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Issue 1 I 2007
Cover Airports, subway stations, trade shows – just a few of the places where people need to cover large distances quickly. The TurboTrack is a revolutionary, highly efficient passenger transportation system from ThyssenKrupp Elevator. Its continuously pallet band has three speed zones. In the entry and exit areas the TurboTrack runs at 0.65 m/s. In the central section it accelerates to an impressive 2 m/s. With no need for complex infrastructure and no waiting times, the TurboTrack can transport up to 14,000 people per hour over distances of up to 1.5 km. Our cover picture shows one of the world’s first two TurboTrack installations at Lester B. Pearson International Airport in Toronto, Canada. The TurboTrack passenger transportation system was awarded 1st prize in the 2007 ThyssenKrupp Innovation Contest.
ThyssenKrupp AG, Corporate Technology, August-Thyssen-Str. 1, 40211 Düsseldorf, Germany, Telephone: +49 (0)211/824-36291, Fax: +49 (0)211/824-36285
“ThyssenKrupp techforum” appears once or twice a year in German and English. Reprints with the permission of the publisher only. Photomechanical reproduction of individual papers is permitted. “ThyssenKrupp techforum” is distributed according to an address file maintained using an automated data processing system. ISSN 1612-2771
Foreword | 3
Innovation activities at ThyssenKrupp have developed very positively in the past few years. Our annual Innovation Contest contributes to improving the climate for innovation, translating ideas into promising products and services and giving recognition to the work carried out by our development teams. It offers incentives for creative ideas and ultimately innovations which are essential in ensuring our continued competitiveness. This issue of ThyssenKrupp techforum presents some particularly interesting entries from the Innovation Contest, which is now in its eight year. First prize was awarded to an innovative passenger transportation system developed by ThyssenKrupp Elevator. The so-called TurboTrack is designed for high capacity and long distances. In its central section it accelerates to a top speed of 2 m/s, while the entry and exit sections move at the conventional speed of 0.65 m/s. This system – the first of which has been installed at Toronto Airport in Canada – can transport up to 14,000 people per hour and cover distances between 200 m and 1,500 m. Second prize went to the Uhde HPPO process for the co-product-free production of the versatile chemical propylene oxide. This exceptionally eco-friendly process produces propylene oxide from propylene using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent. The process – the first in the world available on a commercial scale – uses less energy and produces no co-products other than water. Propylene oxide is used among other things in the production of polyurethane foams. Third prize was won by a team from ThyssenKrupp Steel for the development of a completely new method of producing innovative structural elements for the automotive industry: the so-called T3 profiling technology produces hollow steel sections for use in automotive bodymaking by shaping a blank into an almost finished component and welding it in a one-step process. This method allows the realization of completely new designs and also saves material and thus weight. I hope you will enjoy reading about both the prize-winning entries and the other equally impressive projects and that they will give you an impression of ThyssenKrupp’s innovative capacities and the creativity of our employees.
Dr.-Ing. Ekkehard D. Schulz, Chairman of the Executive Board of ThyssenKrupp AG
1 | 2007
Duisburg ING. HORST OEMKES Cold Strip Mill 2. Furthermore. The good formability and simultaneous high tensile strength and the usability of the ‘bake hardening’ effect make it possible to achieve a significant reduction in the thickness of the sheet metal used and thus of the weight. Duisburg MOHAMMED TOHFA New Processing Technologies | ThyssenKrupp Steel. RER. RER. Because of its unique plant and process engineering.-ING. Additional synergy effects are generated by giving components previously unattainable shapes and functionalities. Center of Materials Excellence | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. Duisburg LOTHAR HÖMIG New Processing Technologies | ThyssenKrupp Steel. Duisburg DR. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . GRAD. Key Account DaimlerChrysler | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG.-ING. Tako line | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. the optimized primer provides improved corrosion protection with a lower coating thickness and thus reduces costs. NAT. Duisburg Demand for more environmentally compatible vehicles is forcing manufacturers to build extremely light automobiles. The associated lower fuel consumption assists in improving the environmental balance. contributes to the value-added and simplifies processing in the stamping plant. 14 | T3 profiling technology – a precondition for the increased use of hollow steel sections in motor vehicles DR. JÖRG LEWANDOWSKI Specialist Coordinator. ING. It also leads to an increase in the service life of the component. JOSEF SCHNEIDER Specialist Coordinator Color Profit Center | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. RER. REINHILD HAUBRUCK Specialist Coordinator Sales/Engineering. SILKE STRAUß Specialist Coordinator. NAT. dual-phase steel with low thickness and an optimized anti corrosion primer results in synergy effects offering numerous advantages for the automobile industry. Duisburg DIPL. intelligently designed hollow section components are substantially increasing the potential of lightweight construction. Dortmund DR. Duisburg WLADIMIR RITUPER New Processing Technologies | ThyssenKrupp Steel. Materials Competence Center | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. THOMAS FLEHMIG Team Leader of New Processing Technologies | ThyssenKrupp Steel. NAT. BERNHARD SCHINKINGER Specialist Coordinator | DOC Dortmunder Oberflächencentrum GmbH.-ING. (FH) MICHAEL BRÜGGENBROCK New Processing Technologies | ThyssenKrupp Steel. Duisburg DR. T 3 profiling technology can be used to produce such components particularly inexpensively. Due to their high geometrical moment of inertia. in which steel plays a dominant role because of its excellent properties. Duisburg DIPL. Eichen The material combination of a cold-rolled. new.4 | Contents 10 | 14 | 22 | 30 | 10 | Dual-phase steel with anticorrosion primer for exposed car panels DR.
the development of a high-quality shaft-furnace slag resulted in a disposal concept that makes it possible to convert all former waste products – almost in their entirety – into products. After extensive research conducted during a four-year period. Not least as a result of the continuing strong demand for these metals. HEINZ KOCH Technical Product Manager | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH. in particular hot forming. KLAUS KESSELER Manager Metallurgy Division. Steel Plant | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH. especially for nickel and molybdenum. this helps to conserve raw materials resources. Hot Metal Production | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. chromium. Through its outstanding.-ING. Duisburg DR. Hot Metal Production | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. reduce the load on landfill disposal sites and cut costs. RER. With environmental sustainability. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .-ING. iron-bearing residual materials from iron and steel making operations to be melted back into hot metal. NAT. and molybdenum.Contents I 5 22 | OxyCup® slag – a new product for demanding markets DIPL. Through the further development of the ferritic stainless steel NIROSTA® 4521 and the optimization of production processes. ThyssenKrupp Nirosta is able to provide a material that is highly corrosion resistant and offers consumers significant economic benefits in comparison to austenitic CrNiMo steels. we have seen unprecedente price increases. Bochum DIPL. 30 | NIROSTA® 4521 – a stainless CrMo steel with impressive corrosion resistance DR. an increasingly important factor.-ING. Duisburg OxyCup® is a unique technology that allows non-recyclable. RONALD ERDMANN Manager Metallurgy Division. JÖRG-FRIEDRICH HOLZHAUSER Manager Metallurgy Department. the newly developed shaft-furnace slag attains properties comparable to those of natural stone such as granite and basalt. Krefeld The cost of stainless steels is directly related to the prices of alloying elements such as nickel. which consequently have also driven the prices of austeniti stainless steels to a very high level. reproducible and adjustable physical and chemical values as well as its crystalline structure.
The entire process has been newly developed. NORBERT ULLRICH Chief Engineer | Uhde GmbH. ThyssenKrupp Nirosta Präzisionsband offers rolled stainless steel strips with a partially differentiated surface roughness. The process includes a new reactor design and process configuration in conjunction with an optimized catalyst. MATHIAS BÄRWOLF Managing Director | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta Präzisionsband GmbH.-ING. DIPL.. the roughness of the material surface is the primary factor determining the reflection characteristics of a surface.000 t/a of propylene oxide in Korea. 38 | HPPO process for propylene oxide production with no co-products DIPL. at the same time.6 | Contents 34 | 38 | 44 | 50 | 56 | 34 | Rolling microscopically fine surface structures DIPL.-ING. starting with a laboratory-scale set-up.-ING. followed by several years of miniplant operation and culminating in the establishment of a large-scale reference facility with a capacity of 100. RER. Individual structures and patterns can be represented on the strip by this means. Dahlerbrück KAI MASCHMEIER Head of Department Sales 2 | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta Präzisionsband GmbH. Ennigerloh The HPPO process is the first commercially available process for propylene oxide production that uses hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an oxidizing agent and is free of co-products. Dortmund DR. Propylene oxide is a versatile bulk chemical with high growth rates and is mainly used as a precursor for the production of polyurethanes. NAT. Dortmund DR. Dahlerbrück Visible structures in surfaces arise due to differing reflection characteristics of the substrate. the option of improving their brand management.-ING.-ING. Dahlerbrück DIPL. In addition to the angle of incidence of the light. NIELS BREDEMEYER Senior Chemist | Uhde GmbH. BÄRBEL KOLBE Senior Process Engineer | Uhde GmbH. Customers gain new design possibilities for their products and.-WIRTSCH. MICHAEL ULLRICH Head of Production | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta Präzisionsband GmbH. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .
Waupaca/USA ThyssenKrupp Waupaca produces 1. Eschen/Liechtenstein ANJA TISCHLER (MAG. manufacturing costs and energy consumption are considerably reduced. Process time. 2 to 2.5 m – has been installed in the Rothe Erde plant in Lippstadt. 50 | Slip free scan hardening – a process for complete inductive surface hardening of slewing bearing raceways DR. DANIEL FITZEK. Marinette/USA CODY RHODES (BS) Quality Manager | ThyssenKrupp Waupaca. Eschen/Liechtenstein DIPL. MBA Project Leader Supply Chain Management | ThyssenKrupp Presta AG. PPLS is an innovative. The new process has many advantages over the alternative case carburizing process. Marinette/USA TIMOTHY OWENS Melting Supervisor | ThyssenKrupp Waupaca. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .5 m.-WI. suspensions and transmissions.4 million kilograms or approximately 250.-ING. steering. The first scan hardening facility – capable of slip-free hardening of slewing bearings with a diameter of up to 4.Contents | 7 44 | Error proofing verification methods for the production of automotive sand transportation cast components GENE JOHNSON Electrical Supervisor | ThyssenKrupp Waupaca. Lippstadt DIPL. To insure the highest quality level and introduce error proofing into the process. Lippstadt DR. BERND STAKEMEIER Operations Manager | Rothe Erde GmbH. ThyssenKrupp Waupaca has developed two patent pending methods to determine if the important step of forming nodules in ductile iron has been properly performed and completed. Eschen/Liechtenstein PETER SPALT.-ING. DIPL. FH) Project Leader Human Resource Management | ThyssenKrupp Presta AG. MSC Lead Manager Production and Logistics Systems | ThyssenKrupp Presta AG. 56 | Presta Production and Logistics System PPLS – paving the way for producing steering systems in five days DR. MSC Project Manager Production Planning | ThyssenKrupp Presta AG. Eschen/Liechtenstein ThyssenKrupp Presta is aiming to create a flexible and streamlined company by implementing the Presta Production and Logistics System (PPLS). the production-compatible design of steering systems and the creation of highly flexible and cost-efficient manufacturing cells.-ING.000 ductile iron castings every day.-ING. (FH) STEFAN OBERHAUSER. which is suitable for ring diameters of approx. Lippstadt A new inductive surface hardening process that enables complete hardening of the raceways has been developed for permanently rotating slewing bearings. WILFRIED SPINTIG Plant Manager | Rothe Erde GmbH.-ING. Process improvement teams that are networked across plants and departments are using coordinated measures to introduce streamlined production and logistics processes which will make it possible to manufacture steering systems in a process time of five days. JÖRG ROLLMANN Head of Research and Testing Department | Rothe Erde GmbH. The process to produce the ductile iron material for these components has to be monitored closely to insure the safety and strength of the material that is cast. Over 35% of this iron is produced for safety critical applications including automotive and heavy truck brakes.-ING. holistic production system that not only ensures the targeted stabilization of series production but also encompasses improvements to the logistical order processing procedure. Etowah/USA RONALD THURSTON Project Engineer | ThyssenKrupp Waupaca.
Düsseldorf THIES EISELE Communication & Marketing I ThyssenKrupp Elevator AG. Pearson International Airport in Toronto. Essen DR.. 68 | TurboTrack – making long distances shorter DIPL. is now on the market. MIGUEL GONZÁLEZ ALEMANY Chief Research Officer I ThyssenKrupp Elevator (ES/PBB) Ltd. Despite the additional effort required for the manufacture and assembly of this integrated system. Essen ThyssenKrupp Automotive Systems has presented an all-new support structure for independent suspensions in heavyduty trucks. London/Great Britain DR. STEFFEN SCHMIDT Managing Director | ThyssenKrupp Automotive Systems. Thanks to its innovative technology. The system features innovative solutions for suspension mountings. and steering.International Air ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . The first two TurboTrack systems to enter service anywhere in the world can be found at the Lester B. the TurboTrack. more people can be transported more rapidly and without waiting times over distances of up to one and a half kilometers. MONICA SOFFRITTI Senior Vice President Communication & Marketing I ThyssenKrupp Elevator AG.-ING. the benefits it offers with respect to ride comfort. With a continuously running pallet belt and three speed zones. TurboTrack is an attractive product for numerous applications. Düsseldorf A revolutionary passenger transportation system from ThyssenKrupp Elevator. frame structures. safety. crash behavior.8 | Contents 62 | 68 | 76 | 82 | 62 | All-new support structure for independent suspensions in heavy-duty trucks DIPL. Düsseldorf MARTINA BEHREND Senior Manager Communication & Marketing I ThyssenKrupp Elevator AG. DIRK ZIESING CAE Coordination | ThyssenKrupp Automotive Systems. Canada.-ING. and compactness justify its use in the production of commercial vehicles.-ING.
on the basis of this task. 82 | Process for low-NOX combustion of hard coal in combination with a new type of melting cyclone DIPL. Radebeul MAIK WERNER Sales Officer Projects | ThyssenKrupp Schulte GmbH. CHRISTIAN BÖTTGER Branch Manager | ThyssenKrupp Schulte GmbH. The concept makes it possible to provide and expand services in stages. WERNER AUEL Head of Firing Technology | ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy GmbH. ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy has. ANDREAS MITSCHKE Sales Manager | ThyssenKrupp Schulte GmbH.-ING.-ING. Radebeul ThyssenKrupp Schulte has developed a modular concept aimed at extending the value chain and improving networking with customers. Duisburg ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy has supplied a process for the primary-side reduction of nitrogen oxides for hard coal to a customer that operates a number of boilers with pulverized-coal firing. One example of this concept is the graduated model developed by the Radebeul branch in collaboration with the Dresden branch of ThyssenKrupp Industrieservice for Radebeul-based printing press manufacturer KBA Koenig & Bauer. This unit is also suitable in general for the disposal of residual industrial materials in solid. This entailed feeding the extremely fine-grained fly ash resulting from the firing process. an additional task was posed. various materials-related and industrial services are linked together. After the successful conversion of the firing systems and attainment of the NOx reduction target (< 200 mg/m3 NOX). sludge or liquid form. Berlin DIPL. which still consists of up to a maximum of 50% unburned carbon.-ING. Radebeul DIPL. to an on-site system for thermal utilization. developed a melting cyclone for the combustion of the fly ash.Contents | 9 76 | Graduated model for the customer-specific combination of materials-related and industrial services JÜRGEN WESTPHAL Management Board | ThyssenKrupp Schulte GmbH. The concept provides ThyssenKrupp Schulte with the opportunity to increase customer penetration and reduce the earnings volatility of the materials business. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . For this.
10 | | Partial view of a production plant for anticorrosion primers: Coater tower of coating line EBA 2 in the cold rolling mill at Duisburg-Beeckerwerth ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .
Key Account DaimlerChrysler | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG.-ING. RER. Consistently taking into account these conflicting requirements leads to a product definition involving the combination of an innovative basic material with an economically attractive coating system. 1 | Product combination of electrolytically galvanized DP steel with an optimized anticorrosion primer: Schematic and microstructure view Optimized anticorrosion primer layer: 2 µm ZE layer: 5 µm Dual-phase steel core: 650 µm ZE = elektrolytically zinc-coated ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . HORST OEMKES Cold Strip Mill 2. JOSEF SCHNEIDER Specialist Coordinator Color Profit Center | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. The associated lower fuel consumption assists in improving the environmental balance. The material concept Dual-phase steels were specially developed for weight saving in the production of cold-formed automotive components. Furthermore.| 11 Dual-phase steel with anticorrosion primer for exposed car panels DR. the so-called primer | Fig. The current developmental state of the art is represented by the electrolytically galvanized. contributes to the valueadded and simplifies processing in the stamping plant. dual-phase steel with low thickness and an optimized anticorrosion primer results in synergy effects offering numerous advantages for the automobile industry. it is also important to take into account the increasing requirements of safety standards. Duisburg DIPL. RER. the longevity of the produced automobile for the end customer and the economic pressures. Duisburg DR. The tensile strengths were attained by incorporating hard phases adjacent to soft phases in the structure (ferrite with up to 20% martensite). JÖRG LEWANDOWSKI Specialist Coordinator. the optimized primer provides improved corrosion protection with a lower coating thickness and thus reduces costs. The steel industry is making a contribution to the reduction in emissions by improving the mechanical properties of components and thus significantly reducing the sheet thickness with corresponding weight savings. In addition. NAT. Dortmund DR. NAT. GRAD. As this structural composition of dual-phase steel combined good Fig. Conflicting requirements in automobile manufacturing The pressure on the automotive industry to improve the environmental balance is constantly increasing. Materials Competence Center | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. NAT. It also leads to an increase in the service life of the component. Duisburg ING. RER. high-strength yet readily formable dual-phase steels (DP steels) with an extremely thin organic anticorrosion coating. BERNHARD SCHINKINGER Specialist Coordinator | DOC Dortmunder Oberflächencentrum GmbH. Duisburg DR. ING. Tako line | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. Eichen The material combination of a cold-rolled. REINHILD HAUBRUCK Specialist Coordinator Sales/Engineering. SILKE STRAUß Specialist Coordinator. 1 |. Center of Materials Excellence | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. The good formability and simultaneous high tensile strength and the usability of the ‘bake hardening’ effect make it possible to achieve a significant reduction in the thickness of the sheet metal used and thus of the weight.
