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2D Concrete design-EC2

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© Copyright 2008 Scia Group nv. All rights reserved.


Table of contents
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Abstract .............................................................................................................................................. 1 
2  Global settings ........................................................................................................................ 2 
2.1  Project data ...................................................................................................................... 2 
2.2  Setup manager ................................................................................................................. 3 
2.3  Manager of National Annexes ........................................................................................ 4 
2.4  Concrete solver setup ..................................................................................................... 6 
2.5  Design Defaults ............................................................................................................... 7 
2.6  Concrete Setup action button ........................................................................................ 7 
2.7  Tips & tricks ..................................................................................................................... 8 
2.7.1  Filters ......................................................................................................................... 8 
2.7.2  User defined defaults ............................................................................................... 11 
2.7.3  Save and loading of global settings to different project ........................................... 13 
2.7.4  Colour orientation .................................................................................................... 14 
2.7.5  Description pictures in setup dialog ......................................................................... 14 
3  Concrete tree ......................................................................................................................... 16 
3.1  Member data .................................................................................................................. 16 
3.1.1  In general ................................................................................................................. 16 
3.1.2  Type ......................................................................................................................... 18 
3.1.3  Different layers per side ........................................................................................... 19 
3.1.4  Layers in the centre ................................................................................................. 20 
3.1.5  Advanced mode ....................................................................................................... 20 
3.1.5.1  Basic data ........................................................................................................ 20 
3.1.5.2  Longitudinal ...................................................................................................... 24 
3.1.5.3  Concrete minimal cover ................................................................................... 28 
3.1.5.4  Creep coefficient .............................................................................................. 29 
3.1.5.5  Position of reinforcement direction arrows ....................................................... 29 
3.1.5.6  Action buttons .................................................................................................. 29 
3.1.3  Tips & tricks ............................................................................................................. 30 
3.1.3.1  Member data labels ......................................................................................... 30 
3.2  Member Design .............................................................................................................. 32 
3.2.1  Design properties ..................................................................................................... 32 
3.2.2  Internal Forces ULS ................................................................................................. 44 
3.2.2.1  In general ......................................................................................................... 44 
3.2.2.2  Tips & tricks ...................................................................................................... 46 
3.4.3  ULS .......................................................................................................................... 58 
3.4.3.1  Theoretical background ................................................................................... 58 
3.4.3.2  2D Structures detailing ..................................................................................... 63 
3.4.3.3  Reinforcement design workflow ....................................................................... 66 
3.4.4  ULS+SLS ................................................................................................................. 73 
3.4.4.1  Theoretical background ................................................................................... 73 
3.4.4.2  Limit bar distances ........................................................................................... 78 
3.4.4.3  Reinforcement design workflow ....................................................................... 79 
3.5  Section on 2D member ................................................................................................. 83 
3.6  2D Reinforcement .......................................................................................................... 85 
3.6.1  Reinforcement from 2D Member Data ..................................................................... 85 
3.6.2  New Reinforcement¨ ................................................................................................ 85 
3.6.3  Tips and tricks .......................................................................................................... 88 
3.6.3.1  Substraction from Required reinforcement ...................................................... 88 
3.6.3.2  Labels ............................................................................................................... 90 
3.6.3.3  Editing the reinforcement parameters .............................................................. 92 
3.6.3.4  Editing the shape of the reinforcement region ................................................. 92 
3.6.4  Free bars.................................................................................................................. 92 
3.6.4.1  New Free bars .................................................................................................. 92 

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3.6.4.2  Explode to free bars ......................................................................................... 94 
3.6.4.3  Free bars user reinforcement ........................................................................... 95 
3.7  Averaging strip .............................................................................................................. 97 
3.8  Code Dependent Deflections (CDD) ..........................................................................102 
3.8.1  Introduction ............................................................................................................102 
3.8.2  In general ...............................................................................................................102 
3.8.3  Example .................................................................................................................106 
3.8.3.1  Stiffness presentation ....................................................................................109 
3.8.3.2  Deformations ..................................................................................................110 
References .....................................................................................................................................112 



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Abstract

Scia Engineer software enables the user to design and check 2D member reinforcement. The
main possibilities of the design and checks are presented in the table below.

Steps of design and checks for 2D members Concrete tree for 2D members



The aim of this document is to describe each step of the design and check of a 2D member and
to describe some of the tips and tricks which might be important and useful in each part.



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2 Global settings

Global settings represent a set of parameters which are default values for the design of the
whole structure in the project. The user can use these default values, change them or simply create
his own sets of parameters reflecting his preferences and needs. General settings can be accessed in
several ways:
o Project data
o Manager of National annexes
o Setup manager
o Concrete solver

o Design defaults in Concrete tree
o By pressing action button Concrete setup in Concrete tree > Member design
2.1 Project data

The first possibility to change the global settings of the project is through the project dialog. You
can switch between national annexes by National annex button. Each annex has some differences
from the Standard EN.

After clicking the Edit button next to the name of the annex, the Manager of National annexes
dialog is displayed, containing all the implemented national annexes. The Project data dialog for Code
EN 1992-1-1 and Standard EN annex is displayed below


Default reinforcement and concrete material for EN Code
Starting from Scia Engineer version 2010, the default reinforcement and concrete material is set
directly in Project data dialog. After checking the concrete material check box, the possibility to choose
the default concrete and reinforcement material is activated.

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For Eurocodes only one default common material is defined for beams, columns, walls or slabs.
This is different from other Codes where for each mentioned member type a separate default material
must be defined in the global settings. If we want to change any material for some specific member, we
need to define its local settings somehow. We can do this by creating Member data or Punching Data
on the member.
2.2 Setup manager
Starting with Scia Engineer 2010, a new library called Setup manager is created. It can be
accessed from:
o Main tree > Libraries > Setup
o Menu > Libraries > Setup

Tree Menu



The user can edit the default settings for all materials in the Setup manager dialog. Each
country has its predefined set of parameters. The user is able to create his own set of values with
default values he requires. He might also change the appearance and the number of items in the
settings of each material. It is possible to work with the items as with any items of a library, so the user
can edit, copy, save and load to/from file, etc. It is not possible to switch the national annex here; this
action can be done only in the Project dialog or in the Manager of national annexes dialog.



After clicking the Concrete edit button in the Setup manager dialog, the Concrete setup dialog
appears. This dialog displays all global parameters for the concrete without parameters specified by
the national annex.


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2.3 Manager of National Annexes
It is possible to edit national annex parameters only through this dialog in Scia Engineer. The
Manager of national annexes dialog can be displayed in three ways:
o Main tree > Project > National annex
o Menu > Tree > Project > National annex
o By pressing second flag icon representing the country of the annex in the bottom right corner
of the screen

Tree Menu Flag icon (Czech)



The Manger of National annexes dialog is a library. The content of items is the same as the
content of items in Setup manager. It is the same library and the only difference is that parameters are
filtered according to some filter applied. It is also possible to get more detailed information about
implemented Codes and national annexes in the Manager of National annexes. This can be done via
button References.


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By pressing the Edit button ( ) for example for editing of national annex parameters in EN
1992-1-1 (General rules and rules for buildings), another dialog appears, where all appropriate
implemented parameters are displayed.


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2.4 Concrete solver setup
Code dependent values (except for national annexes parameters) and Code independent
values which influence design and check of concrete structures can be edited in the Concrete setup
dialog which can be displayed through Menu > Setup.> Concrete solver.



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2.5 Design Defaults
This is the first item in the concrete tree, and it is possible to set here the default values for
member design (such as concrete cover, reinforcement diameters, direction angles, etc.), and also
parameters for drawing of user reinforcement.




2.6 Concrete Setup action button
Global settings for design of the reinforcement are adjustable through Concrete setup action
button too, which is located in Properties window of both concrete tree and service for defining local
parameters.




The main advantages of this action button dialog are:
o Only parameters for actual design are displayed

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o Parameters from all dialogs are displayed
o NA parameters from Manager of national annexes dialog
o Code independent/dependent values from Concrete solver setup dialog
o Default parameters from Design default dialog



2.7 Tips & tricks
Here are some tips and tricks, which might some users find useful and which should provide
better overview in the global settings.
2.7.1 Filters
There are quite a many global concrete parameters which influence reinforcement design. To
simplify the overview of the global settings, the user may use filters which will restrict the number of
displayed parameters. Parameters can be sorted according to these filters:
- Type of members
This filter is activated only in the case that both 1D and 2D members are defined in the project.
Then the user may choose from 2 possibilities below:
o 1D members (only parameters that influence 1D member design are displayed)
o 2D members (only parameters that influence 2D member design are displayed)

- Type of values
Displayed filters depend on where the dialog was displayed from.
o Design defaults (parameters of default design such as cover, reinforcement diameters,
etc.)
o Code independent values
o Code dependent values (parameters from Code, without national annex parameters)

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o Drawing settings (parameters for drawing of the reinforcement)
o NA building (national annex parameters from Code EN 1992-1-1)
o NA fire resistance (national annex parameters from Code EN 1992-1-2)
o NA bridges (national annex parameters from Code EN 1992-2)
o NA hollow core (national annex parameters from Code EN 1168)

- Type of functionality
Displayed filters depend on the functionality checked in the Project data dialog, folder
Functionality.
o Prestressing (parameters for pre-stressed members design, functionality Prestressing
must be activated)
o Fire resistance (parameters for fire resistance design, functionality Fire resistance must
be activated)
o Hollow core slab (parameters for hollow core slabs design, functionality Hollow core slabs
must be activated)




- Type of checks
Parameters of selected check are displayed.
o Member data
o Cross-section characteristics
o Internal forces
o Design
o Automatic reinforcement design
o ULS response
o ULS design
o Crack
o CDD Check

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o Detailing
o Allowable stress
o SaT
o Punching check

Displayed filters depend on the location where the Concrete setup dialog was displayed from.
The dialog can be started from:

- Setup manager (see 2.2)
All filters are displayed and active. Only national annex filters are not visible in Type of values
folder.

- Manager of National annex (see 2.3)
o Type of members filters
o Type of values filters(only one, non active, national annex filter is displayed, this filter
depends on selected Code )
o Type of functionality filters (active only for EN 1992-1-1 Code)

NA for EN 1992-1-1 NA for EN 1992-1-2

NA for EN 1992-2 NA for EN 1168


- Concrete solver setup (see 2.4)
o Type of member filters
o Type of values filters(only Code dependent/independent filters are displayed)
o Type of functionality filters
- Design defaults (see 3.1)
o Type of members filters
o Type of values filters(only Design defaults and Drawing setup filters are displayed)
o Type of functionality filters
- Concrete setup action button
This filter depends on the design service that is currently active and may differ from each other.
Only one Design filter is displayed in the SLS design, Crack design filter is added in the SLS+ULS
design.

Setup manager Concrete solver setup

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Design defaults

Concrete setup action button (SLS)


2.7.2 User defined defaults
The big advantage of new global settings is the possibility to adjust the global settings to the
needs of each user. The layout of the Global parameters can be edited in the Concrete setup dialog
by right-clicking on the window with the parameters (the window on the right side). After selecting Edit
layout properties, the only possibility from the opened menu, the Property layout manager dialog is
displayed.


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We have created a new user layout named User1, where we copied all available parameters
and switched off some parameters in group Concrete > Design defaults > Concrete cover. The user
may adjust the default layout or simply create a new one using the edit buttons in the middle. After the
editing is finished, it is necessary to have check box Show current layout selected. Then this layout
will be added to the form of folder Concrete setup dialog. The user may also create more layouts and
switch among them. He still may use the default layout by checking check box Show native layout.


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2.7.3 Saving and loading of global settings to different projects
As it was mentioned in a chapter above, the global settings for Code EN are since the Scia
Engineer 2010 version implemented as a library, which enables the user to transfer global settings of
one project to another. Export and import of global settings is possible through the following two icons
in Setup manager or in Manger of National annexes dialogs.
o Save to file
o Read from file

The result of export or import will be the same in both dialogs, because the library is still the
same and the only difference is the applied filter in each dialog.







 Note
Default global setting (SetupManager.db4 file) is placed in Scia/db folder, together with all other
db4 files.

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2.7.4 Colours
For better overview and simplified orientation in the global settings, some of the parameters are
marked with colour, where:
- Blue coloured parameters are those which might be changed using local setting through
o Member Data
o Punching Data
o Green coloured parameters are National annex parameters


2.7.5 Description pictures in setup dialog
Pictures in the global settings dialogs are very useful and might be important for more enhanced
description of the desired parameter. On the other hand these pictures take some space in the dialog
and might not be so important especially for more experienced users. To avoid any disturbance by
displaying those pictures it is possible to turn them off. This can be done in Options dialog (Menu >
Setup > Options > Environment), by unchecking the indicated check box. Pictures in the Properties
will be turned off too.

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3 Concrete tree
3.1 Member data
3.1.1 In general
By creating the member data, the user will overwrite default global settings with local settings
defined for selected members. Simply said, where the user doesn’t want to use the global concrete
settings, the user creates local concrete settings by defining member data. We recognize two types of
these local settings for 2D concrete members:
o Member data
o Punching data
These member data may be created by selecting these two items in the Concrete tree and
choosing the proper 2D member, where this data are to be defined. These newly created settings will
be loaded from the default global settings and can be changed to fit the user needs.



After selection of a 2D member or 2D sub region the Concrete 2D data dialog is displayed and
local settings may be defined and confirmed.

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When member data are created, a new folder will appear in the member properties and will be
shown in Attributes of the member too.




After the definition of Member data a graphical mark (label) is displayed together with the
arrows describing reinforcement directions on the member. After clicking on these marks the user can
edit the appropriate attributes in the member properties window. Content of the label can also be
edited through the Concrete folder in the View parameters setting dialog.



Orthogonal.,2 directions, same layers User .,3 directions, different layers

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The local settings were changed since Scia Engineer version 2010 into attributes. This change
enables the user to edit these settings directly through the properties of the selected member. It is
possible to manipulate with these settings as with all others attributes by functions Copy attributes and
Move attributes in:
o geometry manipulations toolbar


o member menu after choosing attribute and right clicking



It is possible to edit these parameters in Member data.
3.1.2 Type
This represents the 2D member type. Default value depends on the type defined in the
member’s properties.


There are three types supported for this attribute (plate, wall, shell). The change of type of the
attribute does not influence the analysis model, but influences only the presentation and definition of
the parameters in the member data properties. In the table below Member data properties for each
type selected are displayed, without the advance mode being activated.
Plate Wall Shell

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From the table above it is obvious that the type:
o Plate enables the user to define different parameters for each member surface (upper,
lower) by check box Different layers per side, but it is not possible to define only one layer
of the reinforcement in the centre by check box Layers in the centre.
o Wall does not enable the user to define different parameters for each member surface
(upper, lower) by check box Different layers per side, but it is not possible to define only
one layer of the reinforcement in the centre by check box Layers in the centre.
o Shell enables to define different parameters for each member surface (upper, lower) by
check box Different layers per side and it is also possible to define only one layer of the
reinforcement in the centre by check box Layers in the centre.
3.1.3 Different layers per side
This attribute enables the user to define different parameters for upper and lower surfaces and
its reinforcement layers. By activating this attribute the user will be able to define different
reinforcement material, different directions and different diameters for each surface. This attribute is
available only when the Type is set to Plate or Shell.

Different layers per side off Different layers per side on

As you can see the original tree item Longitudinal is divided into item Upper and Lower. If an
advanced mode will be activated too, then another items Number of reinforcement layers and their
directions will be added.


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3.1.4 Layers in the centre
In the real life project we come across 2D members which have very small thickness, which
does not allow for defining reinforcement layers for both surfaces. It is necessary to design only one
layer of reinforcement which lies in the centre of gravity of the member. It is possible to design only
one layer of reinforcement by activating attribute Layers in the centre. This attribute is available only
when Type is set to Wall or Shell and when it is checked, many parameters in the member data are
deactivated.
It is not possible to change the attribute type of reinforcement geometry attribute. Only
orthogonal direction of reinforcement layers is supported.
Only two reinforcement layers are allowed. One lies just above the centre of gravity location and
the other one lies just bellow it.

Layers in the centre with
Advanced mode off
Layers in the centre with
Advance mode on


3.1.5 Advanced mode
This attribute is a filter for displaying the parameters in member data properties. If it is switched
off, then only basic parameters from the global settings (Design defaults) are displayed together with
reinforcement material parameters which might be edited. Groups Longitudinal and Minimal concrete
cover with the very basic parameters are displayed.
When it is activated then the user may edit all available parameters. Those parameters are
sorted to a few groups:
3.1.5.1 Basic data
In this group basic attributes and parameters for reinforcement design are located. As you can
see from the picture the user can edit reinforcement geometry, type of concrete cover and
reinforcement materials here. Also Different layers per side, User reinforcement and User input
thickness attributes are here.


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Type of reinforcement geometry
There are two types of reinforcement geometry in Scia Engineer:
o Orthogonal (default) where user can define only one direction angle for first reinforcement
layer. The second reinforcement layer direction will always be perpendicular to the first one.
The default value for the first direction angle is loaded from the global settings.
o User where it is allowed to define two or three direction angles for each reinforcement layer
separately. Number of directions may be edited by the same parameter in the Longitudinal
folder.


Orthogonal User
2 directions
User
3 directions



 Note
Minimal difference between two reinforcement directions defined directly by user, must be 30
degrees. If the difference is smaller, then the reinforcement design will end up with Error 61 (General
error in input data).



