Slum children in Dharavi & Social marketing plan WE REACH

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Asia’s largest slum is a testament of the state’s failure to address the growth of Bombay city’s expansive underbelly. It is also a grim reminder to the gracious people of how the underclass survives. The profile of target adopter population has been classified according to the major problem faced by slum children of DHARAVI. And that is child labour. Their profile is as follows: • • • • • Age group: 6 to 14 Approximate number of child laborers: 5000 Type of factories: Mainly Zari or embroidery factories as well as small leather goods manufacturing. Working hours: The boys work 20-hour days, seven days a week Living conditions: They live in dingy 10{minute} x 10{minute} sized rooms. The rooms have hardly any ventilation and the floors are grimy. Each room has a small smelly bathroom located in one corner. Another corner serves as a basic cooking area. They sleep, bathe and eat in this same room. They are given two meals a day and, if lucky, two cups of tea. o Physical and sexual abuse is part of this sad existence State of origin of labour slum children in Dharavi: Data collected from the State Labour Department say 90 per cent of children in these units in Dharavi are migrants from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. They come from very poor districts such as Rampur and Azamgarh in Uttar Pradesh and Madhubani and Sitamarhi in Bihar. West Bengal, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh are some of the other States from where children are brought. Monthly earnings: Rs 50 to Rs 100 PER MONTH.

The social product we are offering is: WE REACH It’s a drop in center in Dharavi envisaged to offer working children a space to call their own, where they can feel comfortable and relaxed, where they can come and go at will, enjoy recreational activities and receive primary healthcare and counseling from qualified medical personnel. Above all, these Centers are a gateway to ‘rescuing’ these children from a lifetime of exploitation and a fundamental step in the process of rapport building and rehabilitation. The We reach Centre, with its brightly painted red, yellow and orange walls with large windows and rays of sunshine streaming through, is a sight for the sore eyes of the tiny children. Basic amenities offered here, like fresh water, hygienic sanitary facilities; small lockers to store personal belongings are a scarce luxury for most of them. Our main objectives:

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• • • •

Every child in Dharavi should go to school and be learning. To advocate for a more favorable social policy environment for children in the slums. To improve the living conditions of slum labor children in Dharavi. Build capacity of WE REACH to achieve its goal.

Positioning:
Positioning statement: No slum children should ever lose his/her innocence and enjoy fair & dignified childhood.

Contents
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Topics I. Current social marketing situation a) Dharavi – Twilight city b) Profile of Dharavi c) Profile of target adopter population d) Review of social product

Pg. Nos. 4 4 6 8 9

II. III. IV.

Opportunities & Threats Objectives Social marketing strategies a) Targeting b) Positioning c) Communication channels d) Distribution channels e) Publicity

11 12 13 13 13 13 17 19 19 20 22 23

V. VI. VII. VIII.

Action programmes Social marketing budget Controls Bibliography

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Current social marketing situation: a) Dharavi – twilight city
Asia’s largest slum is a testament of the state’s failure to address the growth of Bombay city’s expansive underbelly. It is also a grim reminder to the gracious people of how the underclass survives. The ‘where’ of Dharavi can be established easily enough. Newcomers to Mumbai will probably have the place—‘Asia’s largest slum’—pointed out to them with a nudge and an uncomfortable chuckle as they drive out from the airport to the commercial centres of the ‘island city’, or make their first trip south on a ‘local’ commuter train.; There is absolutely “nothing to celebrate about living in a cramped 150 sq. ft. house with no natural light or ventilation, without running water or sanitation”. Geography: Dharavi is located between Mumbai's two main suburban railway lines, Western and Central Railway. These are the virtual lifelines of Mumbai's transport system. Dharavi is literally sandwiched beteen the two sets of tracks. To its west are Mahim and Bandra, to the north lies the Mithi River, which empties into the Arabia Dharavi is located between Mumbai's two main suburban railway lines, Western and Central Railway. These are the virtual lifelines of Mumbai's transport system. Dharavi is literally sandwiched beteen the two sets of tracks. To its west are Mahim and Bandra, to the north lies the Mithi River, which empties into the Arabian Sea through the Mahim Creek, and to its south and east are Sion and Matunga, Mahim. History: Dharavi was not always a slum, and it is as old as Bombay. In the Gazetteer of Bombay City and Island (1909), Dharavi is mentioned as one of the 'six great Koliwadas of Bombay," or as one of the city's great fishing communities. The original inhabitants of Dharavi were kolis, the fisherfolk, who lived at the edge of the creek that came in from the Arabian Sea. A dam at Sion, which was adjacent to Dharavi, also hastened the process of joining separate islands into one long, tapered mass. Thus began the transformation of the island city of Bombay. In the process, the creek dried up, Dharavi's fisherfolk were deprived of their traditional sustenance, and the newly emerged land from the marshes provided space for new communities to move in. The migrants could be roughly divided into broad categories. The first were people from Maharashtra, and in particular from the Konkan coast, as well from Gujarat. Potters from Saurashtra were allocated land in Dharavi to establish what is till today called Kumbharwada. The other settlers were direct migrants to the city, many of them trained in a trade or a craft. Muslim tanners from Tamil Nadu migrated to Dharavi and set up the leather tanning industry. Other artisans, like the embroidery workers from Uttar Pradhesh, started the ready-made garments trade. From Tamil Nadu, workers joined the flourishing business of making savouries and sweets like chakli, chiki and mysore pak.