Combining the bake-hardening potential of the DP steel with an organic coating which would also ensure a high degree of corrosion protection presented a special challenge. Due to their high hardening capacity. flanges and body cavities. deep-drawing steels.65). These anticorrosion primers have been known for over ten years and have proven themselves in the demanding European automobile industry over this time. the cold-rolling of high and ultrahigh-strength steels requires special consideration in comparison to the soft. Development in cooperation Partners in the chemical industry were given a development order aimed at making it possible to combine the DP steels with anticorrosion primers which do not affect the bake-hardening potential of the DP steel. At the same time. their application in exposed body panels also came into consideration in addition to their intended purpose in interior components. a further win-win situation arises: the ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . The production and. The development of new anticorrosion primers in previous years has led to further optimization of their properties and to considerably higher corrosion resistance levels. which is almost 10 °C lower than the temperature of approximately 180 °C at which the automobile industry carries out its painting process. which would make it impossible to press passenger car shell components without flow lines | Fig. The challenge for the production lines lies in achieving thicknesses suitable for exposed panel applications. After preliminary experiments. dual-phase steels are especially suitable for the stretch-forming of large formed components. It also proved possible to exploit further properties of DP steel for applications in exposed automotive panels. access to which is difficult and sometimes impossible for the secondary anticorrosion measures employed by the automakers. This was achieved by lowering the baking temperature of the primer from the original approximately 255 °C to just 170 °C | Fig. permits the desired effect to be achieved. almost isotropic forming properties and a high ‘bakehardening’ potential after pre-forming support high resistance to denting. above all. Achieving this objective requires careful matching of the hot strip and cold strip measurements. 3 |. it was confirmed that DP steels could also be manufactured in final thicknesses of as low as 0. The bake-hardening effect is based on the fact that the paint baking temperatures of approximately 180 °C used in the automotive industry’s painting processes lead to targeted aging and a resulting additional (component) hardening of the steel by around 40 MPa.65 mm. A low yield-to-tensile ratio (< 0. 2 |. It proved possible to incorporate and integrate the aforementioned properties of dual-phase steel in the development of engine hood concepts. This temperature. A welcome side-effect is presented by the fact that the low baking temperature of the anticorrosion primer prevents any unwanted extension of the yield limit. They are used for corrosion protection in folds. 3 | Unchanged microstructure of the DP steel substrate before/after baking the anticorrosion primer at 170 °C formability with high tensile strength.12 | Dual-phase steel with anticorrosion primer for exposed car panels Coating process in strip coating line Optimized anticorrosion primer layer: 2 µm** ZE layer: 5 µm Dual-phase steel core: 650 µm ZE layer: 5 µm Coating application: 170 °C* ZE layer: 5 µm Dual-phase steel core: 650 µm ZE layer: 5 µm Optimized anticorrosion primer layer: 2 µm** Microstructure of the dual-phase steel before (above) and after (below) baking the anticorrosion primer * conventional baking temperature 255 °C ** conventional anticorrosion primer layer: 4 µm Fig. 2 | Schematic view of the application of the anticorrosion primer to the electrolytically galvanized DP steel Fig.
this represents an improvement of approx. The advantage for the customer is that it is possible to work with the specific characteristics of the relevant material standards without any restrictions. Fig. which can arise due to structural changes resulting from conventional anticorrosion primers and depending on the steel grade used. In comparison with conventional primers. it was possible to reduce the coating thickness to a target value of approx. i. 3. 1.e.e. is negligible overall at the low baking temperature of 170 °C | Fig. 1st generation: approx. compared with conventional primer systems. The extension allows settings for stamping lines in automotive body-in-white production to be optimized. The working area for deep-drawing designates the area in which a pressed component can be deep-drawn without faults. 15 cycles was achieved. At the same time. 5 |. Thanks to the optimization of its composition. The decisive advantages are the additional benefits that offer added value for customer and manufacturer alike. The advantage for the steel producer is the elimination of material dependencies due to variances in mechanical characteristics. which translates into a reduction in quality assurance costs. an extension of the possible deep-drawing working area thanks to a significant improvement in its tribological properties.2 Stress [N/mm2] 300 200 100 0 0 10 Strain [%] ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . i. 1. Conclusion The combination of thin DP steel suitable for use in exposed automotive panels and optimized anticorrosion primers presents ThyssenKrupp Steel with the means to satisfy the automotive industry’s high expectations with respect to future-oriented materials. the corrosion protection.Dual-phase steel with anticorrosion primer for exposed car panels | 13 impairment of mechanical characteristics. The material combination presented adds yet another steel facet – one with a promising future on the market – to the broad existing product spectrum. Thanks to the excellent tribological properties. 50% | Fig. Furthermore. corresponding to 15 weeks of testing without the appearance of red rust. thus minimizing scrap rates. in an oiled state. 5 | Corrosion results in test flange after 15 cycles (VDA test 621-415) in comparison with a reference 500 Clear rust formation Reference anticorrosion primer.8 µm – a reduction of around 50% in comparison with conventional systems. drawn parts which would otherwise be difficult to form can also be manufactured without problems. Because the primer’s coating thickness is directly but (due to the spreading capacity and specific coating costs) not linearly related to the costs. the new anticorrosion primer possesses a number of additional properties such as its dry formability (oil-free stamping plant) or.8 µm coating thickness 400 No extended yield limit Rp0. the newly developed anticorrosion primer has made it possible to achieve a considerable improvement in the primary product requirement. In the automotive industry’s standardized rapid corrosion test (VDA 621-415). folds and tears. Fig. 4 |.5 µm coating thickness No red rust Optimized anticorrosion primer: approx. a reduction in the target coating thickness also represents an economic advantage for the customer. 4 | Extract from the stress/strain curve for dual-phase steel: The absence of an extended yield limit enables pressing free of flow lines. a corrosion resistance of approx.
14 | | T3 pilot plant at ThyssenKrupp Steel in Duisburg ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .
intelligently designed hollow section components are substantially increasing the potential of lightweight construction.| 15 T3 profiling technology – a precondition for the increased use of hollow steel sections in motor vehicles DR. Additional synergy effects are generated by giving components previously unattainable shapes and functionalities.-ING. Duisburg LOTHAR HÖMIG New Processing Technologies | ThyssenKrupp Steel. in which steel plays a dominant role because of its excellent properties. new. T3 profiling technology can be used to produce such components particularly inexpensively. Duisburg DIPL. Because of its unique plant and process engineering. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . Duisburg WLADIMIR RITUPER New Processing Technologies | ThyssenKrupp Steel. Duisburg Demand for more environmentally compatible vehicles is forcing manufacturers to build extremely light automobiles. (FH) MICHAEL BRÜGGENBROCK New Processing Technologies | ThyssenKrupp Steel. THOMAS FLEHMIG Team Leader of New Processing Technologies | ThyssenKrupp Steel. Due to their high geometrical moment of inertia.-ING. Duisburg MOHAMMED TOHFA New Processing Technologies | ThyssenKrupp Steel.
is defined by changing tube cross-sections and secondary design elements. the Auto Division at ThyssenKrupp Steel aims to use new or improved vehicle and material concepts and innovative processing technologies to make its customers aware of steel’s potential as a lightweight construction material and to demonstrate this potential in mass production. This is not only a result of steel’s favorable energy balance in the cycle from production to recycling. thin-walled hollow sections made of steel. the company presented the NSB® NewSteelBody (see ThyssenKrupp techforum. but is at least 24% lighter. these properties can only be achieved if intelligent design is combined with new manufacturing methods. ThyssenKrupp Steel has been researching such technologies for about ten years. but also on that of the surrounding modules. After initially making tube-shaped semi-finished products out of blanks. To this end. Most of the known concepts for vehicle bodies with lightweight and low-cost structures focus on steel as one of the primary materials. Generation Conical 3. also complete components Degree of complexity ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 Manufacturing requirements . Around 37% of the NSB® structure is made up of components based on such profiles. the company has now been focusing for about three years on shortening the process chain for manufacturing the components and on creating hollow section components or modules that have previously either been impossible to produce or that could only be manufactured at great cost. To make this possible. The NSB® con- weight structures is to use intelligently designed.16 | T3 profiling technology – a precondition for the increased use of hollow steel sections in motor vehicles Hollow sections in automobile production The appalling environmental destruction that was graphically described in the recently published IPCC Report requires that all countries immediately undertake activities to prevent a catastrophic change in the earth’s climate. July 2004). At the IAA 2003 motor show. but also due to the material’s outstanding ability to combine excellent crash performance with high rigidity and stress-optimized design. cept plausibly showed that the key to developing economical light- Fig. Generation Non-linear variation. including finished components | Fig. the automotive industry is in particular called on to make major cuts in greenhouse gas emissions by creating new drive concepts and extremely lightweight vehicles. Only if the tubes have flange elements that fit with the adjacent stamped parts and are accessible from both sides. Further studies undertaken since then have shown that the focus should not only be on the shape of the profiles. Hollow section components (Thyssen Tailored Tubes) can be divided into three generations: While the first generation consisted of traditional tube-shaped semi-finished products lacking any variations in the cross-sections along the longitudinal axis. the suppliers need to provide inexpensive and innovative production methods for such components. in particular. 1 | The three generations of Thyssen Tailored Tubes Examples of cross-sections Single-part 1. The third generation. the designers and. As one of the chief contributors to this development. However. finally. can they be cost-efficiently incorporated into vehicle bodies. the second generation tubes are characterized by linear differences. 1 |. a bodyin-white that costs only 3% more to manufacture than the reference vehicle (the Opel Zafira). Generation No variation along the longitudinal axis Multi-part linear separation Patchwork 2.
The basis for this process group arose from various tube forming technologies such as U-O forming or roll bending. Against this background.e. A process group for all generations As the components became increasingly sophisticated. longitudinal welding. Tube bending 4. Each of these steps requires a manufacturing step with corresponding equipment. bending. operating personnel and relevant cost items. preforming. transfer units. however. The example is a front side member of the NSB® Shaped blank Finished component Compact line T3 process sequence: 1. however.T3 profiling technology – a precondition for the increased use of hollow steel sections in motor vehicles | 17 The combination of stampings with tubes results in modules that are either monolithic or composed of several parts. Fig. 2 | Shortening the process chains as a vision for the T 3 profiling technology. It refers to the three generations of the tubes that can be manufactured using this manufacturing technology | Fig. Profile shaping 2. there are six steps. End and hole cutting 6. In most cases. the need to cut manufacturing costs by means of short process chains and integrative methods arose early on. Longitudinal welding 3. it brings together all six steps in one. 3 | The four main process modifications of T 3 profiling technology Curling Core rolling Modified U-O forming W forming . This process step. Flange forming Fig. The normal production path of a front side member for the NSB® consists of the steps profile shaping. The process variants can be combined with one another and varied according to the component geometry. in the best case. The name ‘T3 profiling technology’ was defined later. as an individual principle. As a result. 2 |. 3 |. the specialists at ThyssenKrupp Steel today focus on developing modules. There are no direct examples for such a process group. and each of the subsequently named process steps also stands alone. end and hole cutting and end flange forming. hydroforming. Hydroforming 5. it is not until the parts are assembled into modules that ready-to-install solutions are available. In total. is a member of the process group of T3 profiling technology | Fig. the vision of a one-step manufacturing technology solution for strongly structured hollow section components that should also permit their combination with stampings arose about four years ago. i. T3 profiling technology uses a compact line to create the finished component from a shaped blank and welds it using a laser. This results in numerous sub-variants. The following presents a brief description of the main variants.
deep-drawing preform with a linear region. This is historically the oldest variant and is suitable for first and second generation tubes. After removing the O forging die. the primary working direction must be accompanied by an auxiliary working direction at 90°. New equipment Every process requires suitable equipment for its realization. undercuts. After intensive experimentation both on the laboratory facility and in numerous FEM (finite element method) simulations. the entire configuration not only had to be newly defined. If the component involves a high degree of structuring with pronounced secondary design elements. 4 | Partial steps of the core rolling technique when fabricating the NSB® side member simulated in this way. a press with four side functions was required. then by calibrating and by welding closed the abutting edge joint. a blank is shaped in the gap between two forging die and core pieces. Modified U-O shaping is suitable for more strongly-structured profiles with moderate curvatures. As a consequence. the abutting edge joint is exposed and can be welded. This is accompanied by targeted calibration. openings and extension elements. 5 | Laboratory curling facility (precursor of the T3 profiling line) only capable of effective implementation when every working direction ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . | Fig. The NSB® side member referred to above was Fig. secondary design elements and undercuts. 4 | shows the essential partial steps of the simulation. there was no standard to fall back on.e. 5 |. however. the ‘New Processing Technologies’ team decided they had reached a point at which the functionality of a pilot press could be defined in a specification. An O forging die that can also be split is then lowered onto the U forging die and in the process forms the finished profile with or without the use of a core. This requirement is. In ‘modified U-O forming’ a preliminary shaping step is first carried out to form the lower contour by means of a U core in a U forging die.’ the forging dies move symmetrically towards a solid core and completely enclose it. The laboratory ‘curling’ facility was set up in 2001 as a precursor of the T3 profiling line and has been systematically further developed since that time | Fig. In ‘core rolling. During this process. This process variant requires an opened. it can be welded closed with or without the core. Fig.18 | T3 profiling technology – a precondition for the increased use of hollow steel sections in motor vehicles In ‘curling’. According to this specification. Core rolling is suited for all generations of Thyssen Tailored Tubes that only have extremely small longitudinal curvature and secondary design elements and/or undercuts. it also had to be completely newly developed. The component is then finally closed by turning over this area. the core shapes the workpiece. In the case of the T3 profiling technology. i. after the centering blade has been withdrawn. then ‘W forming’ is suitable. Depending on the component. calibrated on a centering blade and the abutting edge joint is finally rounded off and welded closed.
the team decided on an A shaped frame variant with front-mounted supply and control modules. was commissioned to design and produce the press. A-shaped twin machine concept (right) 200 t 200 t 1. The company Karl Eugen Fischer Maschinenfabrik of Burgkunstadt. 6 |. the hydraulics. In May 2006. the press was Fig.4 t ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . The process time overlap of the two stations increases the output by more than 60%.000 t 200 t 0. Additional plant parameters decisive for the process are precise.000 t 200 t Fig. synchronous-running axes with maximum rated loads und maximum rigidity. the investment required is reduced significantly thanks to the double utilization of the controller. In order to achieve ease of operation and minimize the footprint. At the same time. 7 | Working area of the first workstation of the T3 pilot press (left). no less important movements are realized in the modules of the blade-pulling unit. the blank carrier unit and the take-up plate. This.5 t 1. forces the auxiliary direction also to have a component in the primary direction. in turn. for forming and welding also has a fixed side. The New Processing Technologies team accompanied and intensively monitored the development and manufacture.5 t 200 t 1. 6 | Four-side concept of the T3 pilot press with press forces. Numerous connection locations complete the configuration. Cycle time comparisons show that considerable cost advantages arise when the plant is designed according to a twin concept with 2 work stations.5 t 200 t 1. Additional.000 t 1. the edge centering lever.| 19 1.000 t 1. | Fig. The press concept was also extended by a core-pulling unit working along the longitudinal axis and a 4 KW solid-state laser welding unit with a 3D axis system | Fig.000 t 1. 7 | shows the twin concept and the working area of the first workstation. and the laser.
for example in scaffolding. a design with stamping-type connection locations and nodes. high market potential for the automotive area. tailored structures are just as possible as monolithic designs. Fig. considerable savings can be achieved for medium and large volumes. slightly curved. Important milestones and views from the manufacturing and construction phase. With respect to the size. In addition to the new design possibilities. the transport and after completion are brought together in | Fig. round.000 x dia. As a result T3 components are not restricted to applications in vehicles of all types. and industrial design. 10 | shows examples of applications in the fields of vehicle bodywork and exhausts.’ a cost advantage of 6% and a 10% weight saving resulted. 180 x dia. For example. Application and advantages The design possibilities for hollow sections from T3 profiling are extremely varied. and a body-in-white and/or an assembly analogous to a stamped-and-welded construction.5 mm CPW800) ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . linked with an 11% increase in energy absorption in the component. it has been possible to identify potential components in the body sector with a total production volume of approximately 36 million pieces. 9 |. Additional applications present themselves. stamping extensions. 40 of 1. ThyssenKrupp is innovation leader in the area of vehicular applications for hollow sections. And this with a weight saving of 26%. ridged or variable with secondary design elements. conical. Start-up for the production of a 3-m-long flat-cone component with a tailored structure and extreme dimensions | Fig. 8 | Commissioning part: Flat-cone component with longitudinal flange and tailored structure (3. as well as the saving of transfer steps. scaffolding etc. Summary To date.5 mm CPW800 / 2. 8 | has been in progress since January 2007. T3 components also provide cost advantages. aircraft manufacture. the first cost comparisons between the stampeddesign side member of the reference vehicle for the NSB® (Opel Zafira) available on the market and the NSB® side member already resulted in cost equivalence without optimizing the design with respect to the possibilities offered by T3 . Such sections can be straight. The preconditions for their application in vehicles are that the respective module be consistently designed for hollow sections.0 mm DC04 / 2. These are less from the tooling or material costs than from the design potential and the short process chain itself.20 | T3 profiling technology – a precondition for the increased use of hollow steel sections in motor vehicles delivered to ThyssenKrupp Steel. Final assembly was completed in December 2006. Thanks to the bringing together of individual stamped components into integrated hollow section components and the elimination or integration of individual process steps. | Fig. long-term. shipbuilding. openings and tops are also possible within specific limits. Flange connections. shipbuilding. With respect to the alternative process ‘hollow sections from half-shells with flange. the only limitations are the working area and the available press forces. furniture production. Mild or high-strength steels can be processed. The advantages of the T3 profiling can thus be summarized as follows: securing the steel sales of ThyssenKrupp Steel for future generations of vehicles. bulkhead plates.
