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12-17 Denaturing Proteins: Four Experiments with Albumin

Description: Four dishes are displayed on an overhead projector, each containing egg white. The dishes are labeled according to the method that will be used to denature the albumin contained within the egg white. The egg whites take on an opaque appearance when the albumin is denatured, and dark spots will appear on the projected images. Materials: • Three Petri dishes and one recrystallizing dish • 1. ! silver nitrate • "oncentrated hydrochloric acid • #$% ethanol • &ot plate and thermal glove • 'eral pipets • Four eggs or pre(separated egg whites • )verhead projector with transparency or camera Procedure: Before Class: Fill the bottom o* each Petri dish and the recrystallizing dish with an egg white. The egg whites can be separated *rom the yolks by care*ul pouring *rom the broken egg shell. The yolk should remain inside o* the shell. Put the *our dishes onto the overhead projector and label each dish on the transparency beneath. The recrystallizing dish should be labeled +&eat., )ne Petri dish should be labeled +!etal -on,, one labeled +.cid, and the other labeled +.lcohol., In Class: /sing a beral pipet, deliver the 1. ! silver nitrate, dropwise, to the dish labeled +!etal -on., 0ach drop should cause albumin to instantly crash out o* solution. The result will be a dark spot on the projected image. The acid should be delivered in the same manner, and a similar result will occur. The 0thanol should be delivered one pipet(*ull at a time. The albumin will take a little longer to crash out o* solution, and the result will be a gradual cloudy appearance rather than discreet spots o* darkness on the projected image. 0ventually, the whole dish will become opaque. The recrystallizing dish should be taken o** o* the overhead and set on to a hot plate that has had time to warm up. The albumin should crash out o* solution rather quickly. The result is the same as *rying an egg in a skillet. The opaque results should be displayed on the overhead projector. The glass top o* the projector should be able to handle the heat, but the transparency could melt i* the temperature is too high. The dish should be relatively sa*e to handle, but a thermal glove will be provide just in case. oncept:

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The relatively weak hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds holding the protein in globular *orm are disrupted. will disrupt disul*ide bonds between two cysteines. with hydrophilic regions on the outside and hydrophobic regions contained within the globule. *orming a continuous mass rather than discreet globules. Denaturing by Adding and Alcohol: The hydro4yl group on the alcohol acts to disrupt hydrogen bonding among the amino acids in the protein globule. because o* their high a**inity and attraction to sulphur. The same thing happens to proteins once they reach our stomachs. Denaturing by Adding a Metal Ion: &eavy metals. proteins e4ist in a globular *orm. e4posing the hydrophobic regions to the water. and unwound ends o* various molecules entangle. 11(12 . The protein begins to unwind. Denaturing with Heat: 5hen the egg white is heated. -n their water(soluble state. some outside *orce acts to make the globule more linear.dding acid acts to disrupt ionic bonds within the protein globule. 5hen proteins become denatured.Denaturation: 3enaturation is the disruption o* secondary and tertiary protein structure resulting in the insolubility o* that particular protein. molecular motion within the albumin increases. Denaturing by Adding an Acid: .