NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES THE AURORAL EFFECT Aiswarya S Kumar, SRM University, Kattankulathur Aparna S Kumar, SRM
University, Kattankulathur R.Aishwarya SRM University, Kattankulathur ABSTRACT "eman# $or energy is growing #ay %y #ay. &ut in $act they are slowly, %ut $or surely, getting e'hauste#. (hough worl# wi#e tren# is to shi$t $rom conventional energy to alternate energy sources, the million #ollar )uestion is how we utili*e the a%un#ant energy availa%le to us not only $rom the earth %ut also $rom the space. (ill now we have only %een a%le to utili*e the energy reaching the earth an# no one has taken measures to e'tract energy $rom the space. Aurora %orealis are the in#ication o$ e'cess energy present in the space aroun# us. (he Sun the source o$ energy in the universe is a magnetically active star. +t supports a strong changing magnetic $iel# that varies year,to,year .Solar win# is the plasma $rom the Sun-s corona, which consist o$ stream o$ charge# particles when it rushes out into interplanetary space, it contains an imprint o$ the Sun-s magnetic $iel#. As the solar win# approaches a planet that has a well #evelope# magnetic $iel# .such as earth/, the particles are #e$lecte# %y the 0orent* $orce. (his region, known as the magnetosphere, causes the particles to travel aroun# the planet rather than %om%ar#ing the atmosphere or sur$ace. (hese particles $rom the solar win# manage to travel to the earth1s upper atmosphere an# ionosphere in the auroral *ones. (he o'ygen an# nitrogen atoms present in the ionosphere are e'cite# %y these particles resulting in the $ormation o$ aurora %orealis. A large amount o$ energy is associate# with this auroral e$$ect. 2ur paper $ocuses on utili*ing this e'cess amount o$ non conventional energy source in an e$$ective way. 3e nee# a connection %etween the earth an# space an# this can %e achieve# through space elevator technology as per tour stu#y. Space elevator consists o$ a ca%le anchore# to the earth1s sur$ace, reaching into space. &y attaching a counter weight .a satellite in this case/at the en#, ensures that the ca%le remains stretche# taut, countering the gravitational pull on the lower sections, thus allowing the elevator to remain in the email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org aishwaryaram !@gmail.com
an# when they hit the top o$ the atmosphere.or utili*ing this we re)uire proper means an# metho#s.electrons an# protons/.Auroral *one. an# this energy is what powers aurora. (hus there is a large amount o$ energy is concentrate# in the auroral region in the $orm o$ kinetic energy o$ the solar particles . (he e$$ect states that i$ mechanical pressure is applie# to one pair o$ opposite $aces o$ certain crystals. (he voltage spee#s them up to a%out 1815 the velocity o$ light. 6nergy $rom the solar win# is constantly %uil#ing up in the magnetosphere.(he ri%%on is ma#e up o$ nano material whose strength appears greater enough to make this possi%le.155km $rom the sur$ace o$ earth which e'ten#s to thousan#s o$ kilometers in the sky. +n our paper we have ma#e use o$ ma'imum non conventional sources an# innovative metho#s to harness energy $rom a $amiliar phenomenon Aurora which can %ring a%out a revolution. (he technology use# in the satellite helps in e'tracting the energy $rom the space in the auroral *one. Solar particles are always entering the tail o$ the magnetosphere $rom the solar win# an# moving towar#s the sun. which works on the principle o$ pie*o electric e$$ect. an electric $iel# is set up.(his e'cess amount o$ energy can %e %rought on to the sur$ace o$ the earth an# utilise#. (hat is the AUR2RA &2R6A0+S9 (he aurora takes place at aroun# :5. +t can reach a very high voltage o$ a%out 75555 volts. Solar win# is the plasma $rom the sun1s coronna. &y ampere circuital law a changing magnetic $iel# is set up an# %y $ara#ay1s laws o$ electromagnetic in#uction. (he solar win# is a stream o$ charge# particles e4ecte# $rom the upper atmosphere o$ the sun. A satellite is
. which mostly consists o$ electrons an# protons with energy %etween 15 an# 155 kvetches particles move with a very high velocity an# #ue to this continuous $low o$ charge a current is set up. like the voltage %etween the two terminals o$ the %attery. they pro#uce a %right glow. (he pie*o electric material can reach the auroral region with the help o$ a ri%%on which connects the earth an# space known. 1. An electric voltage is create# %etween the magneto tail an# the poles. As per our stu#y we have $oun# it to %e a pie*o electric material. an# is %lown o$$ as the solar win#..+t constantly e'pan#s away $rom the sun. e)ual an# opposite electric currents charges appear across the other $aces. INTRODUCTION: Sun the source o$ energy in the universe is a magnetically active star.