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b) Profile of dharavi :
Demographics of Dharavi Dharavi means: ‘Loose mud’ in Tamil, named so by the early Tamil Muslim settlers who were tannery owners. a. • • • • • b. • • • • • • • Basic Facts Dharavi is first an industrial estate and then a residential slum! Dharavi is enterprise personified – it forces people to survive, due to lack of a safety net 80%+ residents of Dharavi, work in Dharavi itself. Majority of residents of Dharavi are Dalits Dharavi is a reserved SC (Schedule class) constituency. Quick facts: 85 percent of households own a television set, 75 percent own a pressure cooker and a mixer, 56 percent own a gas stove, and 21 percent have telephones. Dharavi has 28 temples, 11 mosques and 24 madarassas, 6 churches Oldest mosque – Badi Masjid (constructed 1887) Oldest temple – Ganesh Mandir (constructed 1913) – very important for Adi Dravidas Khamba Deo Temple (constructed 200 years back) Kala Killa (constructed 1737) Cross at Koliwada (1853). But as Jacob Patil, the gaonpatil or mayor of Koliwada says, the cross itself was erected in 1960. “I put that cross up in 1960, but I knew that a new cross would be knocked down by the police when they came to know of it. So I put the date 1853 on it, and pretended it had always been there, unnoticed. Now it’s in the history books! Subash Nagar is 80 years old. Opposite Mahim creek, Naik Nagar, Ambedkar Nagar and Rajiv Nagar have the worst living conditions, was built on swamp after concrete waste dumping. Area

• • c.

435 hectares (Other sources say 175 or 375 hectares). Population density is 17,000 per sq. km (18,000 people per acre?) d. Housing (Average Living space and Average family size)

Typically - Cramped 150 sq. ft. house with no natural light or ventilation, without running water or sanitation. e. (1986-87 NSDF/ SPARC survey)

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86,000 structures housing 106,000 families at an average of 6.2 people per house (total about 6 lakhs population); 62 pongals are like dorms which can accommodate 30-100 men to sleep. Pongals were constructed by Adi Dravidas. Government survey counted 3 lakh people. f. Voters Six (municipal corporations) wards each with a voters numbering 30,000 - 45,000. g. • • • • • h. The important roads are: Dharavi Main Road 90 feet road 60 feet road Dharavi cross road Sion-Mahim link road Children and Schools 60 4 47 13

1993 data for BMC “G North” ward Municipal Primary Schools Municipal Secondary Schools Municipal School Buildings Rented Municipal School Bldgs Four BMC schools are: • Sant Kakaiya • Kala Killa • Rajeshree Shahu • Transit Camp

Main private schools are: • Ambedkar School is an important Englsh medium school started by AndhraKannnada Dalit Vargh Sangh. • The four Tamil schools are till Std VII and then Kamaraj High school is a very good option for locals for further studies. • Shivaji Maharaj school • Ganesh Vidyamandir i. Hospitals and Doctors

1993 data for BMC “G North” ward Municipal Hospitals 1 Municipal Maternity Homes 1 Municipal Dispensaries 10 Dental Clinics 24 Other Hospitals 5 7

c) Profile of target adopter population :
Three types of children have been identified living in Dharavi while majority of them belongs to poor households, the nature, consequences, and constraints of poverty vary considerably across different contexts. They include: • Children with families: These tend to be from households of construction workers, fishermen, rag-pickers and garbage sorters, beggars, sellers of small items on trains, buses or streets, and pavement dwellers. The common characteristic is that the entire family can find work in the same occupation and it is easy for the children to accompany adults to work. Further, either due to parents’ occupation or due to the temporary nature of the residence, children are constantly moving around. Children without families: These children are typically brought to the city from their villages by middlemen to work in particular occupations. Children come alone or sometimes with siblings but are not accompanied by adult family members. The usual occupations that absorb child labor in Mumbai are zari or embroidery workshops, garage and mechanic sheds, roadside eating stalls, small restaurants and food delivery businesses, as well as small leather goods manufacturing. Children in institutional settings: Such as remand homes, orphanages, and juvenile court homes.