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Type of cover
It is possible to change the way concrete cover is calculated. Two basic types of cover are
supported:
o Use minimal cover enables Scia Engineer software to evaluate all appropriate parameters
and calculates minimal possible cover according to the selected Code. This will be the
minimal value possible.
o User, where Concrete cover parameters in Longitudinal folder will be activated and user is
allowed to use his own values
User reinforcement
User reinforcement is defined by new parameter Basic distance in Longitudinal folder, where
user defines the axial distance of reinforcement bars. It is possible to define different value for each
reinforcement direction.

It is possible to set this attribute ON only in the case that there is no user reinforcement defined
by 2D region or Free bars on selected 2D member or its sub region.



 Note
User reinforcement defined by Member data is the same for the whole 2D member surface. If
the user wants to change the Basic distance value only on a part of the 2D member, then he needs to
create sub region where this parameter may be defined separately.
If the user reinforcement is already active on a certain member and the user defines user
reinforcement by 2D region or by free bars, then the user reinforcement defined in Member data will
be deleted.
User input thickness
Scia Engineer software enables to set different thickness for 2D member or its sub region than
is defined in the model. The big advantage of this feature is that it is possible to run reinforcement
design for different thickness, without the need of deleting calculation results together with internal
forces. The importance of this function is directly proportional to the size of the structure, as the
calculation of internal forces for large projects may take very long time. What is important is that the

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user must remember the fact that the self weight of the changed member is not adjusted by the
changed thickness by this function and remains the same as originally defined.
The user defined thickness of a 2D member or its sub region can be edited by new parameter
Thickness. This parameter will be displayed after switching on the attribute User input thickness.





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3.1.5.2 Longitudinal
In this group there are parameters for each reinforcement direction such as number of layers in
each direction, their angles, bar diameters and eventually the distances between them. Also very
important parameter which influences concrete cover for each layer is here. The Longitudinal group,
which defines parameters for both surfaces, may be split into Upper and Lower group if the attribute
Different layers per side is switched on. The appearance of this folder may differ quite a lot depending
on activated attributes and defined parameters

Longitudinal
2 directions, 2 layers, user cover
Upper
3 directions, 4 layers, minimal cover
Number of directions
By setting attribute Type of geometry to User, a new parameter Number of directions will be
displayed in the Longitudinal group. The user is able to choose from two or three directions where
reinforcement will be created. Depending on the choice, the user is able to define appropriate number
of direction angles
Direction angles
As it was mentioned before, these are the values with direction angles. It may be one up to
three. The default value for the first direction angle is loaded from the global settings. These direction
angles are used only for reinforcement layers angles definition. It does not mean that this is the angle
of the first, second or third reinforcement layer. The user selects the direction for each layer
afterwards.
Number of reinforcement layers
The user is allowed to define more reinforcement layers for each member or sub region surface
through member data. The minimal amount of reinforcement layers is set by the number of defined
directions (see above). The maximal number of reinforcement layers for one surface is 10.

For each reinforcement layer it is necessary to define its bar diameter, direction angle, type of
cover, eventually Basic distance parameter.

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Diameter
Reinforcement bar diameter is defined only for every first reinforcement layer in each direction.
The default value is loaded again from the global settings. The other layers in same direction has this
parameter disabled (not possible to edit).





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Layer angle
It is possible to choose from defined direction angles in this combo box. These angles were
defined in the root of Longitudinal group, eventually in the root of Upper or Lower groups.

Orthogonal geometry
2 directions
User geometry
3 directions
Type of cover
Concrete cover, which is the distance from the outer reinforcement surface to the closer surface
of the member, is determined by this parameter. This value can be automatically calculated by the
software for the first reinforcement layer. This calculation will respect values from group Minimal
concrete cover. The user may also define his own value of the concrete cover. For this feature,
attribute Type of cover in Basic data group must be switched on.
The location of other reinforcement layers depends on the Type of cover for each of them. It is
possible to define different Type of cover for each reinforcement layer. The user can choose from
these types:
o Layer on previous layer: One layer is laid on the other one.
o Cover from previous: The user defines the cover from the previous layer. The cover is
measured from the surface of one reinforcement bar to the surface of the other bar.
o Cover from edge: The user defines the cover from the edge of the slab.
o Distance from previous: The user defines the distance from the previous layer. The
distance is measured from the centre of one reinforcement bar to the centre of the other
bar.
o Distance from edge: The user defines the distance from the edge of the slab.


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Here is the description picture for all Types of cover. Turquoise line at the top represents 2D
member surface.



Concrete cover (cu)
Shows or provides place for input of the cover value.
Basic distance
If the attribute User reinforcement from Basic data group is switched on, then the Basic distance
parameter is active and the user may define and edit its value. As it was mentioned before, it
represents the axial distance between two reinforcement bars and it is defined only for every first
reinforcement layer in each direction. For other reinforcement layers in already defined direction the
software sets the same value.
During the reinforcement design only certain number of reinforcement layers is being input. This
certain number equals to the number of defined directions. This means that if more reinforcement
layers are defined in one defined direction, then the following is input for the needs of the design:
o Average concrete cover calculated from all reinforcement layers in that direction

c
nom,u¡g
=
∑ c
nom,ì
n
lcjcr
ì=1
n
Iu¡c¡



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o User reinforcement area calculated from the first reinforcement layer (after assigning
reinforcement layer to the direction which has already one layer defined, it is possible to
edit only the concrete cover of this new layer)

The conclusion from this is that more layer reinforcement models may be substituted with only
one layer with the adjusted value of the concrete cover.
 Note
If the average concrete cover value for the upper or lower surface is equal or even bigger than
half of the member thickness, the design will not be possible and it will end up with Error 61 (General
error in input data).
3.1.5.3 Concrete minimal cover
In this group there are parameters that influence the value of the minimal cover calculated by
the software. It is also possible to define different parameters for the upper and lower surface
separately by switching on attribute Input for side. The user can edit Exposure and Abrasion classes,
Type of concrete and its surface, control attributes and values for determination of Delta;cdur.





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3.1.5.4 Creep coefficient
Here in this group there are parameters related to creep.



3.1.5.5 Position of reinforcement direction arrows
Only two parameters are in this group. By editing the default values, the user can move the
location of the direction arrow marks along the 2D member or its sub region. It is not possible to set
coordinates outside of the 2D member or sub region.



3.1.5.6 Action buttons
Just bellow all Member data attributes and parameters, there are two action buttons which the
user might sometimes find useful:
o Load default values, which will restore the default settings from the global settings for
appropriate parameters such as diameter, angle, etc.
o Concrete Setup, which will open the dialog with the global settings, while items in this
dialog are filtered according to the member type and member check.



 Note
Parameters in member data, with the grey background, are parameters visible only when
Advanced mode is switched on.

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3.1.3 Tips & tricks
3.1.3.1 Member data labels
If Member data are defined for a certain 2D member or its sub region, then a graphical mark
(label) is displayed together with the arrows describing reinforcement directions and layers on the
member. Only the name of the attribute is displayed by default (Concrete 2D data), but this description
can be edited or modified in the View parameters setting dialog. It might be accessed by:
o clicking by right mouse button on the graphical window and choosing item Set view
parameters for all




o using icon Fast adjustment of view parameters on whole model, which is above
command prompt, and selecting Setup dialog possibility




After that the View parameters setting dialog, affecting whole model, is displayed and the user
can find parameters for concrete structure in folder Concrete

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Member data can be switched on or off in two ways:
o by checking and unchecking the check box Display label from the dialog above
o by selecting Concrete label button in Fast adjustment of view parameters on whole model
menu (see picture below)





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3.2 Member Design
3.2.1 Design properties
Design properties layouts for internal forces ULS, Member design ULS and Member design
ULS + SLS differ from the chosen design and attributes selected by user.

Internal forces ULS ULS + SLS design
ULS design


See the description and possibilities for each of the attributes below.
3.2.1.1 Name
The user is allowed to name the design. It might be very useful for better specification and
orientation, especially in the Document.
3.2.1.2 Selection
This attribute influences the total amount of members that will be taken into the specific 2D
member design. There are four possibilities to be chosen from:
o All (all active 2D members will be designed)
o Current (only the selected 2D members will be designed)
o Advanced (the user may alter the previous selection)

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o Named selection (only 2D members from a certain named selection will be designed.
new attribute “Named selection” will appear in the properties)
3.2.1.3 Type of loads
By this attribute the user defines the type of the load for the design generation. There are three
possibilities to choose from:
o Combinations (the user may choose from all combinations)
o Load cases (the user may choose from all load cases)
o Class (the user may choose from all result classes)

Depending on the selected type of the load, a new attribute Combination or Load cases or
Class will appear on the right under this attribute. The user may select the desired Combination, Load
case or Class from the filtered list here.
 Note
Only the Class type can be selected for ULS+SLS design.
3.2.1.4 Filter
It is possible to define the filter for adjusting the already selected type of selection. This will
affect the number of 2D members taken into the design. The user may select one from six possibilities:
o No (no filter will be applied)
o Wildcard (the user may define the attributes for selection)
o Material (the user may select a specific material)
o Layer (the user may select the desired layer)
o Thickness (the user may define the desired thickness)

Again, after selecting one possibility a new appropriate attribute will be displayed on the right.
3.2.1.5 System
This attribute defines the used coordinate system. It is not possible to adjust this attribute. It is
set to Local.
3.2.1.6 Output
This parameter affects the appearance and detail-level of the table with results which may be
shown either in the preview or in the Document. There are three predefined layouts which will display
different number and types of parameters and results:
o Brief



34
o Advanced


o Detailed


 Note
The output parameter may be defined only for Type values attribute set to Required areas.
3.2.1.7 Show Errors
If this attribute is active, then error marks with appropriate numbers will be displayed in the
graphical window after a non successful design. More information about the error may be found in the
Calculation info dialog that opens through the Calculation info action button.
3.2.1.8 Show warnings
If this attribute is active, then warning marks with appropriate numbers will be displayed in the
graphical window after a non successful design. More information about the warning may be found in
the Calculation info dialog that opens through Calculation info action button.
3.2.1.9 Print explanation of errors and warnings
If this attribute is active, then a table with all errors and warnings will be displayed in the preview
window. In fact two tables will be displayed. The first one will display the number of error or warning for
each reinforcement type. The second one will display the error/warning description. This is the same
table as in the Calculation info dialog.
3.2.1.10 Use user scale isolines
This feature enables the user to define his own scale which will affect the view of the graphical
results. Simply said, the user may define his own key points on the scale. This might be very helpful
for better orientation in the used types and amounts of reinforcement. By switching this attribute on,
another attribute User scale isolines will appear on the right and the user may define his scale through
the dialog shown below:

35



Name Specifies the name of the user scale.

New level group In this group the user can input a new level for the isolines palette. The
level is defined by the diameter of the reinforcement bar and by the
distance between individual bars. The program then calculates the area of
reinforcement and mean diameter and distance. One level can contain one
to three different diameters, each of them with a separate spacing.

Copy to legend When a new level is defined, it can be added to the legend using this
button. The new level is positioned in the legend according to total
reinforcement area of the level.

Clear level This button clears all the edit boxes in the New level group.

Legend group This group displays the defined levels sorted according to the total area of
reinforcement in the level.

Delete active level If required, any defined level can be removed from the legend.

Delete all This button clears the whole legend.




36
If this User scale is used, the scale in the top right corner of the graphical window will look like
this:



 Note
The user scale isolines feature may be used only for parameter Location set to In nodes, avg.,
and for Type values set to Required areas only.
The user may also use the possibility to draw isolines together with labels. Together with export
of the slab picture it might be very useful to transfer these pictures to different CAD systems and
reinforce the entity using exported picture as reference layer. This might be used also for mesh
reinforcement.
Also note that the setting in the 2D result display dialog will be overwritten to User scale isolines
and the possibility to choose different type of result representation will be disabled. To change this, the
user must deactivate the possibility Use user scale isolines.



3.2.1.11 Averaging of peak
See more information about this feature in chapter 3.7 Averaging strip.

37
3.2.1.12 Location
This parameter defines the location where the design will be calculated. This is based on FEM
results. If the user changes this attribute, then Scia Engineer needs to make internal calculation of
design forces. The user may choose from four possibilities:
o In centres, (results represented in the centre of gravity of each element, the design value
is calculated directly from “no avg.” values by arithmetic average)
o In nodes, no avg. (results represented in mesh nodes, for each element separately,
these are the main results which are based for all other design location possibilities)
o In nodes, avg., (results represented in mesh nodes, but contrary to the “no avg.” values,
all values from all adjacent 2D members in each node are recalculated by Scia Engineer
before design and only one value for each node will be represented)
o In nodes, avg. on macro (the same as “In nodes, avg.” possibility with one important
difference. the recalculation is done only on each 2D member separately, this means that
one 2D member will not be influenced by another 2D member, also note that there might
be more same values)

We can show the differences of the designs for example on required reinforcement amount
(As1-) calculated on example from chapter ULS and ULS+SLS design.

In centres In nodes, no avg.
In nodes, avg. In nodes, avg. on macro



38
3.2.1.13 Type values
By this attribute the user may define the type of the value he wants to be calculated and
displayed. The user may choose from a drop down menu, but the content of this menu differs for
Internal forces ULS, Member design ULS and Member design ULS+SLS.

Internal forces ULS Member design ULS+SLS
Member design ULS

o Basic magnitudes (magnitudes of internal forces from the FEM analysis)
o Design magnitudes (magnitudes of forces used for member design)
o Required areas (amount of reinforcement)
o Reinforcement ratio (this is the rate between the amount of required reinforcement and
concrete area)
o Maximal diameters (value of maximal reinforcement bar diameter which might be used
for member design)
o Maximal distances (value of maximal distance between two reinforcement bars)
o Shear stresses (design and capacity stresses in concrete)
o Weight (weight of the designed reinforcement)

3.2.1.14 Envelope
The user may choose from two options here. He chooses from minimum and maximum
envelope for displaying.

 Note
This attribute is displayed only when the Type of load attribute is set to Combination or Class.

3.2.1.15 Reinforcement
The user may choose to design different types of required reinforcement area. There are four
possibilities:
o Required reinforcement (this is the amount of reinforcement needed for successful
member design)
o User reinforcement (this is the amount of reinforcement defined by the user. either
practical reinforcement already defined on 2D member or reinforcement defined by
concrete member data when the User reinforcement check box is active)
o Additional reinforcement (this is the difference between the amount of required
reinforcement and the amount of user reinforcement, i.e. this is the reinforcement needed
in addition to user reinforcement to fulfil the required reinforcement)
o Total reinforcement (this is the larger value of the required reinforcement and user
reinforcement)


39


 Note
This Reinforcement attribute is displayed only in Member design ULS or Member design
ULS+SLS when the Type value attribute is set to Required areas.
3.2.1.16 Standard
This attribute is used to determine where the design will be shown in the graphical window. If
this attribute is checked, then the designed values will be displayed in the centres of gravity of
selected 2D members.
3.2.1.17 Section
This attribute is used to determine where the design will be shown in the graphical window. If
this attribute is checked, then the designed values will be displayed on predefined sections which are
defined on selected 2D members.
3.2.1.18 Edge
This attribute is used to determine where the design will be shown in the graphical window. If
this attribute is checked, then designed values will be displayed on the edges of selected 2D
members.
3.2.1.19 Draw
This attribute defines the direction the designed values will be displayed. It is possible to select
one of the following possibilities:
o Upright to element
o Element plane
o X direction
o Y direction
o Z direction

 Note
This attribute is displayed only when the possibility to draw designed values on Section or Edge
is checked.
Also note that to make this feature functional, the user has to set attribute Draw for each 2D
section to “Draw similar as for setting in section properties”.
3.2.1.20 Course
The user may also define the way of interpretation of the designed values. It is possible to
choose from three possibilities.
o Precise (the precise interpretation based on the mesh)
o Uniform (this will display the average value for whole edge)
o Trapezoidal (this will display trapezoidal distribution of the value)
 Note
This attribute is displayed only when the possibility to draw the designed values on Section or
Edge is checked.

40
3.2.1.21 Values
This attribute defines the final value to be displayed. The content of this drop down menu differs
according to selected design and attribute.

- Internal forces ULS

Basic magnitudes Design magnitudes

, where values
o mx, my, mxy, vx, vy, nx, ny, nxy represent internal forces from FEM analysis
o n1-, n2-, n1+, n2+, vd, nc+ and nc- represent design forces.
For more information about these values see chapter 3.2.2 Internal Forces ULS.

- Member design ULS

Required areas Reinforcement ratio Shear stresses Weight


, where values
o As1-, As2-, As1+, As2+ represents the amount of longitudinal reinforcement for upper
or lower surface in a certain direction. Asw value represents the amount of shear
reinforcement. These amounts are designed for ULS.
o As,perc(1/2,+/-) represents the rate between the amount of required longitudinal
reinforcement and concrete area. Asw,perc represents the rate between the amount of
required shear reinforcement and concrete area.
o tauD represents the shear stress in concrete, tauR is the shear capacity of the
concrete 2D member with longitudinal reinforcement involved.
o Mass (+/-) is the weight of the upper/lower reinforcement. Mass l is the total weight of
the reinforcement.

o Member design ULS+ SLS

Required areas
Reinforcement ratio
Maximal diameters Maximal distances

41


, where values
o As1-, As2-, As1+, As2+ represents the amount of longitudinal reinforcement for upper
or lower surface in a certain direction. Asw value represents the amount of shear
reinforcement. These amounts are designed for SLS.
o fr1-, fr2-, fr1+, fr2+ are maximal possible reinforcement bar diameters
o sr1-, sr2-, sr1+, sr2+ are maximal possible distances between two reinforcement bars

In Member design ULS+SLS it is also possible to design Reinforcement ratio, Shear
stresses and Weight values. They are already displayed and described in Member ULS.