1. !. ensures that the ca%le remains stretche# taut. light.155km o$ its own weight an# also the weight o$ solar cells to each the auroral *one.(here$ore. countering the gravitational pull. (he pie*o electric material can %e place# in this satellite to e'tract the e'cess energy present in the space. PIEZO ELECTRIC MATERIAL: @ie*o electric crystals are electromechanical trans#ucers. BASE STATION: (he %ase station #esigne# typically $alls into two categories. (he space ca%le woul# nee# a material capa%le o$ sustaining :5. (his mechanical $orce can %e in the $orm o$ parameters such as velocity.?. place# in the auroral region.7 km.1== >pa.7. (he #imension o$ satellite is appro'imately ?. An important engineering $actor in the use o$ pie*o electric trans#ucers is the electromechanical coupling %etween electrical an# mechanical energies. (he satellite serves two purposes. such as on top o$ mountains or even potentially on high towers. (he electromechanical coupling $actor k is #e$ine# in terms o$ K!. SATELLITE: A satellite is launche# $rom the %ase station to reach the auroral *one. pressure etc. Mo%ile stations are typically large oceangoing vessels. MODEL DEVELOPMENT: 2. a material with very high strength an# lightness is nee#e#. !. <ar%on nanotu%e $ul$ills these properties. !. !. Stationary plat$orms woul# generally %e locate# in high altitu#e locations.
. (heoretical tensile strength o$ car%on nanotu%e has %een estimate# %etween 175.attache# to the other en# o$ the ca%le.mo%ile an# stationary. 3hen a mechanical $orce is applie# on either si#es o$ a pie*o electric material.! CABLE: (he space elevator ca%le must %e ma#e o$ a material with large tensile strength8mass ratio. +t acts as a counterweight an# also it plays a signi$icant role in the e'traction o$ huge amount present in the space %y the use o$ pie*o electric material. electric charge is set up on the other two si#es.
out put an# e$$iciency an# cost $actors.!C15 D to . (hese are %rie$ly #iscusse# herein.7C15 particles8cm? / carry huge amount o$ energy o$ ?5. "ipole antenna B this antenna converts the input A< voltage to 6M signals. 2. Antennas also have the a%ility to intercept electromagnetic waves an# convert their energy into A< voltage an# current. 0oop antenna B this antenna converts the 6M signal %ack to the A< voltage. ANTENNAS: 3hen attache# to a source o$ high.K 2 =output electrical energy /input mechanical energy.(his energy o$ these $ast moving particles are imparte# to the pie*oelectric material which converts it to electrical energy.6. an antenna acts as a transmitting #evice.$re)uency A< power. the $ast moving electrons an# protons . (his energy is then #ischarge# which acts as an A< voltage input $or the antenna.== which can %e use# in this application. 2. !. ?. converting A< voltage an# current into electromagnetic wave energy.1 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: (he circuit #iagram $or @ro4ect set up is shown in . (o get a high output we nee# a material with high electromechanical coupling $actor. !.igure 1.$lu' #ensity ranging $rom 1.155Mev. (rans$er o$ energy $rom space is e$$iciently o%taine# %y this metho# %ecause these signals have low attenuation an# losses throughout its travel time. A voltage is set up across the pie*o electric material. CAPACITORS: (he power capacitors o$ very high storage capacity are use# in the satellite to store the electrical energy pro#uce# at the pie*o electric crystal en#. +n the auroral *one.
.5. 3e have employe# two types o$ antenna in our pro4ect such as 1. WORKING OF THE PRO ECT: (he pro4ect can %e clearly un#erstoo# %y the stu#y o$ various parameters like circuit #iagram. 0ea# *irconate titanate @A(5?87= has very high electromechanical coupling $actor o$ 5. circuit $or solar cells.