The ‘New Processing Technologies’ team is now working intensively on successfully concluding the commissioning of the press. setup. discussions with the OEMs regarding joint projects in the area of T3 profiling technology have begun.Preassembly at Fischer company Structure of the hydraulics unit Transport to ThyssenKrupp Steel in Duisburg Fig. transport and after completion leading specialist supplier expertise in the areas of bodies. 9 | Views of the T3 pilot press during preassembly. The marketing of the products made by this technology is an area to which Sales/Engineering at ThyssenKrupp Steel is paying special attention. Fig. chassis. The first real components are currently undergoing testing. 10 | Examples of applications of T3 sections in the NSB® (left) and in the exhaust area (right) ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . A marketing concept intended to continue specifically preparing the potential for ThyssenKrupp Steel is currently being developed on the basis of fundamental strategic studies. exhaust as well as long-term OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) customer loyalty.
22 | | OxyCup® slag enlarged (below: reflected-light microscope) ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .
quality-controlled products are even superior in some instances to natural materials for use in the most varied areas of application where high quality is required. reduce the load on landfill disposal sites and cut costs. KLAUS KESSELER Manager. Slags as byproducts of steel production Iron and steel are not only among the most important materials of all time. Hematite iron ore. due to their high iron content and ready availability. a pre-product in steel production. The raw materials first lose their volatile components. Hot Metal Production | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. this helps to conserve raw materials resources. which are composed of the iron-bearing mineral and the gangue. they are also among the most versatile. RER. the OxyCup® shaft furnace technology | Fig. Specific adjustment of chemical composition. The raw materials in the blast furnace undergo a complex transformation as they move ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . Arriving in the blast-furnace hearth together with the charge. molten slag and hot metal are drawn from the furnace together and then separated from each other in trough systems (skimmer). e. NAT. When the blast furnace is tapped. Slag products with an extremely broad range of properties are now available. In so doing. 1 |. processes residual materials from iron and steel production.g. however. 2 |. the carbon monoxide reduces the iron oxides. melts at approx. The gas mixture of this carbon monoxide and the nitrogen from the blast air ascends in the furnace and heats the material it encounters. is nearly 70% iron. from opencast mines in Brazil.140 °C and sinks to the bottom. which was developed at ThyssenKrupp Steel. not limited to the main products iron and steel. RONALD ERDMANN Manager. 1. The slag is formed from the gangue of the iron ore and elements of the charge that have not been reduced. and sometimes oil-bearing mill-scale sludge from rolling mills and slag residue with iron content. This is necessary because these materials. These standardized. the newly developed shaft-furnace slag attains properties comparable to those of natural stone such as granite and basalt. reproducible and adjustable physical and chemical values as well as its crystalline structure. The steel industry’s innovative capacities and its broad spectrum of development are. is extracted in blast furnaces. and targeted deformation make it possible to produce iron alloys and steels with extremely varied properties for a wide range of application areas. OxyCup® process down. including slag from steel mills. the coke used as a reduction agent is converted into carbon monoxide by means of a heated air blast. settling on the furnace hearth under the lighter layer of slag. After extensive research conducted during a four-year period. for example. iron-bearing residual materials from iron and steel making operations to be melted back into hot metal.| 23 OxyCup® slag – a new product for demanding markets DIPL. Typical charge materials are dusts and sludges from iron and steel production facilities. Duisburg OxyCup® is a unique technology that allows non-recyclable. the development of a highquality shaft-furnace slag resulted in a disposal concept that makes it possible to convert all former waste products – almost in their entirety – into products. and then finally into metallic iron. Metallurgy Division. Hot Metal Production | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. Through its outstanding. Metallurgy Division. which are collected Most iron found in nature is in the form of an oxide. which contains carbon. The process of extracting the iron content generally begins with iron ores.-ING. With environmental sustainability. The iron alloy. appropriate heat treatment. Oxide ores are by far the most important types. then the iron oxides gradually change from the highest to the lower oxidation states. an increasingly important factor. In contrast. Duisburg DR. The aim of this technique is to remove these fine-grained materials from the steel mills’ internal cycle and to process them using a method that is specially tuned to their composition | Fig. they also encompass further development of the most important byproducts. Most pig iron.
cannot be used in other processes due to its fine-grained nature. contain substances that can have adverse effects on production and quality in such facilities. were developed. 3 |. within which reduction reactions proceed automatically when they are heated. However. Al2O3. Approx. As is true with all shaft-furnace methods. the OxyCup® process requires a feedstock in the form of lumps. and MgO. The dwell time in the shaft furnace is too brief for this. which is also a byproduct. The fine coke breeze. The shaft furnace produces up to 65 t of hot metal and 30 t of slag per hour. Self-reducing agglomerate bricks To produce the agglomerate bricks. the temperature decreases to about 250 °C. 2. it also carries out metallurgical functions. 1 | OxyCup® shaft furnace at ThyssenKrupp Steel in Duisburg primarily from air-purification systems at processing facilities. The reduction in the agglomerate bricks takes place by means of the coke breeze in the mixture and the additional carbon already present in the residual materials. due to the fact that the heat of the gas is transferred to the descending charge.500 °C separately from the slag. in the hot reaction zone the reaction gas is blown into the furnace via a circular pipeline. 1. The shaft-furnace tower is roughly ten meters high. Similar to the process in a blast furnace. mineral binders. self-reducing agglomerate bricks | Fig. The blast temperature during this phase is approx. the oxide compounds react with the added reducing agents before melting in the higher-temperature zone. Like ore. At the bottom of the furnace. and other ingredients to form a homogeneous mass. The blast-furnace operator’s task is to ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .200 °C at the tuyeres. such as desulphurization of the hot metal. In so doing. the agglomerate bricks and the iron-bearing slag residues are then added to the OxyCup® shaft furnace in a 70:30 mixture on the furnace top. 620 °C. the dusts and sludges are mixed in a high-speed mixer with coke breeze. This mixture is then shaped into agglomerate bricks in a jolt squeeze molding machine like those used in the pro- duction of concrete blocks. The bricks added to the furnace move through the shaft against the flow of the gas. Blast-furnace slag is largely composed of mixed phases of the oxides CaO. water. the hot metal is then continually tapped at a temperature of approx. this requires reduction times that are determined by the kinetic reaction rates with the coke. In addition to removing the non-reducible elements of the ore gangue and the coke ash from the furnace in molten form. The shaft furnace is a hot-blast countercurrent reactor. SiO2.24 | OxyCup® slag – a new product for demanding markets Fig. Slag from metallurgical reducing processes The slag phase serves two purposes in the blast-furnace process. though. This is why cold-bound. After a maximum drying time of three days. The decisive factors are that the reduction must proceed in a controlled manner and the bricks must react in such a way that they do not burst and disrupt the gas flow in the furnace. the dusts and sludges used in the OxyCup® shaft furnace are iron-oxygen compounds that must be reduced in order to extract iron.
which has been extensively studied. mostly crystalline slag that can be used as a mineral material for paving roads. and bicycle paths. for instance. To obtain this slag basicity. on the high-basicity side. “acidic materials” – such as gravel with a high proportion of SiO2 – are added to the charge. footpaths. Most blast furnaces today operate with basic blast-furnace slag. The viscosities increase once again. The blast-furnace slag is granulated by means of very rapid cooling with copious amounts of water. it is not suitable for use in road construction or for paths and walkways. These increases. which in some instances are extreme.0 and tends to form amorphous (glass-like) structures when cooled | Fig. the use of cements containing granulated slag has been steadily on the rise in Germany. the ratio of CaO to SiO2. is the slag’s viscosity. basic slags have higher melting temperatures than acidic blast-furnace slag. the basicity of the CaO/SiO2 is usually between 1. while high-viscosity slags are obtained at basicities of < 1. must also be taken into account during this process.0 and low melting temperatures. and as an additive for concrete. Slowly air-cooling the blast-furnace slag in beds yields a lumpy. the shaftfurnace slag is an acidic slag with a CaO/SiO2 ratio of < 1. Due to the metallurgy in the OxyCup® shaft furnace.1 and 1. varying amounts of vitreous and crystalline material are produced.0.OxyCup® slag – a new product for demanding markets | 25 assemble feedstocks ranging from highly acidic ore pellets to basic sinter that will ensure the desired composition of the finished slag. This granulated blast-furnace slag is used as a main ingredient of cement (blast-furnace cements). 5 |. In recent years. Because of the limited mechanical properties of such a material. are a result of the precipitation of extremely finely distributed crystals when the respective levels of saturation are exceeded. 2 | OxyCup® shaft furnace: Material flow management at ThyssenKrupp Steel Production line Mill scale (coarse) Sinterplant ESP dust Recycling line BF dust BF sludge Blast furnace Skulls/rubble C-Brick manufacturing Bricks BOF dust (fines) Hot briquetting Steel plant Skulls. Due to their higher CaO contents. 4 |. In addition to the physical and chemical values of the slags. This is done by adding materials such as CaCO3 (limestone) to the feedstocks. Low-viscosity blast-furnace slags can be obtained at medium-range basicities of between 1 and 1. The aforementioned main elements represent more than 90% of the slag’s composition.2. If shaft-furnace slag is cooled very slowly. Economic perspective Shaft-furnace slag is a new product displaying properties that are hardly comparable to those of blast-furnace slag. processed slag BOF dust (coarse) Hot metal Hot strip mill Mill scale sludge (oily) BF = Blast-Furnace BOF = Basic Oxygen Furnace ESP = Electrostatic Precipitator Existing recycling inside the production Main production line Recycling parallel to main production line OxyCup® shaft furnace . which has a higher aluminum oxide content. The coke ash. If this slag is poured in molten form into a bed like the basic blast-furnace slag and air-cooled | Fig. in combination with the temperature. Vitally important for the functioning of the tapping process. A special method can be used to create acidic slags with basicities CaO/SiO2 < 1. however. their physical properties also play an important role.3. A rough measure here is provided by the binary basicity B1. the Fig. thanks to their advantageous technological and ecological characteristics.
It was therefore necessary to find a way to produce a solid. to produce a shaft-furnace slag that would at least meet the HOS-A quality class or have characteristics equal to those of natural stone. however. Slag with a C/S basicity of < 0. controlled manner meets these requirements. the hydraulic characteristics of the shaft-furnace slags are also a decisive factor affecting their subsequent use. which is comparable to blast-furnace slag. The first indications emerged from trough tests conducted at the Research Association for Iron and Steel Slags (FEhS). and even blast furnaces produce only approx. the entire volume of shaftfurnace slag. In summary. Environmental compatibility In addition to the technical parameters. This undefined cooling process for the shaft-furnace slag cannot ensure the maximum possible volume of high-strength crystalline material. mineral. The slag’s clearly defined chemical. This means that the strength of the shaft-furnace slag is uses a feedstock whose proportion of self-reducing cement-bound agglomerate bricks does not exceed 70%. reduced slag with a basicity of < 1.0 tends to form glass because it contains a higher proportion of network-forming silicic acid. It was also important for the material to have excellent characteristics in terms of water resources management.000 t of shaft-furnace slag per year as high-quality building material in a market with a good sales revenue structure. 3 g/cm3. Slag innovation The aim of the development activities was to create a process that would make it possible to produce a high-strength. As a result of the high proportion of bricks and the accompanying materials they contain. introducing a process for the continuous production of riprap made of shaft-furnace slag and using the shaft-furnace slag in a reference construction project. The product needed to have characteristics that make it suitable for use as riprap. crystalline shaft-furnace slag suitable for the most demanding areas of application. it will be possible to secure the use of approx. for example. The granularity of the stone thus produced displays the strength values needed for blast-furnace slag of the highest quality class. This is the only way to live up to the claim of having a closed. Pouring the molten shaft-furnace slag with a carefully adjusted composition into molds with capacities of up to 17 m3 and cooling it in a controlled. 250-280 kg/t hot metal. the acidic. As a mineral material comparable to natural stone. Over the long term. slow fashion ensures that the greatest proportion of the slag becomes a crystalline solid. The iron content of the slags only affects the color (low Fe content: brown) and the viscosity during tapping (low Fe content: higher relative viscosity). it does not affect strength. If these high quality criteria could be met. was poured in molten form into beds. there would be no limitations to the use of the slag for other possible applications in road and highway construction. 350-450 kg/t hot metal. and physical parameters can thus be used to ensure consistent characteristics that meet quality standards in. following its preparation to achieve suitable granularity.000 to 100. Before the start of the project. The examinations of the mineral composition of the test slags with low C/S basicity showed a shift from the mineral akermanite to diopside. hydraulic engineering and highway engineering. by contrast. Examinations of the solidified slag. for example as riprap.65 that is cooled in a slow. Given this high slag output. The slag output of a foundry cupola furnace (between 60 and 80 kg/t hot metal). which is changed by the C/S basicity. adapting the processing to this specially produced shaft-furnace slag. high-density crystalline material from shaft-furnace slag. Ensuring that these quality standards are met also leads to greater acceptance and more widespread use of the OxyCup® shaft furnace’s closed recycling process. it is essential to ensure that a high-quality slag with application-oriented properties is produced. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . determining the characteristic properties of an optimally produced shaft-furnace slag and establishing the areas of application. which is unique worldwide. is much lower. With faster cooling. in order to avoid producing new residual materials in the OxyCup® shaft furnace in the form of slag that can not be utilized. affected not only by the cooling conditions but also by the mineral composition. This required the investigation of various aspects: optimizing the chemical composition of the shaft-furnace slag through appropriate measures in the production process in the OxyCup® shaft furnace. Operation of the OxyCup® shaft furnace under everyday conditions establishing defined conditions for cooling. the OxyCup® shaft furnace produces large quantities of slag – approx. yielded excellent results in slag testing and bulk densities of approx. it is clear that the results of the studies conducted indicate the possibilities of influencing the morphological processes during cooling so that the shaft-furnace slag solidifies to form a product that is the equal of high-quality building materials on the market in terms of its technological properties and grain-size distribution. 50.26 | OxyCup® slag – a new product for demanding markets result is a crystalline product with excellent mechanical and environmental properties. The aim was. environmentally sustainable production system that is both in line with the principle of a zerowaste process and also combines ecological and economic targets in an ideal manner. the shaft-furnace slag is expected to contribute to the conservation of natural resources.
The toxicity of the leaching filtrate is checked by determining the cell count at specific time intervals (24 h. shorelines. for example. 48 h and 72 h). granite. in landscaping and gardening. which means that good revenues are to be expected as a result of establishing OxyCup® slag on the market. for example in highway construction. Possible areas of application are its use as a reinforcing material for riverbanks. In addition. Before a market launch. no illumination). (riprap). and as boundary elements. Daphnia and fish can only take place in aqueous solutions. the corresponding tests were conducted with a ten percent aqueous leachate of the slag. it was possible to determine that no environmental hazard is posed by the shaft-furnace slag that was developed in the course of the research efforts. 5 | Pouring molten slag into a bed The values of the examined parameters in the leachates from the trough tests easily met the limits for the use of blast-furnace slag.OxyCup® slag – a new product for demanding markets | 27 Crystalline phase Amorphous phase Fig. The measure of the effect of water-borne substances was the dilution level of the leachate in which a certain percentage of the Daphnia were still capable of swimming at the end of the 48-hour test period (temperature: 20 °C ± 1 °C.000-100. This involved cultivating the green algae Scenedesmus subspicatus for 72 hours under defined conditions in a nutrient medium with different concentrations of the leachate from the shaft-furnace slag. numerous requirements and regulations must be complied with following the preparation and sifting of the slag | Fig. The testing program for determining the Water Hazard Classification (WGK) for the shaft-furnace slag showed that the shaft-furnace slag is rated in the “non-hazardous to water” class. 3 | Cold-bound. and based on its good physical and chemical properties.000 t per year – which are low compared to figures for the blast-furnace process. The slag particles that are produced must have a stone shape with a length and width that do not exceed certain limits. Toxicity for Daphnia is determined in similar fashion. quays etc. For this reason. that its pH value is in the neutral range. Areas of application Due to the volumes produced – approximately 50. crystalline shaft-furnace slag stands out markedly from most other steel mill slags in terms of its environmental compatibility. Any heavy metals and sulfur that may be present are also not leached out. for example as riprap. self-reducing agglomerate bricks Fig. The acute toxicity for fish was tested using ide (Leuciscus idus) between 5 and 7 cm in length. The determination of characteristics that pose a hazard to water resources and the toxicity levels for algae. using a water flea of the genus Daphnia magna Straus. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . The specially cooled shaft-furnace slag is “completely inert”. It is also clear that the solidified. In summary. The electrical conductivity in the leachate is particularly low due to the low concentration of Ca ions. the temperature of the aerated solution was maintained at a constant 20 °C ± 1 °C. the proportion of rounded stones must not exceed a predetermined value. 6 |. and greywacke. This excess can be ruled out during the production process by breaking and screening the shaft-furnace slag. During the 96-hour test period. meaning. This is a segment characterized by costly building materials. OxyCup® slag will be offered on sales markets that previously were dominated by natural materials such as basalt. 4 | Formation of amorphous and crystalline phases in the shaft-furnace slag Fig. Specific guidelines served as the basis for determining the inhibiting effects on cell reproduction of green algae.
which must exceed 80 MPa. 1. as the examples in | Figs 8 -10 | show. Testing of the shaft-furnace slag yielded an average value of 280 MPa. as well as the implementation in everyday practice. With a water absorption of less than 0. 6 | Preparing shaft-furnace slag for use as riprap Fig. In the landscaping and garden design sector. 7 |. With an average bulk density of 2.000 t of riprap made of shaft-furnace slag was processed at the site. 2.3 g/cm3 in order to meet the technical requirements. which depends on the stone’s water absorption.5%. three and one-half times the required minimum. In order to also ensure that the slag can withstand temperature fluctuations outdoors without suffering any significant damage. represent a sustainable contribution to integrated environmental protection in the steel industry. In an initial measure carried out in cooperation with the Waterway and Marine Transport Agency of Wesel. A total of 4. the new product offers many design possibilities and is attracting strong interest on the part of landscape architects and garden designers. as well as in the reclamation of waste land. carefully selected markets have been explored in cooperation with the preparation and marketing team. 7 | Completing a groyne made completely of shaft-furnace slag The stones must have a bulk density of at least 2. On the basis of these tests and positive results. The riprap’s resistance to breaking is determined by testing its compressive strength. it is necessary to determine the frost-thaw fluctuation resistance.92 g/cm3. the shaft-furnace slag meets this requirement. the shaft-furnace slag is rated as suitable for allseason applications involving freezing and thawing. Summary/conclusion The studies focusing on adjusting the shaft-furnace slag analysis in the furnace and following tapping.Fig. Producing shaft-furnace slag that has a suitable basicity and is subjected to a cooling process carried out under defined conditions can yield a high-quality product. The participants succeeded in establishing conditions for furnace operation that allow appropriate adjustments to be made to the composition of shaft-furnace slag. a groyne projecting 8 m out into the Rhine River was con- ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . structed as a demonstration | Fig. The strength of the new product thus reaches a level that is otherwise only displayed by the natural materials granite and basalt.