The profile of target adopter population has been classified according to the major problem faced by slum children of DHARAVI. And that is CHILD LABOUR

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• • • • •

Age group: 6 to 14 Approximate number of child laborers: 5000 Type of factories: Mainly Zari or embroidery factories as well as small leather goods manufacturing. Working hours: The boys work 20-hour days, seven days a week Living conditions: They live in dingy 10{minute} x 10{minute} sized rooms. The rooms have hardly any ventilation and the floors are grimy. Each room has a small smelly bathroom located in one corner. Another corner serves as a basic cooking area. They sleep, bathe and eat in this same room. They are given two meals a day and, if lucky, two cups of tea. o Physical and sexual abuse is part of this sad existence State of origin of labour slum children in Dharavi: Data collected from the State Labour Department say 90 per cent of children in these units in Dharavi are migrants from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. They come from very poor districts such as Rampur and Azamgarh in Uttar Pradesh and Madhubani and Sitamarhi in Bihar. West Bengal, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh are some of the other States from where children are brought. Monthly earnings: Rs 50 to Rs 100 PER MONTH

There are two schools of thought when it comes to children working. One believes that as long as children are first educated, it is all right for them to work for the rest of the day. This would provide a poor family with some income. The other school seeks a blanket ban on children working. Unfortunately, activists and lawmakers seem stuck in this argument; as a result children continue to lose out on their childhood

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d) Review of social product :
WE REACH It’s a drop in center in Dharavi envisaged to offer working children a space to call their own, where they can feel comfortable and relaxed, where they can come and go at will, enjoy recreational activities and receive primary healthcare and counseling from qualified medical personnel. Above all, these Centres are a gateway to ‘rescuing’ these children from a lifetime of exploitation and a fundamental step in the process of rapport building and rehabilitation. The We reach Centre, with its brightly painted red, yellow and orange walls with large windows and rays of sunshine streaming through, is a sight for the sore eyes of the tiny children. Basic amenities offered here, like fresh water, hygienic sanitary facilities; small lockers to store personal belongings are a scarce luxury for most of them. The Centre may be only 700 square feet big, but it represents a whole new world of possibilities to all these children. A place where they can get away from their tough, traumatic realities and get the opportunity to look to the future with hope. The array of games, toys, posters, charts and books that fill the room are taken in with wide-eyes and eager faces. The children delight in the chance to watch cartoons on the tiny television, in the corner. On opening day, the excitement is visible on every child’s glowing face, as they roll the die in a game of snakes and ladders, cheer their teammates on while playing caroms or furrow their brows in concentration as they contemplate their next move at chess. It seemed as if they were making the most of every moment that they were ‘allowed’ to be here. For a few hours they could be children and then they would go back to an abusive, often violent boss, and spend the next 16 hours bent over a wooden frame in a sweaty workshop making intricate ‘zari’ embroidery or the leather factory. We hopes that the escape the Centre provides will be an ideal ground to nourish the creativity and talents of the children. They will be free to pursue their musical and artistic interests and enjoy games likes’ cricket and basketball. Once, the children develop a sense of comfort and security in the Centre and enjoy coming there, the Team aims to start working on their literacy skills. Children will be encouraged to enjoy reading books by providing them with a library stocked with a variety of books on a range of topics. After pre-testing, competency dependent education will be given to make them proficient in Reading, Writing and Arithmetic. Their progress will be monitored, with the eventual aim of mainstreaming them into formal education. The Team also plans to conduct various workshops on a regular basis at the Centre. They will convey to local leaders, municipal authorities, parents, employers, children and other societal stakeholders about what the health risks and economic costs are of having children work. The employers will be encouraged to see the talents and aptitude of

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the children working under them and be motivated to allow them to visit the Centre for longer hours.

