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The Fox was a Cree-Assinibloine ( Nehiyaw Pwat), the son of Match-a-to-ge-wub who was known as Ka Michet O Kehewak (“Man !agles "itting#), $e "onnant, Mache %heseab an& Plumes d'aigle' “Man !agles "itting# signe& the Treat with "elkirk in ()(*' The Metis at +e& +i,er also calle& Man !agles "itting, an& Chief "enna, thus “The Fox# was often referre& to as son of Chief "enna the Cree chief' Man !agles "itting was the brother of Meske-atoon, known as .roken Ar/, ! es on .oth "i&es, or Maski 0itonew( “1e who has ! es .ehin& 1i/#' .roken Ar/ was the son of +e& 0ine an& also the gran&son of "tan&ing Chief' Kahkewistahaw 2 1i/ that flies Aroun& (Towar& C -ress 1ills) was the ol&er brother of Mahka sis' Kahkewistahaw was a signator to Treat Four' Mahka sis “The Fox# ha& two sons who signe& Treat Four, Okanese an& 0as3ua (()4)-()5))'4 1is &aughter Kah-nahnah-Kah--o-/it (1arriet Fox) was -resent at the Treat Four negotiations with her husban& Frank 1unt' Chief Cowesses was the son of .roken Ar/' 1e also signe& Treat Four' Chief Ka-ne-on-us-ka-tew (Four Claws, 6eorge 6or&on) /arrie& .roken Ar/7s &aughter, the sister of Cowessess' 6or&on also signe& Treat Four' 8oung Man was also a son of .roken Ar/' 9n ():(, Mahka sis an& Kee-kesu/a-Kun (Keseekoowenin) -etitione& the .ritish -arlia/ent on their lan& rights; To the 1onourable the 1ouse of Co//ons of the <nite& King&o/ of 6reat .ritain an& 9relan&, in 0arlia/ent asse/ble&' The 0etition of the un&ersigne& 9n&ian Chiefs in +u-ert7s $an&, =orth A/erica, hu/bl sheweth' That it is usual for the .ritish 6o,ern/ent to recogni>e the 9n&ian title to their lan&s an& to enter into treat with the =ati,e Chiefs of the soil, granting the/ the right to reser,e for the/sel,es an& the chil&ren of their nations to settle u-on; an& gi,ing the/ co/-ensation for the white -eo-le to settle u-on; an& that whereas the 1onorable
Maske-etoon (??Maski 0itonew?? - @.roken Ar/7, @Crooke& Ar/7, later calle& ??0eace/aker??, Chief of a grou- of ??+ock AMountain Cree?? or ??Asini %achi %i 9niwak??, born about ()B* in the "askatchewan +i,er region, because of his bra,er he was calle& b the hostile .lackfoot ??Mon-e-ba-guh-now?? or ??Mani-ka-ina?? (@8oung Man Chief7), turne& later to the Metho&ist /issionaries, what hi/ an& his followers brought into conflict with the Catholic ??free?? +ock Cree un&er the lea&ershi- of ??0esew??, /o,e& to the reser,e an& was soon known as the ??0eace/aker??, was kille& in ():5 in a .lackfoot ca/- in Alberta b .ig "wan, in an atte/-t to /ake -eace between the two -eo-les unar/e&' 4 0askwa, 0is3ua, usuall calle& 0as3uah? - @The 0lain7C in French; ??$es 0rairies?), Chief of the “0lains Cree#, born ()4), son of ??Mahka sis??, ()*D his tribal grou- were /aking their li,ing with bison hunting in the ,icinit of to&a ?s $eech $ake, "askatchewan, the ha& also create& gar&ens an& raise& a s/all her& of cattle, in "e-te/ber ()*D 0as3ua took -art in the negotiations on Trat D in the Eu7A--elle Falle , he aske& the Cana&ian go,ern/ent for the -a /ent of G HBB,BBB to the tribes, which the 1u&son7s .a Co/-an ha& recei,e& for the sale of +u-ert7s $an& to Cana&a, &es-ite the refusal of Cana&a he finall signe& the treat an& /o,e& to a reser,e fi,e /iles west of Fort Eu7A--elle' 1e sta e& out, with his tribal grou-, fro/ engage/ent in the =orthwest +esistance of ())I' 1e &ie& in March ())5, when he succu/be& to Tuberculosis'