OxyCup® slag – a new product for demanding markets | 29 3. this work involved developing coordinated. 10 | Embankment design .20 t and a cooling period of at least four days has proven its value. In summary. ThyssenKrupp Steel has thus developed a highly innovative solution for the utilization of slag. In addition to determining the slag composition. Now it is possible to produce high-quality riprap that will win a strong position in a lucrative market thanks to the outstanding characteristics of shaft-furnace slag. 8 | Gabion wall in Duisburg-Rheinhausen Fig. Shaft-furnace slag produced in this manner can be marketed in high-end markets and contributes substantially to the conservation of natural resources. reproducible furnace operating procedures. The processing of residual materials in hot metal and producing the marketable product shaft-furnace slag can help to conserve natural raw materials. Fig. 9 | Pond site Fig. The studies focusing on the production of a high-quality product made from molten shaft-furnace slag have yielded positive results. The extremely slow solidification of the slag in slag troughs results in a high-quality product that is appropriate for even the most demanding marine applications. suitable cooling conditions and measures for preparing stone in sizes suitable for areas of application with demanding standards. The project findings have been applied in everyday practice at the OxyCup® shaft furnace. 4. it is clear that the process for the “dry granulation of molten slag” from the shaft-furnace metal-smelting process in the special troughs with a capacity of 10 .
30 | | Possible application of NIROSTA® 4521: hot water boiler ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .
The corrosion resistance of the steels can be further improved by adding molybdenum to the alloy. 17. Processing properties NIROSTA® 4521 is well-suited for cold-forming. Having an austenitic structure.| 31 NIROSTA® 4521 – a stainless CrMo steel with impressive corrosion resistance DR. and molybdenum.-ING. chromium. which require a ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . NIROSTA® 4521 is less suited to stretch-forming processes. contain a minimum of 17% Cr and 8% Ni. high tensile strength. In response to dramatic increases in raw material prices in recent years | Fig. pressing and spinning operations. Products made of stainless steel have been well-established in the marketplace for many years. these steels are particularly well-suited for forming. is shown in | Fig. 2 |. Corrosion resistance in steel is achieved by alloying it with Cr content equal to at least 10. especially for nickel and molybdenum. Deep-drawing. Typical stainless steels. | Fig. And by virtue of their excellent properties. the steel grade NIROSTA® 4521 is a ferritic CrMo steel with approx.5% of the total volume of the steel. and of the CrNiMo steels NIROSTA® 4401 and NIROSTA® 4571. we have seen unprecedented price increases. they also frequently offer an economical solution. Bochum DIPL. thanks to its low strain hardening value. ThyssenKrupp Nirosta is able to provide a material that is highly corrosion resistant and offers consumers significant economic benefits in comparison to austenitic CrNiMo steels. 1 |. pipe bending and rolling pose no problem for this material. The typical composition of the steels NIROSTA® 4521 and NIROSTA® 4301. This article describes the production and properties of the stainless ferritic CrMo steel NIROSTA® 4521. efforts are being intensified to replace stainless austenitic CrNi steels and CrNiMo steels with less costly stainless ferritic Cr steels and CrMo steels. good welding properties. Krefeld The cost of stainless steels is directly related to the prices of alloying elements such as nickel. in particular hot forming. and NIROSTA® 4571. Through the further development of the ferritic stainless steel NIROSTA® 4521 and the optimization of production processes. which consequently have also driven the prices of austenitic stainless steels to a very high level. and niobium and titanium stabilization or only titanium stabilization. not only for many industrial applications but also for a wide array of consumer goods. such as NIROSTA® 4301. NIROSTA® 4401.-ING. 3 | shows the typical mechanical properties of the ferritic steel NIROSTA® 4521 and the austenitic steels NIROSTA® 4301. JÖRG-FRIEDRICH HOLZHAUSER Manager Metallurgy Department. easy cleaning. Material properties As defined by the applicable material standards EN 10088 in Europe and ASTM A 240 in the USA. extremely long service life and easy recycling.5% Cr. Their typical properties and characteristics are: corrosion resistance. Not least as a result of the continuing strong demand for these metals. 2% molybdenum. Steel Plant | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH. low maintenance. good formability. HEINZ KOCH Technical Product Manager | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH. Stainless steels ThyssenKrupp Nirosta is among the world’s leading producers of stainless steel flat products.
04 April 05 Oct. without the need for preheating and subsequent heat-treatment. As the rolling operation proceeds. Corrosion resistance The corrosion resistance of stainless steels in media containing chloride is essentially determined by the chromium and molybdenum content. NIROSTA® 4521 production is severely limited in terms of maximum width and production batch volume. Conclusion and outlook The further development and optimization of the manufacturing processes has resulted in sustainable improvement in terms of the production possibilities for the material NIROSTA® 4521.000 40.000 20. 02 April 03 Oct. NIROSTA® 4521 can be welded by any process appropriate for stainless steels. The process optimization has made it possible to eliminate production volume limitations. and the transfer of this knowledge.000 40.000 Nickel 10. 01 April 02 Oct. 03 April 04 Oct.32 | NIROSTA® 4521 – a stainless CrMo steel with impressive corrosion resistance 60. All the expertise and know-how of ThyssenKrupp Stainless. the particles. For this reason. Other applications are motor vehicle exhaust systems and any area where using a material with conventional austenitic qualities poses a risk of stress corrosion cracking. Any faults that have occurred have been of minor intensity.000 Molybdenum 100. the different expansions of the metal being welded and the base metal should be taken into account. When welding with austenitic welding filler metals.000 Nickel [US$/t] 80. Ferritic stainless steels also are much more resistant to stress corrosion cracking than are austenitic stainless steels with a Ni content of approx. are pressed into the surface of the hot strip.000 20. stabilized ferritic Mo-alloy stainless steel grades tend to “stick” to the roll surface. 06 April 07 Fig. and even exceeds that of NIROSTA® 4301 | Fig. 5 |. Now. NIROSTA® 4521’s pitting potential is therefore equal to that of the of the surface of the roll material and adhere to the surface of the hot-rolled strip. This means that particles are pulled out 4521 – as well as other stainless ferritic steels – can be planned into rolling operations without special considerations. 10%. a modified deoxidization practice during steel production combined with changes in the process technology during hot rolling have ensured a production of hot rolled strips with good surfaces | Fig. and numerous other components used in energy and heating technology. This in turn also makes it possible to produce wider strips than it was possible in the past.000 50. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . which have become oxidized. NIROSTA® 4521 is a ferritic stainless steel that offers an affordable alternative to the stainless austenitic CrNiMo steels. 05 April 06 Oct. 4 |. Processes with low heat penetration are preferred for this material. Areas of application The good corrosion resistance of NIROSTA® 4521 makes it a suitable material for hot water boilers. 1 | Increasing costs of the alloys nickel and molbydenum 0 higher strain hardening value. Process innovation During hot rolling.000 Molybdenum [US$/t] 30. with no adverse effects on production.000 120. played a decisive role in the aforementioned process optimization. residential water pipe systems.000 60. Changing the analysis to double stabilization with Nb and Ti.000 0 Oct. This is damaging to the roll surface and the surface of the hot strip. NIROSTA® grades NIROSTA® 4401 and NIROSTA® 4571.
Steel grade C
Chemical composition [mass %] Cr Mo Ni Ti Nb
1.4301 1.4571 1.4401
0.040 0.040 0.035
18.00 16.70 16.70
8.10 10.60 10.60
Fig. 2 | Composition of various steel grades with ferritic or austenitic structure
Yield strength Rp0.2 [N/mm2]
Tensile strength Rm [N/mm2] 510
Ellongation A80 [%] 29
1.4301 1.4571 1.4401
300 315 315
630 600 600
57 55 55
Fig. 3 | Mechanical properties of different steel grades
Potential 1,400 1,200 Potential [mVEH] 1,000 800
Equivalent 30 Pitting Resistance Equivalent [% Cr + 3.3% Mo] 25 20 15
600 400 200 0 NIROSTA® 4571 NIROSTA® 4401 NIROSTA® 4521 NIROSTA® 4301 10 5 0
Fig. 4 | Corrosion resistance of stainless steels
100 90 80 Defect ratio [%] 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Standard ≤ 2004
Fig. 5 | Development of “sticker” defects on rolled strip
Hot rolling 3 - 4 mm thickness Material 1.4521 (AISI 444)
modified chemical composition ≥ 2005
improved rolling programm
improved rolling process
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| Examples of rolled surfaces with extremely fine structures
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Rolling microscopically fine surface structures
DIPL.-ING. MATHIAS BÄRWOLF Managing Director | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta Präzisionsband GmbH, Dahlerbrück DIPL.-ING. MICHAEL ULLRICH Head of Production | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta Präzisionsband GmbH, Dahlerbrück KAI MASCHMEIER Head of Department Sales 2 | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta Präzisionsband GmbH, Dahlerbrück
Visible structures in surfaces arise due to differing reflection characteristics of the substrate. In addition to the angle of incidence of the light, the roughness of the material surface is the primary factor determining the reflection characteristics of a surface. ThyssenKrupp Nirosta Präzisionsband offers rolled stainless steel strips with a partially differentiated surface roughness. Individual structures and patterns can be represented on the strip by this means. Customers gain new design possibilities for their products and, at the same time, the option of improving their brand management.
Rolling structured sheets Most metals are distinguished by good formability. The best-known forming processes are forging as well as hot and cold rolling. The latter two processes use rolls to exert a high pressure on the material, causing it to change its shape in response. The usual starting material for precision strip is stainless steel slit strip. This is rolled to the required dimensions in a reversing 20-roll mill | Fig. 1 |. After bright annealing under a protective gas atmosphere, the precision strip is temper rolled or stretch-bend-leveled before being processed in the finishing shop. Structured sheet has also long been produced in this way. The classic teardrop-pattern plate is an example of this. Finer structures
can also be produced, for example using specially ground rolls or an edited roll. In the latter case, the roughness is imparted to the product by temper rolling, also known as skin pass rolling, using a pretreated roll. The result is a strip with an even, but relatively rough surface. Development history ThyssenKrupp Nirosta Präzisionsband, a subsidiary of ThyssenKrupp Nirosta, produces stainless steel strip in thicknesses of 0.05 to 1.5 mm to especially close tolerances. Such strips are used, for example, in special applications in the automotive industry and in electrical and medical technology.
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Fig. 1 | Schematic representation of cold rolling in a 20-roll mill
The first step in the development of special surfaces involved the optimization of existing roll-grinding processes. Special processes and grinding speeds were used to develop different yet homogenous roughnesses, which in some cases can show a fine striped structure. The second development step was to test whether the conventional processes of roll editing, such as roll coating, could be further improved. The result was the development of different processes capable of producing a homogenous surface, but with significantly
coarser results compared with special roll grinding techniques. In contrast to grinding technology, these processes can also produce structures running transverse to the strip direction. The skin surface was developed during this stage. This is distinguished by an especially interesting, irregular rough appearance. Due to this roughness, the strip offers particularly good grip | Fig. 2 |. All of the surfaces described above display homogeneous roughness. In order for structures and motifs to be visible, heterogeneous,
Fig. 2 | ‘Skin’ surface, roughness: Ra = 1.0 - 2.0 µm
Fig. 3 | Schematic representation: Embossing the strip surface
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Rolling microscopically fine surface structures | 37
changing surface roughnesses are necessary. The different roughnesses and changing refractions of light make structures visible on the strip surface. Complicated heterogeneous surface structures are also transferred to the strip by cold rolling, as are homogenous and uniform structures. The work rolls used for this are subjected to a special pretreatment. Special etching or laser techniques are used to form the embossing structures in negative on the work rolls, similar to a print roll used for intaglio printing | Fig. 3 |. Etching techniques are primarily suitable for geometric structures that demonstrate a perceptible depth, while laser techniques are capable of producing any desired motif on the work roll. The work roll only exhibits the different surface roughness required for the embossing. A work roll that has been prepared in this way can be used to emboss any desired motif on the strip surface. To accomplish this, the prepared work roll is fitted to the rolling mill prior to the final operation. As this roll is extremely sensitive to scratches, it must be handled with special care. The service life of the work rolls is an important issue for the technical feasibility of the process. A degree of wear on the rolls that is
too high would lead to the strip surface at the beginning of a strip being different to that at the end of the strip. Experience has shown, however, that changing rolls and/or strips presents the greatest risk of damage to the rolls. The work rolls are subject to virtually no mechanical wear during the rolling process. Conclusion The special surfaces enable customers to use any design for purely optical reasons. The process can also be used to enable customers to practice intensive brand management. Such branding makes the product unique | Fig. 4 |. One result of this is to that pirating such products becomes more difficult. During the development of the special surfaces it became apparent that such structures are less sensitive to fingerprints than bright stainless steel surfaces. The extremely finely divided, structured surfaces have the effect that when the surface is touched, contact is only made with a very small area, which could ultimately be a point of attack for soiling.
Fig. 4 | Size comparison of extremely fine rolled structures
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38 | | HPPO process – from the lab to commercial implementation ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .
Dortmund DR.| 39 HPPO process for propylene oxide production with no co-products DIPL. NORBERT ULLRICH Chief Engineer | Uhde GmbH.-ING.000 t/a of propylene oxide in Korea. NAT. followed by several years of miniplant operation and culminating in the establishment of a large-scale reference facility with a capacity of 100. The entire process has been newly developed. BÄRBEL KOLBE Senior Process Engineer | Uhde GmbH. The process includes a new reactor design and process configuration in conjunction with an optimized catalyst. Propylene oxide is a versatile bulk chemical with high growth rates and is mainly used as a precursor for the production of polyurethanes. Ennigerloh The HPPO process is the first commercially available process for propylene oxide production that uses hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an oxidizing agent and is free of co-products. RER. starting with a laboratory-scale set-up.-ING. NIELS BREDEMEYER Senior Chemist | Uhde GmbH.-ING. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . Dortmund DR.-WIRTSCH. DIPL..
as thermoplastics. which increasingly pose an environmental problem. Polyurethane plastics are suitable for use in a wide variety of areas. e. catalysis and process development. Fig.g. Product mixture The annual worldwide growth rate for polyurethane is between five and six percent. This strategic cooperation between Degussa and Uhde is thus ideal. In order to profit from the outstanding growth forecasts for this product. an excellent industrial partner and the world’s second-largest producer of H2O2. upholstery). Moreover. However. the construction Reaction Cooling system industry (insulation materials) and the automotive industry (seats. The chosen process uses hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the agent for oxidizing propylene. mainly as foam. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . The development was carried out in close cooperation with Degussa. cladding). Fig. which is why single-product facilities used exclusively for propylene oxide production with no coproducts are the focus of strong interest among established and newly emerging propylene oxide producers alike. Degussa has impressive technological expertise and resources in the areas of H2O2. To meet the demand for this product.000 t of propylene oxide is needed every year.40 | HPPO process for propylene oxide production with no co-products Reaction Propylene Recycle propylene Market for propylene oxide H2O2 Propylene oxide is a versatile bulk chemical (global production: Methanol 6 million tonnes annually) with high growth rates and is mainly used as a precursor for the production of polyurethanes (PUR). which is greater than the rate of overall global economic growth. or a comparable quantity of waste salts. 1 | as elastomers and as fibers (spandex). 1 | Example of an end product made with polyurethane: wheels for inline skates Degussa’s global sales operations can be utilised.g. Uhde set itself the aim of developing a propylene oxide production process that would be free of co-products while also conserving resources and protecting the environment. polyurethanes are much more than just foam: they are also used as varnishes and adhesives. e. a large facility capable of global-scale production) with an annual capacity of 250. Using these conventional processes to produce propylene oxide also entails high investment costs. for the furniture industry (mattresses.e. by manufacturers of wheels | Fig. 2 | Flow diagram of the propylene oxide production process Development aims Conventional large-scale processes hitherto used to produce propylene oxide have disadvantages: they create more than double the quantity of co-products for which there is lower demand. Other propylene oxide-derived products are used in the cosmetics and pharmaceuticals industries. an extra worldscale plant (i.
and solvent have to be separated from one another and reprocessed. in which the unconverted propylene is recovered. The new design and an optimized process configuration guarantee good removal of the reaction heat and nearly ideal flow characteristics in each tube. Water is formed as a by-product. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . concentration). The oxidation reactor for the synthesis of propylene oxide is the key element in the HPPO process. In further separation units. Then the entire sequence of processing units was developed for the raw product produced in the new reactor. including the cooling system for the highly exothermal reaction | Fig. The process helps to conserve resources and to protect the environment thanks to the environmentally friendly H2O2 and the use of a highly selective catalyst. i. The liquid reaction mixture is fed into a pre-separation unit. selection of suitable materials and the process engineering. Subsequently. the product is separated out and purified to meet the quality specifications. The quality of the propylene oxide thus produced is suitable for applications that require the highest levels of polyurethane quality as well as for other PO-derived products | Fig. were developed for this special application. making it possible for the reaction liquid to flow through each of the several thousand catalyst-filled tubes. resulting in very high propylene oxide selectivity. this reaction process also makes for a long catalyst lifetime. The reaction takes place at a pressure of approx. In conjunction with an optimized H2O2 quality (stabilizers. where H2O2 is used to oxidize the raw material propylene to propylene oxide over a special new catalyst. Finally. Reactor internals. All process steps and the core equipment are patented. Methanol is used as the solvent. 30 bar and at temperatures well under 100 °C. the methanol solvent is separated from the water and fed back into the reactor.| 41 Propylene recycling PO purification Methanol recovery PO product From PO purification Offgas To propylene recycling Recycle methanol Compressor system Purge gas system Preseparation Propylene separation PO purification Methanol processing Cooling system Flash system Methanol/water Steam Recycle propylene to reaction section Product mixture Waste water HPPO process HPPO stands for ‘Hydrogen Peroxide Propylene Oxide’. The process takes place in a newly developed oxidation reactor. whereby emphasis was given to using proven separation processes and equipment.e. 2 |. Development phases The development of the reactor included the overall design as well as design details of the internals. such as distributors and collectors. the educts. the cost efficiency of the process development was continually checked and controlled with the help of IRR (Internal Rate of Return) calculations. During the development phase. the production of propylene oxide (PO) using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizing agent. 3 |. A shell-and-tube reactor of an entirely new design is used. products.