 Note
Numbers 1 and 2, eventually 3 indicates the direction of the X axis and Y axis of the selected
2D member’s LCS. Marks + and – indicate the positive and negative direction of the Z axis of the
selected 2D member’s LCS.

Also note that by selecting possibility More comp the user is able to display more values at the
same time in the preview window or in the Document.
3.2.1.22 Extreme
Simply said, this attribute defines which results will be shown in the Preview window or in the
Document. The user may choose from three possibilities:
o No (results for all elements will be displayed on selected 2D members)
o Member (only elements with maximum results on each of selected 2D member will be
displayed)
o Global (only elements with maximum results on selected 2D members will be displayed)
3.2.1.23 Drawing setup
By selecting the edit button for this parameter, a 2D results display dialog will be open. Here the
user may specify the representation of the design results on a 2D member. We can split this dialog
into four zones.


42


o Display = red (here the user may define the main type of 2D design representation, he
may choose one possibility from the list below)




o blue (where the user may adjust the type of the representation selected in the Display
zone, the view of this zone may differ for each type)
o green (here the user may define whether to show or not the local extremes and their
style)
o yellow (it is possible to adjust the range of the scale and user defined isolines)
3.2.1.24 Action buttons
In the lower part of the Properties dialog there are a few action buttons. The user may find these
buttons very useful.


43


o Refresh (this button is probably the most important from all of them. It will start the
process of design itself and it must be pressed to refresh the previous design results and
get new results based on the chosen attributes)
o Calculation info (this button will open the Calculation info dialog where errors and
warnings related to the design are displayed together with their description)



o Concrete setup (see more info in chapter 2.6 Concrete Setup action button)
o New reinforcement (see more info in chapter 3.6.2 New reinforcement)
o Export reinf. area to CAD program (by pressing this button the user will be asked to
save actual finished design to an *.ASF file which might be loaded into anothers CAD
program, such as Allplan, for further reinforcement design)
o Preview (this button will open the Preview window with tables containing the results of
the finished design, it might be also used for refreshing the results)






44
3.2.2 Internal Forces ULS
3.2.2.1 In general
Before starting the design process itself, it might be useful to check internal forces which will
enter the design. It is possible to do so in Internal forces ULS service in Concrete > 2D Member >
Member design > Internal forces ULS.



In this service there are presented these types of internal forces which might be changed
through the attribute Type value:



o Basic magnitudes (internal forces directly from FEM analysis, presented in the local
coordinate system of the appropriate 2D member)
o Design magnitudes (design forces in reinforcement, calculated for reinforcement
directions and design force in concrete compression strut)

As mentioned above, design magnitudes are recalculated into reinforcement directions,
moreover in these values also torsion moment m
xy
is taken into account. It is also possible to calculate
with the influence of tension force caused by shear stress. This can be set in Concrete setup dialog
with attribute Shear effect control 6.2.3(7), under Concrete > ULS > Shear > 2D structures. This
attribute can be set in three ways:
o No shear effect considered (the tension force from shear stress will not be considered
in the design forces calculation)
o Shear effect considered in R2 (the tension force from shear stress will be considered in
the design forces calculation only on elements where the shear force is not covered by
the concrete capacity, i.e. on elements where shear reinforcement is needed)
o Shear effect considered unconditionally (the tension force from shear stress will be
considered in the design forces calculation on all elements, regardless whether the shear
reinforcement is needed or not)


45



The tension force from shear stress is also dependent on the inclination of the shear strut. In
Scia Engineer it is possible to set two types of shear strut inclination calculation. This can be done in
Concrete setup dialog through attribute Shear strut inclination control 6.2.3 which is placed at the
same location in the Concrete setup dialog as Shear effect control 6.2.3(7).
o Variable strut inclination method (inclination is calculated automatically and the aim is
to find the minimal value of angle u which lies in interval u
min
and u
max
, and condition v
d

v
Rd.max
is true, This method optimises the variable strut inclination to determine the
minimal amount of shear reinforcement)
o Fixed strut inclination method (with this method set the user defines the inclination by
defining angle u. Default value is set to 40 degrees.)

The values that will be available in the value list for Type values attribute set to Design
magnitudes depend on:
o Type of the structure set during definition of the project itself. For 2D members project it is
possible to set three options: Plate XY, Wall XY and general XYZ.
o Layers in the centre attribute placed in 2D concrete data. If all 2D members in the project
have 2D concrete member data defined with attribute Layers in the centre active, then
only n1-, n2-, nc- values will be displayed in the list of values in General XYZ project.
o Number of reinforcement directions. If all 2D members have only 2 reinforcement
direction defined, then values with index 3 will not be displayed in the list of values.

Plate XY Wall XY General XYZ


Description of the values above:
m1-,m2-,m3-,m1+,m2+,m3+ Design bending moment in reinforcement direction 1, 2 and 3 for
lower surface (-) or upper surface (+). These values are used for
reinforcement design.
n1-,n2-,n3-,n1+,n2+,n3+ Design normal force in reinforcement direction 1, 2 and 3 for lower
surface (-) or upper surface (+). These values are used for
reinforcement design.
n1,n2,n3 Design normal force in reinforcement direction 1, 2 and 3 placed in
the centre of gravity of 2D member. These values are used for
reinforcement design.
mc-, mc+ Design bending moment in concrete compression strut for lower

46
surface (-) or upper surface (+) which must be covered by concrete.
If the concrete strut is not able to cover this moment, the design will
end up with error message.
nc-, nc+ Design normal force in concrete compression strut for lower
surface (-) or upper surface (+) which must be covered by concrete.
If the concrete strut is not able to cover this force, the design will
end up with error message.
nc Design normal force in concrete compression strut placed in the
centre of gravity of 2D member which must be covered by
concrete. If the concrete strut is not able to cover this force, the
design will end up with error message.
vd Resultant shear force which takes effect perpendicular to 2D
member plane.
 Note
Upper and lower surface of 2D member is determined by the Z axis direction of the local
coordinate system (LCS). The upper surface is in the positive direction of the Z axis and on the other
hand the Lower surface is in negative direction of Z axis. The upper surface values are marked with +
and the lower values are marked with -.
3.2.2.2 Tips & tricks
3.2.2.2.1 Internal forces in Result tree
It is possible to check internal forces directly in Results through Member 2D – Internal Forces
item. Here, the user can also view the design magnitudes, if attribute Type of the force is set to
Elementary design magnitudes.



The Elementary design magnitudes in tree Results are determined differently than in the
Concrete tree. The difference is that the Elementary design forces are expressed for the X and Y axis
of local coordinate system of the 2D member, not for reinforcement directions as it is done for
determination of the design magnitudes in Concrete tree. In the Elementary design forces the torsion
moment m
xy
is also taken into account, however the tension force from shear stress not. These
Elementary design forces might be used only for presentation. For design of the amount of
reinforcement the Design magnitudes from Concrete tree are used.
The values displayed in the value list when attribute Type forces is set to Elementary design
magnitudes possibility are only dependent on the type of the structure set during the definition of the
project itself. For 2D members project it is possible to set three options, Plate XY, Wall XY and general
XYZ.


47

Plate XY Wall XY General XYZ


Description of the values above:
mxD+, mxD- Design bending moment in the X axis direction of the local
coordinate system (LCS) for lower surface (-) or upper surface (+).
myD+, myD+ Design bending moment in the Y axis direction of the local
coordinate system (LCS) for lower surface (-) or upper surface (+).
nxD+, nxD- Design normal force in the X axis direction of the local coordinate
system (LCS) for lower surface (-) or upper surface (+).
nyD+, nyD+ Design normal force in the Y axis direction of the local coordinate
system (LCS) for lower surface (-) or upper surface (+).
mcD+, mcD- Design bending moment in the concrete compression strut for lower
surface (-) or upper surface (+) which must be covered by concrete.
ncD-, ncD+ Design normal force in the concrete compression strut for lower
surface (-) or upper surface (+) which must be covered by concrete.

 Note
The upper and lower surface of 2D member is determined by the Z axis direction of the local
coordinate system (LCS). The upper surface is in the positive direction of the Z axis and on the other
hand the Lower surface is in negative direction of Z axis. The upper surface values are marked with +
and the lower surface values are marked with -.
3.2.2.2.2 Comparison of design internal forces in Concrete and Results trees
The Design internal forces magnitudes in Concrete tree and Results tree have the same values
only when the selected 2D member:
o has only two reinforcement directions defined and these are perpendicular to each other
o the first reinforcement direction angle is identical with the value of rotation defined in
properties of Member 2D – Internal Forces in the Results tree.

Member Data in Concrete tree Member 2D - Internal Forces in Results tree

48

o influence of tension force is not considered for shear reinforcement,. That means that
attribute Shear effect control 6.2.3(7) is set to no shear effect is considered possibility
in the concrete setup dialog



Comparison of the results in the Results and Concrete trees will be done for the type of the
structure set to Plate XY. The structure is a simple 2D concrete member which dimensions are 6 x 8
meters and the thickness is 200 mm. It has defined concrete C25/30 and it is supported on three
sides. It is subject to a constant surface load of 10kN/m
2
. No member data are defined on this 2D
member.



3.2.2.2.2.1 Two perpendicular reinforcement directions, identical with X and Y
axes of LCS
First direction angle in Member data is set to 0 (zero) degrees and Rotation attribute in 2D
Members – internal Forces properties in Results tree is 0 (zero) as well. The influence of tension force
is not considered for shear reinforcement. That means that attribute Shear effect control 6.2.3(7) is set
to no shear effect is considered possibility in the concrete setup dialog.


49

Reinforcement and LCS directions Member 2D - Internal Forces attributes


Graphical comparison of moment for lower surface for direction 1 (direction of X axis of LCS)

Results, moment mxD- Concrete, moment m1-



Numerical comparison of the moment for both surfaces and directions for elements 1-24 (half of
the 2D member)

Moments Results tree Concrete tree
Case Elem. mxD- myD- mcD- mxD+ myD+ mcD+ m1- m2- mc- m1+ m2+ mc+
LC1 1 0 5,37 -15,73 17,04 8,78 -15,46 0 5,37 -15,73 17,04 8,78 -15,46
LC1 2 15,32 19,72 -34,61 19,29 14,89 -34,61 15,32 19,72 -34,61 19,29 14,89 -34,61
LC1 3 20,37 24,31 -37,97 17,6 13,66 -37,97 20,37 24,31 -37,97 17,6 13,66 -37,97
LC1 4 20,38 25,18 -35,29 14,91 10,11 -35,29 20,38 25,18 -35,29 14,91 10,11 -35,29
LC1 5 18,58 25,07 -31,73 13,16 6,67 -31,73 18,58 25,07 -31,73 13,16 6,67 -31,73
LC1 6 16,58 25,62 -30,36 13,78 4,74 -30,36 16,58 25,62 -30,36 13,78 4,74 -30,36
LC1 7 0 -2,47 -27,44 32,06 9,85 -11,99 0 0 0 32,06 9,85 -11,99
LC1 8 7,47 18,18 -27,91 20,45 9,74 -27,91 7,47 18,18 -27,91 20,45 9,74 -27,91
LC1 9 18,85 27,48 -31,53 12,68 4,05 -31,53 18,85 27,48 -31,53 12,68 4,05 -31,53
LC1 10 21,79 32,58 -29,65 5,42 0 -30,14 21,79 32,58 -29,65 5,42 0 -30,14
LC1 11 20,33 35,78 -26,79 1,07 0 -30,4 20,33 35,78 -26,79 1,07 0 -30,4
LC1 12 16,07 38,62 -25,51 2,98 0 -32,16 16,07 38,62 -25,51 2,98 0 -32,16
LC1 13 0 -5,77 -38,35 41,67 9,81 -7,36 0 0 0 41,67 9,81 -7,36
LC1 14 0 11,56 -17,93 19,42 4,57 -17,63 0 11,56 -17,93 19,42 4,57 -17,63
LC1 15 13,87 24,57 -20,49 3,7 0 -21,66 13,87 24,57 -20,49 3,7 0 -21,66
LC1 16 19,31 32,66 -19,57 -5,33 0 -27,06 19,31 32,66 -19,57 0 0 0
LC1 17 18,47 38,52 -17,79 -6,91 0 -32,3 18,47 38,52 -17,79 0 0 0

50
LC1 18 12,78 43,14 -16,85 -2,31 0 -36,76 12,78 43,14 -16,85 0 0 0
LC1 19 0 -7,29 -44,11 45,31 8,56 -2,47 0 0 0 45,31 8,56 -2,47
LC1 20 0 4,7 -13,69 15,23 0 -6,25 0 4,7 -13,69 15,23 0 -6,25
LC1 21 7,2 18,76 -7,07 -2,85 0 -16,04 7,2 18,76 -7,07 0 0 0
LC1 22 14,1 28,37 -6,82 -10,23 0 -25,43 14,1 28,37 -6,82 0 0 0
LC1 23 13,95 35,89 -6,22 -10,54 0 -33,08 13,95 35,89 -6,22 0 0 0
LC1 24 7,78 41,62 -5,87 -4,62 0 -38,9 7,78 41,62 -5,87 0 0 0


It is obvious from the table that design forces are identical in both trees.

3.2.2.2.2.2 Two perpendicular reinforcement directions, identical with X and Y
axes of LCS, shear effect considered
The same settings as in the previous chapter will be used here with one exception. The
influence of the tension force is considered for shear reinforcement. That means that attribute Shear
effect control 6.2.3(7) is set to shear effect considered unconditionally possibility in the concrete
setup dialog.
Graphical comparison of moment for lower surface for direction 1 (direction of X axis of LCS)

Results, moment mxD- Concrete, moment m1-


Numerical comparison of moment for both surfaces and directions for elements 1-24 (half of the
2D member)

Moments Results tree Concrete tree
Case Elem. mxD- myD- mcD- mxD+ myD+ mcD+ m1- m2- mc- m1+ m2+ mc+
LC1 1 0 5,37 -15,73 17,04 8,78 -15,46 1,14 12,19 -19,1 16,11 10,66 -11,83
LC1 2 15,32 19,72 -34,61 19,29 14,89 -34,61 16,36 19,66 -34,49 20,44 14,96 -34,73
LC1 3 20,37 24,31 -37,97 17,6 13,66 -37,97 20,01 25,22 -36,8 18,42 15,74 -39,14
LC1 4 20,38 25,18 -35,29 14,91 10,11 -35,29 20,09 27,35 -34,63 15,29 12,94 -35,95
LC1 5 18,58 25,07 -31,73 13,16 6,67 -31,73 18,47 27,86 -31,52 13,27 9,68 -31,95
LC1 6 16,58 25,62 -30,36 13,78 4,74 -30,36 16,7 31,28 -30,59 13,66 10,15 -30,12
LC1 7 0 -2,47 -27,44 32,06 9,85 -11,99 0 1,36 -25,5 33,34 8,98 -6,64
LC1 8 7,47 18,18 -27,91 20,45 9,74 -27,91 10,84 18,74 -28,88 22,85 9,33 -26,95
LC1 9 18,85 27,48 -31,53 12,68 4,05 -31,53 19,83 27,09 -30,23 14,96 4,95 -32,82
LC1 10 21,79 32,58 -29,65 5,42 0 -30,14 21,52 32,98 -28,07 8,29 0 -31,29
LC1 11 20,33 35,78 -26,79 1,07 0 -30,4 20,08 37,19 -26,18 2,19 0 -29,74
LC1 12 16,07 38,62 -25,51 2,98 0 -32,16 16,42 42,86 -26,16 3,76 0 -28,99
LC1 13 0 -5,77 -38,35 41,67 9,81 -7,36 0 0 0 45,64 8,54 -3,65
LC1 14 0 11,56 -17,93 19,42 4,57 -17,63 2,78 13,57 -18,56 23,08 4,16 -16,69

51
LC1 15 13,87 24,57 -20,49 3,7 0 -21,66 16,19 24,35 -20 6,64 0 -22
LC1 16 19,31 32,66 -19,57 -5,33 0 -27,06 19,92 32,35 -18,31 0 0 0
LC1 17 18,47 38,52 -17,79 -6,91 0 -32,3 18,27 38,92 -16,98 0 0 0
LC1 18 12,78 43,14 -16,85 -2,31 0 -36,76 13,31 45,87 -17,74 0 0 0
LC1 19 0 -7,29 -44,11 45,31 8,56 -2,47 0 0 0 51,31 7,98 -1,19
LC1 20 0 4,7 -13,69 15,23 0 -6,25 0 5,24 -9,48 19,71 0 -5,98
LC1 21 7,2 18,76 -7,07 -2,85 0 -16,04 10,16 18,7 -6,95 0,18 0 -16,07
LC1 22 14,1 28,37 -6,82 -10,23 0 -25,43 15,52 28,19 -6,4 0 0 0
LC1 23 13,95 35,89 -6,22 -10,54 0 -33,08 14,18 35,77 -5,73 0 0 0
LC1 24 7,78 41,62 -5,87 -4,62 0 -38,9 8,49 42,69 -6,72 0 0 0


It is obvious from the table that the design forces are different in both trees. It is due to the fact
that in Concrete tree the tension force from shear stress is considered. In this case it is necessary to
make check of internal forces only in the Concrete tree.
3.2.2.2.2.3 Two perpendicular reinforcement directions, rotated with 45 degrees
according to the LCS
First direction angle in Member data is set to 45 degrees and Rotation attribute in 2D Members
– internal Forces properties in Results tree is 45 degrees as well. The influence of the tension force is
not considered for shear reinforcement. That means that attribute Shear effect control 6.2.3(7) is set to
no shear effect is considered possibility in the concrete setup dialog.

