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Topic One – Fodder Conservation
1. Identifies the reasons why fodder conservation is undertaken on farms - Main source of income for some farms - Needed in winter when there is a shortage of food; excess pasture from summer and spri6ng is harvested and stored - Needed in case of drought, flood, bushfire etc. i.e. shortage of feed 2. Identifies the characteristics of plant varieties used for fodder conservation Hay Lucerne, wheat, mixed pasture, sorghum, millet, barley, oats A good source of energy and proteins Silage Lucerne, mixed pasture, sorghum, maize High in energy Ʊ Maize The most commonly grown silage Produces superior quality silage, but has high cost for the farmer Stressed crops require quickly in drought, but does not recover for a second harvest once grazed Ʊ Sweet Sorghum Equal yield but not as good quality as maize More reliable in drier regions (less water needed) Can be regrown after it has been grazed Recovers well from rain No specialised planting equipment needed Ʊ Mixed Pasture Excess pasture can be made into silage for times of need e.g. drought Grain Oats, wheat, barley, triticale, maize High in food value On the school farm, we produce pasture hay bales for mulching and buy in grains. 3. Investigates production of forms of fodder conservation Hay Making - Cut crop/pasture is dried out to moisture content of 20% in the paddock. It is turned occasionally (raked) - It is then pressed into bales (20-30kg up to 2 tonnes) and stored into a shed; rain will leech nutrients out after being cut if not stored - Bales can be small and rectangular (20-30kg) or large rectangular and cylindrical (up to 20 tonnes) - Mower conditioner lightly crushes stems between rubber rollers for quicker drying - For maximum quality, should be cut in the young vegetative stage; drying is faster - If moisture content is too low, overheating may occur, lowering quality (protein loss). - If moisture content is too high, leaf (most valuable part) loss may occur
conditioning and forming into a windrow .Several operations are combined in one machine. reduced dry matter and quality losses) Storage Bale wrappers wrap bales in plastic for them to turn into silage Tower silos are made from concrete/steel Feeding Out Bale splitter splits up bales of hay for feeding to livestock Bale feeder is where hay is placed for livestock to feed Round/square bale handler moves bales without damaging the wrapping Page 2 . making silage ferment quicker (less loss of sugars and proteins. vermin proof silos Must be treated with insecticide to prevent weevil attack 4. easily transported) Fed to animals on the farm - Grain Making Harvested when seed has dried to moisture content of 12% or less Can be stored for several years in small.- Storage in sheds or outside carefully (only walls and top bales are water damaged) Silage Making Not as dried out as in haymaking Stored under airtight conditions (compaction). oxygen free environment allows bacteria to break down plant sugars produce lactic acid inhibits the growth of microbes Chopped green fodder crop is stored at 70-80% moisture content Cut 1-2 cm Stored in: Ʊ Pit silo (dug in ground) Ʊ Bunker silo Ʊ Steel glass lined lower silo Ʊ Plastic round bales (most common. Explores the processes involved and hence good management decisions necessary to successfully produce conserved fodder SEE POINT 3 5. Explores the impact of technology on fodder conservation practices Production .Silage inoculants are a type of additive which contains good bacteria. cutting.Conditioning stems and leaves dry out at the same time less time to dry out quicker to bale .Mechanical forage harvesters are used to collect and chop the plant material and deposit it in trucks or wagons . metal.
Maintain and service machinery . children .Should be located clear of houses.Dust may be explosive. overhead power-lines. Identifies Occupational Health and Safety issues associated with fodder conservation Silo and stored grain safety regulations . no smoking Tractor/machinery safety precautions Be familiar with the instructions Adjust the machine only when stopped or switched off Make sure all safety guards remain on the machine Use a machine only for the tasks it is designed for Page 3 .6. animals.Wear appropriate respiratory equipment especially when fumigating .
