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CHAPTER 1 1.

Introduction Our field was arranged by the Earth and Environmental Sciences Department Bahria University, Islamabad. It was a four day trip starting from Islamabad and concluding in the Hazara Division. 2. Purpose of the Trip The main objective of the field was to observe different stratigraphical changes in the region and to know about the major structural boundaries/features that are present in this region. Another aim of this trip was to identify different lithologies with the help of our teachers and the oriental measurements of the mesoscopic structures.

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Procedures/ Techniques involved during the field Following were the methods through which we were able to successfully

conduct our field. a. By observing the contact relationship between different geological formations and their lithologies. b. By observing various tectonic features and correlating them with stratigraphic sequences. c. Different rock units were characterized by observing different physical characteristics. d. Brunton Compass was used to measure dip and strike.

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Location of the Area Our area of study was quite vast as it started from Islamabad and went all the

way to Balakot but our main stay was in Abbottabad as it was centrally located. Abbottabad is the focal city of Hazara Division with a population of 1,430,238. The city located in the Orash Valley which is 68 miles north of the Fedral Captial, Islamabad.. The Distrcit of Abbottabad is well known for its lively weather and has a very high standard of education. A lot of Military training institutions are also located in the city most notable being the Pakistan Military Academy.

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It starts form Islamabad-Murree-Nathiagali-Abbottabad. Accessibility of the area Accessing Abbottabad is very easy since it is quite centrally located and has a lot of high profile institutions. The Hazara-Kashmir and Nanga Parbat Syntaxes form its borders. There are two metallic roads which lead towards Abbottabad. 6. 5. There is no rail link to Abbottabad however the adjacent railway station is located in Havelian which is approximately 30 minutes from Abbottabad city centre.It is well known hill station attracting thousands of tourists each year. It is the climate of the area which makes it an attraction for the tourists. which took place 40 Million years ago. This complex tectonism is a result of the collision between the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Pate. The second route is a bit long but it very scenic as the road is layed through the Galliyat. Climate and Vegetation The city is surrounded by Sarban Hills from all sides giving spectacular views of the region. The region in which we had to carry out our field work is part of Northern Himalayan Fold and Thrust Belt. The first one is a traditional route which is Islamabad-Hassanabdal-HavelianAbbottabad. The Dol river flows to the south of Abbottabad which then ends up in Tarbela dam. 2 . CHAPTER 2 1. The hills allow the region to experience mild summers and cold winters. Tectonic Setting of the Area Overall the Northern Pakistan is tectonically very complex starting from Slat Range and going all the way up towards the Himalayas. Due to this collision major orogeny belts was formed known as Himalayas and the Karakoram also known as the “Roof of the World”. This belt occupies a 250 km wide and about 560 km long irregularly shaped mountainous region stretching from Afghan border up to the Kashmir basin. Hindiko is the major language spoken by the people in and around Abbottabad.

and Jan. 1. pp. The axial zone of the syntaxis.. 1 Figure 1: Regional Tectonic setting The Himalayan Fold and Thrust Belt comprises of the following. Graphic Publishers. The Himalayan Fold thrust continues from the Sub-Himalayan zone 1 Kazmi..This belt covers all the topography between Main Mantle Thrust in the North and the Salt Range Thrust in the South. Geology and Tectonics of Pakistan. The axial zone of the syntaxis has NNW orientation and is largely covered by Murree Formation. with its Miocene molasse cover is in continuation of the Sub-Himalayan zone to the southeast. Q. though its axial zone is well defined by a heap of thrust faults which form a loop around its axis.H. Hazara-Kashmir Syntax The Hazara-Kashmir Syntax is a multifaceted tectonic zone. Karachi. It is difficult to delineate its outer limit for it. 123-124 (1997) 3 . A.

Geology and Tectonics of Pakistan. Graphic Publishers. A. Q.. The Precambrian Salkhala Formation overlies a thick sequence of Permain Panjal Volcanics along the Panjal Thrust.H. 123-124 (1997) 3 Kazmi. whereas on the western side of the syntaxis Precambrian Tanwal Formation has been thrust over Precambrian to Cambrian Abbottabad Group and Jurassic to Cretaceous rocks. 3 The Murree fault runs in E-W direction south of the Margalla Hills. there is a parallel thrust fault along which Precambrian sequences has been pushed over the Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks.. The two faults arc around the apex of the syntaxis then bend southward. Geology and Tectonics of Pakistan. Q. with in the short distance 1-5 km. Graphic Publishers.. and Jan. Q. Karachi. Karachi.H. West and north of the this zone. Graphic Publishers. Graphic Publishers. 127 (1997) 5 In rep: Kazmi. A.. Q. 127 (1997) 4 . and Jan. Karachi.4 3. Geology and Tectonics of Pakistan. north and west...H. Westward apparently it links up with the Parachinar Fault. 123-127 (1997) 4 Kazmi. Karachi. and Jan.. pp.. A. It abuts the Mesozoic and earlier rocks against the Murree Formation.H. 5 2 Kazmi. and Jan. 2 2. A. pp. Panjal Thrust (Khairabad Fault) The Panjal Thrust runs parallel to MBT (Main Boundary Thrust) on the eastern limb of the syntaxis. pp. These two faults were named as Murree and Panjal Thrust correspondingly. Main Boundary Thrust (Murree Thrust) A system of faults truncates the Murree Formation on the east. Geology and Tectonics of Pakistan. pp.northeastward in to the core of the syntaxis and is terminated against the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT).

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