C"%'$"( D")#%)* +.== an# the power output will %e ??C15 7 watts8charge# particle. (he power capacitors are use# here to store the e'cess charge. (he net power output as per the calculations is $oun# to %e ?? >3.
.F"#$%& 1.-&'( S&($. (his is the power input $or the #ipole antenna which converts this into 6M waves which are receive# at the loop antennas raise# at the %ase station an# thus a $inal A< voltage is generate#.
(he pie*o electric material use# @A( has an electromechanical coupling $actor value to %e 5.% P%.
(he real part o$ an antenna-s impe#ance represents power that is either ra#iate# away or a%sor%e# within the antenna.2.ra#iate# power/.
. the i#eal value $or the antenna impe#ance is given %y.!. (he imaginary part o$ the impe#ance represents power that is store# in the near $iel# o$ the antenna .or ma'imum power to %e trans$erre# $rom the generator to the antenna. (he power that is #elivere# to the antenna can %e easily $oun# to %e.non. SCHEMATIC CIRCUITS OF THE ANTENNA:
An antenna-s impe#ance relates the voltage to the current at the input to the antenna.
Assume now that the receive antenna has an e$$ective aperture given %y this antenna . lossless. POWER TRANSMISSION:
3atts o$ total power are #elivere# to the transmit antenna. (hen the power p o$ the plane wave inci#ent on the receive antenna a #istance R $rom the transmit antenna is given %yE
+$ the transmit antenna has a gain in the #irection o$ the receive antenna given %y then the power e)uation a%ove %ecomesE
. / is given %yE .!. .!.
(he gain term $actors in the #irectionality an# losses o$ a real antenna. (hen the power receive# %y
Since the e$$ective aperture $or any antenna can also %e e'presse# asE
. assume that the transmit antenna is omni #irectional. an# that the receive antenna is in the $ar $iel# o$ the transmit antenna.or the
3ave length ?.5 F ?? I 15 watt F ??555 M3 6lectrical energy output o$ the pie*o electric material F .re)uency !. Helocity F ? B ?5 >G* . OUTPUT: /.! I 15D particles8cm!8s F155 I 15D I1./.= M3 F 1 . CACULATIONS FOR PIEZO ELECTRIC MATERIAL: 6nergy o$ a single electron8proton striking the pei*o electric material .D >3
.(he resulting receive# power can %e written asE
!. "irectivity 7.5.super high $re)uency/ F 1 .! I 15D F1!5 I1515 J 8cm! (otal mechanical energy pro#uce# over entire area o$ pei*o electric material F ?? I 157 8 15 .lu' #ensity o$ charge# particles 6nergy o$ charge# particles8cm! F 155 keH F 1.1. .==/! I ??555 F 1 5D5. 15 cm F 15 B 75 #& F ? I 15: m8s
/. SPECIFICATIONS OF THE EM WAVES: 1.
CACULATIONS FOR ANTENNA: (otal power #elivere# to the transmit antenna @ower receive# %y the receiver antenna F 1 . 0.D >3 appro'.775 mi/ away. we o%tain a very high power output which can meet the energy crisis $ace# %y the worl# that can %ring a%out a revolution. (hrough this pro4ect. solar panels woul# cost very less.google. REFERENCES: www. CONCLUSION: 3e conclu#e %y suggesting that this power plant can %e set up in ka$$eklu%%en o$$ the northern coast o$ >reenlan# a%out =55 km ./. 3e have taken care to select a pie*o electric material with high e$$iciency an# less cost which is lea# *irconate titanate @%A( 5?87=.
.com www. we nee# to invest some amount. So in total our set up is cost e$$ective an# #elivers a very large amount o$ power with comparatively less investment. Moreover very less maintenance is re)uire# $or our set up unlike other power plants./ 5. D. (he installation o$ our %ase station an# the launching o$ a satellite woul# cost a $ew thousan# #ollars. COST ANALYSIS: (o set up any power station. Accor#ing to our analysis. +n $act this is the only area where we nee# to invest.D >3 F 1 . we promise to make the worl# a %etter place to live in.2. (hrough the pro4ect1 the auroral e$$ect1.wikipe#ia.Since the attenuation o$ the 6M signals are negligi%le an# the e'act power can %e calculate# %y knowing the physical parameters o$ the antennas un#er use. (he other main components involve# in our pro4ect such as pie*o electric material.com