7 10. irrigate if necessary 45 days Monitor for Heliothis 56 days 16 leaves 1st of December 66 days Pollination/tasseling/silking 70-100 Maturity Harvest 20th of days December *see diagram Land Preparation Chisel Plough (deep ripper).2 13. list in order/sequence the operations of one cycle of operations. plate seeder Sowing Page 4 .2 8.5 1. herbicide. For a sweet corn calendar of operations. state the timing of the operations against calendar months and identify machinery/technology used in the calendar of operations Days Growth Stage Operations Date 2-3 months before planting Soil is deep-ripped with a chisel 1st of August plough or an offset disc plough several times Sowing Fertiliser NPK applied.9 16.Agriculture Half Yearly Notes Topic Two – Sweet Corn 1. Briefly describe the history of sweet corn and how it became an agricultural crop First gathered and sown by the Incas Taken to Central America where the Aztecs cultivated it Indian tribes spread it over North America and the Caribbean where it was first seen by Europeans Now grown in many parts of Europe.6 11.7 9. cultivation Emergence 1st of October 7days 2 leaves fully emerged Inter-row cultivation 14 days 5 leaves fully emerged. and boom spray Precision row planter. air seeder. tyned implements. disk plough. the importance of sweet corn as crop in Australia NSW QLD VIC TAS WA SA NT Australia Tonnes 34273 14822 7366 5352 1668 1294 11 64785 Hectares 2408 1697 743 321 163 96 6 5434 Average 14. State using recent statistical figures. tassel and ear initiation 21 days Side dress NPK 28 days 8 leaves fully emerged 35 days Side dress NPK 42 days 12 leaves Critical stage for moisture stress. Asia and the Americas 3.9 yield (t/ha) 2.
Major disease: Rust. Caterpillars may bore through the husks and ender the middle or lower parts of developing cobs.Most is dent type (grain dent/shrink at top when dry) . frost sensitive (crop must be harvested before first frost).Coarse grain . but severe outbreaks are rare. dry and windy conditions at flowering will disrupt pollination and may lead to poorly filled cobs The preferred soil: deep.9. Major weed problem 5. leading to rapid build-up of disease. NPK = 30. 500-600 mm/growing season (105 days) Major pest: Corn earworm. growing temperature 15-32°C. fertile. It occurs in most seasons. P: 55kg/ha. NPK = 2:0.55:1. Crops are infested during tasselling/silking. The fungus survives on out-of-season/diseased maize or maize residues until conditions favour infection. hot. The preferred climate: warm season.Commonly fed to livestock and in the manufacture of breakfast cereal . If sowing is done correctly (correct density and with necessary fertilizers) and at the right time.5 – 6. Reddish-brown pustules develop on leaf surfaces and surrounding leaf tissue dies. every 1000kg of Dynamic Lifter. soil pH of 5. Treatments are more effective using high clearance ground equipment rather than aircraft. Caused by Puccinia Sorghi and restricted to maize in NSW. caterpillars feed on tassels and developing seeds. K: 100kg/ha). 15 Water needs: well drained alluvial (transported by water) soil along rivers and creeks. 1. sand and silt) soils with adequate nutrition. Favoured by mild temperatures. Eggs are dome shaped and hatch in 3 to 12 days depending on temperature (they develop faster in warm weather). Crop specifics. loam (equal parts of clay.Some grown for silage Sweet Corn No hard layer on the outside Grain will wrinkle and shrink when dry High sugar content in the early dough style Pop corn Page 5 . reddish brown or almost black with a stripe along the side of the body.4. severe infections should not occur. Number and frequency of spray treatments depends on duration and intensity of egg-laying. Varietal selection Maize . green. Caterpillars are 40-50 mm long and are yellow. Inspect crops weekly (for moths or eggs) from before tasseling until after silking.5 Nutrient needs: (N: 200kg/ha.