With even larger single-train plants. concrete sales negotiations regarding the construction of new world-scale facilities are being conducted with a number of potential customers. Water is formed as a by-product. In addition.000 t/a | Fig.000 t/a of propylene oxide in Korea. Cooling system The plant is scheduled to go on stream in early 2008. 4 | featuring all the process steps. Summary and outlook Product mixture The new HPPO process is the first commercially available hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-based process for propylene oxide production that is free of co-products. was followed by several years of miniplant operation and culminated in the establishment of a MeOH / H2O2 large-scale reference facility with a capacity of 100. the reactor design and process configuration. including an optimized catalyst. the HPPO process helps to conserve resources and protect the environment thanks to the use of a very selective catalyst and environmentally friendly H2O2. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .42 | Propylene H2O2 Methanol Recycle propylene Commercial application The first large-scale industrial plant to use the new process is currently being built for SKC at Ulsan in Korea. All process steps and the core equipment are patented. The scale-up progressed from the miniplant and a rigorous simulation model to a world-scale facility in a single development step. C3H6 + H2O2 C3H6O + H2O which started with a laboratory-scale set-up. and described by means of a simulation model. 6 |. further economic benefits (economies of scale) can be achieved. The scale-up procedure – from miniplant to a world-scale PO facility with a capacity of 100. PO technology. It consists of a PO facility with a capacity of 100. The entire process is new. and the procurement of equipment are continuing apace. 3 | HPPO reactor. The process is a completely new development. the operating company SKC intends to construct additional PO plants with much higher capacities. This is particularly important in order to detect trace components in the closed recycle loops at an early stage and to permit a low-risk scale-up to the commercial scale. but also as a direct source of expertise and as a licensor. Detailed planning. The scale-up risk was minimized by connecting many reaction tubes (with the dimensions of the miniplant reactor tubes) in parallel and by intensive process simulation | Fig. Once the reference facility is in successful operation. Uhde serves such clients not only in its capacity as an engineering partner and contractor. schematic diagram The total investment for an HPPO facility is much less than that needed for PO facilities that use conventional processes because there is no need to devote investment funds to co-products. Worldwide licensing will expand the potential customer target group to include companies that have not yet had access to The entire process was demonstrated in a miniplant | Fig. 5 |.000 t/a as a reference plant – was carried out in a single development step. Fig. In addition to having very high product yields and producing no Coolant Cooled tube wall Propylene Titanium silicalite catalyst co-products. preparation Reaction of the site.
6 | Detail from the 3D model of a commercial HPPO facility ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .HPPO process for propylene oxide production with no co-products | 43 Fig. 4 | HPPO miniplant. detail photos Reactor tubes Z X Y Fig. 5 | CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) calculations of the reactor cooling system Temperatur profile Fig.
44 | | Ductile iron treatment ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .
Waupaca/USA ThyssenKrupp Waupaca produces 1. To insure the highest quality level and introduce error proofing into the process. wear and other dynamic properties to those of conventional gray iron. the results of the reaction must be verified after the solidification of the casting. Over 35% of this iron is produced for safety critical applications including automotive and heavy truck brakes. Marinette/USA CODY RHODES (BS) Quality Manager | ThyssenKrupp Waupaca. 1 | is a complex process. alloy composition. Etowah/USA RONALD THURSTON Project Engineer | ThyssenKrupp Waupaca. The process to produce the ductile iron material for these components has to be monitored closely to insure the safety and strength of the material that is cast.| 45 Error proofing verification methods for the production of automotive and transportation cast components GENE JOHNSON Electrical Supervisor | ThyssenKrupp Waupaca. Obviously if lower-quality ductile cast iron is poured into a mold and a defective casting or component is produced. suspensions and transmissions. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . The material has far superior fatigue. metallic weight. However. The boiling point of magnesium is 1. The need to rapidly determine if the treated metal is acceptable for casting while the iron is still molten is paramount to developing an error proofing methodology of this complex process. improperly processed ductile cast iron can produce a material that displays only part of the required mechanical properties.4 million kilograms or approximately 250. Even with process control in place. Production methods Ductile cast iron is produced at ThyssenKrupp Waupaca by the addition of either a form of pure magnesium or a ferro magnesium alloy to molten cast iron. alloying agents. Marinette/USA TIMOTHY OWENS Melting Supervisor | ThyssenKrupp Waupaca. Many production variables such as raw materials making up the base metallic charge.000 ductile iron castings every day.100 °C. metal temperature. alloy weight and treatment environment can alter the resultant ductile cast iron and its properties. Ductile cast iron The production of ductile iron castings and components | Fig. catastrophic early failure can occur. steering. ThyssenKrupp Waupaca has developed two patent pending methods to determine if the important step of forming nodules in ductile iron has been properly performed and completed.
If an insufficient reaction has Fig. Both methods are patentpending and center around the fact that a sensing device can detect and monitor an original response and compare it to a pre-set limit to determine if a proper treatment of the molten iron has occurred | Fig. The reaction data is then compared to known data for complete and incomplete treatments.500 °C. If an insufficient reaction has occurred | Fig. The sensors detect the change in hydraulic pressure that is caused by the mechanical vibration resulting from the violent treatment process. magnesium and oxygen produce an exothermic combustion reaction that produces a very bright light. 7 | the hydraulic pressure follows a shaking pattern. Both the light intensity and movement of the ladle can be captured. If a proper reaction has taken place | Fig. The second method for treatment processes that emit less light uses hydraulic pressure sensors within the hydraulic lines attached to the treatment ladle | Fig. The photo sensor is located so that while the reaction is taking place the intensity of the light can be recorded. 6 |. 5 | the light intensity and duration of intensity will be below the required threshold. 4 | the light intensity follows a very well defined pattern. ThyssenKrupp Waupaca has developed two methods for verification of this treatment process. 2 |. recorded and compared to set limits to insure the process is completed properly. 1 | Crankshaft of ductile cast iron ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . The resulting magnesium reaction is very violent. The mixture of molten iron. One method uses a photo detector | Fig. If a proper reaction has taken place | Fig. 3 | to measure and monitor the light intensity that results from the treatment process. In this case a computer determines that the process should be placed on hold and subsequent operation ceased.46 | Error proofing verification methods for the production of automotive and transportation cast components and the temperature of the molten metal is 1. Also the reaction emits a vibrant and bright light. Corresponding safety measures must be taken.
Error proofing verification methods for the production of automotive and transportation cast components | 47 Response Sensing Device Microprocessor Digital Response Data (DRD) Threshold Data Threshold Criterium Comparison of data Does DRD meet Operator Criterion? No Yes Message: molton metal treatment sufficient Message: molton metal treatment not sufficient Fig. 3 | Photo detector measures light from reaction ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . 2 | Schematic of control logic Bright light White smoke Photo detector Treatment ladle Molton iron Magnesium alloy Fig.
wavelength. 20. This response could be light intensity. automatically compared to a known data set to verify the completion of the treatment process and then communicated to employees in the next step of the processing. 5 | Response of an incomplete treatment using photo detector ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . The main idea is to capture the response of the treatment of molten cast iron with pure magnesium or a magnesium alloy to produce ductile cast iron.000 15.000 Fig.000 which insures proper treatment process has taken place for producing ductile cast iron. density of smoke.000 0 Time 25. 4 | Response of a treatment using photo detector 0 Time Fig.000 5. 15.000 Conclusions ThyssenKrupp Waupaca has created a patent pending methodology Lux 10. a computer determines that the process should be placed on hold and the subsequent pouring operation ceased.000 5. mechanical vibration or some combination of these events. 8 | there will be a smooth monotonic increase in the 25.48 | occurred | Fig.000 hydraulic pressure.000 20. If the data does not meet the required threshold for a good reaction.000 Lux 10. This response is then electronically transformed.
000 3. 7 | Response of a proper treatment using hydraulic feedback Hydraulic pressure feedback Weight 10.000 1.000 Scan time Fig.000 8.000 3.000 Iron [Pounds] 7.000 2.000 Iron [Pounds] 7.000 5.000 6.Error proofing verification methods for the production of automotive and transportation cast components | 49 Load sensors Hydraulic pressure sensors Lift cylinder Control PC Treatment ladle Fig. Weight 10.000 1.000 9.000 Scan time Hydraulic pressure feedback Fig. 8 | Response of an incomplete treatment using hydraulic feedback ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .000 8.000 6.000 2.000 4.000 9. 6 | Hydraulic sensor measures mechanical bouncing.000 5.000 4.
50 | | Machine for slip-free scan hardening of slewing bearings at Rothe Erde ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .
-ING.-ING.5 m – has been installed in the Rothe Erde plant in Lippstadt. 2 to 2. Process time. WILFRIED SPINTIG Plant Manager | Rothe Erde GmbH. Lippstadt A new inductive surface hardening process that enables complete hardening of the raceways has been developed for permanently rotating slewing bearings. JÖRG ROLLMANN Head of Research and Testing Department | Rothe Erde GmbH. The new process has many advantages over the alternative case carburizing process. The first scan hardening facility – capable of slip-free hardening of slewing bearings with a diameter of up to 4.-ING. manufacturing costs and energy consumption are considerably reduced. which is suitable for ring diameters of approx. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .| 51 Slip free scan hardening – a process for complete inductive surface hardening of slewing bearing raceways DR. Lippstadt DR.5 m. BERND STAKEMEIER Operations Manager | Rothe Erde GmbH. Lippstadt DIPL.
finish machined. for a roller with a diameter of 40 mm) on bearing rings of any diameter using a single tool with relatively low power (approx. so that each segment of the raceway is continually heated and quenched (hardened). Rothe Erde manufactures slewing bearings (ranging from 0. the raceways of slewing bearings are scan hardened by induction. 2. for example. making it necessary to develop a new process. An inductor and an attached sprinkler head are set up above a segment of the raceway that is relatively short compared with the diameter of the ring | Fig. partially hardened segment (slip area) remains at the point where the hardening process terminates | Fig. Examples of possible applications in new technological areas include medical scanners and tunnel-driving machines. July 2005 issue) comes up against its capacity limits as the diameter of the rotor bearing increases.4 to 8 m in diameter) from seamless-rolled rings. Production and application of slewing bearings Slewing bearings are extremely versatile machine elements that come in a variety of designs which are used in almost all fields of mechanical engineering and transport.g. This process can be used to harden raceways with a constant cross-section (e. and finally coated.52 | Fig. This process requires less than one hour for a bearing ring with a 2.2 |. Development of new areas of technology and ongoing development of the manufacturing process for slewing bearings are continually extending their areas of application. In contrast to their previous areas of application. slewing bearings are increasingly used in permanently rotating equipment. induction hardened. In another inductive hardening process – single-shot hardening of slewing bearings – the entire raceway over the circumference of the bearing is exposed simultaneously to the electromagnetic field ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . ThyssenKrupp techforum. State of the art Generally. these are machined in the unhardened state. depending on the use. fitted with rolling elements and cages or spacers. a short. During the hardening process. 40 kW).5 m diameter. The induction scan hardening process normally used in the manufacture of slewing bearings cannot meet these requirements. Some of these bearings require complete (slip-free) hardening of the raceways in order to provide adequate bearing capacity and quiet running. 2. 1 | Slewing bearings in wind turbines enable the rotor to turn. 1 |. In successive operations. the inductor and sprinkler head scan the contour of the raceway once in the direction of the perimeter while the bearing ring is advanced at a constant rate. As a result of the nature of this process.1 |. The inductive single shot hardening process for slewing bearing raceways developed at Rothe Erde (cf. as rotor bearings for wind turbines | Fig.
depending on the bearing diameter. 3 | Single shot hardening of radial raceway Fig. 2 m. this process is limited to bearing diameters of up to a maximum of approx. 950 to 1. The process time for this method is a few minutes.1 2.2 | Schematic diagram: Scan hardening of axial raceway Fig.2 Sprinkler Hardening start Inductor Slip area Ring movement Heated zone Figs 2. Due to the high cost of the inductors and the available power. carburizing over several hundred hours. 4 | subjects them to considerable distortion. The induced eddy currents heat the raceway to the hardening temperature | Fig. which can only be limited with substantial technical effort.Slip free scan hardening – a process for complete inductive surface hardening of slewing bearing raceways | 53 of a ring-shaped inductor that covers the complete bearing ring raceway. This process hardens the bearing ring raceway without slip.000 °C in a furnace. Between 700 and 1. however. 2. then quenching. Unlike the progressive hardening process. This involves heating the bearing rings to approx. The only slip-free hardening process that has been available to date for diameters greater than 2 m is case carburizing.000 kW of power is required over short periods for this process.1 and 2. 4 | Hardening of whole ring ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . The complete hardening of the rings | Fig. the inductor and sprinkler head are only useable for a single bearing diameter and are many times more expensive. 3 | and it is then quenched as a whole by spraying or submerging it. however.
5 5. 5.4 5.6 | Principle of slip free scan hardening of axial raceway ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .3 5.1 5.6 Fig.1 to 5.54 | Slip free scan hardening – a process for complete inductive surface hardening of slewing bearing raceways 5.2 Raceway 5.
When both inductors have formed a common (closed) heated zone. Both must be removed by means of cost-intensive hard machining. quenching the middle of the zone initially heated and dividing the zone that has been heated to hardening temperature in two | Fig. a third inductor preheats the end point of the hardening.e. two induction coils are arranged above a segment of the raceway to be hardened.5 |.2 |. which has been patented by Rothe Erde. After covering a short distance. hardens only the raceway of the bearing ring. 700 € max. this is simultaneously quenched by turning the ring or swiveling the sprinkler heads | Fig. 5. Slip free scan hardening In scan hardening.5 m Fig. This reduces the costs for reworking and dramatically cuts the energy costs in comparison to case carburizing | Fig. At the start of the process. 5. 6 |.2 m) whole ring > 100 h 1. the decision was made to invest in a scan hardening facility | see title picture of the report | that would make it possible in the future to harden raceways with diameters of up to 4. The maximum diameter here is in the range of 2. without slip. 5. For the small batch sizes normal at Rothe Erde. and in a fraction of the time that would be required for case carburizing. the use of this process is limited by the available contract hardening furnace capacity. Against this background. without slip. This led to the development of slip free scan hardening. 4. Both inductors then move apart in opposing directions around the circumference at constant speed. Once the preheater inductor has been removed. 25 min 0. the application of scan hardening offers further cost advantages.5 m Scan hardening loaded surfaces only approx. the hardening inductors reach the end point and once again produce a joint heated zone | Fig.5 m) (Ø 2.g. An inductive surface hardening process that could be used to completely harden only the raceways was sought on the basis of Rothe Erde’s experience. because the power requirement and inductor size are independent of the bearing ring diameter.500 € max. until the two hardening inductors approach it | Fig.5 m completely. both inductors are immediately adjacent to one another and heat the surface of the raceway lying directly underneath to hardening temperature | Fig.6 mm approx. The scan hardening facility was designed in such a way that it could also be used for carrying out the other hardening processes typically used in the production of slewing bearings (single tooth hardening and progressive hardening). In addition. the rings are subject to heavy scaling due to the long dwell time at the carburizing temperature. Each inductor then passes over the raceway surface of a half of the ring circumference at constant speed and in the opposite direction to the other one | Fig. the sprinkler heads attached to the inductors are activated. i.3 |. Summary This process. While this is happening. 5. Case carburizing Hardening Process duration Distortion Hardening costs Diameter range (Case depth 4 mm) (Ø 2.Slip free scan hardening – a process for complete inductive surface hardening of slewing bearing raceways | 55 e.4 |. by the use of fixtures when quenching. 6. 6 | Comparison of typical process characteristics: Case carburizing and induction scan hardening without soft spot ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .1 |. 2.4 mm approx. 5. 5.6 |. Furthermore.5 to 3 m.
56 | | Jointed shaft assembly at ThyssenKrupp Presta ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .
Quality Assurance and Development. the production-compatible design of steering systems and the creation of highly flexible and cost-efficient manufacturing cells. A PPLS Academy has been set up expressly to provide employees with the qualifications they need to implement the PPLS. DANIEL FITZEK. 1 | with a process time of five days. the system’s vision. It is the world’s leading supplier of assembled camshafts and the technology leader in the area of forging. The academy offers special training programs on topics such as lean automation and Six Sigma (a synonym for zero-defect quality). the company has established an improvement and innovation process that is now being implemented at all levels of the organization.-ING. The result of this endeavor was the PPLS Navigator. Eschen/Liechtenstein ANJA TISCHLER (MAG.-WI. PPLS is an innovative. The Navigator consists of eleven core principles and provides a wide array of specific methods and tools for supporting their implementation | Fig. All project resources. As part of the strategic definition process for the creation of PPLS. Eschen/Liechtenstein ThyssenKrupp Presta is aiming to create a flexible and lean company by implementing the Presta Production and Logistics System (PPLS). On the basis of the strategic goal of producing steering systems | Fig. PPLS – lean and flexible production and logistics processes ThyssenKrupp Presta is one of the world’s foremost manufacturers of state-of-the-art steering systems. the participating departments appointed ten platform project leaders who pursue clearly defined goals to manage the implementation of the plants. (FH) STEFAN OBERHAUSER.-ING. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . FH) Project Leader Human Resource Management | ThyssenKrupp Presta AG. They are assisted in this task by local project leaders at the various production plants. objectives and core topics were set out by the company’s top management in close cooperation with managers and experts from Production. Eschen/Liechtenstein DIPL.| 57 Presta Production and Logistics System PPLS – paving the way for producing steering systems in five days DR. DIPL. and with them the entire organization of the PPLS. To ensure sustained implementation of the eleven core PPLS principles and the use of uniform standards for all of the plants. holistic production system that not only ensures the targeted stabilization of series production but also encompasses improvements to the logistical order processing procedure. With the group-wide introduction of the Presta Production and Logistics System (PPLS) in early 2006. To ensure successful implementation. MSC Project Manager Production Planning | ThyssenKrupp Presta AG.-ING. Logistics. which serves as a “compass” on the path to implementing the “five-day” steering system. Process improvement teams that are networked across plants and departments are using coordinated measures to introduce lean production and logistics processes which will make it possible to manufacture steering systems in a process time of five days. 2 |. MBA Project Leader Supply Chain Management | ThyssenKrupp Presta AG. Eschen/Liechtenstein PETER SPALT. the system has three pillars. ThyssenKrupp Presta has been forging ahead with the implementation of lean and flexible production and logistics processes. MSC Lead Manager Production and Logistics Systems | ThyssenKrupp Presta AG. are centrally coordinated by the PPLS office and a steering committee headed by the Management Board.
58 | Presta Production and Logistics System PPLS – paving the way for producing steering systems in five days Fig. 1 | Electric Power Assisted Steering (EPAS) ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .
inner region: core target values The various PPLS implementation projects include a standardized group-wide Six Sigma Green Belt program with currently 42 participants (for employees with a solid background in Six Sigma). To reduce batch sizes during steering shaft assembly. In addition. three key optimization measures were used to reduce the throughput time. the 5S/TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) offensive. various value flow optimization projects for high-volume products. This made it possible to minimize production fluctuations and to ensure optimal production of the highly complex respective types. The implementation projects described below are meant to provide a better picture of how the implementation of the PPLS is carried out and what the results of these measures are. To reduce throughput time in the production of steering columns. The project is based on a value flow analysis in which a process improvement team consisting of a value flow manager and employees from Production.Presta Production and Logistics System PPLS – paving the way for producing steering systems in five days | 59 Lean automation Just-in-time production Design for manufacturing Plan Safety Supply chain management Costs Quality Do TOP workplace Zero defects Act Active leadership Delivery Check Visual management Teamwork Tasks and qualifications Kaizen Fig.000 units. 2 | PPLS Navigator. a project for the implementation of a standardized shop floor management system and a program for the introduction of a group-wide production and logistics cockpit on the basis of SAP. changes were made to the logistical demand-driven supply management system ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . outer region: PPLS core principles and activities. A value flow analysis is a simple method of visualizing and analyzing the flow of material and information. The value flow extends across two production locations and the three manufacturing processes of cold extrusion. the participants in one of the implementation projects analyzed the value flow for the steering columns of a midrange sedan with an annual production volume of about 500. They subsequently studied the bottlenecks and throughput times and developed a shared perception of what the state of the value flow should be in the future. a fixed production sequence was introduced for final assembly and for the subassembly building systems. 3 | and steering column assembly. Logistics. SMED (Single Minute Exchange of Die) workshops were employed to cut retooling times for high-volume products. At the same time. Value stream optimization of steering column production The value analysis is the key approach employed to reduce throughput time as part of the implementation of the core PPLS principle of just-in-time production. and Production Planning first collected information on the current state of all material and information flows. In this specific case. middle region: basis of action for all PPLS activities. steering shaft assembly | see title picture of the report and Fig.
Within 12 months these measures reduced retooling times by 43% in selected setup relationships. MRP controller. To this end. the right setup of Fig. only the number of units that are actually needed are produced. During basic training courses. the number of quality defects has been reduced by around 21% on average. SQDC shop floor management system The SQDC shop floor management system is a simple method for reducing throughput times during day-to-day operations. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . Similarly. steering shaft assembly is now managed by means of a subassembly supermarket in accordance with the supply needs of the downstream final assembly process. a plant-specific improvement team (consisting of the production leader. 4 | Jointed shaft assembly the cross-departmental improvement team is an important precondition for successfully holding the daily SQDC meetings. The introduction of SQDC meetings created a standardized global communication and improvement platform that sets clear priorities for daily work while enabling quick responses to facility bottlenecks and deviations from plan on the basis of simple figures. it is essential that the bottlenecks of a key facility are analyzed so that the right priorities can be set for the orientation of the improvement process. By switching to a consumption-controlled production system.60 | Presta Production and Logistics System PPLS – paving the way for producing steering systems in five days of the final assembly line. As a result. As a result. data and facts. Quality. quality. while facility downtimes have been cut by 23%. process engineers and maintenance personnel) meets for 15 minutes each day to visualize and analyze the key figures of the facility as well as to define and implement minor improvement measures. joint annual goal agreements were drawn up within each team. the analysis of causes in cooperation with expert personnel and rapid implementation of the improvements. the organizers worked together with the affected SQDC teams and facility operators to work out the backgrounds. sequences. At the beginning of the process. In addition. That means that SQDC teams were set up and target figure displays were erected at each key facility. The throughput time for steering shaft assembly was reduced by 40%. It focuses on identifying deviations from Safety. Among the key factors that made the implementation a success were the daily handling of problems on site. delivery and costs. 15 key facilities throughout Europe were converted to the SQDC system as part of the SQDC Shop Floor Management implementation project. conditions and interrelationships between the predefined key values of safety. quality assurance officer. Delivery and Cost targets as well as on finding quick and pragmatic solutions to these deviations. resulting in a 37% drop in resource commitment. Over a period of 12 months. the transparency of deviations and problem areas.
Conclusion The implementation of the Presta Production and Logistics System has provided ThyssenKrupp Presta with an innovative approach that paves the way for producing steering systems in five days. The project’s key success factors were the use of interdisciplinary teams to draw up the assembly concept and the focus on the assembly line worker with regard to production flexibility. This made it possible to quickly identify problems in the assembly operations and to check the feasibility of new solutions within a few minutes.000 units per year. The profitable production of such a product family requires that a scalable use of human resources is possible. 4 | shows that the amount invested was lower despite the system’s greater flexibility. new approaches to production planning had to be taken so that throughput times for the new product family could be systematically reduced.Presta Production and Logistics System PPLS – paving the way for producing steering systems in five days | 61 Lean automation Conventional Capital expenditures Number of employees Cycle time Area Work in process (WIP) Time needed to respond to changed orders Annual personnel costs (135. Several simulations were conducted. A paper mock-up of the assembly line was made to serve as a simple tool for assisting this development process. that additional assembly operations can be easily integrated and that the necessary investments can be successively made in line with the ramp-up of production. This output would be spread out among six different product types that would successively go into volume production over a period of about two years. Compared to the conventional production concept that was created at the same time. the project team’s approach achieved much better results for all key target figures. Production and Product Development. the stability of the throughput times checked and the remaining ergonomics issues resolved. To achieve the goal of creating a lean. | Fig. Logistics. during which the assembly operations were continuously improved. 88% 64% 100% 8 120 s/unit 182 m2 39 units 78 min. the company set up an interdisciplinary project team consisting of employees from Production Planning. In addition. 4 | Concept comparison 72% 2-7 120-670 s/unit 90 m2 15 units 30 min. simple and flexible facility for the final assembly of a new generation of electrically adjustable steering columns for a luxury car. The results served as the basis for determining the required cycle time for the facility so that the layout and grouping of the assembly operations could commence.000 units/year) Fig. The starting point for the creation of a suitable manufacturing concept was to conduct a detailed analysis of the ramp-up and the development of customer demand.000 units/year) Annual personnel costs (35. 100% 100% Creation of a lean automation facility for the production of an electrically adjustable steering column Since the market is characterized by a wide variety of different types and wide fluctuations in production quantities. PPLS is now an integral part of the company’s production strategy and is being implemented throughout the global production network. The main task was to create assembly steps with an extremely high added value and to find the optimal balance between them. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . The chief challenge facing this team was to create a final assembly line with a production capacity of up to 135. The objective for the next several years is to further refine the process throughout the company and to establish the PPLS as the worldwide standard at all production locations. The focus was initially on the work sequence of the assembly line worker and not on the automation technology.
weight and functionality. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .62 | | A newly developed support frame concept for commercial vehicles offers numerous advantages with respect to space.
the benefits it offers with respect to ride comfort. Essen DR.| 63 All-new support structure for independent suspensions in heavy-duty trucks DIPL. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . Essen ThyssenKrupp Automotive Systems has presented an all-new support structure for independent suspensions in heavy-duty trucks. STEFFEN SCHMIDT Managing Director | ThyssenKrupp Automotive Systems. and compactness justify its use in the production of commercial vehicles. and steering. The system features innovative solutions for suspension mountings. DIRK ZIESING CAE Coordination | ThyssenKrupp Automotive Systems. Despite the additional effort required for the manufacture and assembly of this integrated system.-ING. safety.-ING. frame structures. crash behavior.
Major aims in this regard are the reduction of body roll and pitch. since it allows kinematic properties to be optimally set and makes it possible to transmit forces between the wheels and the frame along favorable paths. Fig. The advantages of this type of axle design are obvious. which is particularly important Advantages of a double wishbone axle ThyssenKrupp Automotive Systems uses double wishbones for its new steering axle with independent suspension. improved steering behaviour. which is connected to the vehicle frame by means of an upper and lower control arm I Fig. To solve this problem. Another factor that influenced the endeavor to find optimal load paths for different load levels was the desire to improve partner protection during crashes (front underrun protection). ThyssenKrupp Presta contributed its decades of experience in the development of truck steering systems. 1 | Independent suspension with double wishbone design ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . their support structure has primarily consisted of two side members (most commonly with a C-shaped profile). it continues to provide a platform for cross-company and cross-segment cooperation. Requirements for future truck chassis Future generations of commercial vehicles will have to meet several requirements that will affect their design to various degrees. the advantages associated with independent suspension (suspension comfort. Meanwhile. and on the other there is little room for its installation as a result of the front-mounted drive unit. 1 I. and Bilstein Suspension supplied its expertise in suspension and damping components. However. The wheel location is governed by the wheel knuckle. and preassembled modules. for enabling diesel engines to meet future emission requirements. Because such axles generally have ball joint connections to the wheel knuckle. the innovative use of new steel grades created a link to ThyssenKrupp Steel. the transfer of this principle to heavy-duty trucks has posed a serious challenge. Steering requirements to be met by the vehicles include a correspondingly large steering angle and a small turning circle. the system has to deal with high axle loads. Among the objectives that commercial vehicle manufacturers continuously strive to achieve are the improvement of handling behaviour and the enhancement of ride comfort. In this design. On the one hand. Although such a ladder frame principle leaves sufficient room for adding various types of vehicle bodies and any form of rigid axle arrangement. Another challenge is to create more room for the engine and the drivetrain. modular construction. spring travel was limited to a range extending from +100 mm to -100 mm. Ever since trucks have been manufactured. It was decided to separate the suspension and damping elements in order to make more effective use of space and improve the load distribution. Although the project unit has moved to Essen along with ThyssenKrupp Automotive Systems. ThyssenKrupp Automotive Systems has come up with an innovative concept whose starting point is an optimized topology within the vehicle’s front end packaging space. the Forming Technology unit provided the know-how for forming metal sheet. modular design) generally justify the development of new support frame concepts. Finally. such as a reduction of tire wear. it is not an optimal solution for load bearing and requires additional structural components for independent suspensions. The main focus here was on improving various aspects of driving safety and cost of owner-ship. which is sufficient for meeting the needs of a mass market semi-trailer truck. The main features of an efficient design are a compact arrangement. Multi-body simulations were performed during the design of the system’s kinematics. While Automotive Systems was responsible for system integration. An additional aspect that may have to be considered is the optional use of alternative steering systems.64 | All-new support structure for independent suspensions in heavy-duty trucks Concept Whereas independent suspension has been available for the steered wheels of buses and light trucks for some time now. The Chassis project unit at the former ThyssenKrupp Automotive location in Bochum provided perfect conditions for cross-company and cross-segment cooperation within the project team.
the vehicle structure must also meet certain stiffness requirements to ensure that internal deformation of the support frame has no negative effects on the vehicle’s handling. A particular design aim in this system is to keep the control arms as short as possible in order to provide more room for the drivetrain and reduce vehicle weight. which means that it does not affect delivery trucks weighing up to 7. And if a braking torque of 30 kNm is to be achieved. this has to have a corresponding friction coefficient in relation to the wheel load in order to transfer this horizontal force from the tires to the road surface.All-new support structure for independent suspensions in heavy-duty trucks | 65 Fig. 2 I. 3 | The front underrun protection required for trucks prevents the vehicles from rolling over passenger cars following a frontal collision. 3 I.5 t. at about 80 kN. Common influencing variables in this case are the degree of transverse and torsional stiffness. The forces from transverse impacts are similar in magnitude. the longitudinal force at the wheel contact area of a tire with a radius of 0. This protective system is designed to prevent trucks from rolling over passenger cars following a frontal collision I Fig. more than 15% of heavy-duty trucks are subject to a special exemption for off-road vehicles. If the dynamic magnification factor is set at 2. To determine these relative values. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . while the front is loaded with standard loads I Fig. To achieve this protective stand- Fig. Besides this basic concept for dealing with load requirements. Naturally.5 m will be 60 kN in the direction of travel. allowing them to dispense with any protective measures for road traffic. In addition.5. 2 | Unit load situation for determining frame stiffness the number of components can be reduced. since 2003 the EU has required that newly registered trucks have front underrun protection. the frame is fixed at the rear. the corresponding vertical load is 100 kN.5 t GVW. This results in the following conditions for the arrangement of the components: the static wheel load is around 40 kN. In addition. The regulation applies to vehicles over 7. Requirements of the support system It is assumed that the front axle investigated for this article has an axle load of 8 tons.
even with the computer capacities available today. 5 | Material allocation using advanced steel grades DPW600 Cold-formable and weldable hot-rolled strip dual-phase steel (DPW) with a tensile strength of 580 MPa ard. It is during this phase that the special strengths of ThyssenKrupp Steel come into play. 4 | Results of the topology optimization of the available packaging space Fig. In addition to meeting these minimum legal requirements. To keep costs down. these deformation elements should be easily replaceable and feature a defined interface to the main structure. 500 MPa (S500 MC). There are limits to how far the meshing process can be carried. Optimized topology of the available packaging space The design measures are restricted to the front end of the vehicle. As soon as a welded or bolted design has been created that is suitable for manufacturing. this process reduced the structure to the regions required for transmission of the forces. At its base in Bielefeld-Brackwede. in which the thickness of the surface elements is negligible compared to the length of the sides. it is desirable that the front of the truck is equipped with energy-absorbing structural sections. the penetration must be limited to a depth of 400 mm. The first task under these conditions was to create a model of the available packaging space. Transfer of the optimal structure to a sheet metal design Large-scale downstream operations and interpretations of the results are required to transfer the optimized 3D model into a design suitable for manufacturing from steel profiles. S700 MC Thermomechanically (M) rolled structural steel (S) with a predefined minimum value for the elastic limit at ambient temperature of 380 MPa (S355 MC). 700 MPa (S700 MC) suitable for cold-forming (C) Fig. it can be fine-tuned through the parameter-controlled optimization of individual sheet thicknesses. 4 I. It is therefore unavoidable that the result will have a substantial layer thickness even in the minimalized structural areas. When this force is applied. while taking the geometrical situation into account. which must remain damagefree up to a predefined crash level. In a number of steps. This is in contrast to stamped structures. This three- dimensional model was meshed by means of the finite element method and subjected to an optimization process using special software. the ThyssenKrupp Umformtechnik company has gained considerable expertise in the development of so-called crash boxes. 420 MPa (S420 MC). ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .66 | All-new support structure for independent suspensions in heavy-duty trucks S355 MC S420 MC Aluminium S700 MC S355 MC S500 MC S420 MC DPW600 S355 MC. This study does not extend to the semi-trailer truck’s rear frame surrounding the king pin and the rear drive axle. S420 MC. The result was a skeletal residual structure I Fig. Non-load-bearing areas were defined by means of a notional density graduation. which means that only a geometrical limit is defined. which were easy to incorporate into the new axle system concept. the following requirements must be met: a horizontal force of up to 160 kN is applied at predefined points at a height of up to 445 mm above the road surface.
The system’s modular design and the reduction of the number of variants and components create potential savings that make the concept interesting for commercial vehicle manufacturers. A computer-based topology optimization method was employed for the design of the support frame. For this reason. However. the pronounced substructure is connected to the main structure at several points. it is only a question of time until such systems are at least introduced for front axles. The lower structural section is a major part of the overall system. for the reasons given above.| 67 Fig. An evaluation of the final sheet structures of several passenger car axle projects shows that the results are 90% in agreement with those of the three-dimensional structures considered optimal. Volumeproduced heavy-duty vehicles with independent suspension are currently not available on the market. This generated new possibilities for the load paths and consequently for the arrangement of the components. The concept created in this manner features several innovations that set the support structure apart from previous truck frame designs. The project has greatly promoted cross-company and crosssegment cooperation. where it met with a great response from trade visitors I Fig. This results in a distribution of the force to be transferred and makes it possible to reduce the weight of the individual connecting elements. A life-size model of the structure was first presented in 2006 at the International Commercial Vehicle Show in Hanover. Considerable business opportunities are also created by the foreseeable tightening of the emission regulations for commercial vehicles and the associated requirements with respect to packaging space. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . ThyssenKrupp Automotive Systems had submitted two patent applications to protect the concept it developed. 6 I. Before the system was unveiled. 6 | Auto show model of the front section of a truck with independent suspension Whereas a traditional truck ladder frame is made of conventional steel grades. Conclusion and outlook The double wishbone principle of this all-new support structure combines all of the advantages required for a steerable front axle with independent suspension. the use of new high-strength grades makes it possible to further reduce the weight of the support structure I Fig. The specified height at which force is applied for passenger car crashes results in a load path that must be suitably transferred to the structure of the main frame. 5 I.