OPPORTUNITIES & THREATS
OPPORTUNITIES: • Increase in political will: Towards the end of 2005, the State government set up a Special Child Labour Task Force. In February 2006 Deputy Chief Minister R.R. Patil declared that Maharashtra would be "child labour free" by August 15 - an ambitious goal given the complexities of the problem but nonetheless a move in the right direction. Furthermore, Patil announced that employing children would be made a non-bailable offence in the State If there is political will, it is much easier to eradicate child labour Change in employer’s & parent’s attitude: The employers and parents will be encouraged to see the talents and aptitude of the children working under them and be motivated to allow them to visit the Centre for longer hours. This might gradually lead to the employer not only freeing the child but also might take interest in child future. This might sound absurd but there is something called humanity. Support from local leaders, municipal authorities etc: This will make the task much easier as the main components of the community are also taking part in the programme. Children themselves as change agents: The rehabilitated child himself might be a role model and be a more effective change agent when it comes to influencing other children working as child labour, their parents regarding their ills and importance of childhood and education. 11

Threats: • Weak child labour laws: Gaps in legislation are the prime cause for the increasing rate of child labour. The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986, prohibits the engagement of children in certain employments (such as hazardous industries) and regulates the working conditions of children in certain other jobs. "The important thing is that the Act does not prohibit child labour in all its forms, nor does it lay down any provision for educational opportunities for rescued child labour.

Furthermore, the penalty for employing children is so low that it is hardly a deterrent. The law says those caught employing children will pay fines between Rs.10,000 and Rs.20,000 or serve imprisonment from two to five years. Additionally, none of the other laws which protect children, such as the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000, the Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976, the Beedi and Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment Act), 1966, and the Factories Act, 1948, provide for any form of rehabilitation for rescued children. In fact, laws are so skewed that the Apprentice Act, 1961, and the Plantation Labour Act, 1951, actually permit children to work. "If the lawmakers have decided to eradicate child labour, they must first make the laws cohesive," • Other school of thought: One believes that as long as children are first educated, it is all right for them to work for the rest of the day. This would provide a poor family with some income. The other school seeks a blanket ban on children working.

If working at the age of six to earn Rs.50 a month is a better life, then clearly India has a long way to go before it can claim to be an emerging economy that has become a favourite in the global market. • • Poverty: The main root cause of all the ills is of course poverty; the pressure from parents due to poverty might lead the ward to go back to child labour in spite of his wish against it. No long term rehabilitation: While a task force may solve the immediate problem, the child labour situation in Mumbai is so grim that the greater issue that needs addressing is why these children come here and what happens to them once rescued. With no long-term rehabilitation plan, many of the children "saved" return to these sweatshops.

"This is nothing but recycling of child labour.”

OBJECTIVES

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VISION: No slum children should ever lose his/her innocence and enjoy fair & dignified childhood. MISSION: To strengthen the capacity of slum children to challenge and effect sustainable change in their lives through research capacity building and advocacy. OBJECTIVES: • • • • Every child in Dharavi should go to school and be learning. To advocate for a more favorable social policy environment for children in the slums. To improve the living conditions of slum labor children in Dharavi. Build capacity of WE REACH to achieve its goal.

SOCIAL MARKETING STRATEGIES

a) Targeting:

• • • • • •

Geographic: Dharavi, Asia’s largest slum Age group: 6 to 14 Occupation: Labour, mostly bonded labour Type of factories: Mainly Zari or embroidery factories as well as small leather goods manufacturing. Working hours: The boys work 20-hour days, seven days a week Living conditions: They live in dingy 10{minute} x 10{minute} sized rooms. The rooms have hardly any ventilation and the floors are grimy. Each room has a small smelly bathroom located in one corner. Another corner serves as a basic cooking area. They sleep, bathe and eat in this same room. They are given two meals a day and, if lucky, two cups of tea. Physical and sexual abuse is part of this sad existence Monthly earnings: Rs 50 to Rs 100 PER MONTH

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b) Positioning:
Positioning statement: No slum children should ever lose his/her innocence and enjoy fair & dignified childhood.

c) Communication channels:
• Personal communication: ( for the target adopters) What is it? Part of the flow of interaction and communication between change agents and target adopters that makes up a social change campaign Who does it? Community Organizers Extension workers Social workers Service providers Service deliverers

Motivators Outreach workers Facilitators Field Workers Volunteers

Professionals Recruiters Educators Counselors Missionaries

Personal Communication is the most powerful persuasion tool. Why is it so powerful? It's direct give-and-take exchange you can build a relationship target adopter feels obligation to reciprocate

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Two basic questions

Strategies Links 1 Recipi ent >1 Recipi ent 1 Outrea ch Educa tion >1 W-OM W-OM

Are we addressing one or more people?