1u&son7s .a Co/-an ha,e sol& our lan&s in the ,alle s of the +e& an& Assiniboine +i,ers without our consent, an& without recogni>ing our nati,e rights, thus setting asi&e the custo/ar -ractice of the <nite& "tatesC we the un&ersigne& 9n&ian Chiefs, therefore -ra our 1onorable 1ouse to take this /atter into our serious consi&eration, an& to grant us an& our -eo-le the custo/ar nati,e title to our lan&s, an& to or&ain facilities for con,e ing the sa/e to each other, an& to our chil&ren7s chil&ren' An& our 0etitioners will e,er -ra Jc' ("igne&) Fro/ the Nor’Wester, Lune (, ():( (-' () Kees-kesu/a-kun Makasis, Fox (his K /ark) (his K /ark)
Mahkahcheese (The Fox)
This celebrate& chief was na/e& in his outh “Mahkahcheese# (the Fox) b his gran&/other, who brought hi/ u-, an& is the son of the celebrate& Cree chief “Man !agles# or 8orston7s gui&e who was born Must where Fort 6arr now stan&s' @The Fox7 was born near .ea,er Creek an& is here&itar Chief of the whole Cree =ation' 1e has /uch &istinguishe& hi/self as a 1unter, "cout an& %arrior, an& his na/e is hear& with res-ect in the $o&ges of all the Tribes east of the +ock Mountains' 1e s-eaks his own language Cree also Chi--ewa, "ioux, Crow, an& Assiniboine an& his uni,ersal re-utation as a -eace/aker gi,es hi/ securit in his Mourne s through the lan&s of hostile tribes' 1e is now about IH ears ol& an& his unbent for/ shows no sign of -h sical &eca , an& his intelligent face an& &ignifie& bearings, cause hi/ to be listene& to with res-ect b those who like not too well what he has to sa ' 1e is at -resent in for a talk with 6o,' Macta,ish on i/-ortant /atters, an& we ho-e to gi,e the substance of it in this issue' Fro/ the Nor’Wester, Ma 4H, ():) (-' 4)
Great Talk Between The Chief Fox and the Governor
%e un&erstan& that a few &a s ago the “Fox# calle& u-on the 6o,ernor an& was tol& that so/e other &a woul& be /ore suitable, an& fro/ the best sources of infor/ation which we coul& -rocure we gi,e substances of the two inter,iews;N ChiefNwh is it that the -resents ou use& to gi,e, are now getting so s/all' %e surel ought to ha,e so/ething for the loan of our lan&s' 6o,ernorN9 cannot sa an thing in regar& to it'
ChiefN%e ne,er sol& these lan&s to ou, an& et ou sell these lan&s to the "trangers for /uch /one an& e,en tr to /ake our 1alfbree&s -a for the/' 6o,ernorN9 can sa nothing in regar& to it' ChiefN%e hear that ou are tr ing to sell our countr to other -eo-le, ou ne,er bought this countr fro/ us' 1ow is it that ou want to sell what is not oursO 6o,ernorN9 know nothing about it' The Chief trie& to s-eak further regar&ing the -ro-ose& selling of 9n&ian lan&s b the Co/-an but the subMect was e,a&e& an& the chief after sa ing that he likes white /en to co/e into the countr was &is/isse& with the -resent of a few articles' (Nor’Wester, Ma 4H, ():), -' H') . ():5, Mahka ses7 Nehiyaw Pwat .an& ha& shifte& their hunting groun&s fro/ the turtle Mountains to the e&ge of the "askatchewan 0arklan&s near Fort !llice' On "e-te/ber (H, ()*B, Mahka ses began another atte/-t for co/-ensation for 9n&ian lan&s' 1e calle& at the office of Lohn Christian "chult> for a letter of intro&uction to the new $ieutenant 6o,ernor (Archibal&)' .efore lea,ing ho/e in the Fort !llice-Fort 0ell area he ha& ,isite& the Mission at Touchwoo& 1ills, asking for a&,ice on -rotocol for the /eeting' 1e was gi,en a&,ice on all -oints, but the /ain a&,ice gi,en was “to be