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Type Approval of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles in Europe

Dipl.-Ing. Michael Melz Fachgebietsleiter PKW und leichte Nutzfahrzeuge IFM - TÜV Nord Mobilität GmbH & Co. KG

Abstract
Based on the current European Framework Directive 2007/46/EC for the approval of motor vehicles, several regulations are especially relevant for electrically driven vehicles. According to ECE-R 101, CO2-emissions, fuel-consumption and electric energy consumption are determined, as well as the electric range for some types of power train. For each kind of hybrid-drive, special methods which are based on an especially defined test sequence have to be used. The knowledge of those methods is essential for designing the power train and the control strategy in order to achieve optimal test results concerning the type approval. The minimal requirements concerning legal conformity of electrical safety of a hybrid or electrical vehicle are given with the summary overview of the already applicable draft of the ECER 100-01. The discussions about the current actualizations of the regulations which are relevant for electrical vehicles broach safety issues to an increasing extent. TÜV NORD pursues the development of regulations and is involved in committee work in cooperation with its customers

Regulations concerning the electric power train for the approval of electric vehicles in Europe
The middle term scheduled concepts for hybrid and electric vehicles are suitable for gaining a type approval according to the current European regulations. However, for several individual systems there are irregularities concerning the plausibility and the execution of tests. Therefore amendments and interpretations are required for some regulations. On the following pages the challenges which occur during the homologation of electric and hybrid vehicles are shown. The following list shows some practical examples: · · For vehicles which are equipped with an electric braking system including energy recovery (recuperation) additional regulations apply (ECE-R13H). In case of testing a vehicle with a conventional combustion engine, the electromagnetic compatibility is tested at a speed of v = 50 km/h without engine load. This is not significant for electric vehicles, because they emit higher electromagnetic interferences under engine load. Nevertheless the current tests are commonly accepted (still).

Concerning the measurement of the sound level the engine power is to be taken into account. which is described in annex 7 of the regulation. a worst case examination based on the test-conditions (SOCbattery. CO2-Emissions and Fuel Consumption ECE-R 101 regulates the conditions for the approval of electric and hybrid vehicles. Due to the fact that the power of the complete drive train is not clearly defined.· · · · For measuring the power of the complete drive train. Range. This includes test specifications concerning the measurement of CO2-Emissions and fuel consumption as well as the electric energy consumption and the electric range of hybrid vehicles. Nevertheless proof of electric safety is to be provided! Furthermore for electric and hybrid vehicles devices for defrosting/demisting as well as heating have to be installed. is valid for all types of power train. Electric Energy Consumption. In addition. operating state of the power train) is necessary. A defined test sequence. Speed (km/h) Part 1 Part 2 Elementary urban cycle Extra-urban cycle ES BS Time (s) BS: begin of sampling ES: End of sampling Figure 0-1: defined test sequence for all types of power train . the required information according to the framework directive 2007/46/EC contradicts the current ECE-regulation concerning the definition of electrical power. there is no clear method given at present because measurement of electric power is not topic of the corresponding EEC-directive. There is no separate directive concerning the electric safety. The electric safety is not evaluated to an adequate extent in the current regulations. Furthermore the measurement of the electric range and the electric energy consumption of electric vehicles are regulated.

Testing under condition A provides information about the maximum electric energy consumption whereas testing under condition B provokes the maximum fuel consumption. This results in the test distance Dtest (the distance of two sequences). if the battery is charged instead of discharged between the beginning and the end of the cycle. However. Determining the charge energy also follows this pattern. Afterwards n test sequences have to be run. The end of the charging time t0 has to be noted. Then follows a „normal overnight charge“.For measuring the electric range of electric vehicles the vehicle is preconditioned before the measurement. The test ends when the vehicle is not able to meet the target curve up to 50 km/h or when an indication from the standard on-board instrumentation is given to the driver to stop the vehicle due to flat batteries. One test has to be carried out under condition A (fully charged electrical energy/power storage device) and one under condition B (electrical energy/power storage device in minimum state of charge). Under certain conditions. Depending on the charging energy and the test distance the electric energy consumption can be calculated as follows: c= E [Wh] D test [km] When testing hybrid vehicles a distinction needs to be made between vehicles which are externally chargeable and those which are not. it is allowed to take the uncorrected measured values as the test results. For example. The discharge-run ends as soon as the vehicle is not able to run at the required speed. The electricity balance is to be determined separately for the Part One cycle and the Part Two cycle. Within four hours from t0 two test sequences have to be run without a break in between. For testing under condition A two procedures exist: · · Measurement during one cycle Measurement during n cycles . Not externally chargeable hybrid electric vehicles have to be tested for determining CO2-emissions. the calculation of the relevant values for vehicles with and without an operating mode switch is done identically. = 70 % ± 5 % from the maximum thirty minutes speed of the vehicle. the uncorrected values are valid. The test starts with a discharge-run on a test-bench at a required speed of v = const. fuel consumption and electric energy consumption. an indication to stop the vehicle due to flat batteries is given to the driver or after covering the distance of 100 km. After the discharge-run the battery has to be charged. It is also important to distinguish between vehicles with or without an operating mode switch. When testing an externally chargeable hybrid electric vehicle two tests are necessary. Afterwards the battery is charged again using the aforementioned procedure and the energy is measured with an energy measurement device placed between the mains socket and the vehicle charger. The distance covered in this test is the electric range of the vehicle. The determined values for CO2-emissions and consumption are corrected in function of the energy balance Ebatt which is used as a measure of the difference in the vehicle battery’s energy content at the end of the cycle compared to the beginning of the cycle.