68 | | TurboTrack system at Toronto International Airport ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .
Düsseldorf MARTINA BEHREND Senior Manager Communication & Marketing | ThyssenKrupp Elevator AG. The first two TurboTrack systems to enter service anywhere in the world can be found at the Lester B. Canada. is now on the market. Pearson International Airport in Toronto. Düsseldorf THIES EISELE Communication & Marketing | ThyssenKrupp Elevator AG. Düsseldorf A revolutionary passenger transportation system from ThyssenKrupp Elevator. With a continuously running pallet band and three speed zones. MIGUEL GONZÁLEZ ALEMANY Chief Research Officer | ThyssenKrupp Elevator (ES/PBB) Ltd. TurboTrack is an attractive product for numerous applications. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .| 69 TurboTrack – making long distances shorter DIPL. London/GB DR.-ING. the TurboTrack. Thanks to its innovative technology. more people can be transported more rapidly and without waiting times over distances of up to one and a half kilometers.. MONICA SOFFRITTI Senior Vice President Communication & Marketing | ThyssenKrupp Elevator AG.
for example. heavy-duty operation in mind. Equally. The TurboTrack combines three speed zones within a continuously running system. For urban transport companies. This means relatively long distances can be covered in less time I Fig. this innovative product from ThyssenKrupp Elevator represents a low-cost alternative to unprofitable bus links or short railway routes. This is time- consuming and tedious for travelers. the revolutionary system from ThyssenKrupp Elevator for transporting people over relatively long distances. it is actually a new. Similarly to other passenger transportation systems in the transport sector. wagons and stops.65 m/s Fig. The less time they spend moving around the airport. offering additional changing and connection options at a stroke. With no need for signaling. there is no need for operating personnel to supervise ongoing operations. the “hinterland” of an individual station can be extended by up to 2 km. TurboTrack has around four times the capacity of an APM. In conurbations. and it costs the operators money. are being expanded or new. it is possible to create direct underground connections between various lines in cases where building new lines would not be profitable. 0. are only economical for distances of around 2 km or more. At the same time. Using TurboTrack as a feeder system.65 m/s 2. The distances that passengers have to cover inside an airport – such as from one terminal to another.65 m/s in the entry and exit areas. Nowadays. However. the new transport system smoothly accelerates to 2 m/s. In addition.000 people transported per hour. it looks like an unusually long moving walk. the ideal speed to permit passengers to enter and exit the system in comfort. 1 I. the more ready they are to take advantage of the growing availability of consumer outlets. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . With around 14.70 | TurboTrack – making long distances shorter Basic principle High transport capacity and low spatial requirements are features of TurboTrack.0 m/s 0. TurboTrack is a continuously running system and therefore does not need any costly infrastructure. Adjacent but non-connected stations can be turned into new interchanges with TurboTrack. independent concept for transporting people. ever bigger ones are being built. Its pallet band runs at 0. TurboTrack offers significant advantages for local public transport. TurboTrack is the ideal solution for getting airport visitors on their way faster. more direct connections – markedly increase the attractiveness of an urban metro system. Conventional cabin-based systems. and it has been designed from the outset with continuous. Trade show operators also need to transport large numbers of people over relatively long distances on a regular basis: to and from a railway station serving the trade show or within the premises itself – TurboTrack can transport people rapidly and continuously I Fig. installation costs are reduced. airports generate the majority of their turnover by renting out shop space. The area served by metro stations can be significantly expanded using this system. Airports all over the world. At first glance. 1 | The TurboTrack combines three speed zones in one continuously running system. TurboTrack has also been designed for continuous operation and a long service life. 2 I. The outstanding technology is suitable for use both indoors and outdoors. the transport capacity of the new system is significantly higher than cabin-based systems. Attractive market Demand for a faster and effective passenger transportation system that can be used in various areas has been growing steadily over the past few years. In the central section. referred to as Automatic People Movers (APMs). The resulting practical benefits for passengers – shorter distances. from the gate to the baggage reclaim or from the aircraft to customs – are getting longer and longer.
2 | Toronto’s Lester B.| 71 Fig. Pearson International Airport: TurboTrack entry zone with display for user information ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .
5 | The individual paletts each comprise two parts. Fig. 6 | Handrail and handrail inlet guide in the exit area Fig. 3 | Pallet band in acceleration zone Fig. 4 | The pallets move together or apart as the speed changes.72 | TurboTrack – making long distances shorter Fig. Fig. 7 | Handrail design with hand-grips and endless handrail ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .
The new transportation systems were retrofitted in such a way that one TurboTrack each was installed parallel to three individually spaced moving walks. As soon as there is no-one using TurboTrack. Pearson International Airport in Toronto I Fig. This section of the building was started before the launch of TurboTrack. Passenger safety is not impaired. they take the hand-grips with them. Covering a distance of 270 m.65 m/s). and had been planned to be equipped with conventional moving walks only. irrespective of whether they use the endless handrail or the grips. physical contact warning and an automatic emergency stop additionally provides for increased safety in the handrail inlet guide area. When the high-speed systems were launched. there is one system in each direction between the gates and the new International Terminal 1.| 73 Fig. TurboTrack needs only 140 seconds. They are spaced closely together in the low-speed zones. Toronto breaks new ground The first two TurboTrack systems to enter service anywhere in the world can be found at the Lester B. An endless handrail with mounted individual “hand-grips” runs synchronously with the pallets through all of the speed zones. TurboTrack takes account not only of environmental aspects but also of operating costs: A frequency converter ensures that energy savings are achieved. The solution takes the form of an innovative system of foding.e. The travel speed is reduced back to 0. A three-stage warning system with an acoustic signal. the planners of the Canadian airport changed their concept. They draw apart as the travel speed increases.65 m/s I Figs 3 to 5 I. Effectively. At the other end. As soon as the pallets move apart in the high-speed zone. When the user steps onto the system (i. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . These are designed in a way that the passenger’s hand is pushed gently onto the next grip by the faster-moving endless handrail in the exit area. Long distances really do become shorter. overlapping pallets made of die-cast aluminum. As a result. however. The pallet band stretches out in order to permit continuous acceleration up to the maximum speed of 2 m/s. the pallets contract together again as the belt approaches the exit area. The hand-grips slide over the endless handrail like on a guide rail. each of which has a front and a rear part. 9 I. so to speak. the pallets are closely spaced together. The extremely long transportation distance meant that emergency stop buttons were integrated at regular intervals I Fig. its speed is reduced by two thirds. The directly adjacent layout of the two passenger transportation systems makes clear the fun-damental difference between the two technologies: whereas the trip with the three conventional moving walks takes 415 seconds in total. this shortens the journey to only one third of the time. in the low-speed area at 0. 8 I. This increases the distance between the individual hand-grips. The ongoing expansion of Canada’s largest airport is a classic example of how this innovative passenger transportation system can be used. the way the problem of the handrail has been solved in TurboTrack represents a remarkable innovation in its own right I Figs 6 and 7 I. 8 | TurboTrack at Toronto Airport – fast and efficient passenger transportation Ground-breaking innovation A key challenge that had to be met when implementing TurboTrack was to achieve the smooth speed change without reducing traveling comfort.
ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .74 | Fig. 9 | Standard on the long TurboTrack installations: an emergency stop button every 40 meters.
They are understated and functional. Many people can be moved faster and more directly over longer distances. Tailor-made installation An international installation team was formed to install the systems. a tough composite material. In this way. Numerous inquiries from airport and metro operators underline the existing level of interest in this innovation.TurboTrack – making long distances shorter | 75 Fig. It also passed the last test prior to commissioning without difficulty: directly on being completed. The cramped conditions with a low ceiling height and the fact that the adjacent moving walks had already been installed made it necessary to come up with an individual technical solution. each of the two systems had to be brought in through a narrow window opening in segments each measuring 20 meters in length and then reassembled. Now that the first two systems have entered service at Toronto Airport. The terminal had already been largely completed when the installation took place. reflects the ground-breaking character of TurboTrack technology. Their design made from steel. The individual segments had to be suspended on the gantry at the head end of the connection tunnel and lifted lengthways into the construction space provided in the floor in parallel to the conventional moving walks. glass and Corian®. The passenger transportation system TurboTrack introduced in this article was awarded First Prize in the 2007 ThyssenKrupp Innovation Contest. The project team developed a mobile gantry that was specially used for installing TurboTrack. Lester B. The result of the installation is a technical and stylish success. 10 I. The combined expertise of colleagues from Spain and Canada was faced by particular challenges. As a result. Here. The innovative systems have a modern and elegant look. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . the systems weighing 440 metric tons in total were lifted into position piece by piece. the advantages of TurboTrack for its passengers can be exploited to the full. The high loads were balanced by corresponding counterweights on a boom I Fig. ThyssenKrupp Elevator is presenting the influential concept to the world. the two systems were certified by the Canadian Technical Standards and Safety Authority (TSSA). in harmony with the clear architecture of the terminal. and in other locations with large numbers of people. Summary and outlook TurboTrack is a ground-breaking product innovation for transporting people. 10 | A mobile gantry was designed specially to install the TurboTrack in Toronto. Pearson International is Canada’s most important airport and handles over 30 million passengers every year.
76 | | Assembly line for sheet-fed printing presses at the Radebeul plant of KBA Koenig & Bauer AG ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .
and first-stage processing. As a result. Radebeul DIPL. warehousing. An integrated materials supply system. The comprehensive project covers the transfer of previously customer-owned machines and equipment. logistics. complex processing. Radebeul ThyssenKrupp Schulte has developed a modular concept aimed at extending the value chain and improving networking with customers. from 2006 the Radebeul branch became an exemplary finishing center. This or a similar model can be used as the basis for many outsourcing concepts in collaboration with ThyssenKrupp Schulte. the reference customer KBA Koenig & Bauer selected ThyssenKrupp Schulte as a competent outsourcing partner on the basis that they offered a fair and transparent overall concept. In 2006. the transfer of the manufacturing of semi-finished products. and the transfer of the customer’s supplier management activities. Radebeul MAIK WERNER Sales Officer Projects | ThyssenKrupp Schulte GmbH. The expertise of ThyssenKrupp’s Services ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . warehousing. One example of this concept is the graduated model developed by the Radebeul branch in collaboration with the Dresden branch of ThyssenKrupp Industrieservice for Radebeul-based printing press manufacturer KBA Koenig & Bauer. 2 | is an innovative and variable modular system that can be rolled out in further areas. CHRISTIAN BÖTTGER Branch Manager | ThyssenKrupp Schulte GmbH.-ING. materials procurement. The concept makes it possible to provide and expand services in stages. 1 | came up with the pioneering idea of jointly realizing a graduated model for efficient outsourcing. ThyssenKrupp Schulte enters material bookings independently in the production planning system of KBA Koenig & Bauer. The concept provides ThyssenKrupp Schulte with the opportunity to increase customer penetration and reduce the earnings volatility of the materials business. ANDREAS MITSCHKE Sales Manager | ThyssenKrupp Schulte GmbH. Within these areas there is close process networking that encompasses quality assurance. and always acted in the best interests of the customer. and an integrated network solution | Fig. Berlin DIPL.-ING. particularly in key and target sectors.| 77 Graduated model for the customer-specific combination of materials-related and industrial services JÜRGEN WESTPHAL Management Board | ThyssenKrupp Schulte GmbH. Overall concept The graduated model presented below | Fig. a team composed of representatives from ThyssenKrupp Schulte’s Radebeul branch and the printing press manufacturer KBA Koenig & Bauer | Fig. had the expertise to manage efficient processes. materials handling. and logistics services including associated quality management. This modular system serves as the basis for stronger and growing customer loyalty. a comprehensive customerspecific solution. The model’s structure is characterized by three logically divided modules covering materials procurement. Reference project In 2005. technical and business consulting. For this. 3 | are all achieved simultaneously within the customer’s basic business operations. various materials-related and industrial services are linked together. information management.
savings in storage space and costs. 2 | Variable module/graduated model for combining materials-related and industrial services segment is expanded through the combination of materials-related and industrial services. broad product range. To ensure the secure implementation of the project. The company manufactures sheet-fed offset printing presses in Radebeul | see title picture of the report |. and experience and expertise in outsourcing projects. 1 | Aerial view of the Radebeul plant of KBA Koenig & Bauer Scope of the networking with the customer Module 3 Module 2 Module 1 Materials procurement for the customer • Materials planning • Just-in-time delivery Transfer of the manufacturing of semi-finished products for the customer • Storage of starting material • If necessary. a reference customer and one of the world’s leading suppliers of printing presses.78 | Graduated model for the customer-specific combination of materials-related and industrial services Fig. a contract was concluded for a jointly developed graduated model comprising three modular project phases/ integration steps. including reduced capital employed. and the prevention of resource planning risks. Other factors included the fact that KBA would retain control of the overall process and that the two companies’ participating employees had a great deal of respect for one another. transfer of customers employees Transfer of the supplier mangement activities for the customer • Supplier selection • Transfer of the customer’s production planning data (online) Development of the integration modules Fig. transfer of customer’s machinery • If necessary. Project phase 1 encompasses the transfer of existing KBA processes (in particular subcontracted finishing processes) to the buildings and other premises of ThyssenKrupp Schulte’s Radebeul branch. This creates a win-win situation for both the customer and ThyssenKrupp. Key reasons for KBA Koenig & Bauer’s choice of ThyssenKrupp Schulte as its materials partner included the company’s geographical proximity. Project phases ThyssenKrupp Schulte and ThyssenKrupp Industrieservice are strongly committed to serving KBA Koenig & Bauer in Radebeul. great flexibility. Materials ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . The customer reaps a number of major benefits.
Booking procedures are carried out in KBA’s production planning and control system (PPS). Project phase 2 is still under development and is scheduled to commence in November 2007. deburring. assembly/kitting Plastics Integrated materials supply 1 Basic business Stainless steel Non-ferrous metals 1.700 tons of bar steel. consequently. The implementation of project phase 1 commenced in January 2006. The finishing encompasses the processes of sawing. ThyssenKrupp Industrieservice is also responsible for inspecting goods inward and outward. ThyssenKrupp Industrieservice is responsible for the daily cleaning and care of the machines. 5 |. The subcontracting from project phase 1 will remain unchanged. straightening. 7 |. unloading goods. equipment. which is used to manage inventory. Each year. KBA will transfer responsibility for procurement and supplier selection to ThyssenKrupp Schulte. Since the project was launched. bright/carbon steel. chamfering. picking and warehouse logistics. During this phase. The goods remain the customer’s property. Both ThyssenKrupp companies constantly communicate and implement quality management measures in close cooperation with the customer.000 sets consisting of approximately 1. while ThyssenKrupp Schulte serves as the overall consortium manager | Fig. goods are processed/finished from about 1. stainless steel and non-ferrous metals. media and premises. 3 Reference to the module of the graduated model * always in connection with customer-specific logistics and/or processing Fig. In addition. 99% availability has been maintained with just-in-time delivery.26 million processing steps and allowing for a 10% fluctuation range. The goods will become property of ThyssenKrupp Schulte. 8 |. 4 |. The latter company is responsible for managing and loading the machines. special profiles. processing. wave milling.| 79 Customer’s value chain Research and development Marketing and sales Procurement Logistics Production Distribution and customer services Integrated network solutions Customer-specific process solutions Supply-chain management for materials and maintenance material 2 Combining requirements and procurement 1 Customer-specific procurement* Steel 2 Operator solutions for inflow logistics Customer-specific logistics Tubes 3 Operator solutions for processing and assembly 1 Cutting to size. 3 | Visualization of the graduated model in the value chain are stored unsorted in the storage racks provided by KBA | Fig. which has also had a positive impact on employee satisfaction and. centering | Fig. and putting materials into and out of storage. this affects about 1. coating. blasting. It will be linked to the SAP-R3 system in the form of a data interface via scheduling agreements. Included in this relocation are KBA’s machines and equipment. ThyssenKrupp Schulte in Radebeul and ThyssenKrupp Industrieservice in Dresden concluded a service agreement under which ThyssenKrupp Schulte provides ThyssenKrupp Industrieservice with all machines. 2. The booking of the production orders will continue to be carried out in KBA’s PPS system. SAP-R3 is the system ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . The materials are packaged into transport containers provided by KBA | Fig. 6 | and subsequently loaded onto the KBA shuttle service | Fig. thick-walled/precision tubes. on the model’s acceptance. including any tool changes that may be required. In addition.
Project phase 3 will retain the specifications from project phases 1 and 2. As a result. Conclusion Summary The process innovation described above has the following characteristics: 1. which is why all goods inward must be entered there. 4 |Unsorted warehousing in KBA’s storage racks by ThyssenKrupp Schulte Fig. including warehousing and firststage processing activities. ThyssenKrupp Industrieservice for industrial services. Examples include: transfer of materials planning activities by means of networking with the customer’s production planning processes. This has led to a signif- ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .000 sets. ThyssenKrupp Schulte is responsible for selecting the suppliers and procuring the materials. the number of KBA suppliers and customers in the local area of relevance to ThyssenKrupp Schulte as sources of materials will be expanded. The customer is offered a wide range of elements from the graduated model. graduated model with a modular structure to enable customerspecific adaptation. minimum stock levels will be established. grades and dimensions of goods. Unique selling points: combined materials-related and industrial services from a single source. Every day. KBA’s expected demand for purchased materials from ThyssenKrupp Schulte flows into the SAP-R3 purchasing tool. However. In addition. 5 | Finishing in Radebeul by ThyssenKrupp Industrieservice with ThyssenKrupp Schulte as the consortium manager used by ThyssenKrupp Schulte for inventory management. as will contingency reserves and call-off systems. the customer remains in absolute control of the system and can check all transactions made by the two ThyssenKrupp companies. All three project phases basically correspond to the variable components of the general graduated model. 3. in order to ensure reciprocal transparency in the processing and material procurement processes. This creates a mutual interface for networking two different systems. Provision of up to 100% of the demand-specific service capacity for the customer: The customer does not need to maintain any capacity to deal with peaks in demand. Outsourcing its finishing operations.80 | Graduated model for the customer-specific combination of materials-related and industrial services Fig. from where they are then transferred via an interface to KBA’s PPS system for checking purposes. to ThyssenKrupp Schulte has provided the following benefits to printing press manufacturer KBA Koenig & Bauer at its Radebeul location: the company no longer needs to tie up large amounts of capital to hold stock in the form of around 1. 4. Integrated market presentation of: ThyssenKrupp Schulte for materials-related services. cost is dependent on performance and quality delivered. 2.