Hold stalk and bend off the cob Supersweet 75%-85% moisture when harvesting Standard 71%-73% moisture when harvesting School commercial enterprise: . Marketing Recipes include: Chicken and corn soup Stir fried. Tacos. shelf life and time to maturity 6. frozen.- Grains are smaller and pointy on small cobs fresh.Harvest when all the silk is brown and cob is sticking out by 30° and it feels fat and full .000 .Total value of corn per hectare = 60. The very top of cob should be a little empty. processed flour End Use Varieties are used because of factors such as climate. Doritos.000 x 0. corn flakes.Number of plants per hectare – 30.Total number of corn cobs per hectare = 60. mixed vegetable.2 = $12.000 7. corn juice. corn candy Page 6 . canned (creamed or kernels). Nachos.Number of corn cobs per plant = 2 . other corn chips. popcorn. If we wait till the whole cob is full then the kernels at the base would be overripe and starchy .If unsure part husk and have a look at the top part. Harvesting .000 .
they will continue to engage in agriculture production Environmental Sustainability 1. Farming communities will only survive if they have employment opportunities and facilities that connect them to other people 2.T. Turn off the engine when dealing with PTO.T. The weight of implement can make a tractor unstable A P. Sharp blades can cause injuries Always carry knives pointing downwards 9. The sensible use of fertiliser such as Dynamic Lifter or Blood and Bone 3.T. Sustainability The ability to produce food fibre and shelter material for ourselves and future generations Economic sustainability.the ability to earn an income by producing agricultural goods Input Seed Labour Fertiliser Transportation Chemicals Irrigation Output Profit (the cost of inputs must be less than the value of output for a farm to be economically sustainable) Social Sustainability 1. P.O guard must be in place. To use cultivation implements such as chisel plough or disc plough rather than rotary hoe to prevent erosion. animal breeds For the sweet corn. Use varieties that are drought resistant or their water requirement is low 4. 2. health and education available. Clothing can get caught in power take off (P.T. mask and goggles Implements 1.1) chisel plough 2) Sprinkler Irrigation 3) Use of Dynamic Lifter Page 7 .O) A tractor must be filled with Roll Over Protective Structure (ROPS) and P.O 2.O guard Chemicals 1. Use of disease resistant plant varieties.8. If rural communities are provided with support during flood and drought and have communication. Can roll over 2. Direct contact with skin 2. Identify the safety aspects associated with sweet corn production Tractor 1. Steep slopes. Inhaling fumes Always use personal protective equipment (PPE) such as gloves. Training to drive tractor safely in steep areas Knife 1.
4. o Channels are used to plant crops in. o Pump pumps water with nutrient solution through delivery line into channels. Identify three examples of commercial crops that are commonly grown using hydroponics Lettuce. 3. Outline the function for each piece of equipment used in the school’s hydroponics system o Reservoir tank is used to store the water with nutrient solution to pump into hydroponic channels. o Delivery line is a pipe through which water with nutrient solution flows into hydroponic channels. Compare the school’s hydroponics system with two other main commercial systems o School's hydroponic system is the water culture NFT (nutrient film technique). o Closer is used to hold the plants in place. Chinese cabbage 6. suspended in liquid. The seeds are kept moisturised during the germination period. Include: reservoir tank (for nutrient solution). Page 8 . o Tap is used to alter the rate of water flowing/ dripping into the hydroponic channels and tray. 5. It is a technique to grow plants (in a nutrient solution) without using soil as a growing medium. The return line is not pump assisted. it relies on gravity. Identify the parts of the hydroponics system Reservoir tank Pump Delivery and return lines Channels Closers Draw the components of the system. through which water with nutrient solution flows. o Return line is used to return the nutrient solution that has flowed through the channels back to the reservoir tank. pump. Pak Choi.Agriculture Half Yearly Notes Topic Three – Hydroponics 1. The solution acidity (pH) must be checked frequently. o Tray is used to place germination seed trays in and supply with nutrients. channels. closers 2. delivery and return lines. Define hydroponics Hydroponics comes from the Greek words hydro (water) and ponos (labor).
