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This paper describes two controllers designed specifically for adjusting camera’s position in a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The optimal controller was designed and first simulated by using MATLAB technique and the results displayed graphically, also PID controller was designedand simulatedby using MATLAB technique .The goal of this paper is to connect the tow controllers in cascade mode to obtain the desired performance and correction in camera’s position in both roll and pitch.

This paper describes two controllers designed specifically for adjusting camera’s position in a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The optimal controller was designed and first simulated by using MATLAB technique and the results displayed graphically, also PID controller was designedand simulatedby using MATLAB technique .The goal of this paper is to connect the tow controllers in cascade mode to obtain the desired performance and correction in camera’s position in both roll and pitch.

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4,November 2013

DOI : 10.5121/ijitmc.2013.1403 25

OPTIMAL AND PID CONTROLLER FOR

CONTROLLING CAMERAS POSITION IN

UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES

MOHAMMAD ABDULRAHMAN AL-MASHHADANI

Department of Information System and Technology, Belarusian National Technical

University,Minsk ,Belarus

ABSTRACT

This paper describes two controllers designed specifically for adjusting cameras position in a small

unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The optimal controller was designed and first simulated by using

MATLAB technique and the results displayed graphically, also PID controller was designedand

simulatedby using MATLAB technique .The goal of this paper is to connect the tow controllers in cascade

mode to obtain the desired performance and correction in cameras position in both roll and pitch.

KEYWORDS

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, System Control, Servo Motor, PID Controller, Optimal Control

1. INTRODUCTION

Unmanned aerial vehicle is remotely piloted or self piloted (without pilot) aircraftwhich can carry

many different types of accessories such as cameras. In many types of UAVs servo motors are

using for adjusting movements, sensors and communications equipment [1].Control of the

movements and flying systems in the UAV is customarily done by using the microcontrollers

optimal controllers or conventional PID control techniques.The main objective of the work

reported in this paper is to evaluate the performance of each of optimal and PID controllers

separately and will show the characteristics of the each of PID and optimal controllers, and which

controller is better for obtaining the desired response.

2. SERVO MOTORS

Using the servomotor is helpful to correct the performance of a mechanism because it uses error

sensing feedback. The servo motors usually used in the systems where the feedback or error

correction signals help control mechanical position or other parameters[3]. Some servos also have

rotation limit of 360, but servos do not rotate continually. The Servos are used for precision

positioning. They are used in many fields like toys, cars and UAVs. Servos are commonly

electrical or partially electronic in nature, using an electric motor as the primary means of

creating mechanical force. Other types of servos use hydraulics, pneumatics, or magnetic

26

principles [3]. Usually, servos operate on the principle of negative feedback, where the control

input is compared to the actual position of the mechanical system as measured by some sort of

transducer at the output.

2.1. Modeling a Simple Servo motor

DC servo motorhas an output shaft with an inertial load(J) on it.Theamount of frictions in the

bearings of the motor and load represented in our paper by the constant (b).The input voltage u(t)

is transformed by the motor into a torque T(t) in the motor output shaft. If we assume that (h) is

the angular position of the servo output shaft, then the torque balance can be written as:

J*+b*=T(t) (1)

Where:

()- Is the shaft velocity, ()-is the shaft torque

The control objective is to control the shaft position (h) or the shaft velocity (h) to be some desire

value. The input voltage u(t) is related to the torque T(t) by a gain (K) and the inertia load divided

by the friction coefficient is referred to as the system time constant () where:

=J/b (2)

So the system model becomes:

* + =K.u(t) (3)

The linear part of the servo system model can be put in the transfer function form:

( 1)

( ) ( )

K

s s

y s u s

t +

=

(4)

Where y(s) is the output shaft position and u(s) is the motor input. K is the system gain and .

Where :(tau) is the time constant.

Lets go now to the UAV and will show and explain the scheme for controlling the rotational

position of the camera for roll and pitch movements of an unmanned air vehicle (UAV).Roll error

and pitch error signals obtained from gyro systems in the UAV are subtractive combined with roll

and pitch position signals, to generated control signals to be applied to rotate the camera in a way

that compensates for the roll and pitch movements of the UAV, and effectively isolates the

camera from roll and pitch movements of the UAV and the camera will provide a good photo or

video without loss in information (Fig. 1).

27

Figure1. Control system scheme for the camera in UAV

2.2. The Flight Controllers in UAV

The better method for controlling of a small UAV is to use the flight controller as consisting of

two cascaded controllers as shown in Fig.2.The firstcontroller, is designed to control the attitude

which takes desired attitude angles as inputs and generates the actuator commands that will result

in the desired attitude. The secondcontroller, which controls the slower translational rate

variables, takes desired velocity or position as input and generates desired angels to the inner

loop.