Reinforcement and LCS directions Member 2D - Internal Forces attributes




52
Graphical comparison of moment for lower surface for direction 1 (direction of X axis of LCS)


Results, moment mxD- Concrete, moment m1-


Numerical comparison of moment for both surfaces and directions for elements 1-24 (half of the
2D member)

Moments Results tree Concrete tree
Case Elem. mxD- myD- mcD- mxD+ myD+ mcD+ m1- m2- mc- m1+ m2+ mc+
LC1 1 0 3,87 -14,23 17,04 1,58 -8,25 0 3,87 -14,23 17,04 1,58 -8,25
LC1 2 0 17,8 -17,37 17,37 0 -17,8 0 17,8 -17,37 17,37 0 -17,8
LC1 3 0 22,59 -15,88 15,8 0 -22,52 0 22,59 -15,88 15,8 0 -22,52
LC1 4 0 23,24 -12,97 12,76 0 -23,03 0 23,24 -12,97 12,76 0 -23,03
LC1 5 0 22,88 -10,97 10,39 0 -22,3 0 22,88 -10,97 10,39 0 -22,3
LC1 6 0 23,31 -11,46 10,23 0 -22,07 0 23,31 -11,46 10,23 0 -22,07
LC1 7 0 -3,08 -26,84 32,06 20,07 -22,21 0 0 0 32,06 20,07 -22,21
LC1 8 0 14,72 -16,99 17,33 0 -15,06 0 14,72 -16,99 17,33 0 -15,06
LC1 9 0 25,39 -10,6 9,17 0 -23,97 0 25,39 -10,6 9,17 0 -23,97
LC1 10 2,92 32,58 -10,79 3,54 0 -28,25 2,92 32,58 -10,79 3,54 0 -28,25
LC1 11 8,99 35,78 -15,45 0,86 0 -30,18 8,99 35,78 -15,45 0,86 0 -30,18
LC1 12 13,11 38,62 -22,55 2,82 0 -31,99 13,11 38,62 -22,55 2,82 0 -31,99
LC1 13 0 -8,52 -35,6 41,67 34,31 -31,86 0 0 0 41,67 34,31 -31,86
LC1 14 0 10,22 -16,59 19,42 1,8 -14,85 0 10,22 -16,59 19,42 1,8 -14,85
LC1 15 4,08 24,57 -10,7 2,76 0 -20,71 4,08 24,57 -10,7 2,76 0 -20,71
LC1 16 13,09 32,66 -13,36 -4,69 0 -27,7 13,09 32,66 -13,36 0 0 0
LC1 17 20,73 38,52 -20,05 -7,18 0 -32,03 20,73 38,52 -20,05 0 0 0
LC1 18 26,29 43,14 -30,36 -2,87 0 -36,2 26,29 43,14 -30,36 0 0 0
LC1 19 0 -11,93 -39,47 45,31 42,84 -36,75 0 0 0 45,31 42,84 -36,75
LC1 20 1,02 7,01 -17,01 15,99 10,01 -17,01 1,02 7,01 -17,01 15,99 10,01 -17,01
LC1 21 11,69 18,76 -11,55 -3,34 0 -15,55 11,69 18,76 -11,55 0 0 0
LC1 22 21,55 28,37 -14,27 -12,02 0 -23,63 21,55 28,37 -14,27 0 0 0
LC1 23 29,67 35,89 -21,95 -13,87 0 -29,75 29,67 35,89 -21,95 0 0 0
LC1 24 35,75 41,62 -33,84 -7,24 0 -36,29 35,75 41,62 -33,84 0 0 0


It is obvious from the table that design forces are identical in both trees. It is due to the fact that
only two perpendicular reinforcement directions are defined and the first reinforcement direction angle

53
is identical with the rotation angle defined in 2D Member – Internal Forces attributes, in Results tree. If
different reinforcement direction angles were defined in 2D Member data for lower and upper surfaces,
then the results in the Results tree would have to be recalculated separately for each surface.
3.2.2.2.2.4 Two non-perpendicular or three reinforcement directions
Three angles of 0, 45 and 90 degrees are defined in Member data. Rotation attribute in 2D
Members – Internal Forces, in Results tree, has 0 (zero) value. The influence of the tension force is
not considered for shear reinforcement. That means that attribute Shear effect control 6.2.3(7) is set to
no shear effect is considered possibility in the concrete setup dialog

Reinforcement and LCS directions Member 2D - Internal Forces attributes


Graphical comparison of moment for lower surface for direction 1 (direction of X axis of LCS)

Results, moment mxD- Concrete, moment m1-



In this case the results will be different in both trees. Results in Result tree can’t be “fixed“ with
LCS rotation or by adjusting Rotation attribute. General transformation would have to be used. In this
case it is necessary to make the check of internal forces only in Concrete tree.
3.2.2.2.3 Determination of design internal forces in Results and Concrete tree
As it was mentioned before, different methods are used for determination of design internal
forces in these two trees. For determination of design values in Results tree, the method described in
literature [2] is used, while the method described in literature [3] is used for the determination of design
values in Concrete tree. Demonstration of this determination will be presented on the same structure
as was used in chapter 3.2.2.2.2.1. It will be done for element number 10 where the moment m1-
(mxD-) has the largest value.



54
3.2.2.2.3.1 Determination of design internal forces in Results tree

Value Conditions and formulas Calculation
mxD-
(1) mxy mx +

if my mx s and mxy mx ÷ >
(2) mxy mx + if my mx > and mxy my ÷ >
(3) 0 if my mx s a mxy mx ÷ <
(4)
my
mxy
mx
2
+ if my mx > and mxy my ÷ <
mx =6,96 kNm < my = 17,75 kNm
mx =6,96 kNm > -|mxy| = -14,83 kNm
my =17.75 kNm > -|mxy| = -14,83 kNm

Condition (1) fulfilled, then:
83 14 95 6 , , ÷ + = + = ÷ mxy mx mxD
mxD- =21,78 kNm
myD-
(1) mxy my + if my mx s and mxy mx ÷ >
(2) mxy my + if my mx > and mxy my ÷ >
(3)
mx
mxy
my
2
+ if my mx s and mxy mx ÷ <
(4) 0 if my mx > and mxy mx ÷ <
mx =6,96 kNm < my = 17,75 kNm
mx =6,96 kNm > -|mxy| = -14,83 kNm
my =17.75 kNm > -|mxy| = -14,83 kNm

Condition (1) fulfilled, then:
83 14 75 17 , , ÷ + = + = ÷ mxy my myD
myD- =32,58 kNm
mcD-
(1) mxy * 2 ÷ if my mx s and mxy mx ÷ >
(2) mxy * 2 ÷ if my mx > and mxy my ÷ >
(3)
mx
mxy
mx
2
÷ if my mx s and mxy mx ÷ <
(4)
my
mxy
my
2
÷ if my mx > and mxy mx ÷ <
mx =6,96 kNm < my = 17,75 kNm
mx =6,96 kNm > -|mxy| = -14,83 kNm
my =17.75 kNm > -|mxy| = -14,83 kNm

Condition (1) fulfilled, then:
83 14 2 2 , ÷ · ÷ = · ÷ = ÷ mxy mcD
mcD- =-29,66 kNm
mxD+
(1) mxy mx + ÷ if my mx s and mxy my s
(2) mxy mx + ÷ if my mx > and mxy mx s
(3)
my
mxy
mx
2
+ ÷ if my mx s and mxy my >
(4) 0 if my mx > and mxy mx >
mx = 6,96 kNm < my = 17,75 kNm
mx = 6,96 kNm < |mxy| = 14,83 kNm
my = 17.75 kNm > |mxy| = 14,83 kNm

Condition (3) fulfilled, then:
( )
75 17
83 14
96 6
2 2
,
,
,
÷
+ ÷ = + ÷ = +
my
mxy
mx mxD
mxD+ = 5,43 kNm
myD+
(1) mxy my + ÷ if my mx s and mxy my s
(2) mxy my + ÷ if my mx > and mxy mx s
(3) 0 if my mx s and mxy my >
(4)
mx
mxy
my
2
+ ÷ if my mx > and mxy mx >
mx =6,96 kNm < my = 17,75 kNm
mx =6,96 kNm > -|mxy| = -14,83 kNm
my =17.75 kNm > -|mxy| = -14,83 kNm

Condition (3) fulfilled, then:
myD+ =0 kNm
mcD+
(1) mxy * 2 ÷ if my mx s and mxy my s
(2) mxy * 2 ÷ if my mx > and mxy mx s
(3)
my
mxy
my
2
÷ ÷ if my mx s and mxy my >
(4)
mx
mxy
mx
2
÷ ÷ if my mx > and mxy mx >
mx =6,96 kNm < my = 17,75 kNm
mx =6,96 kNm > -|mxy| = -14,83 kNm
my =17.75 kNm > -|mxy| = -14,83 kNm

Condition (3) fulfilled, then:
( )
75 17
83 14
75 17
2 2
,
,
,
÷
÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ = +
my
mxy
my mcD
mcD+ = 30,14 kNm



55
3.2.2.2.3.2 Determination of design internal forces in Concrete tree
According to this method the basic internal forces and their directions must be determined first.
In Scia Engineer these magnitudes are presented in Results in 2D Members – Inner forces item, if the
type of the value is set to Basic magnitudes possibility.

Value Formulas Calculation
z
Determination of effective height and lever arm.
z = 0,9d
d
lo
= d
up
= 200-45 = 155mm
z = 0,9·d = 0,9·155=
= 139,5mm
n
x,lo(up)

n
y,lo(up)
n
xy,lo(up)



Determination of normal forces for lower and upper
surface in LCS
n
x.up
= -49,89kN
n
y.up
= -127,24kN
n
xy.up
= 106,38kN
n
x.lo
= 49,89kN
n
y.lo
= 127,24kN
n
xy.lo
= -106,38kN
n
1,lo(up)
n
2,lo(up)



Determination of principal forces for lower surface n
1,lo
= 201,7 kN
n
2,lo
= -24,55 kN
n
1,up
= 24,55 kN
n
2,up
= -201,37 kN
α
,lo(up)

Determination of principal forces directions α
lo
= -55 deg
α
up
= 35 deg
α
lc,lo(up)

Determination of compression strut angle in concrete. The
angle of compression strut is optimised to allow for the
smallest force in compression strut.
α
lc,lo
= 45deg
α
lc,up
= 129deg
α
j,lo(up)

Determination of angle between the reinforcement
direction and the direction of principal forces.
α
1,lo
= α
r1,lo
- α
lo
α
2,lo
= α
r2,lo
- α
lo
α
3,lo
= α
rc,lo
- α
lo


α
1,lo
= 0 - (-55) = 55deg

α
2,lo
= 90 - (-55) = 145deg
α
3,lo
= 45 - (-55) = 100deg
α
1,up
= 0 - 35 = -35deg

α
2,up
= 90 - 35 = 55deg
α
3,up
= 129 - 35 = 94deg

n
j,-(+)

Determination of design forces in reinforcement’s
direction, i.e. in direction of compression strut. Baumann
transformation formula, adjusted for two reinforcement
directions, is used.

n
1-
=
n
1,Io
∙ sino
2,Io
∙ sino
3,Io
+n
2,Io
∙ cos o
2,Io
∙ cos o
3,Io
sin(o
2,Io
-o
1,Io
) ∙ sin(o
3,Io
-o
1,Io
)


n
1-
=156,2 kN
n
2-
=233,5 kN
n
c-
=-212,6 kN
n
1+
=39 kN
n
2+
=-0,09 kN
n
c+
=-216,03 kN

56
n
2-
=
n
1,Io
∙ sino
3,Io
∙ sino
1,Io
+n
2,Io
∙ cos o
3,Io
∙ cos o
1,Io
sin(o
3,Io
-o
2,Io
) ∙ sin(o
1,Io
-o
2,Io
)


n
c-
=
n
1,Io
∙ sino
1,Io
∙ sino
2,Io
+n
2,Io
∙ cos o
1,Io
∙ cos o
2,Io
sin(o
1,Io
-o
3,Io
) ∙ sin(o
2,Io
-o
3,Io
)


m
j,-(+)

While type of the structure is set to Plate, design forces
will be transformed into moments by formula

m =n·z


m
1-
= 21,79 kNm
m
2-
= 32,58 kNm
m
c-
=-29,66 kN
m
1+
= 5,44 kNm
m
2+
= -0,014 kNm
m
c+
=-30,14 kN



 Note
Formulas in the tables are usually named for lower surface only, but the same formulas with
changed indexes stands good for the upper surface.
3.2.2.2.4 Determination of design internal forces for General XYZ structure
Normal forces in reinforcement and compression strut directions for both surfaces are presented
when structure type is set to General XYZ possibility. Sometimes, for further checks, it is necessary to
replace these normal forces with the effect of moment and normal force which are located in the
centre of gravity of the member. If reinforcement directions for both surfaces are identical, then it is
possible to determine these effect using the formulas bellow.

m
j
=(d
j-
– 0,5h)·n
j-
+ (0,5h - d
j+
)·n
j+

n
j
=n
j-
+ n
j+


Where j stands for reinforcement direction
d
j-(+)
stands for effective height in j reinforcement direction for lower (-) and upper (+)
surface
n
j-(+)
stands for the values of normal forces in reinforcement direction for lower (-)
and upper (+) surface presented in numerical values

If reinforcement directions for both surfaces are not identical, then the determination is more
difficult, because it is necessary to calculate normal forces for upper surface (n
vj+
) and lower surface
(n
vj-
) separately. Then the calculation uses the formulas bellow.

m
j
-
=(d
j-
– 0,5h)·n
j-
+ (0,5h - d
j+
)·n
vj+
(moment in lower reinforcement direction)

m
j
+
=(0,5h - d
j+
)·n
j+
+ (d
j-
– 0,5h)·n
vj-
(moment in upper reinforcement direction)

n
j
-
=n
j-
+ n
vj+
(force in lower reinforcement direction)

n
j
+
=n
j+
+ n
vj-
(force in upper reinforcement direction)



Recalculation will be done for identical reinforcement directions for both upper and lower
surface and structure from chapter 3.2.2.2.2.1. Only Structure type of this project will be changed from
Plate XY to General XYZ. After the change, these design magnitudes will be displayed in Concrete
tree.


57



Recalculation of normal forces for both surfaces to forces which take place in the centre of the
gravity will be done for mesh element number 10.

Value Formulas Calculation
d
j
Determination of effective height.
d
j
= h- c
j
– 0,5·d
sj
d
1
= d
1-
= d
1+
= 200-35-0,5·10 =
160mm
d
2
= d
2-
= d
2+
= 200-45-0,5·10 =
150mm
m
1
n
1
Determination of normal forces in reinforcement
direction 1 (0 degree).
m
1
=(d
1
– 0,5h)·n
1-
+(0,5h- d
1
)·n
1+
n
1
=n
1+
+ n
1-

n
1+
= 146,5kN/m
n
1-
= 53,1kN/m
m
1
= 5,6kNm/m
n
1
= 199,6kN/m
m
2
n
2

Determination of normal forces in reinforcement
direction 2 (90 degree).
m
2
=(d
2
– 0,5h)·n
2-
+(0,5h- d
2
)·n
2+
n
2
=n
2+
+ n
2-

n
2-
= 219,8kN/m
n
2+
= -19,73kN/m
m
2
= 11,97kNm/m
n
2
= 200,1kN/m

3.2.2.2.5 Determination of inner forces with influence of shear force
As it was mentioned in previous chapters, values of design magnitudes in Concrete tree depend
on whether the influence of tension force from shear is taken into consideration. This influence may be
changed in Concrete setup dialog under Concrete > ULS > Shear > 2D Structures. If this influence is
taken into consideration, then resultant of tension force from shear (value AF
tdj
) is incremented to the
resultant of principal forces. More on this issue can be found in chapter 3.2.2.1.

Again, calculation will be done for structure from chapter 3.2.2.2.2.1 for mesh element number
10, where the design moment m1- (mDx-) reaches its maximum.