Are links mediated or word-of-mouth?

The Message Universal - When target-adopters are highly motivated to adopt Varied - When many different segments exist FOR CORPORATES & VOLUNTEERS • Direct Mail

Advantages to Direct Mail

Decisions

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segments into better defined clusters can be personalized more flexible can tell target how to respond

Audience - which of tens of thousands of mailing lists? House lists or compiled lists? How can you tell a likely volunteer or corporate partner? Message The Offer => Action

Execution envelope letter brochure response form

Distribution

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Telemarketing Types Inbound Outbound Marketer provides toll-free number Marketer calls Corporate partners & volunteers.

When to Use Telemarketing As follow-up to mass communication & direct mail To encourage and reinforce loyalty To get names of corporate partners & volunteers personal communication appeals

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d) Distribution channel:
Distribution Channel A network of institutions and agencies involved in the task of moving products from points of production to points of consumption A Distribution Channel in Social Marketing Point of Production: the social change campaign Points of Consumption: the target adopters

Channel Level and Length Type of Marketing Traditional Marketing Social Marketing Origin Producer Change Agent Middle Intermediary Intermediary End Consumer Adopter

Three Alternate Models for the Flow of Distribution of a Non-tangible Social Product

Model One-Step Social Marketer Volunteers Adopters

Flow

Two-Step

Social Marketer

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Media Volunteers Initial Adopters (change agents) Later Adopters Social Marketer Ad Agency Media Multi-Step Other Social Marketers Other Ad Agencies Other Media Initial Adopters Later Adopters

Professionals and Volunteers as Part of the Channel Channel Motivation

Coercive or Legal Power Rewards and Benefits Professionals

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Volunteers

Personal Interest and Need Belief that Campaign Will Benefit Society Desire To Help Other People

e) Publicity:

Publicity is actually for • • • • • • corporates to get the required funds from them to get the programme kicking For volunteers to come forward last but not the least to highlight the plight of child labor in Dharavi Corporate partners News channels for their coverage, which shall be immediate for a good cause will be a shot in the arm. To create public awareness

Publicity can be created through pamphlets, Long marches by the citizens of the Mumbai and so on.

Action programmes
• RESCUE OF CHILD LABORERS IN Dharavi:

To conduct rescue operations of the children held in labor intensive work. For this actually we have to take one of the children in to confidence, so as to extract information regarding the pitiable conditions in which other children are working. This will get the police authorities to get into action. Acting on the cue, the local police authorities will step up raids on the factories employing child laborers. The press too will arrive there (Sahaara TV, Aaj Tak, NDTV and Times of India) It is emphasized that if these children were not returned to their families immediately, they would end up being employed by another owner.

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We reach Program

The WE reach program provides educational opportunities to child laborers, street children, pavement dwellers and children in conflict with law. Teaching and learning happens in places of work, on streets, pavements, railway platforms - wherever children want to learn. The outreach program includes several sub-activities, as follows:
• • • •

In contact: Child meets activist a few times a week for conversational contact Contact Class: The instructor meets children at or near the children's work place individually, or in small groups to teach for about 30 minutes. Hobby class: Group meets to draw, do handicraft, play- over 3-5 hours Study Class: The working children are taught at their work place in groups for 1-2 hours.

Starting with a 'contact class' where a We reach person develops a casual contact with children, the program moves to hobby classes where children meet regularly. Many members of the hobby class then move to more serious 'study class'.

Social marketing budget
• Method of Price Setting Need to Consider Costs Adopters' Price Sensitivity

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Unique-Value Substitute-Awareness Difficulty-Comparison Total-Expenditure End-Benefit Shared-Cost Sunk-Investment Price-Quality Inventory

Managing the Non-Monetary Costs of Adoption

Time Costs

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Can be lessened by: Embedding Anchoring

Perceived Risks

Type of Risk Recommended Action Psychological Deliver psychological rewards Social Get endorsements from credible sources Usage Reassure adopter or give free trial Physical Solicit seal of approval from authoritative institution

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Controls
• After setting a timeline for the program, we will be checking the children currently in contact with We reach, that is children in direct contact with them. We then calculate cumulative child months in association with We reach, which we look such as this:

Apart from this we will also be monitoring the boy’s status by sending an volunteer to the boy’s village to check up on his well being and status.

Bibliography

www.pratham.org www.prathamusa.org • Social marketing by Philip Kotler
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• • • •

Dharavi – wikipedia Young slaves of India – Front line Dharavi profile – DiehardIndian.com Shadow city – a look @ Dharavi

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