500 m2 of warehousing facilities.5 million euros. Through this cooperation.Graduated model for the customer-specific combination of materials-related and industrial services | 81 icant reduction of personnel costs in the warehousing and processing areas. In fiscal year 2005/2006. The modernization of the now outsourced finishing operations alone would have required an investment of around 1. 6 | The transport containers are provided by KBA. Data are exchanged fully electronically between KBA and ThyssenKrupp Schulte for all steps of the business process. In the service project. 7 | Just-in-time loading onto the KBA shuttle service Fig. the participants developed and successfully implemented a reference example of a general graduated model for combining materials-related and industrial services. product availability remains at a minimum of 99%. Most of the fixed costs for ware-housing and processing have been transformed into variable costs. this business model helped ThyssenKrupp Schulte to achieve a substantial increase in sales. This allows the employees of ThyssenKrupp Schulte to prepare themselves in good time for the actual requirements and to further optimize their own workflows. By working together. Fig. The result is an innovative win-win situation for the customer and ThyssenKrupp as the service provider. KBA’s PPS system is used to electronically display the finishing sequence according to deadline. they can optimize processes and implement changes more quickly. As a result. Further capital expenditures for the modernization of the highbay racking system and the machinery have been avoided. the three companies KBA. The customer can use the freed-up space to operate additional modern and innovative manufacturing machines. the customer has to manage far fewer logistics processes. 8 | Close-up of parallel wave milling and centering according to DIN 333 along with the finished product and packaging at ThyssenKrupp Schulte ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . Besides providing 1. Fig. ThyssenKrupp Schulte and ThyssenKrupp Industrieservice have directly networked their expertise to ensure that all participants are kept up to date on developments. In addition. ThyssenKrupp Schulte has taken on both the organization of the supply chain and all preparatory work for mechanical production. At the finishing center.
82 | | Power plant in the Frankfurt-Höchst Industrial Park ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .
t. depending on the fuel used. developed a melting cyclone for the combustion of the fly ash. it became apparent that quasi-simultaneous desul-furization and denitrification was not possible with the selected plant concept. A solution based on the application of a newly developed melting cyclone is described below. The carbon component of the fly ash increases considerably. ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy has. 1 |. The most important technical data are summarized in | Fig. i. heating oil. m3 (dry. heating oil. it was not possible to find an acceptable solution to this problem. A flue gas cleaning system using the Uhde activated coke process was installed in 1989. which still consists of up to a maximum of 50% unburned carbon. The use of the Herenox-K process developed in collaboration between ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy and Henkel. In addition to the associated consequences for disposal of the fly ash. to an on-site system for thermal utilization. As a result.| 83 Process for low-NOX combustion of hard coal in combination with a new type of melting cyclone DIPL. particularly with respect to possible retrofitting costs. these high loss-on-ignition values represent a reduction of the boiler efficiency of around 5 to 8% and associated economic disadvantages. Duisburg ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy has supplied a process for the primary-side reduction of nitrogen oxides for hard coal to a customer that operates a number of boilers with pulverized-coal firing. After the successful conversion of the firing systems and attainment of the NOx reduction target (< 200 mg/m3 NOx ). which uses flue gas recirculation to reduce nitrogen emissions. at standard temperature and pressure) 6% O2) by means of firing technology measures alone. natural-circulation steam boilers in a 11/2 -pass design. This entailed feeding the extremely fine-grained fly ash resulting from the firing process. Plant description The coal-fired boilers 3 and 4 built by Lentjes (the predecessor company of ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy) were constructed largely to the same drawings as dry ash removal. Two boilers are designed for firing with hard coal. This unit is also suitable in general for the disposal of residual industrial materials in solid. and natural gas.-ING. This solution makes the residual calorific value of the fly ash usable. an additional task was posed. as ammonium chloride deposits occurred in the second stage of the adsorber – the so-called denox stage – after the addition of ammonia. Despite substantial efforts. WERNER AUEL Head of Firing Technology | ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy GmbH. it was necessary to conform to the applicable NOX limit value of 200 mg/m3 (calculated as NO2 w. reaching values of between 30 and 60%. Shortly after commissioning. converts the fly ash into an environmentally compatible form. The tri-fuel firing was designed to burn hard coal. has shown that conforming to the nitrogen oxide emission limits is possible. however. thanks to the corresponding primary energy savings.e. 2 |. and improves the plant efficiency. sludge or liquid form. makes it suitable for landfill disposal without limitations. NOX reduction using the melting cyclone A power plant is operated in heat-led mode for supplying process steam to the location in the Frankfurt-Höchst Industrial Park | see title picture of the report and Fig. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . and natural gas.r. on the basis of this task.
84 | Process for low-NOX combustion of hard coal in combination with a new type of melting cyclone 7 5 21 6 1 20 8 13 11 10 19 12 4 14 2 15 16 3 Fig. 1 | Schematic overview of the coal-fired boiler of the power plant in the Frankfurt-Höchst Industrial Park ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .
only a cyclone firing system could be considered. closely spaced steel pins are welded to the sides of the tubes facing the interior of the cyclone. 3 |. to which a secondary combustion chamber with a deflector plate is connected.The Herenox-K firing process technically implements this reduction by means of the use of low-NOX burners. the only solution was to 9 reburn the ash. 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Coal bunker Coal mill Primary air fan Tri-fuel burner Steam boiler Rotary air heater Electrostatic precipitator Silencer Induced draught fan Forced draught fan Fly ash storage bin Fly ash conveyor system Melting cyclone Slag granule removal system Ash removal Pneumatic ash conveyor fan Flue gas recirculation fan Flue gas desulphurisation Fly ash conveyor system unit Feed water inlet Superheated steam outlet The cyclone consists of a cylindrical combustion chamber. These losses reduce the boiler efficiency considerably. Two coal-dust gas burners are also fitted here. A waste gas flue equipped with a slag screen leads the flue gas into the furnace of the existing steam boiler | Fig. Small. This figure lies in the region normally reached by the use of secondary NOX reduction technologies. Because economical disposal of this fly ash in the Frankfurt region was not possible. flue-gas recirculation. Such systems also provide the highest level of ash retention. which is important with a view to avoiding a possible capacity overload of the existing electrostatic precipitators. it was necessary to reduce the emission values by approximately 80% by means of firing technology measures. Due to the restricted space available in the existing boiler house. All parts of the cyclone have a tube wall. Injection jets for the residual materials and the combustion air are integrated into the surface of the combustion chamber casing. 4 | shows the completely assembled cyclone undergoing pressure testing.Process for low-NOX combustion of hard coal in combination with a new type of melting cyclone | 85 In order to achieve the specified target of meeting the applicable NOX limit value for the coal-fired boilers without denitrification by means of the addition of ammonia in the downstream flue gas cleaning system. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . They enable the combustion chamber to be heated to its ignition temperature. These pins are there to transport the heat and to provide a hold for the refractory lining material that is applied to protect the tube wall. sub-stoichiometric control of individual burner systems. | Fig. Complex manufacturing technologies were used to produce this complicated pattern of pipe bends and to attach the holding pins. Water flows through the tubes to cool the cyclone and to provide usable heat (single-tube forced circulation system). The tube system is welded to be gas-tight. It was therefore decided to provide each of the two boilers with an ash melting capability. Cyclone melting firing 18 The use of the Herenox-K process gives rise to losses on ignition of between 30 and 60% in the fly ash. and the addition of reducing gas in the reduction zone upstream of the upper air intake.
000 mg/m3 < 50 mg/m3 Approval 200 mg/m3 200 mg/m3 250 mg/m3 50 mg/m3 < 50 mg/m3 * w. started as NO2 CO Particulates Operation < 50 mg/m3 1.9 % Slag screen Secondary combustion chamber (Secondary chamber) Starting and auxiliary burners from the company Lentjes Air jets Dust jets Middle of cylone A hole Firing system Type Burner type Number of burners Number of mills Type of mills Front firing Vortex burner 6 3 LM 13.t.r. at standard temperature and pressure) 6% O2 Fig. m3 (dry.29.12% Hard Grove Index: 36 . 4 | Melting cyclone during manufacture ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . 2 | Technical data on the coal-fired boilers Fig.20% 9 .4 MJ/kg 25 .21 D Cyclone combustion chamber (Primary chamber) Slag Fuel Natural gas Heating oil Hard coal Calorific value Volatile components (anhydrous and free of ash) Ash (raw) Water Grindability Quality: high/low Side wall of boiler Extra light/heavy Gas flame/bituminous coal Fig.40% 6 .9 . 3 | Structure of the melting cyclone Middle of deflector plate B hole 21.60 Emission values SO2 NOX.86 | Process for low-NOX combustion of hard coal in combination with a new type of melting cyclone Boiler Deflector plate Rated thermal output Live steam output Live steam pressure Live steam temperature Feed water temperature Combustion air temperature Waste gas temperature Boiler efficiency 2 x 120 MW 2 x 150 t/h 121 bar 520 °C 192 °C 315 °C 140 °C 91.
Plant concept for the main firing system The pulverized coal is fed to the low-emission burners by means of conveying air. the residual dust and the associated combustion air are blown tangentially into the cylindrical combustion chamber at high speed via the injection jets. The layout of the cyclone was. Furthermore. where a molten “skin” forms. It was discovered that only very small particles (< 25 µm) circulate repeatedly in the primary chamber. however. The tests carried out on the melting of fly ash have. the fly ash has a sufficiently high calorific value (NCV = 10. The melt falls through this hole and into a water bath in which it forms a granulate due to the sudden quenching. ensures a further reduction of the oxygen partial pressure in the core zone of the flames. The flue gas flows through a circular. Further development of the melting cyclone The fly ash melting cyclones were converted from their previous natural-gas auxiliary firing to additional coal-dust auxiliary firing (power 14 MW) with changes to the burner geometry of the main boiler firing in 2006. shown that the NOX emissions in this mode of operation are of the order of 500 mg/m3. so that these particles leave the cyclone without being melted. this slag granulate is very environmentally compatible.000 kJ/kg) to enable substantially self-sustaining combustion. the rated thermal output of the cyclone accounts for only 10% of the total rated thermal output and the waste gas from the cyclone passes through the reduction zone of the main firing system once again. Thanks to its high resistance to leaching. a finite element model was used to validate the design of the melting cyclone.000-17. The temperatures in the cyclone reach values > 1. The addition of upper air then guarantees almost complete combustion. and can be up to 2. The remaining molten ash particles in the flue gas are precipitated by this deflection and the slag screen to prevent deposits and soiling in the downstream boiler furnace. which has a carbon content of between 30 and 60%. the floor of which is equipped with a drainage hole for the molten slag. The resulting molten ash flows to a granulator. designed to keep this proportion as low as possible | Figs 5 to 8 |. A partial flow (approx. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . so that the remaining burned-out ash particles melt. The pulverized fuel is blown into the combustion chamber evenly over the circumference of the burner by means of suitable swirlers. for example. axis-centered opening into the secondary combustion chamber. where it is deflected and led off into the furnace of the connected boiler via the waste gas flue into which the slag screen is integrated. To avoid chlorine-induced high-temperature corrosion in the reducing-atmosphere region of the furnace. The known technique of feeding in combustion air for this purpose leads to an increase of the oxygen supply in the reduction zone. The resulting flue gases enter the furnace of the main firing system. the ash flows through a slot in the end wall and into the secondary combustion chamber. the dust particles and the gas flow follow a spiral path. A certain proportion of the small ash particles is also not retained in the downstream secondary chamber. The fly ash precipitated in the electrostatic precipitator. due to the low concentration of emissions-boosting nitrogen compounds in the fly ash. Eventually all of the particles end up on the cyclone wall. Here. This made it possible.500 °C. while most of the particles stick to the cyclone wall within their first circuit. in which it is cooled. which also causes an increase of the NOX emissions. so-called shield gas in the form of flue gas is added at the side walls and the back wall. It is therefore safe to assume that the melting of the fly ash has no significant effect on the emissions situation of the complete plant. during the course of which there is sufficient time for the carbon still present to burn. Reduction gas is fed in concentrically via multiple gas nozzles to make the combustion in the primary zone of the flame even leaner.Process for low-NOX combustion of hard coal in combination with a new type of melting cyclone | 87 Mode of operation of the cyclone Once the cyclone has been brought up to temperature by the coal-dust gas burners. The exclusive recirculation of the flue gas via the tubes in the burner throat. 30%) of the coal dust from the coal pulverizing mill is gated out and diverted to the newly installed coal-dust radiation burners in the melting cyclone. however. The latent heat of fusion released by the cooling process is used for preheating the feed water via a heat transfer system.000 mg/m3. is fed to the cyclone firing system for melting. the oxygen content of which is reduced due to the flue gas recirculation. With this carbon content. Because cyclone melting firing systems have no longer been constructed and commissioned in recent times. The combustion air is supplied to the lower layer slightly super-stoichiometrically and to the upper burner layers substoichiometrically. which are also arranged concentrically. to determine the influence of various design changes on the degree of ash retention. The NOX emissions from slag-tap pulverized-coal firing systems are normally higher than those from dry-bottom firing systems by at least a factor of two. Due to the slight incline of the cyclone axis.
for example. The plant concept described must always be operated with a minimum firing system heat output of 50% to ensure reliable melting of the fly ash. The complete geometry (primary and secondary chambers. due to the process. Although it was not foreseen in the layout. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 . the cyclone is especially suitable for retrofitting fuel burner facilities and thus replaces special disposal facilities. optimizing the air and fuel distribution as well as enlarging the slag drop shaft. The melting cyclone enables the energetic utilization and the disposal of residual materials. Furthermore. The amount of excess air with which the cyclone firing system is operated is decisive for the emission level. The following individual measures were taken: enlarging the start-up firing system. The cylindrical primary chamber of the cyclone has a diameter of 1. separating wall. which are normally to be expected in conjunction with a new technology. The proportion of the cyclone cooling water in the total boiler feed water is around 6% at full load. Summary A process for low-NOX combustion has been applied to two steam boilers fired using pulverized coal in the Höchst Industrial Park. the carbon content of the fly ash and its melting properties also have an influence on the proportion of auxiliary firing. the nitrogen oxide emissions of the flue gases from the cyclone are further reduced while passing through the reduction zone in the furnace of the steam boiler. the use of an expensive SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system can be avoided.88 | Process for low-NOX combustion of hard coal in combination with a new type of melting cyclone The system is cooled with feed water in the forced circulation. the operation of the melting chambers has demonstrated that the ash from both boilers can be melted in one system. at standard temperature and pressure) 6% O2) has been achieved without the application of secondary NOX reduction technology by combining a low-emission dust firing system with a cyclone melting firing system for melting the fly ash. In combination with a low-NOX pulverized-coal firing system. The degree of entrainment in the cyclone firing system is around 90%. design engineering changes to the secondary combustion chamber. A process concept with nitrogen oxide emissions of less than 200 mg/m3 (calculated as NO2 w. The combustion air is fed into the primary chamber tangentially with a velocity of 120 m/s. Because the slag is resistant to leaching. The NOX emissions from the cyclone melting firing system conform to the expected values. to keep the B hole clear. but were exclusively concerned with the engineering design. The internal region is completely covered with pins and lined with a SiC compound. Exact calculations of the improvement in efficiency can be carried out individually for any plant. These problems were not. As expected.r.t. m3 (dry. Its application leads to savings of primary fuel.800 mm and a length of 2. manual interventions. The proportion of auxiliary firing must therefore be increased correspondingly in the partial load range to maintain the melt flow. a stable and even slag flow can be guaranteed. Now that the cyclones have been rebuilt for additional coal dust operation. The environmentally compatible granulated slag also makes it easier to obtain approvals for plant extensions. Operating results A series of teething problems. This enables significant improvements in the efficiency and economics of boiler systems – especially of older plants. so that the operation of the cyclone melting firing system will not have any negative effects on the maintenance of the NOX limit value. The dust burners are surrounded by two natural gas-coal dust burners for starting and for auxiliary firing.700 mm. The slag screen situated at the end of the cyclone in the flue gas flow direction is connected as part of the evaporator ascension pipe system of the boiler. The work concentrated largely on improving the slag flow and increasing the degree of entrainment. Thanks to its compact structure. The result of the optimization process was a stable slag flow. The fly ash enters the combustion chamber secantially carried by conveying air (30 m/s). Taking account of this condition. however. as cost-intensive landfill disposal is no longer required. whereby the greater part of the discharged material is precipitated in the furnace of the boiler. A and B holes) is finally fitted with three tubes measuring 38 x 5 mm in pipe-rib design. this preheated water is fed in at the end of the boiler drum. are not required. there is no longer any need to use natural gas as an auxiliary fuel. occurred. the plant operator receives an additional economic advantage. so that the second cyclone can be held in reserve. This is mainly due to the fact that the carbon content of the fly ash present in operation – at approximately 30% – is well below the design value of 50%.
8 | Velocity vortex (plane normal to cyclone z-axis) ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2007 .2 18.1 Fig.Process for low-NOX combustion of hard coal in combination with a new type of melting cyclone | 89 Y Y Z Z X X [m/s] 145 127 108 90. 6 | Flow field in a plane of the cyclone [m/s] 124 108 92.0 15.9 46.4 31.4 72.9 77.5 X X [m/s] 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Y Y Z Z Fig.4 61. 7 | Velocity field Fig.3 54.2 36. 5 | Modeling the melting cyclone with wire frame for the numerical simulation Fig.
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