Value Formulas Calculation
v
d

Determination of resultant shear force.
:
d
= _:
x
2
+:
¡
2

v
d
= 10,79 kN
|
Determination of resultant shear force direction.
[ = orcton _
:
¡
:
x
]
β = 56,53 deg

58
v
dj,lo(up)

Recalculation of resultant shear force to the principal
forces directions, where 50% will be added to upper
and 50% to lower surface.
:
d1,Io
= u.S ∙ :
d
∙ cos(o
Io
-[)
:
d2,Io
= u,S ∙ :
d
∙ sin(o
Io
-[)
v
d1,lo
= -1.98kN
v
d2,lo
= -5kN
v
d1,up
= 5kN
v
d2,up
= -1,98kN
AF
tdj,lo(up)

Determination of tension force increment from shear.
∆F
td1,Io
= :
d1,Io
∙ cot 0
∆F
td2,Io
= :
d2,Io
∙ cot 0
AF
td1,lo
= -4,95 kN
AF
td2,lo
= 12,55 kN
AF
td1,up
= 12,55 kN
AF
td2,up
= -4,95 kN

n
1,lo(up)
n
2,lo(up)


Principal inner forces with shear increment
n
1,Io
= ∆F
td1,Io
+n
1,Io

n
2,Io
= ∆F
td2,Io
+n
2,Io

For recalculation of principal force is compression strut
angle determined and design values calculated.
n
1,lo
= 199,7 kN
n
2,lo
= -12 kN
n
1,up
= 37,1 kN
n
2,up
= -206,32 kN


 Note
During the calculation of tension force from shear according to the EN 1992-1-1, chapter 6.2.3
(7) condition M
Ed
/z + AF
td
≤ M
Ed,max
/z is being checked.
Resultant shear force is presented directly in Design magnitudes in Concrete tree as vd and
also in Results tree in 2D Members – Internal forces, for attribute type forces set to Principal
magnitudes possibility. It is named as qmax-b.
Resultant shear force angle is presented in Results tree under 2D Members – Internal forces,
for attribute type forces set to Principal magnitudes possibility. It is named as beta. In Concrete tree it
can be found under Member design ULS, for attribute output set to Advanced or Detailed, for Asw
value.
Shear strut inclination (angle u) is displayed in Concrete tree and it can be found under
Member design ULS, for attribute output set to Advanced or Detailed, for Asw value.
3.4.3 ULS
3.4.3.1 Theoretical background
Reinforced concrete 2D structures handled by Scia Engineer (Walls, Plates and Shells) are
usually reinforced by two systems of steel reinforcement nets consisting of 2 or 3 reinforcement
courses situated more or less close to both surfaces of the 2D member. Scia Engineer puts no
principal restrictions upon the absolute position of reinforcement courses within the cross-section, its
axial concrete cover describes the position of each reinforcement course. However, there are relative
restrictions: all concrete covers must fulfil some rules to prevent ambiguousness of the geometric
definition of the design task. These rules are described in the part of the Scia Engineer manual. Yet it
must not be forgotten that there might be other, more complex situations in the cross-section than
symbolised by the figure 1:
o The crossing reinforcement bars of individual layers do not need to touch each other; they
might be placed at larger distances from each other within the cross sections.
o The surfaces of bars are usually corrugated so that there is, as a rule, a greater distance
between two crossing bars than expressed by their characteristic bar diameters.
o Last but not least, in very thick plates, e.g. foundation slabs, two layers or bars bundles in
one layer are used, so that the representative axial distance (of the point of gravity) and the
representative bar diameter itself are two independent quantities and qualities, which must
be defined independently on input in order to carry out reliable analysis.


59


In Walls, being (theoretically) subjected to forces acting in their planes, the (by definition
symmetric) positions of reinforcement nets are of no static interest; however, the cross-section
geometry (concrete covers and bar diameters) is of interest for the Crack Proof algorithm (if
implemented). Thus, the Wall design branch comprises the same cross-section input dialog as the
Plate and Shell models.

In Plates and Shells, on the contrary, the reinforcement covers influence the effective static
height of the reinforcement courses in the cross-section subjected (also) to bending, thus having
fundamental meaning for the design process. The covers are related to the faces. Thus, it is
necessary to distinguish them clearly from each other. Because Plates are (still) the structural type
most frequently used in the practice, Scia Engineer use originally common terms distinguishing the
two faces: upper and lower face. These concepts have to be given mathematically exact meaning,
which makes them acceptable for Shells, too: the lower face is the structural plane edge in direction of
the positive planar axis Zp; the upper face is opposite to it. Finally, the symbol -Zp appears generally
in the output protocol instead of the term upper face; the symbol +Zp symbolises lower face. In Walls,
there is no need of distinguishing both structural edges; nevertheless, out of formal reasons
(simplification), if the concept of upper face appears in connection with Walls it means both faces.

The reinforcement courses are, correspondingly to their relative position in the cross-section,
called the outer(most), middle (if any) and inner(most) ones. This verbal distinguishing is in the
mathematical formulation replaced by assigning them the ordinal numbers 1, 2 and 3 (if three
reinforcement courses are specified). The same double identification may be given to other associated
terms like reinforcement angles, design forces, effective static heights, internal forces levers, etc. So
we can say, e.g., about reinforcement angle α, β, γ meaning the same, when alternately indicating α1,
α2, α3. There is no indication that this ambiguity of terms should cause confusion; as a fact, there is
no ambiguousness for the correspondence of both systems of denotation is clearly defined.

Note that each reinforcement course can hold up to 10 reinforcement layers.

The terms of the reinforcement concrete theory are used in accordance with the general
structural use or they strictly follow the rules postulated by the standards implemented in Scia
Engineer. However, for Scia Engineer deals with several national codes, it is probable that this or that
term or formulation would appear somewhat unfamiliar to some readers focused on the use of one
code branch only. It is hardly possible to create a manual text on such special topic for international
use being in all respects verbally fully conform to every country’s verbal usage. In doubts, the
terminology of Eurocode will be given preference.

The design task and the output of results are performed in basic and derived units of the SI
system.
3.4.3.1.1 Wall Design
Once a positive design force is assigned to its associated reinforcement course, the
corresponding statically required reinforcement amount ai is calculated from the elementary relation:

a
i
= n
i

sd
(i = 1,2 (,3)) [m²/m] (6)

(6) has symbolic meaning only, as we do not want to write down at this stage all the exact
calculation rules for codes implemented in NEDIM (the original development name of the 2D design
module system, used internally by SCIA developers, testers and supporters for quick communication).

60
The symbol σsd stands for the effective design steel strength. Both ni and σsd may be, according to
the actual code, charged with security coefficients. We are not going to discuss the problem of 1D
reinforcement design; the NEDIM algorithm strictly follows special rules stipulated by national codes
and associated Standards, as far as they are applicable to the 2D design.

The virtual stiffening strut of the heterogeneous concrete-steel continuum represents quite a
substantial issue of the design process. While it is possible (unless the upper reinforcement
percentage limit has been exceeded) to improve the bearing capacity of the cross-section on the side
of the reinforcement by augmenting its amount, the bearing limit of the concrete strut is given by the
height of the cross-section and the quality of concrete only; thus its limits are predestined by the input
data. The concrete strut bearing capacity condition is described by the following relation:

–n3 <Ac σ
cd
(9)

In (9) σcd represents the effective concrete design pressure strength and Ac – the concrete
area of reference. In NEDIM it is generally assessed on the base of 80% of the standard design
concrete pressure strength. This reduction follows the recommendation of Schleich and Schäfer in
literature [2] : the compression strength of concrete is unfavourably affected by transversal tension
stresses which produce cracks, parallel to the direction of pressure; this is typically the stress situation
of the stiffening strut. For cracks parallel to the direction of strut, the reduction coefficient kc = 0.80 is
stipulated, which is identical with the NEDIM default, whereas for cracks crossing the strut direction
the value kc = 0.60 is specified! The cross-section area Ac in (9) is for Walls taken as the full unity
rectangular cross-section h × 1.

Once a design pressure force ni, assigned to a reinforcement direction i, is known the
compression reinforcement is calculated acc. to the following general formula:
a
i
= (–n
i
–Ac σ
cd
) / σ
scd
(i = 1,2 (,3)) [cm
2
/m] (10)

In (10) σscd represents the effective design compression strength of reinforcement steel
differently to (6), where σsd denotes the design tension strength; Ac is the gross sectional area.
NEDIM checks if the steel reaches the compression yield strain; if not, σscd reflects the actual strain
level. Some codes (ÖNORM B 4200, CSN/STN 73 1201, GBJ 10-89) stipulate different values of steel
strength in tension and compression. NEDIM follows this idea by enabling different definitions of
tension and compression steel strength to all code branches.

3.4.3.1.2 Plate Design
In the Wall model dealt with in the preceding paragraph, the internal design forces produce
constant stresses all over the cross-section; thus, there is no necessity to examine the stress
distribution within the cross-section. In contrast to the Wall model, for bending in Plates it is a
fundamental characteristic that the stresses are non-linearly and discontinuously distributed over the
cross-section. Since all of the national codes implemented in NEDIM exclude the tensile bearing
capacity of concrete (ULS), the only bearing material in the tension zone (“below” the neutral axis) is
the reinforcement steel. The resistance of concrete is exploited in the compression bending zone only.

Figure 3 shows symbolically one possible equilibrium situation in the reinforcement courses 1
and 2 (Fig. 3a,b) as well as in the concrete stiffening strut, i.e. in virtual course 3 (Fig. 3c). In Fig. 3,
the face subscript is generally omitted, for the discussion is equally valid for both faces. The
distribution of the concrete compressive stress in Fig. 3 is not related to a specific code. However, the
codes implemented introduce different basic notions of the concrete compressive stress distribution.
The assumption of the compressive stress distribution is in affinity to the σ-ε diagram of the concrete
material.

EUROCODE 2 allows for all national code assumptions. Actually, NEDIM keeps to the
parabola-constant concrete compressive stress distribution assumption. EC 2 introduces a new
approach for the shear proof, which explicitly operates with the notion of the virtual (shear) strut. It also
formulates a new approach to the consideration of the interaction (m/n) ⇔ v. In compliance with this
notion, the shear force may cause an increase of the required net reinforcement. This phenomenon
was investigated by the Author of NEDIM and in 1999 it was implemented into the EC 2 design branch
as well as into all other design branches following the same (or similar) approach. For more detail on
this phenomenon, named Shear Effect by the Author of NEDIM, see paragraph Advanced notes on
"Shear Effect".

61

EN 1992-1-1:2004 is the EC 2 amendment of the preliminary European Norm ENV 1992-1-
1:1991. Extensive modifications to the original text have been made in all sections. Especially the
paragraphs on shear proof, crack control and minimum reinforcement control have been expanded
and diversified, e.g. (a) all "reasonable" assumptions of concrete stress-strain diagram are allowed,
namely the three basic cases: pressure block, linear-constant and parabola-constant. For the block
distribution, restrictions to height and stress have been introduced: λx and η fcd ; (b) the
recommended value of the strength reduction coefficient in f
cd
= α
cc
f
ctk,0.005
/ γ
c
is α
cc
= 1.0 (for the EC2
code family is typically α
c
= 0.85); (c) the strength reduction coefficient ν
1
in the formula for the shear
strut resistance v
Rd,max
is more diversified and the coefficient α
cw
of the same formula expresses the
effect of normal stress upon v
Rd,max
on three intensity levels; (d) the crack calculation formula (direct
control) resembles that of DIN 1045-1, however, the crack distance formula depends here on 4
parameters.

In Plate models the statically required tension reinforcement of a design course is calculated by
the basic formula :

a
i
=m
i
/(z
i
σ
s,eff
) (i = 1,2 (,3)) [cm²/m] (11)

In (11) the special moment symbol m
i
for the design moment associated with the reinforcement
course is substituted for the common symbol n
i
for design force in order to avoid confusion. The stress
symbol σs,eff has a quality comparable with that introduced by (6) for Walls; it again represents the
effective design steel strength for all codes.

The internal forces lever z
i
in (11) makes out the formal difference of (6) and (11); factually,
there is no difference between them, since the quotient m
i
/z
i
equals the steel design force Z
i
, which
constitutes with the opposing concrete pressure zone resultant force D
i
the force couple representing
the design bending moment mi; thus, we formally obtain (6) by substituting n
i
= Z
i
=m
i
/z
i
into (11).
(11) reveals the fundamental meaning of the internal forces lever z for the design algorithm. As
a fact, by introducing the transformation formulae (3) for Shells it was made clear enough that the
knowledge of the proper value of inner forces lever is indispensable for correct reinforcement design.
In NEDIM the internal forces lever z is calculated by the following procedures:
o For DIN 1045 and ÖNORM B 4200 interpolation formulae for the value of z were
developed. The maximum approximation error amounts up to 2%, however.
o For all other codes (following the first two on the time scale) analytic integration
procedures for the basic assumptions of stress block, linear-constant and parabola
constant stress function were devised; they yield exact pressure integrals.

The stiffening function of the concrete medium is not as transparent in Plates as in Walls. In
Plates we have to do with force couples representing inner bending moments. The concrete pressure
stresses are not constantly distributed over the cross-section. Thus, a direct application of the
concrete strut bearing capacity limit condition (9) is not possible in Plates. NEDIM had used some
approximate approaches until the best and perhaps most simply formulation of the strut bearing
capacity limit was found. Instead of describing the strut control by mathematical terms, a verbal
explanation of the matter relating to Fig. 3c and Fig. 3d is preferred :
o In Plates the strut design force n3 means the force couple of m
3
. From Fig. 3c it is obvious
that m3 causes basically the same kind of stresses in its direction as the other two reinforcement
design moments m
1
and m
2
, however, with exchanged faces (i.e. m
3
is of opposite sign). In this case
we are not interested in analysing the situation on the opposite face; the state of stress in the stiffening
strut bending pressure zone is of interest. What is the limit condition of the strut bearing capacity?
What calculation value of stress integral force D
3
is to be taken into account?
o The answer to this fundamental question is given by Fig. 3d : NEDIM allows for the
maximum height of the bending pressure zone x
max
in compliance with the design algorithm applied. If
at this state of stress the equilibrium in the cross-section is not yet attained, i.e. would strengthening of
the pressure zone by (pressure) reinforcement be formally required, then this is considered by NEDIM
as an unambiguous indication of the bearing capacity of the stiffening strut being exceeded. The
cross-section is non-designable due to concrete failure.

Till the middle of 2007 it had not been known to the Author of NEDIM that any competing
software would deal with this problem at all. Neither codes nor theoretical publications on reinforced

62
concrete design care about the state of concrete in a heterogeneous concrete-steel 2D medium.
Some codes give “standardized” recommendations as to the geometrical arrangement of
reinforcement in reference to the directions of the principal moments. They are concerned with stress
situations which are typical for corners of floor slabs etc.




Figure 3 Equilibrium of design internal forces in a Plate cross-section : (a) reinforcement
course 1; (b) reinforcement course 2; (c) concrete stiffening strut – course 3; (d) strain situation in the
stiffening strut (bearing ability proof).
3.4.3.1.3 Shell Design
In the design of Shells, the ideas and procedures of both the design of Walls and the design of
Plates are combined. The code requirements and restrictions, which seldom are formulated
individually for Shells, must both be considered both for Walls and Plates. Thus, the Shell design is
the most complex design model dealt with by NEDIM.

From the mechanical point of view, the stress-strain situation in cross-sections of Shells may
develop from a typical "Wall pattern" with constant stress distribution to a "Plate pattern" with
characteristic non-linear concrete pressure stress distribution over the bending pressure zone along
with a cracked region "below" the neutral axis where there the reinforcement resists the stresses from
inner forces. The special situation depends, however, on the character of external load as well as on
the boundary conditions of the analysis model.

NEDIM has to manage all possible stress situations arising between the Wall type and the Plate
type state of stress using one unique design model to be able to produce results consistent also with
quantitatively slowly yet qualitatively abruptly changing states of stress. It would be unacceptable to
have a Shell design model which, on one side, yields results fully identical with a Plate solution when
there is pure bending acting, i.e. the membrane forces being zero, yet produces, on the other side,
obviously distorted results whenever the membrane forces differ slightly from zero. Little change in
loading must imply little change in the reinforcement design results.

As a fact, all codes were drafted focusing to the problems of 1D structural members, i.e. beams
and columns. In NEDIM, many requirements and restrictions had to be given a reasonable
engineering interpretation or extrapolation to fit to the special character of the 2D structures. The
reinforcement at both faces consists of two mutually independent meshes with 2 or 3 reinforcement
courses in generally different directions. Thus, in Shells it is not possible to proceed by simply using
the solutions of the reinforcement concrete design of beams.

NEDIM creates two sets of transformed design forces assigned to individual reinforcement
courses and/or the stiffening concrete strut at both faces of the analysis model. The procedure goes
acc. to the formulae (4). In the assessment of the inner forces lever z the Shell design procedure
resembles the Plate design. By creating equivalent inner forces {n
x
, n
y
, n
xy
}±Zp and their transforms
{n
1d
, n
2d
, n
3d
} NEDIM follows a typical Wall design approach. Formally, we get two systems of design
situations at both Shell faces which must be managed in two algorithmic steps in every cross-section
by considering the situation on the other face. In this sense, the Shell design is organized like the
Plate design.


63
Fig. 4c symbolizes the Shell design : there is a design force n
d
(subscript i = 1,2,3 is omitted)
assigned to a reinforcement course at the upper face (the same procedure applies to the lower face).
The symbol n
d,opp
is used for the virtual design force at the opposite face acting in the same direction
as at the actual face; it is unimportant if there is a congruent reinforcement course parallel to that at
the actual face or not. The normal force in this cross-section is in Fig. 4c denoted as n
virt
(virtual
normal force). The virtual bending moment m
virt
is defined complementary to n
virt
. Thus, the virtual
normal force eccentricity (24
1
), (24
2
) can be estimated.

Fig. 4c demonstrates also the fact that the design at a Shell face is typically Wall design;
however, the design force nd is not applied to the total cross-section area as in Walls (Fig. 4a), yet to
some portion of it : A
c,eff
= h
eff
× 1.0. NEDIM assigns Ac,eff basically in accordance with the
suggestions of Baumann.



Fig. 4 Comparison of design situations in three NEDIM design models : (a) Wall : total
cross-section under tension/compression design force n
d
; (b) Plate : design bending moment md
acting over the effective height d; (c) Shell : combined action of bending moments/membrane forces
expressed by nd : design normal force at active face; nd,opp : design normal force at passive face;
nvirt : total virtual normal force in cross-section; mvirt : virtual bending moment conjugated with nvirt
In the area assignment formula

A
c,eff
= k
A
Ac (12)

the value of the coefficient k
A
varies in the range [0.35, 0.42] in stress situations with neutral
axis within the cross-section. Principally, this approach may be compared with the approximation of
the stress distribution in the bending pressure zone by the pressure block (see above). Recent
theoretical and algorithmic enhancements of NEDIM made it possible to distinguish efficiently between
bending-like and membrane-like stress situations in Shells, thus enabling to apply the full cross-
section, i.e. k
A
= 0.50, to the virtual strut proof when the strut cross-section is over-pressed.