sure not to get &runk'# The Fox then ca/e to the +e& +i,er "ettle/ent in earl October' After calling on "chult> for the letter of intro&uction he went on to Fort 6arr ' There he was notice& b Colonel %olsele 7s Folunteers, who -lie& hi/ with li3uor until he lost consciousness'H The sol&iers, thinking to i/-ro,e his -ersonal a--earance before ushering hi/ into the -resence of the re-resentati,e of ro alt cro--e& off his beautiful long -laite& tresses an& left his scal- bristling like that of a @-enitentiar bir&7N besi&es clearing all the gorgeous an& elaborate -ainting off his face' The -oor chief, on reco,ering consciousness, was so hu/iliate& that he sneake& back to Fort 0ell , a sa&&er but a wiser /an, without ha,ing seen the 6o,ernor'D' . the ti/e Treat Four was being negotiate& at Fort Eu7A--elle, the Chief ha& &ie&' At Treat Four Oh-kee-nessI, Mahka ses son, writes; To the Co//ission sitting in Treat with the 9n&ians at $ac Eu7A--elle this "e-te/ber /onth AP ()*D'
+onaghan, ='!'A' “The Archibal& A&/inistration in Manitoba ()*B-*4'# %inni-eg; 0h'P' Thesis, < of Manitoba', (5):; :I(-:I4' D 0AC, M645, .(I, Fol' H:, +obert .ell, “A "u//er on the 0lains#, --' H(-H4' I Chief Okanis (Okanese) signe& an a&hesion to Treat D, on "e-te/ber 5, ()*I, an& settle& in the File 1ills northeast of Fort Eu7A--elle' 9n ())I he /o,e& to the <nite& "tates (where he &ie&) because he &i&n7t want to be in,ol,e& (or was in,ol,e&) in the +esistance' 1is brother-in-law Moostooacoo- beca/e 1ea&/an after his &eath'
This the written s-eech or &eclaration of O-kee-ness, son of Mah-ka -sis 1ea& chief of the Crees' 9 &o not forget that / father Mah-ka sis or the Fox was the 1ea& Chief of the Crees nor that his father Mische-o-kes-kes-wu- or “The Man !agle 0lu/es# was also the 1ea& Chief before hi/' Also 9 &o know that now of his fi,e chil&ren which he ha& b his own -ro-er wifeNour /other; there are this &a li,e but / sister “Kah nah nah kah--o-/it# an& / self Ohkes-ness or the Thun&er that "trikes' %itness Michael Kl ne $' 1unt 9n&ian Affairs' (+6 (B, Folu/e H:(4, file DB(4) Chiefs 0as3ua an& Okanese (half-brothers) who were sons of Mahka sis signe& Treat D as &i& their uncle Kahkewistahaw 2 1i/ that flies Aroun& (Towar& C -ress 1ills)' Kahkewistahaw was the ol&er brother of Mahka sis' The Fox7s &aughter, Kah-nah-nahKah--o-/it (1arriet Fox), was /arrie& to Frank 1unt an& li,e& at 0o-lar 0oint, Manitoba' The onl news-a-er to sen& a corres-on&ent to the Treat Four negotiations was The Manitoban which sent Frank $' 1unt who was the son-in-law of Mahka sis since he was /arrie& Kah-nah-nah-Kah--o-/it (1arriet Fox)' 9n ()*D 1unt ha& been sub/itting affi&a,its to the $ieutenant 6o,ernor -ressing his wife7s clai/ to lan& an& other benefits that were &ue to her &ecease& father' 1e follows u- with a letter in October ()*:, sa ing; 9 ha& the honor our !xcellenc to &eli,er to ou in -erson at the Treat of the $ake Eu7A--elle a /e/orial asking co//utation of +eser,e an& annuit rights in fa,our of / wife the onl &aughter of Mah Ka sis late 1ea& Chief of the Cree nation' %ith the /e/orial was also enclose& co-ies of her father7s will of all his rights in her fa,our an& co//en&ing her to our -rotection when ou shoul& arri,e, this was acco/-anie& b a corroborati,e letter fro/ the +e,7&' 6ilbert Cook thereto /aking a clear state/ent' The intent of the /e/orial being that she shoul& a---- share such -reli/inar a&,antages as woul& ha,e