the weighted results are calculated according to: For one cycle: (De ´ M 1 + Dav ´ M 2 ) (De + Dav ) (D ´ C1 + Dav ´ C2 ) C= e (De + Dav ) (D ´ E1 + Dav ´ E4 ) E= e (De + Dav ) M= (Dovc ´ M 1 + Dav ´ M 2 ) (Dovc + Dav ) (D ´ C1 + Dav ´ C2 ) C = ovc (Dovc + Dav ) (D ´ E1 + Dav ´ E4 ) E = ovc (Dovc + Dav ) M= For n cycles: M: M1: M2: C1: C2: E1: E4: De: Dav: Dovc: mass emission of CO2 [g/km] mass emission of CO2 [g/km] with a fully charged electrical energy/power storage device (A) mass emission of CO2 [g/km] with an electrical energy/power storage device in minimum state of charge (B) fuel consumption in [l/100 km] with a fully charged electrical energy/power storage device (A) fuel consumption in [l/100 km] with an electrical energy/power storage device in minimum state of charge (B) electric consumption [Wh/km] with a fully charged electrical energy/power storage device (A) electric consumption [Wh/km] with an electrical energy/power storage device in minimum state of charge (B) vehicle’s electric range. recycling. In case of n cycles the calculation has to be done as follows: m1 = å mi [g ] 1 N c1 = å ci [l] 1 N The values for consumptions and emissions according to the conditions A and B shall then be: C1 = 100*c1/Dtest1 und C2 = 100*c2/Dtest2 E1 = e1/Dtest1 und E4 = e4/Dtest2 Electric Safety The safety aspects are divided into three fields of action which are largely not included in present instructions: · · · Electric safety: protection against shock current (ventricular fibrillation from 50 mA AC. 150 mA DC à shock current shall be limited to 30 mA) Functional safety: malfunction of system (e.g. annex 9 25 km (average distance between two battery recharges) OVC-range according to the procedure described in ECE-R 101. unintentional starting at crosswalk) Environmental sustainability: EMC. according to ECE-R 101. annex 9 In this case the electric range De is determined similarly to the procedure for electric vehicles M1 = m1/Dtest1 und M2 = m1/Dtest2 whereas Dtest1 and Dtest2 are the distances which were covered during the tests (conditions A und B) and m1 and m2 are the corresponding measured CO2-emissions. hazards in an accident .

battery safety. Depending on system structure further standards and tests shall be used. functional safety and 3. There are no requirements regarding safety after an accident in the ECE-R 100 . For granting the type approval the German Federal Motor Vehicle Office (KBA – Kraftfahrtbundesamt). protection of persons against electric shock). This standard is more extensive as ECE-R 100 and splits into 3 parts (1. the functional safety of the drive train including inverter needs to be analyzed.In the European type approval-procedure there is currently no legal basis for the points mentioned above. A Working Party focuses on minimum noise requirements for quiet vehicles Various regulations for measuring CO2-Emissions. as well as other European approving authorities. Operating voltage is 1000 VAC and 1500 VDC max. Additionally. These Regulations are to be standardized in a GTR. fuel consumption and electric range exist worldwide. In practice the procedure is as follows: · · From the view of ECE-R 100 not all possible hazards are handled. · · · · · · . Slow moving vehicles with electric drive can be dangerous for pedestrians (especially for the blind).29 – GSRP” has updated the ECE-R 100 and the crash specifications (ECE-R 12. It is applicable as basic requirement and will be mandatory for the type approval-process in the future. The ISO 6469 represents todays state of the art / standard concerning electric safety of vehicles. Additionally. parts 1-3 of the ISO 6469 have to be considered because the minimum requirements of ECE-R 100 are usefully complemented in this way. The ECE-R 100 can be applied for this. This is based on ISO CD 26262 / IEC 61508 as state of the art for functional safety of electric devices. Germany and France have tabled a proposal at the responsible body for upgrading the ECE-R 10. The Working Party “electric safety (ELSA) – WP. 2. With regard to braking and steering systems ECE-R 13 and ECE-R 79 shall be applied. · · Further Development of European Regulations concerning Electric Mobility · The European Commission has prepared a Council Decision with regard to the obligatory use of ECE-R 101-01 in connection with Regulation (EC) 661/2009 and 2007/46/EC.this should be anchored in a Global Technical Regulation (GTR). By an informal Working Party a measuring procedure for emissions of hybrid-electric heavy duty trucks should be developed. implies a proof of safety for the HV-system. Existing GTRs and ECEs respectively should be adapted for hydrogen-driven vehicles. Therein requirements and test specifications with regard to the electromagnetic compatibility while charging electric-driven vehicles. ECE-R 94 and ECE-R 95) in context of the work on electrical safety requirements for hydrogen-powered vehicles.