The proof of the virtual strut resistance is formally governed by (9), like for Walls. However,
instead of the total cross-section area A
c
, the effective one-face area A
c,eff
(12) is to substitute into (9).

 Note
For more information about this chapter see literature [3], where more detailed description may
be found.
3.4.3.2 2D Structures detailing
Sometime amount of statically required reinforcement is not determining for finally designed
reinforcement and different check come in place. These checks may be switched off/on or adjusted in
the concrete setup dialog in Detailing provisions chapter and under Calculation chapter.


64


Minimum transverse reinforcement
Minimal amount of transverse reinforcement, determined as a percentage of the main
reinforcement. This check has two options.
o Inactive reinforcement excluded (amount of transverse reinforcement is calculated only
from statically required reinforcement)
o Inactive reinforcement included (amount of transverse reinforcement is calculated from all
the reinforcement)

Default value = 20%.

Minimum constructive reinforcement
Minimum percentage of longitudinal reinforcement, unconditionally. Default value = 0%.

Minimum pressure reinforcement
Minimal part of concrete cross-section that should act as compression reinforcement. Default
value = 0%.

Maximum percentage in bending pressure zone
Plates only. Definition of the maximum percentage of reinforcement in the bending compression
zone related to the concrete compressive force. Default value = 50%.


Min tension reinforcement at face +Zp
Shells and Plates only. Minimum percentage of tension reinforcement at the surface with
positive Z co-ordinate (in the local coordinate system of the 2D member). This check has two
options.
o Automatic calculation of minimal tension reinforcement (evaluated with equation to 9.1N)

65
o Min. tension reinforcement percentage (direct percentage of area of concrete cross-
section, new input option Min. tension reinf. Appears, when his option is selected).
Default value = 1%.

Min tension reinforcement at face -Zp
Minimum percentage of tension reinforcement at the surface with negative Z coordinate (in the
local coordinate system of the 2D member), or at each of the Wall faces. This check has two
options.
o Automatic calculation of minimal tension reinforcement (evaluated with equation to 9.1N)
o Min. tension reinforcement percentage (direct percentage of area of concrete cross-
section, new input option Min. tension reinf. Appears, when his option is selected).
Default value = 1%.

Max degree of reinforcement
Maximal part of concrete cross-section that should act as reinforcement. Default value = 4%.

Min shear reinforcement
Minimal part of concrete cross-section that should act as shear reinforcement. Default value =
0%.

Minimal bar distance
Displays and determines minimal bar distance. Default value = 0,05m.

Maximal bar distance
Displays and determines maximal bar distance. Default value = 0,2m.


There are two more reinforcement amount checks. They are located under Concrete > General
> Calculation > 2D structures.




Req,shear reinforcement > c–s height >= 20cm
A 2D member is provided with shear reinforcement only if the thickness of the member is higher
than 200mm. If it is less, then the shear reinforcement will not be designed and calculation
finishes with error message. (EN 1992-1-1:2004, §9.3.2(1))

Structural reinforcement of deep beams
If the check is active, then construction reinforcement for deep beams will be taken into
account. (EN 1992-1-1:2004, §9.7.1)

66
3.4.3.3 Reinforcement design workflow
We can demonstrate the basic possible workflow for reinforcement design on example similar to
the previously used for demonstrating internal forces. It is a concrete plate defined in XY project,
supported according to the picture. It is made from concrete C25/30 and is 200 mm thick. It is loaded
with self weigh in LC 1 and with constant surface load of 10KN/m
2
in LC2. Results will be described on
combinations which contain both previous load cases.




The reinforcement design will be shown only for lower reinforcement in the direction of the y
axis of the member LCS, where we expect more amount of reinforcement. We need also redefine
design defaults settings, where the reinforcement 1 direction is identical with the X axis of the member
LCS. This will be done by defining member data and setting Layer angle parameter for first direction to
90 degrees. This layer will be now closer to the surface and will decrease the amount of designed
reinforcement little bit. We could change the reinforcement direction also by adjusting the first direction
angle and rotating the whole reinforcement system.



On the picture below there is magnitude of m1-, which will be determining for the reinforcement
design. We will use location In nodes, avg. on macro and isobands will be used for presentation.


67



Now we are ready to run ULS reinforcement design by adjusting ULS service properties and
pressing Refresh action button. After this dialog with a progress bar will appear and then final
message with conclusion of the design will be displayed. After confirmation of this dialog, the results
will be displayed.



For better orientation in the design process, all types of reinforcement will be shown in the table
below.


68

Required reinforcement User reinforcement
Additional reinforcement Total reinforcement
As we can see, no user reinforcement is defined yet. Therefore amounts of required, additional
and total reinforcement are equal.

We can also check the design values in preview window. The user may switch to brief, detailed
or advanced mode, as we did in this example. We can see that maximal amount of reinforcement for
lower surface and direction 1 is designed to 1295mm
2
/m.



Now the user has to decide how he wants to reinforce the designed member. Whether he wants
to define each reinforcement layer manually or if he wants to use automatic definition of reinforcement
from concrete member data. The second possibility is much common and more useful, so we will
show this one. The user has to activate User reinforcement check box in the concrete data first. This
will enable him to define Basic distance of bars.


69



After this, the amount of user reinforcement is determined directly from concrete member data
and the user may simply adjust it by changing appropriate parameters (diameter, basic distance).
Default values are loaded from Concrete setup dialog, which might be changed in Design defaults.
Let’s see the differences in designed amounts of reinforcement just after activating the user
reinforcement check box.


Required reinforcement User reinforcement


70
Additional reinforcement Total reinforcement





Now the user reinforcement has non-zero values and accordingly to this change, amount of
designed additional reinforcement has been changed too. However the reinforcement amount defined
is not sufficient enough, so we have to adjust the concrete data to fulfil the requirements. Before this
we can check the preview window for more information.

It is clear from here, that additional amount of 902mm
2
/m has to be added to fulfil the required
amount. Let’s redefine the reinforcement diameter to 12mm and basic distance to 100mm. Now we
get these results.

Required reinforcement User reinforcement


71
Additional reinforcement Total reinforcement





From this results we can see that the defined reinforcement is sufficient on mostly whole 2D
member area. However there is requirement for additional 174 mm
2
/m of reinforcement on the right
side of the designed member. We don’t want to define more reinforcement for whole member area
and we will handle this requirement afterwards, by creating a separate reinforcement polygon.

We can now proceed to creating practical reinforcement from user reinforcement. We have the
User reinforcement check box active, so we can simply double click the Reinforcement 2D item in the
concrete tree. The dialog below will be displayed and a new practical reinforcement will be created
from the user reinforcement previously defined by concrete 2D data.



After confirmation of this dialog, practical reinforcement is created and input into 2D member.
Now we will also define additional reinforcement to cover the requirement on the right side of the
member. Let’s double click the 2D Reinforcement again and define it.


72



The designed 2D member has now two reinforcement polygons defined for lower surface and
direction 1. One is on the whole 2D member and the second one is only on the mentioned right side.
See picture below.




73

Required reinforcement User reinforcement
Additional reinforcement Total reinforcement





At this time we have fulfilled the requirements for direction 1 at the lower surface. No additional
reinforcement is needed. The upper surface and other directions might be handled in a similar way we
have shown here.
3.4.4 ULS+SLS
3.4.4.1 Theoretical background
The most important serviceability proof is the Crack Proof. As first implementation in NEDIM the
crack proof was introduced in 1997.

74
The contemporary theories of crack development in a concrete-steel compound medium have
become very complex. Practical engineers, confronted with a plenitude of contradictory ideas and
formulae, may feel doubts on the reliability of such calculations. However, it should be understand that
all crack theories have probabilistic a nature. They try more or less successfully to give analytical
explanation to empirical data of the crack behaviour of real structures. In 2D structures even the
fundamental question, in what direction the main (first) cracks arise, has not been decided uniquely:
o perpendicular to the direction of 1
st
principal forces n
I
or m
I
(Fig. 13a,b)
o perpendicular to the reinforcement courses (Fig. 13c)
o parallel to the virtual stiffening concrete strut
o erratic (combined) crack patterns etc. This assumption comes, no doubt, most closely to
the reality; on the other hand, it is obviously least productive in stimulating efficient,
simply crack control methods.

The NEDIM crack proof algorithm follows formally the assumption of Fig. 13c. However, it
appears contradictory to the Baumann transformation theory, which prefers the assumption of crack
parallel to the virtual stiffening concrete strut. Nevertheless, the NEDIM approach to the crack proof
may be defended by following considerations:
o The design forces n
dim
, assigned to the reinforcement courses, attain, as a rule, values
comparable with the governing principal forces n
I,II
(m
I,II
), since the strut force n
3d
is negative (n
3d

denotes, strictly speaking, the strut force in 2-course nets; as a fact, in 3-course reinforcement nets
the strut force need not to be assigned the subscript ‘3’). Only in three-course nets the relation max
|n
d
| < n
I,II
may become true under elliptic states of stress. However, such states of stress are the less
critical for the cross-section resistance, and the cracks may the more tend to erratic patterns
distributed over all three courses.
o The NEDIM crack proof algorithm is able, as will be demonstrated below, to distinguish
qualitatively between different states of stress of the structure. Thus the formal “linearization” of the
crack proof process does not ignore the 2D character of the reinforcement concrete medium.
o All codes stipulate crack control formulae primarily for a 1D state of stress. The NEDIM
calculation assumption of cracks developing perpendicular to reinforcement courses enables to
organise the crack proof in quasi 1D steps running over individual reinforcement courses, in the same
manner like with the ULS design.


75



Figure 13 Assumptions about crack propagation in 2D continuum : (a) Cracks perpendicular to
the direction of principal tension (trajectory reinforcement); (b) Cracks perpendicular to the direction of
principal tension, yet non-perpendicular to reinforcement courses; (c) Cracks perpendicular to
reinforcement courses

The basic Problem of the 2D crack proof is obvious from the only formula dedicated by the
Norms of the Eurocode family, here exemplary EN 1992-1-1:2004, formula (7.15)), to 2D structures:

s
r,max
= 1 / {cos φ/ s
r,max,1
+ sin φ/ s
r,max,2
} [mm] (27
1
)


76
In (27
1
) the symbols s
r,max
denote the maximum allowable or calculated, respectively, crack
distances, which play a distinguished role in most code proof theories (besides the crack width wmax).
The indices 1, 2 in (27
1
) refer to 1
st
and 2
nd
reinforcement course, here assuming orthogonality.

Formula (271) and the following discussion refers to Fig. 13a,b. It relates the crack distances
sr,max,1 und sr,max,2 to the direction of principal tension. The relation is, however, contradictory,
what is obvious from Fig. 13b : the principal direction divides symmetrically the right angle between
the reinforcement directions 1 and 2, i.e. φ = 45°. From (27
1
) follows thus s
r,max
= s
r,1
/ √2 ≈ 0,707 s
r,1
(where s
r,1
≡ s
r,max,1
= s
r,max,2
).

The announced contradiction consists in the fact that this most ineffective reinforcement
geometry, which causes about 200% of required as in ULS compared with the corresponding
trajectory reinforcement is assigned a significantly lower design crack distance s
r,max
(about 71%). This
conclusion is unacceptable, obviously defective.

Thus, the NEDIM approach, as symbolized by Fig. 13c, proves, also from this point of view, to
be the most realistic in a 2D reinforced concrete continuum.

The proof methods are based on similar assumptions of crack propagation mechanism:
o High tension stress in a reinforcement bar causes high steel strain. The adhesion between
concrete and the reinforcement bar is disturbed, and cracks arise in the concrete continuum. The
higher is the ratio of steel stress and the adhesion resistance, the wider become the cracks along the
reinforcement bar. Thus, the higher the representative reinforcement diameter ϕ, the higher the ratio of
the steel stress and the adhesion resistance, since the cross-section area of a bar grows with the
square of ϕ whereas the surface of (unit length) of bar depends linearly on ϕ.
o Cracks arise not only close to the reinforcement bars yet merely between them. Thus, the
transversal distance s of reinforcement bars may also become a crucial factor of the cracks width
development. However, some codes, like ÖNORM B 4700, do not introduce the distance s as
independent factor of the crack proof at all.

To limit or reduce, respectively, crack widths (as a fact, not the number of cracks but the
representative crack width is of interest for the crack proof) the following measures have to be taken:

o Specification of as small reinforcement diameters ϕ as possible.
o Reduction of the representative (transversal) reinforcement bar distance s. However,
there is a dependence between ϕ and s : with given ϕ and provided a
s
, s is determined by

s = 0.25 × π × ϕ ² / a
s
[mm] (27
2
)

o Augmenting the statically required reinforcement amount. Due to this provision the steel
stress in the serviceability state is lowered, thus the crack widths are reduced as direct
consequence. This steel amount control (augmenting of reinforcement amount from the
ULS design) is the basic concern of the NEDIM crack proof algorithm.

Practically, NEDIM follows a two-step thread : (a) ULS design, yielding statically required
reinforcement amount; (b) SLS design, referring to the characteristic bar diameter ϕ
k
and/or a
characteristic bar distance s
k
as specified by the user on input. NEDIM carries out the crack proof
according to the code proof approach and increases the statically required reinforcement amount
where it is needed to meet completely the crack proof requirements.

NEDIM, however, allows for merging of load cases for the ultimate and serviceability states
within a calculation process in order to enable the crack proof procedure outlined above. In the
following paragraphs it is shown that different attributes may be assigned to the load cases, in
accordance with the individual stipulations of the codes.

In Chapter Program Theory and Algorithm in literature [1] the notion of the virtual cross-section
design force n
virt
was introduced. The effect of this algorithmic enhancement is, along with that
discussed with the shear proof and the minimum compression reinforcement, a consistent description
of the state of stress in the cross-section, especially in case of non-congruent reinforcement at both
faces. Since most codes consider the stress distribution pattern (bending ↔ centric tension) as

77
important a factor of the crack development, the knowledge of nvirt is indispensable to reliable crack
proof design. Upon the analysis types dealt with by NEDIM it has the following impact:
o Walls : the general inner forces vector (3) degenerates to

{ n
x
, n
y
, n
xy
} (28
1
)

There is no use of n
virt
, since n
virt
≡n
d
in this model. All design forces are membrane forces with
zero eccentricity, causing either tension or pressure in the cross-section.
o Plates : the general inner forces vector (3) degenerates to

{ m
x
, m
y
, m
xy
, v
x
, v
y
} (28
2
)

Thus, instead of the design forces n
d
, design moments m
d
and shear force v
d
are active in Plate
design. There is effectively no (virtual) normal force n
virt
in pure flexural members, even if hyperbolic
cases suggest that such an interpretation of the rather complicated type of stress state may be
discussible: both reinforcement courses at upper/lower face appear to be under tension, thus the
conclusion seems to be justified that there is a normal force action upon the cross-section. However,
in such hyperbolic cases, the prevailing stress is shear, not tension, and that also the reinforcement is,
effectively, subject to shear rather than to tension; the representative stress pattern in the design
section is thus the shear stress triangle. As a fact, it was made an attempt in NEDIM to deal with such
states of stress as with “prevailing tension”. This had, however, serious consequences to the crack
and shear proof results unacceptable crack reinforcement increments to statically required
reinforcement were casually obtained.
o Shells : the general inner forces vector (3) applies to Shell design, rewritten here :

{ m
x
, m
y
, m
xy
, v
x
, v
y
, n
x
, n
y
, n
xy
} (28
3
)

Although the two-step reinforcement design (running separately for both faces) assigns a half
cross-section to each reinforcement course, the crack proof must take into consideration the total
cross-section, even if there is no congruent reinforcement at opposite (actually inactive) face. The
information needed is delivered by the virtual normal force n
virt
and the complementary virtual bending
moment m
virt
.

All possible states of stress have to be correctly interpreted and managed by the NEDIM crack
proof algorithm. As symbolized by Fig. 14, for the crack proof procedure it is not enough to determine
tensile stresses at the actual face, yet also the stress pattern over the cross-section is of eminent
importance; especially, the s. c. “disconnection cracks” are of interest.


Figure 14 Typical stress patterns considered by NEDIM’s crack proof procedure : (a) bending
crack – neutral axis within cross-section; (b) disconnection crack due to tension force with low
eccentricity; (c) over-pressed cross-section – no crack proof

According to the basic notion of EC 2 [9], §4.4.2 two possible crack proof strategies are at
choice :

78
o §4.4.2.3 : crack limiting without direct calculation. This method is almost identical to the
elementary crack limiting method stipulated by DIN 1045 [5]. By meeting the
requirements of §4.4.2.3 the mean crack width will be limited to the value w
k
= 0.30 [mm].

o §4.4.2.4 : method of calculating mean crack width w
k
by formula (4.80) :

w
k
= β s
rm
ε
sm
(30)

with w
k
– calculation value of the crack width; β – security factor distinguishing force induced
cracks (β = 1.7) and cracks induced by imposed deformations (β = 1.3); s
rm
– mean crack distance in
case of fully developed crack pattern; ε
sm
– mean steel strain, considering tension stiffening between
the cracks. Formula (30) represents a sophisticated procedure taking several factors into account. The
procedure by Heft 400 [23] as enhancement of the DIN 1045 [5] crack proof is almost identical to that
described by formula (30) of EC 2.