Figure 2.Overall control scheme

3. SYSTEM CONTROL REPRESENTATION

The transfer function of the servo motor used in our experiment as shown below:

firstwe will view the open-loop step response for the system, Then create a new m-file in Matlab

and add in the following code:

28

num=1050; den=[1 30 0]; step(num,den)

The DC gain of the plant used the above transfer function is () , so 10.5 x 10^5 is the final value

of the output related to a unit step input. This corresponds to the steady-state error of 1.5x10^5,

quite large indeed. Furthermore, the rise time is equal to the settling time.The goal of this

problem is to obtain a controller to give the following parameters:

Fast rise time

Minimum overshoot

No steady-state error

3.1. Modeling the optimal controller

The optimal controller equation in the Z-domain is given in the equation below:

1 +b 1z

1

+b 2z

2

W ( z)= K

0 (1

z

1

)(1 +a1

z

1

)

Where: K, b1, b2, a1 are coefficients defined as below:

K

0

=

ab

;

o (1 A )(1 B)

b1= ( A + B);

b2= AB;

bBaA+( a b ) AB

a1=

( aB )(1 A )(1 B)

A = e

ah

;B=e

bh

; h =0.001sec

The modeling of the controller using MATLAB Simulink is as shown in the Fig.3

29

Figure 3.Optimal controller design simulink

After running this model we can see the output signal as shown in Fig.4:

Figure 4.Output signal of the optimal controller

3.2. The PID Controller modeling

The transfer function of the PID controller is:

( ) .

i

p d

K

G S K K s

s

= + +

Where:

Kp = Proportional gain ,Ki= Integral gain ,Kd = Derivative gain

The proportional gain (Kp) will reduce the rise time and will reduce (but never eliminate) the

steady-state error. The integral gain (Ki) will eliminate the steady-state error, but it may make the

30

transient response worse. The derivative gain (Kd) will increase the stability of the system, reduce

the overshoot, and improve the transient response.Performance criteria were specified as:

Rise time t

r

s0.1

Settling time

t

s

s0.5

Maximum overshoot M

r

s0.5%

Steady state error (e) s0.5%

Running the program and we will get the needed parameters. From the parameters tuning we

can get:

Kd = 0.008672, Ki =0.008672, Kp = 0.114

Fig.5 shows the PID controller designed by using MATLAB Simulink where all of controller

coefficients were adjusted.

Figure 5.PID control system designed in MATLAB Simulink

31

After running this simulink, we can see the signal shown in Fig.6

Figure 6.Output signal in the case of PID

By comparing the signal output in case of optimal controller (Fig.4) and PID controller (Fig.6) we

obtain the signals shown in Fig.7.

Figure 7.output signals compared between the 2-controllers

We can summarize the performance of the optimal and PID controllers obtained by our

experiment as in the table.1 shown:

32

Table 1. OPTIMAL AND PID OUTPUT SIGNAL CHARACTERISTICS

controller

RISE

OVERSHOOT

SETTLING S-S

TIME TIME ERROR

optimal 0.2 none 0.4 0.4%

PID 0.2 none 0.57 0.53%

Lets now campaign the 2-controller as we explain above in cascade mode to get the desired

output signal and the desired output voltage from the servo motor to give the right signal to the

camera position (Fig.8).

Figure 8.output signal for combining optimal and PID controllers

As we see in fig.8 the desired performance well obtained and this refer that the combined of the

optimal and PID controllers in cascade mode give the performance better than if they worked

separately.

4. Conclusions

Flight control of UAV is done by using tow controllers instead of one and the tow controllers is

designed by using MATLAB technic .

Optimal controller satisfies the performance requirements. But, PID controller was unable to

give fast rise time and it failed to satisfy the performance requirements.

Combining the optimal and PID controllers as we suggested in this paper in cascade mode will

give the desired performance and this will make no loss in information in the cameras movements

in both roll and pitch.

33

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to acknowledge my professor Alexander A.Lobaty and Mr.A.G.Streshnov for their

big assistants.

REFERENCES

[1] SeferKurnaz , Omer Cetin and OkyayKaynak , Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system based

autonomous flight controlof unmanned air vehicles, Expert Systems with Applications 37 ,2010,P

12291234

[2] Rahul Malhotra, Narinder Singh, Yaduvir Singh, SOFT COMPUTING TECHNIQUES FOR

PROCESSCONTROL APPLICATIONS, International Journal on Soft Computing ( IJSC ), Vol.2,

No.3, August 2011

[3] SHAMSUL NIZAM BIN MOHD YUSOF AHAMID, DEVELOPING LQR TO CONTROL SPEED

MOTOR USING MATLAB GUI, Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering , University

Malaysia Pahang, NOVEMBER 2008

[4] JyotsnasBlog,SERVOMECHANISMS AND ITS APPLICATIONS,July 2009

[5] http://www.engineersgarage.com/articles/servo-motor

[6] Servo control systems: DC servomechanisms. Control-systems principles.co.UK.

[7] Downs, Stuart G., unmanned air vehicle servoing dipole, Northrop Grumman Corporation Los

Angeles, CA,2004

[8] PID control-National Instrument , http://www.ni.com/white-paper/6440/en

[9] Tsai-JiunRenand Tien-ChiChen, Motion control for a two-wheeled vehicle using a self-tuning PID

controller, Control Engineering Practice Volume 16, Issue 3, March 2008, P 365375

[10] Walln, A. (2000): Tools for Autonomous Process Control. PhD, Department of automatic Control,

Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden.

[11] Panagopoulos, H. (2000): PID Control; Design, Extension, Application. PhD thesis, Department of

automatic Control, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund,Sweden.

[12] ieniazek, J. Software-based Camera Stabilization on Unmanned Aircraft, Aircraft Engineering and

Aerospace Technology: An International Journal, Vol. 75, No. 6, 2003.

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