aphids. cabbage white butterfly Thrips.8 . Research the requirements for plant growth e.25ᵒC Special Nutrient Requirements Potassium Hydroxide Possible pest/disease Pests: Flea beetle. Pak choi. Spotted Wilt.18°C Special Nutrient Requirements Possible pest/disease Pests: Diseases: pH for the nutrient solution 5. Page 9 . optimum pH for the nutrient solution Lettuce Climatic Requirements o A cool season vegetable which should be grown under cool.o Commercial hydroponic systems mostly use aggregate culture rather than liquid culture (growing in sand or vermiculite). Lettuce. possible pests/disease. moist conditions o Seedlings will tolerate a light frost o Soil temperature should be 16°C . Rust 7. Also. Outline advantages and disadvantages of growing plants hydroponically compared to conventional soil culture Advantages Φ Use the land where soil is infertile Φ Use of vertical space Φ Control of nutrients quantity and use Φ Recycling of water Φ No need for crop rotation Disadvantages Φ Expertise to set up Φ Skills needed to run system Φ Daily monitoring of the system is required to ensure smooth running and correct pH and nutrients status Φ Water-borne diseases 8. in the hydroponics system including.6 Pak Choi Climatic Requirements 20ᵒC . Chinese cabbage.g. most commercial systems are sheltered in a greenhouse or poly-tunnel. Aphids Black root rot.
12.8 Chinese Cabbage Climatic Requirements o 13°C . carnation). tank Hydroponics): Plants which are suited to having roots suspended in water. Nutrients in the water in the presence of sunlight in the water encourage algal growth. Without sunlight some aquatic plants will stop growing Leached fertilizers in the soil will increase. Also. Fertilisers when applied to soil can leech down the 11. Indoor plant varieties and roses and bulbs are not suited for NFT Hydroponics. 10. Lettuce. Investigate how a soil-less plant system can reduce the impact of farming on the soil and the environment No fertilizers in the soil so there is no run off of nutrients to water ways.6 (optimal 7) 9. Investigate the range of plants. more channels could be made. Root vegetables are not suitable for Gravel Bed Hydroponics. leeks. melons brussel sprouts etc)can also be grown. electrical conductivity will also increase in proportion. but as salts and metals are added. Explain that measuring the electrical conductivity can estimate nutrient levels within the solution Pure water or distilled water has no electrical conductivity. white rot pH for the nutrient solution 5. therefore allowing to measure nutrient levels. Regular outdoor vegetable varieties (lettuce. vegetables and ornamentals that will grow under hydroponic conditions o Plants suitable for Liquid Culture (NFT. The algae stops sunlight reaching deeper in the water. These include: Cucumbers.pH for the nutrient solution 5. Φ Φ Page 10 .7. o Plants suitable for Aggregate Culture (Gravel/Sand/Vermiculite Bed) Hydroponics: For growing cuttings and propagating varieties of flowers (chrysanthemum.5 .15°C o Can withstand light frosts Special Nutrient Requirements Nitrogen can be applied alone or in combination with Phosphorus and Potash Possible pest/disease Pests: Diseases: Aphids Blackleg. Broccoli and other outdoor plant varieties. Soil pH causing soil acidification. Suggest any possible improvements to the current system The hydroponics system could be sheltered with a poly-tunnel or greenhouse to prevent pests and maintain climate. Tomatoes. hydroponic system does not apply fertilisers to soil.
required in large quantities Examples: Nitrogen. Vermiculite and peat moss retains moisture 2. Inspect for pest and diseases regularly 8. Preparing hydroponic potting mix: mix vermiculite and peat moss to prepare a hydroponic potting mix. Add nutrients to the water in correct ratios 5.required in small quantities but very important for plant growth Examples: Zinc. Molybdenum (also known as trace elements) Page 11 .Φ Φ soil and lowers the pH. Potassium (NPK) Micro . causing acidification of soil. Transfer seedlings to channels 7. When the soil is too acidic. then the plants can't take up the nutrients Hydroponic system does not have chemical spray drift in water ways and therefore the chances of killing native flora and fauna are much smaller as compared to traditional system Water is recycled in hydroponics system 13. Boron. Fill the tank with water to the required capacity. Design a management program for the period of growth of the crop 1. Raising seedlings: sow seeds in the hydroponic growing medium and keep moist 3. Phosphorus. Magnesium. Check salt and pH daily Nutrients needed: Macro . Test salt level and pH 6. Disinfect the reservoir tank and channels 4.
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