The enhanced procedure acc. to formula (30) enables to control the mean crack width w
k
in the
structure by varying bar diameter ϕ or bar distance s. However, the NEDIM procedure, with given input
values of ϕ
inp
or s
inp
, is aimed at controlling the statically required reinforcement a
s,ULS
: if required by
crack proof, a
s,ULS
is augmented in order to lower the steel stress σ
s
, which is the crucial factor
affecting the value of mean strain ε
sm
in (30). This procedure is called crack reduction, since generally
cracks w
k
< 0.30 [mm] are aspired to.

NEDIM controls the crack proof procedure of the EC 2 branch by distinguishing four different
load case attributes acc. to the same principles as described in the paragraph on the DIN 1045 7/88
branch.

 Note
For more information about this chapter see literature [3], where more detailed description may
be found.
3.4.4.2 Limit bar distances
ULS+SLS design is also affected by the reinforcement amount checks mentioned in
chapter 3.4.3.2. But here, another two checks are to be introduced. They are located under
Limit bar distances chapter.




Limit bar distance on face Zp+
Maximal allowable distance between reinforcement bars at the surface with positive Z co-
ordinate (in the local co-ordinate system of the 2D member). Default value = 200mm.

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Limit bar distance on face Zp-
Maximal allowable distance between reinforcement bars at the surface with negative Z co-
ordinate (in the local co-ordinate system of the 2D member). Default value = 200mm.
3.4.4.3 Reinforcement design workflow
To describe the basic workflow, we can use the structure already used in ULS design
3.4.3.3 chapter and continue with it. We will also focus only on the lower surface and direction
1. At the end of ULS design, two reinforcement regions are defined on the 2D member. See the
picture below for recapitulation.




Now we will run the ULS+SLS reinforcement design for lower surface and direction 1 with
the settings below. Location will be set to In nodes, avg. on macro possibility again. Previously
created reinforcement for ULS design will take effect here as well.





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Required reinforcement User reinforcement
Additional reinforcement Total reinforcement


As we can see in the pictures above, the required reinforcement is a little bit larger than
reinforcement provided for ULS design. It is clear that additional 165mm
2
/m has to be defined and
reinforcement polygon has to be enhanced, in order to ensure that cracks at the lower surface in
direction 1 will not be larger than 0.2mm (for the XC3 exposure class). We can delete the
reinforcement and create a new one which will be sufficient for both ULS and ULS+SLS design, but
we will adjust already defined practical reinforcement to fulfil the ULS+SLS design requirements. The
changes may be checked at the


81



Then if we run the reinforcement amount design of the 2D member, we will get these results.

Required reinforcement User reinforcement



82
Additional reinforcement Total reinforcement



Now we have successfully fulfilled the requirements for both ULS and ULS+SLS design and no
further steps are needed at the moment.
 Note
For reinforcement design of structures without any additional layer of hydroizolation, the user
would like to calculate reinforcement amount with crack width converging to 0mm (zero). It is not
possible in Scia Engineer to use direct zero value and user has to input minimal value of 0.01mm in
the Concrete setup dialog, to successfully finish the ULS+SLS design.



83
3.5 Section on 2D member
Sometimes the user might find useful or necessary to display his results in specified position on
the 2D member. Then he is allowed to define his own section across the 2D member where the
designed result values may be displayed separately or in addition to other drawing styles. Definition of
2D member section can be done through Section on 2D member service.




In this Section on 2D member dialog user defines name of the section, vector of direction of the
section and the way, results will be graphically represented. User may choose from few possibilities to
draw results:

o Upright to element – values will be drawn upright to the element
o Element plane – values will be drawn in the element plane
o X Direction – values will be drawn in X direction
o X Direction – values will be drawn in Y direction
o X Direction – values will be drawn in Z direction
o Draw similar as for setting in section properties – when this possibility is chosen, then
the values will be drawn the way it is already defined in appropriate service by Draw
parameter.

After definition of the section parameters, the user confirms the dialog and manually defines the
position itself. When this is done, also coordinates of the definition points will be displayed in previous
dialog and user may also edit them either there or in section properties. Section geometry may be also
again adjusted in graphical window and all geometry functions may be used together with it.

To display results on already defined 2D member section, it is necessary that user checks the
marked check box Section in properties of appropriate service. Then after the refresh, results will be
displayed on defined section as well (or only).


84


 Note
Also note that by activating Section check box, Drawing setup 1D option appears in the service
properties. Here user may adjust the view of the values representation. This will be the same for Edge
representation too.



85
3.6 2D Reinforcement
Generally there are two ways, how to define practical reinforcement for 2D concrete members in
Scia Engineer. The first and very often used way is to use previously defined 2D Concrete data. The
second way is to define each reinforcement area manually and separately from each other.
3.6.1 Reinforcement from 2D Member Data
This is very useful feature which will create reinforcement layers according to the settings which
are already defined in 2D Member data on 2D member. To use this feature it is necessary to have
attribute User reinforcement checked. If so, then it is possible to input and edit Basic distance
attribute for each reinforcement layer.




Now if settings in Member data attributes fit the user’s needs, user may double-click the 2D
Reinforcement service. After that a decision dialog will appear and user may choose to use this
feature, or not. If Yes possibility is chosen, then all reinforcement layers are automatically defined. If
No possibility is chosen, then nothing is created and the ordinary Reinforcement 2D dialog for manual
definition of reinforcement is displayed.



3.6.2 New Reinforcement¨
Sometimes the user may find manual definition of the Reinforcement more useful. To do so, the
user may simply use the item Reinforcement 2D in concrete tree or click action button New

86
reinforcement. This will display the Reinforcement 2D dialog where the user may define reinforcement
parameters. Only one layer may be defined at a time.




Attributes in Reinforcement 2D or Reinforcement 2D mesh dialog are similar to 2D Member data
properties.

Name Specifies the name of the reinforced region.

2D member Shows the name of the member, where the reinforcement is placed.

Type
o Bars User defines numbers, diameters, etc. of bars in individual layers.
o Mesh User selects a pre-defined reinforcement mesh (usually made by a stainless
steel mesh manufacturer) from a library of reinforcement meshes. After selection of this
possibility the user may define his own reinforcement mesh or choose already predefined
one from library.

87



Material Defines the material for the reinforcement.

Surface Specifies the surface: lower, upper.

Number of directions The reinforcement can be defined in one or two perpendicular
directions.

Direction closest to surface Defines in which direction the layer of the reinforcement is closer to
the surface.

Angle of the first direction Specifies possible inclination of the first direction.

Diameter Defines the diameter of the reinforcement bars.

Concrete cover Defines the thickness of the cover.

Bar distance Defines the distance of individual bars.

Offset The zero offset means that the first bar is put directly along the edge of the
reinforced region (usually a slab of sub region). Nonzero offset means that there is a
gap between the first bar and the edge of the reinforced region.

Reinforcement area This is informative attribute. It shows the total reinforcement area
per one-metre-section of the slab.
Total weight This is informative attribute. It shows the total weight of the reinforcement in the
reinforced region. This item has no meaning in the input dialogue. It gives the
correct value only when the existing reinforcement region is edited.

Mesh Selects the required mesh from the library of reinforcement meshes.

The reinforcement is always defined for a particular region. The reinforcement is distributed
uniformly over this region. It is not possible to input separate bars of reinforcement. The shape of the
reinforced region is defined by means of the following parameters.


88
o Geometry defined by Point - reinforcement region is defined by its centre, width, length
and possible inclination.
o Line - reinforcement region is defined by its centre line and width.
o Polygon - reinforcement region is defined by the polygon outlining the region.
3.6.3 Tips and tricks
3.6.3.1 Subtraction from Required reinforcement
Normally, as shown in chapters above, for example, when Additional reinforcement is needed, it
is calculated as simple difference between required and user defined reinforcement. Similarly the
other reinforcement types calculate with it. The user may come across two possible situations when
this is declined:
o If there is already defined practical reinforcement (the one, which physically exist in the
model), which has different material, than the material defined in Member data. If this
happens, then user will be warned by the error message below and this user
reinforcement is not recognized.



o Second situation may happen when the user has also practical reinforcement defined on
the member and has activated the possibility “Check of concrete cover for subtracting
2D user reinforcement from required reinforcement”. This can be done under
Concrete > General > Calculation > 2D user reinforcement. When this check box is
activated, new input parameter appears just below and the user may define required
value. All reinforcement layers within this range will be ignored by the design. The error
dialog is also displayed and design will end up in same results as in the first case.




89


Let’s demonstrate this on an example from chapter ULS design when only main reinforcement
on the whole slab was defined. There is diameter of 12mm used and the distance between the bars is
set to 100mm. We can change the material of this reinforcement polygon for example to B500A
contrary to B400A, which is defined in member data for first option. Activating the mentioned check
box, together with setting the value to 0.1 and changing concrete cover of the reinforcement to for
example 60mm. Then we will get these results:



Required reinforcement User reinforcement

90

3.6.3.2 Labels
The user may control the display style of the reinforcement through a set of view parameters,
which can be found in View parameters setting dialog. These parameters are located under Concrete
folder > Reinforcement regions 2D.




Display This parameter must be ON if the reinforcement is to be displayed.

Display style This will define the way reinforcement will be displayed. There are four
different types of display.
o Simple – only the main symbol of the reinforcement directions will be
displayed.

Additional reinforcement Total reinforcement

91

o Distribution - the main symbol of the reinforcement directions will be
displayed together with the indication of the distance between individual
bars.



o Distribution full - The "real" distribution of the reinforcement is
displayed. That will be displayed in the central plane.



o Real positions - All the option mentioned above draw the reinforcement
schematically into the middle plane of the reinforced slab. Option Real
positions displays the reinforcement in its real (actual) position.



92



Upper layer Switches ON/OFF the layer of the reinforcement at the upper surface.

Lower layer Switches ON/OFF the layer of the reinforcement at the lower surface.

Display label This parameter must be ON if the reinforcement labels are to be displayed.

Name Shows the name of the bars.
Diameter+distance Shows the diameter and distance of the reinforcement bars.

3.6.3.3 Editing the reinforcement parameters
If the user wants to change some existing reinforcement parameters he might simply edit and
modify parameters in the reinforcement attributes.

1. Select the reinforcement that needs editing.
2. The properties of the selected reinforcement are shown in the Property Window.
3. Modify the required parameters.
4. Clear the selection.
3.6.3.4 Editing the shape of the reinforcement region
If the reinforced region was input as a polygon, you can later modify its shape by following
procedure below:

1. Select the reinforcement the region of which is to be modified.
2. The properties of the selected reinforcement are shown in the Property Window.
3. Click action button Edit geometry.
4. You can use the right-mouse button to invoke the pop-up menu and insert or delete
vertices.
5. Or you can drag-and-drop the vertices by mouse.
6. To finish the editing, invoke the pop-up menu and select End polygon edit.

If the reinforced region was input as a point or line object, you can simply modify its shape by
adjusting appropriate parameters in the properties.
 Note
Any function for geometric manipulations can be used to modify the reinforced area. That
means that functions like Move, Copy, Stretch, Rotate, etc. can be used.
3.6.4 Free bars
3.6.4.1 New Free bars
The normal way in Scia Engineer is to define the reinforcement in 2D members through 2D
member data or by placing some kind of polygon directly using 2D reinforcement service. On the other
hand, it may be sometimes more convenient to input separate bars. This feature is also necessary
when the reinforcement is imported from a third party program (e.g. Allplan).
The principle is that the user defines the shape of the reinforcement bars and then selects the
members into which these bars are included. Free bars are considered in all calculations (design and

93
checks). On the other hand, free bars are not included in the bill of material and scheme of
reinforcement.




Name Specifies the name of the reinforced region.

Layer Defines the layer into which the entity is located.

Position number Informative parameter, which defines the position number of the bar.

Diameter Specifies the diameter of the bar.

Mandrel Specifies the mandrel.

Material Specifies the material of the bar.

Long/Stirrup Determines if the bar is a longitudinal bar or a stirrup.

Detailing If ON, the bar is ignored in design and checks. It is just a structural bar.

Number It is possible to input a set of bars at a time. This parameter specifies the total
number of the bars in one set.

Dir X This parameter defines the distance between individual bars in the set in X direction.

Dir Y This parameter defines the distance between individual bars in the set in Y direction.
Dir Z This parameter defines the distance between individual bars in the set in Z direction.

Horizontal Defines the horizontal position of the description (label) of the reinforcement bar.

Vertical Defines the vertical position of the description (label) of the reinforcement bar.

Location Defines if anchorage length is to be defined with the bar or not. It is possible to
define these five locations:
o None No anchorages will be defined.
o Begin Anchorage will be possible to be defined at the beginning of the free bar.

94
o End Anchorage will be possible to be defined at the end of the free bar.
o Both Anchorage will be possible to be defined both at the beginning and at the end of the
free bar.
o Both separated Anchorage will be possible to be defined both at the beginning and
at the end of the free bar independently.

Add/subtract Specifies whether the specified anchorage length is to be added to the input bar or
whether the effective length of the bar is obtained from the defined bar by
subtracting the specified anchorage length.

Length Specifies the anchorage length.

Curve type Defines the type of the curve in bents of the reinforcement.

Curve parameter Defines the parameter of the selected curve.

Once a free bar is input, it represents a standalone entity that has no relation to any of the
defined beams, columns, plates, etc. in the model. It is necessary to allocate the bar to required
members. The allocation can be done through the corresponding action buttons.

o Manual allocation The user manually selects the members where the
reinforcement free bar is allocated. To do so, select the required free bar and click action
button [Select allocation]. Then follow with the selection of appropriate members.
o Automatic allocation The program automatically selects the members where the
reinforcement free bar is allocated. To allocate bars automatically, click action button
[Allocate automatically]. The program does the allocation on its own.
3.6.4.1.1 Editing the reinforcement parameters
If user want to change some existing free bar parameters he might simply edit and modify
parameters in the reinforcement attributes.

1. Select the required free bar.
2. Its properties are displayed in the Property window.
3. Make necessary changes.
4. Clear the selection.
3.6.4.1.2 Editing the free bar geometry
Sometimes the user also needs to adjust or redefine the free bar geometry. This can be done
by following few steps below.

1. Select the required free bar.
2. Its properties are displayed in the Property window. A few action buttons are displayed in the
Property window as well.
3. Click button [Table edit geometry] to get a table with bar coordinates. You may modify the
shape in this table.
4. Alternatively, you may click button [Edit free bar geometry] to be able to edit graphically the
shape of the bar. When this option is activated, the vertices of the selected free bar are
highlighted and can be moved, etc.
5. Clear the selection when everything is done.
3.6.4.2 Explode to free bars
Any standard reinforcement can be exploded into free bars. Once this is done, the
reinforcement bars lose all their original properties and become free bars. This operation is
irreversible. To go through the procedure follow the steps bellow:

1. Open service Concrete.
2. Start function New free bars > Explode to free bar.
3. Select the required reinforcement. End the selection with ESC
4. You are asked if the reinforcement elements are to be deleted or not.

95




5. Select YES if you want to have just the free bars (the original reinforcement is transformed
into free bars.)
6. Select NO f you want to keep the original reinforcement and have its copy converted into the
free bars.
3.6.4.3 Free bars user reinforcement
Free bar is a different entity than reinforcement polygon and the displayed user reinforcement
consisting of free bars may, and usually does, look differently. We can show the difference on a simple
slab, already used in previous chapters. We will display one-directional user reinforcement for lower
surface of the slab. Reinforcement is defined in the global x-axis direction. In the first picture, there is a
standard reinforcement polygon defined with bars (diameter 10mm) and 500mm spacing. In the
second picture, there are free bars created from the reinforcement polygon that is in the first picture.
Reinforcement amounts are the same on both slabs. We are displaying the user reinforcement defined
on the slabs.

Reinforcement polygon Free bars reinforcement

As it is clear from the pictures, displayed amounts of reinforcement are NOT equal, although
amounts of reinforcement defined on those two slabs are identical. This is due to the inner algorithm of
free bar recalculation. This algorithm may be described in a few steps:
o software checks the free bar diameter and calculates the free reinforcement bar area. In
our case it is π (10/2)
2
= 78,5mm
2
.
o then a “virtual reinforcement polygon” is internally created on 300mm long section of the
slab (virtual reinforcement polygon area equals 300*free bar length)
o the intensity of this “virtual reinforcement polygon” is calculated from the arithmetic
product of the free reinforcement bar area and hardcoded value of (1/0,3). In our case it
is 78.5 * 1/0,3 = 262 mm
2


96
o the last step is to assign the appropriate intensity of reinforcement into each mesh
element which lies (even a part of it) under our internal virtual reinforcement polygon. The
value will be proportional to this area under the virtual reinforcement polygon. As we have
set 2D mesh element size to 200mm, there are a few “situations” on our slab”

Let’s delete a few free bars to analyze different possible free bar layouts. The virtual
reinforcement area is represented by red area and free bars are highlighted by purple line:
o the edge – mesh element size is 200mm, virtual reinforcement area width above the
element is 300/2 = 150mm. User reinforcement amount in adjacent mesh element is
262 * 150/200 = 196mm
2



o free bar on mesh line – similar to the previous case. mesh element size is 200mm,
virtual reinforcement area width above the elements is 300/2 = 150mm. User
reinforcement amount in both adjacent mesh elements is 262 * 150/200 = 196mm
2





o free bar in the middle of mesh element –. mesh element size is 200mm, virtual
reinforcement area width above the middle element is 200mm and virtual reinforcement
area width above the adjacent elements is (300-200)/2 = 50mm. User reinforcement
amount in the middle mesh element is 262 * 200/200 = 262mm2 User reinforcement
amount in both adjacent mesh elements is 262 * 50/200 = 65mm
2.