been accrue& to hi/ ha& he been -ersonall -resent an& that after fa,ourable consi&eration of her re3uest for co//utation' This re3uest is base& -artl u-on the consi&eration which the she surren&ers but /ainl for the cons-icuous an& ser,iceable frien&shi- which in the &a s -ast the late chief ha& alwa s shown to the !nglish -eo-le an& for which he at ti/es suffere& in the esti/ation of his nation' Marke&l was this shown where in the ear ()IB a co/bine& attack b the Crees an& .lackfeet was /a&e u-on fort .enton, which was sa,e& fro/ sack an& slaughter onl through Mahka sis who being besought b four !nglish subMects Oh-kes-ness his K /ark
resi&ent with the fort an& frien&s of his own Nthe turne& their ar/s awa an& briefl encountering a large -art of 6ros Fentres attacke& an& slew the/ to a /an' Puring the @troubles7 in the +e& +i,er "ettle/ent Mahka sis exerte& successfull his a&&ress an& influence in restraining the "ioux an& the 9n&ians fro/ o,ert acts of ,iolence which once co//itte& woul& ha,e resulte& in such bloo& co/-lication as woul& ha,e been fraught with horror then an& /align results e,en to this &a ' This was a great an& excellent ser,ice it was the closing act of a life where as the hea& of a -owerful nation Chief also of the AssiniboinesNfro/ where his /other ca/e, this &istinguishe& /an, &istinguishe& alike as Chief, %arrior, "cout, -acificator, in a&,ance of his race an& -eo-le ga,e token of the a/it an& foresight which ha& e,er acti,ate& hi/ in his relations with the -owerful race whose a&,ent he foresaw, an& to who/ in -rescience of his &eath he confi&e& his onl &aughterNwhat he lo,e& /ost an& last Q' (9n&ian Affairs (+C(B, Folu/e H:(4, file DB(4) 1unt an& Kah-nah-nah-Kah--o-/it were hoste& in the 9n&ian ca/- b her brother Okanese, as their father Chief Mahka sis (The Fox) ha& recentl -asse& awa R()*4S' ( Mahka sis (Fox) was a son of $e "onnant an& ounger brother of Kahkewistahaw (1e who Flies Aroun&)' 1e was a renowne& hunter, -eace/aker, an& linguist who was hea& chief of the eastern Cree b /i&-centur ' 1unt &escribe& the Mourne to the Treat Four negotiations at Fort Eu7A--elle in the "e-te/ber 4:, ()*D e&ition of the -a-er' 1e Moine& the briga&e of carts “boun& with Treat su--lies# at the 0ortage an& tra,ele& with the/ for (I &a s before reaching the site of the Eu7A--elle Falle ' 9n his “=otes of the Eu7A--elle Treat # 1unt also &escribe& the scene at the treat 6roun&s ; A few ca/-s of half-bree&sC so/e ru&e houses, fro/ one of which was fl ing a flag in&icati,e of the i//ense bargains to be ha& withinC a great ca/- of 9n&ians on the -lain across the ri,erC the Co/-an 7s fort be on&C the whole shut in b the brown bluff'''' The asse/blage of 9n&ians was not as large as /ight naturall ha,e been ex-ecte&, --a few "ioux as lookers-on, the bulk of the Otchi-wes R"aulteauxS an& not a great /an Crees, who were absent at the .uffalo hunt securing their winter7s -ro,isions'4 Metis "cri- clai/s; 1unt, " l,esterC a&&ress; 0o-lar 0oint, ManitobaC clai/ no' 4B55C born; ( Feb', ()*) at Eu?A--elleC father; Frank $arnar& 1unt (%hite)C /other; 1arriet Fox (9n&ian)
1unt, FrancisC a&&ress; 0o-lar 0oint, ManitobaC clai/ no' 4(BBC born; 4H Lul , ())B at Eu?A--elleC father; Frank $arnar& 1unt (%hite)C /other; 1arriet Fox (9n&ian)'
Co/-ile& b $awrence .arkwell Coor&inator of Metis 1eritage an& 1istor +esearch $ouis +iel 9nstitute
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