquake Engine ering and Structural Dynamics.N. De Silva. and Zaldonis. De Silva. 1996. 1985. 149-158. C.. E.S. 27. C.. 384-387. 3-13. Singh... Journal of Dynamic Systems. Bendat. Planar dynamics of exible manipulators with slewing deployabl e links..W. 35-44. ASCE.. 1998. and Control. K. C. 12. 1974. and de Sil va. A dynami c test procedure for improving seismic quali cation guidelines. 18(10). 50(5) . and Wormley. 106(6).. C. C. 23. ©2000 CRC Press . De Silva. Control.. J.8. 3-10. and W ormley. 1984. Van Nostrand Reinhold.. Selection of shaker speci cations in seismic quali catio n tests.W. 19. Brigham. Consideration of an optimal procedure for testing the operabil ity of equipment under seismic disturbances. De Silva. C. Journal of Engineering for Industry. M. Prentice-Hall. 17. 9. 17(8). Engineering Vibration Analysis with Application to Control Syst ems.. Optimal input design for the dynamic testing of mechanical syste ms. 17(6). Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division. 3. 30. Torsional analysis of cut out beams. C. Englewood Cliffs. Journal of Sound and Vibration.. Halsted Press.. 572-580. 1 11-119. Bussani. T. and Kanade. On the modal analysis of discrete vibratory systems.. C..W. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education. 21. 36-42. M. Finite Ele ment News. S. A.W. 12(1). De Silva. F. 28... 21(4). Experimental modal analysis Ð A modeling and design tool. 22..N. 16(8). T. O.. E. Blevins. Computer-aut omated failure prediction in mechanical systems under dynamic loading. De Silva. 1984. 108(EM2). 109(2). Matrix eigenvalue problem of multiple-shaker testin g.W. Trans.W. Shaker test. 337-348. Mechanical Engineering. de Silva. Loceff. 91(2). Use of nite element method to model machine processing of sh. 18(9). Journal of Guidance. 11. 495-50 2.W. 8. and Misra. De Silva. 122-127.W . J. C. Price. 1986. 149-167.W.O. 18. Kinematic analysis and design of a continuously-variable transmission . 13(3). C. AIAA Journal. Trans. 14. 1977..W. C.W.

10. Meirovitch. A . Vibration Testing. Mechanical Vibrations. Meirovit ch.J. 18. McC onnell. NJ.. R. Shearer. 1996. Upper Saddle River. 1995.. Addison-Wesley. 14. G. Rao.C. Addison-Wesley. Inman. McGraw-Hill. Sijthoff & Noordhoff. MD. 1979. The Netherlands. Vibration for Engineers.F. Englewood Cliffs. Irwin. D. Randall.. Mechanical Vibration and Shock Measurements. Mec hanical Vibrations.B. E. MA.H. New York.J. and Kulakowski. Computational Methods in Structural Dynamics. E. Prentice-Hall.. 9. 6. Steidel. 21. 15.S. 1977. OH. 1986. Merrill Books. 3rd edition. E. New York.L. New York. Englewood Cliffs. New York. D. J. J. S. Vibration Me asurement. Denmark. Charles E. D. Rock ville. J. A. 1995. K. Columbus. 12.G. John Wiley & Sons.P...L. 17.. Dynamics of Vibrations. 2nd edition . Reading.. Denmark. L. and Rades. Modal Testing: Theory and Practice... Den Har tog. 11. M. McGraw-Hill. 1956. Bruel and Kjaer. 1984. Industrial Noise and Vibration Control. 1986. Mihaiescu. 1980. Prent ice-Hall. Cra ndall. E. NJ.T. 2nd edition. MA.C.. Volterra.5. Buzdugan. 1996. 1968.. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. Dynamic Modeling and Control of Engineering Systems. Reading.T. Bruel and Kjaer.. 8. S. New York. Application of B&K Equipment t o Frequency Analysis.. Na erum. 20. ©2000 CRC Press . Dimarogonas. Dordrecht. 1965. J..T. Elements of Vibration Analysis.H. Ewins. An Introduction to Mechanical Vibrations. Engineering Vibration. Introduction to System Dynamics..F.... H.. Kurtz. Karnopp. 1971 . Naerum.. and Rich ardson. 1980. R. Prentice-Hall.. L. and Zachmanoglou. 7. John Wiley & Sons.. McGraw-Hill.D. Broch. 2nd edition.C. E. D. Letchworth. 16.. 19. 1979. Murphy. 13. New York. 1990.. Research Studies Pres s Ltd. and Prodmore-Brown.R. Shearer. MacMillan Publishing. B. NJ. England. and Graf. J. Dynamics of M echanical and Electromechanical Systems.

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