Now it should be clear how the algorithm works and two possible solutions for improving the
displaying results can be introduced.
o minimising free bar distances will cause that virtual reinforcement polygons will overlay
the ones laying next to it and will provide more continuous results
o as the user may not want to change the distance between reinforcement bars, increasing
the 2D mesh element size will result in more continuous results as well.

In the picture below, there is the same slab with the 2D mesh element size set to 400mm.
These results are much more consistent then the results at the beginning.


97


3.7 Averaging strip
This functionality provides automatic averaging of peak results around defined points or along
defined line strips on slabs. The users can define several styles how to calculate the averaged values.
The averaging can be applied to internal forces on slabs and to required reinforcement areas used in
the design of reinforcement in concrete slabs.
The averaging algorithm uses only the FE nodes that are located inside the averaging strip.
This may cause certain inaccuracies especially in the combination with larger finite elements.
Therefore, it is recommended to redefine mesh or define internal edges along the averaging strips.
This ensures that finite element nodes are generated along the edge of the averaging strip, which may
significantly improve the accuracy.
The averaging algorithm can be applied to internal forces in slabs and required reinforcement
areas in slabs. Each of the averaging is performed separately. It means that averaging internal forces
are calculated from non-averaged internal forces and averaged required reinforcement areas are
calculated from non-averaged required reinforcement areas. Thus it is NOT true that the averaged
required reinforcement areas are calculated from averaged internal forces.
The averaging strips are defined as what is termed additional data. This fact together with some
other characteristics of the averaging strips leads to the following rules concerning the manipulation
with the already defined strips:
o No geometrical manipulation is supported (i.e. the averaging strip cannot be copied, moved,
etc.) The only exception is the direct editing of the coordinated of the definition points in the
Property Window.
o The averaging strip can be normally deleted.
o The removal or editing of the defined averaging strip DOES NOT influences the results.
o If the slab that contains the averaging strip is moved, copied, etc. the averaging strip "goes
with" its master slab.
o The averaging strips react to the activity of the slabs. It means that only averaging strips that
are defined on active slabs are visible.
o Check of data verifies the position of the strips and all invalid strips (e.g. located out of the
master slab) are deleted.

To create a new averaging strip the user may simply double click item Averaging strip in
concrete tree. The dialog shown below appears. The user may define in it a few parameters which will
determine the averaging strip location and its parameters. After confirmation the user defines
averaging strip location in the graphical window.

98


Name Specifies the name of the strip.

Type Specifies the averaging strip input type
o Strip The averaging strip is defined by a line with a specified width.
o Point The averaging strip is defined by a point, width, length, and angle (that specifies the
direction of the strip).

Width Defines the width of the averaging strip.

Length Active only if Type = Point. Defines the length of the averaging strip

Angle Active only if Type = Point. Defines the direction of the averaging strip.

Direction Specifies the direction in which the averaging is to be calculated
o Longitudinal The averaging is done along the defined strip. We can imagine that the strip
represents a 1D member and we want the program to smooth the distribution of the result
along that 1D member.
o Perpendicular The averaging is performed in the direction that is perpendicular to the
length of the strip. This option is for special purposes only.
o Both The averaging is made in both directions. Again, this option is for special purposes
only, e.g. heads of columns.
o None No averaging is made. This option may be useful if one (or several) defined
averaging strip(s) should be temporarily ignored while other strips are still required to be
used.
We can demonstrate the functionality on a simple example. Let’s create a 4x4 meters concrete
slab with thickness of 200mm, made of concrete C20/25. It will be supported according to the picture
and subject to self weight. The mesh size is set to 1 meter. Two meter wide averaging strip was input
in the Y direction with the averaging direction set to 'Perpendicular'.

99



Non-averaged result of moment my with location parameter set to In nodes, no avg.



Results of moment my averaged with averaging strip, with location parameter set to In nodes,
no avg.


100


Manual verification
Create sections perpendicular to the inputted averaging direction. In this example, the
averaging was set to 'perpendicular' => create sections in longitudinal direction.

o 2D section A is input just outside the strip from (0;3,001) to (4;3,001)
o 2D section B is input just inside the strip from (0;2,999) to (4;2,999)
o 2D section C is input in the middle of the slab from (0; 2) to (4;2)

Non averaged result of moment my on 2D sections with location parameter set to In nodes, no
avg. Parameter course is set to Precise possibility.


Non averaged result of moment my on 2D sections with location parameter set to In nodes, no
avg. Parameter course changed to Uniform possibility.


101



The conclusion is that in 2D section A the moment my has value -1,38 KNm, in 2D section B -
4,45 KNm and in 2D section C -7 KNm.

Numerical results of moment my averaged with averaging strip, with location parameter set to In
nodes, no avg.



Conclusion
Now if we compare this averaged numerical results in mesh nodes and the non averaged
results on 2D sections, we come to the conclusion that the values are equal.



102
 Note
Basic size of the averaging strip should be, in general, sum of the width of the support and
thickness of the slab doubled. Nevertheless, the final size of the averaging strip should be always
checked by an experienced engineer.
If the averaging strip is not in the coordinate system of the macro, then the transformation of
internal forces to the averaging strip LCS is done before the averaging itself. After that, a backward
transformation of the averaged internal forces back to the macro coordinates is performed.
A special view parameter can be found in the View parameters setting dialogue, under folder
Structure/Averaging strips. Tick option Display to see the averaging strips (default) or clear the option
to hide them.
3.8 Code Dependent Deflections (CDD)
3.8.1 Introduction
The names PNL calculation (or analysis) (physically non-linear calculation) and PGNL
calculation (or analysis) (physically and geometrically non-linear calculation) are taken from previous
versions of the software. These terms are very similar and may be a bit misleading.
Therefore, it is useful to start with a few words about the features and principles of the two types
of analysis. First of all, it may be reasonable to establish more explanatory names.
What was known as a PNL calculation should be called calculation of deflections according
to a standard. Starting from version 2008.1 the term PNL was replaced by more suitable

Code Dependent Deflections (CDD)

What was known as a PGNL calculation should be called physically (and geometrically) non-
linear calculation.
This fact in turn may lead to shortening of the name of the second calculation type to "physically
non-linear calculation" which may be abbreviated PNL. Now you can see one of the reasons why a
more reasonable naming should be introduced. The second reason is that the old PNL calculation
(CDD from 2008.1 on) is not a real physically non-linear calculation in terms of finite element method
(contrary to PGNL that is a real nonlinear calculation). It is a two-step solution following exactly the
regulations given in technical standards for design and checking of concrete structures.
Both analyses are aimed primarily at concrete structures. The "calculation of deflections
according to a standard" has been designed exclusively for concrete beams and plates, as it is based
on the wording of technical standards for design and checking of concrete structures. The "physically
(and geometrically) non-linear calculation" is a general procedure tailored for the analysis of concrete
frames (as it takes into account the provided reinforcement), but it is not limited to such structures.
3.8.2 In general
This calculation of deflections depends (is based) on standards. Therefore, it represents a
standard-related calculation that is performed in two steps. First, a normal linear calculation is carried
out and the computed internal forces are used to input the reinforcement (the provided reinforcement)
or at least to determine the required reinforcement areas. The procedure continues with the
calculation of cracks and their effect on the stiffness of individual elements. This weakening is then
input into the solver. Finally, the calculation (linear one) is run once more with this reduced stiffness’s
taken into account. Which is exactly what the technical standards require.
The short-term deflection is calculated. This deflection is multiplied by the creep coefficient and
the long-term deflection is obtained. It is known that the elastic deflection multiplied by the creep
coefficient equals to the deflection due to creep. Then, we add the long-term deflection to the short-
term deflection and get the total deflection that can be assessed in accordance with the standards.
This calculation of the effects of creep is simplified and can be used for a limited set of
situations. In fact, in case of reinforced concrete it covers most possible situations, as the history of
assembly does not have to be followed. In other words, if the history of assembly steps does not have
to be followed, this procedure can be applied.
The solution consists of a simplified method of calculation. An equivalent flexural stiffness is
used to take into account the effects of cracking, material nonlinearity and creep. Creep is taken into
the analysis using the effective modulus of elasticity for concrete according expression 7.20 of EN
1992-2-2

103

The deformation for other codes than NEN 6720 is calculated by reducing the stiffness’s using
the following so-called Stiffness/Moment diagram:




Where: M
r
is the cracking moment
M
u
is the ultimate moment

The physical non-linear deformations are calculated based on the concept of “quasi”-non-
linearity. This means that linear calculations are used to model non-linear behaviour of the
construction. Four steps are used to perform the calculation.
o Using the short-term stress and strain diagram for concrete, the deformations for ‘creep’-
load is determined. The ‘creep’-load is commonly the quasi-permanent load (1.0 × DEAD
LOAD + FACTOR × LIFE LOAD). The factor is in most cases around 30%.
o Using the long-term stress and strain diagram for concrete the deformations for ‘creep’-
load is determined.
o Subtracting the short-term deformation from the long-term deformation the ‘creep’-
deformation is obtained.
o Adding the creep-deformation to the linear deformation caused by the representative
load (1.0 × DEAD LOAD + 1.0 × LIFE LOAD), the total quasi-non-linear deformation is
obtained.
To calculate the immediate deformation, the deformation of the permanent load is calculated
using the short-term stress and strain diagram. Additionally by subtracting the immediate deformation
from the total deformation, the program determines the additional deformation.
The calculated deformations in Scia Engineer are:
o Elastic deformation: Using the short-term stress and strain diagram and representative
load combinations. (1.0 × DEAD LOAD + 1.0 × LIFE LOAD)
o Creep deformation: Using the long- and short-term stress and strain diagrams and
momentaneous load combinations. (1.0 × DEAD LOAD + X × LIFE LOAD)
o Total deformation: Elastic deformation + Creep deformation.
o Immediate deformation: Using the short-term stress and strain diagram and permanent
combination.(1.0 × DEAD LOAD)
o Additional deformation: Elastic deformation + Creep deformation – Immediate
deformation.

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The short- and long-term stiffnesses are calculated using a so-called creep factor. This creep-
factor is dependent on the relative humidity, outline of the cross-section, reinforcement percentage,
concrete class, etc. is used to divide the short-term stiffness and obtain the long-term stiffness.

There are two check boxes for determining key concrete combinations, for determining the
creep factor, in the dialog below.




Use to determine Code Dependent Deflections (CDD) caused by creep If this
option is ON, combination will be used for calculation with creep.

Use to determine permanent Code Dependent Deflections (CDD) If this
option is ON, selected combination will be used for calculation of permanent deformation. Only one
permanent combination may be defined.

The following steps must be performed before running the CDD calculation:
o Special load concrete combinations must be created. These combinations must contain static
loads only.
o Practical reinforcement should be defined and this reinforcement should fulfil the ultimate state
designs
o If no practical reinforcement is input, then at least some required reinforcement must be
calculated
o If no required reinforcement is designed, calculation is determined without changes of stiffness

As it is clear from what is mentioned above, calculation can be performed using both theoretical
and practical reinforcement
Use of practical reinforcement, .e.g. the reinforcement which is really assumed in the concrete
member is a more realistic assumption to perform the analysis. However, the program doesn’t warn
the user in the case he doesn’t use the practical reinforcement.
In the general setup of concrete, part general calculation, the user can set the default
assumption for the reinforcement steel in the CDD calculation


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As,designed The total area of reinforcement is used for the calculation on condition that
the design function has been already run and that the program has already calculated the required
area of reinforcement. Otherwise, zero value is used (even if the user has manually inserted some
reinforcement bars). The total area of reinforcement is the sum of the user-defined reinforcement
(through basic reinforcement, through reinforcement zones/regions or through free bars) and
calculated additional required reinforcement. The additional required reinforcement may be zero, if the
user has already inputted enough user-defined reinforcement.
IMPORTANT: Keep in mind that the function calculating the required areas of reinforcement
MUST HAVE BEEN run before. Otherwise, the user-defined reinforcement is ignored and ZERO value
is used.

As, user The user-defined reinforcement is used for the calculation. The term user-
defined reinforcement covers the basic reinforcement specified in member data, reinforcement bars
inputted through reinforcement templates in reinforcement zones (1D members) or regions (2D
members), and free bars of reinforcement.

In order: [ As, user ]; [ As,designed] If there is any user-defined reinforcement, it is
used, otherwise, the total reinforcement is used (which in fact means the calculated required area of
reinforcement). Remember, that for the second option, the design function must have been already
run.

In order: [ As,designed]; [ As, user] If the design of reinforcement has been already
performed and the required area of reinforcement has been already calculated, it is used. Otherwise,
the user-defined reinforcement is used.

The reduced stiffness for Walls is not calculated when the CDD – deformations calculation is
performed. Deformations of beams, plates and shells are calculated by integrating the non-linear
curvatures over the length of beam or slab. However, if some element has the value of Md larger than
Mu, than the stiffness according to Mu is taken. Since the finite element method can give large internal

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forces due to singularities, etc. the calculation is allowed to continue without an error message, but
supplies messages after the calculation has finished.
The program always converges to a solution. The program does not warn the user when the
loading is bigger than the capacity of the cross section. It is assumed that the user did in a first step a
proper design of the reinforcement in the concrete members.

 Note
The user can define the creep coefficient, or let the program determine the creep coefficient
using the EC appendix B1. Please find the setting in the concrete setup at the SLS settings
An error message concerning about not sufficient mesh may appear during the CDD
calculation. If so, mesh should be improved and then linear and CDD calculations should be started
again.
In the solver setup, the user can change the amount of reinforcement for the CDD. This option
is intended to correct the theoretical reinforcement by this coefficient. Default value is 1. Let’s remark
that the program doesn’t display a warning when you use this option when practical reinforcement has
been defined in the member.


3.8.3 Example
To demonstrate this functionality we can continue with the example used in previous chapters of
ULS and ULS+SLS designs.
As a first step we need to create concrete combinations necessary for calculation of code
dependent deflections. We will set Load case 1, where only self weight is defined, for determining
permanent code dependent deflections and Load case 2, where all load are defined, for determining
the code dependent deflection caused by creep.
We will also define reinforcement for second direction and also for upper surface. User
reinforcement for both surfaces and both directions will satisfy the ULS design only. For information
about the input reinforcement see table below:


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User reinforcement As1- User reinforcement As2-
User reinforcement As1+ User reinforcement As2+


After the reinforcement design of the user reinforcement for ULS state, it is time to define the
reinforcement determining the Code dependent deflections. It can be done in Setup dialog in Menu >
Setup > Concrete solver. Picture of this dialog is shown in the previous chapter. We will set this
parameter to User reinforcement possibility. Then we must run the design once again to regain the
amounts of reinforcement.
Now if we start the FE analysis dialog, possibility Concrete – Code Dependent Deflections
(CDD) is activated and may be chosen. After selection of this option we can proceed to calculation
itself by pressing Ok button.


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After confirmation of the FE analysis dialog a warning error may appear. This will warn the user
about non-consistent location parameter of 2D design.




If the user accepts the dialog above, the calculation itself is started and process of determining
the deflections should be finished with informational End of analysis dialog. Here maximal values of
translation and rotation is displayed.




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Now if we go back to the concrete service, two new items Stiffness presentation and
Deformations, may be found here. They are both under Member check item. See picture below.



3.8.3.1 Stiffness presentation
In this service the user may choose to display two types of results. Location is set permanently
to “In centres” possibility. The parameter type of values may be set to:
o Required area
As1- longitudinal reinforcement for lower surface and direction 1
As2- longitudinal reinforcement for lower surface and direction 2
As1+ longitudinal reinforcement for upper surface and direction 1
As2+ longitudinal reinforcement for upper surface and direction 2
As1 overall longitudinal reinforcement for both surfaces and direction 1
As2 overall longitudinal reinforcement for both surfaces and direction 2

o Stiffness
EI1,s bending stiffness from short term load in direction 1
EA1,s normal stiffness from short term load in direction 1
EI2,s bending stiffness from short term load in direction 2
EA2,s normal stiffness from short term load in direction 2
EI1,l bending stiffness from long term load in direction 1
EA1,l normal stiffness from long t term load in direction 1
EI2,l bending stiffness from long term load in direction 2
EA2,l normal stiffness from long term load in direction 2

There may be also displayed values for required areas and stiffness for the third
direction, but it must be defined in advance.
Here is an example of the bending stiffness from short-term load in direction 1.


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3.8.3.2 Deformations
In this service, the user may display the code dependent deflection calculated from the settings
already defined in whole process. The user may choose to set parameter Deformation to three
possible options:
o linear will display linear deformation
o nonlinear will display nonlinear deformations
o nonlinear with creep will display nonlinear deformations including creep

Parameter type of values may be set to another three options:
o Uz deformation in Z-axis direction
o Fix rotation around X-axis direction
o Fiy rotation around X-axis direction

In the table below, we can compare the deformation in the Z-axis direction with different
Deformation parameter.

Linear Nonlinear


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Nonlinear with creep


As it is clear from the table, the largest values of Code Dependent Deflections are for Nonlinear
with creep deformations.

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References

[1] EN 1992-1-1: 2004 Eurocode 2 : design of concrete structures – Part 1: General rules and
rules for building
[2] ENV 1992-1-1: 1991 Eurocode 2 : design of concrete structures – Part 1: General rules and
rules for building
[3] Hobst, Ed.: ESA-PRIMA WIN & SCIA.ESA PT REINFORCED CONCRETEDESIGN OF 2D
STRUCTURES, Theoretical background
[4] Internal Scia Engineer manuals