techforum

ThyssenKrupp

Issue 1 | 2008

Cover The cover picture shows a fully mobile crushing plant operating in an open-pit coal mine located in China. This new plant was developed by ThyssenKrupp Fördertechnik as part of a priority research and development project and has been in operation under difficult climatic conditions in inner Mongolia since the end of 2007. The coal is loaded by an excavator directly into the crushing plant’s feed hopper and a crusher then reduces the ROM ore to a size suitable for transport by belt conveyor. The key innovations lie with the unique functionality and mobility of the machine while the very high capacity of up to 10,000 t/h makes it an ideal crushing plant for large open pit mines worldwide. The use of fully mobile crushing plants completely dispenses with the need for truck transportation and offers, enabling potential reductions in CO2 emissions of up to 100,000 t per year for each system installed in the mine. Cross-segment cooperation with ThyssenKrupp Steel resulted in the use of high-strength steel and liners with special wear properties to provide adequate protection from the abrasive nature of the ore. The fully mobile crushing plant was awarded 1st prize in the 2008 ThyssenKrupp Innovation Contest.

ERRATUM Other than stated, the cover picture of Issue 2/2007 shows the end stage of a steam turbine in the low pressure downstream section.

PUBLISHER ThyssenKrupp AG, Corporate Technology, August-Thyssen-Str. 1, 40211 Düsseldorf, Germany, Telephone: +49 (0)211/824-36291, Fax: +49 (0)211/824-36285

“ThyssenKrupp techforum” appears once or twice a year in German and English. Reprints with the permission of the publisher only. Photomechanical reproduction of individual papers is permitted. “ThyssenKrupp techforum” is distributed according to an address file maintained using an automated data processing system. ISSN 1612-2771

Foreword | 3

Dear readers,

An invention itself does not represent an innovation; not until the idea has been translated into marketable products and services does it earn this status. Successfully implemented ideas were once again rewarded in this year’s 9th ThyssenKrupp Innovation Contest. The award ceremony, to which all the Group’s executives and all participants in the final round of the contest were invited, took place on May 17, 2008 as part of the ThyssenKrupp Management Forum at the Ideas Park in Stuttgart. First prize in this year’s contest went to a cross-segment innovation in the area of materials handling. A German-Canadian team from ThyssenKrupp Fördertechnik and ThyssenKrupp Steel developed a new, fully mobile crushing plant with downstream belt conveyors direct from the face for use in large open-pit mining operations. Dispensing with the need for truck transportation significantly reduces operating costs and at the same time substantially lowers CO2 emissions, thus contributing to climate protection and delivering clear economic benefits to operators. A first system of this type has been operating successfully since 2007 in an open-pit coal mine in China under extreme production conditions. There is market potential for these fully mobile crushers in all open-pit mining operations where large volumes need to be moved, e.g. also in oil sands mining in Canada. Second prize was awarded to a team from ThyssenKrupp Nirosta for the development of the new material NIROSTA® 4640. This innovative stainless steel is alloyed with a new combination of chromium, nickel, manganese, copper and nitrogen and displays the same good properties as the long-established NIROSTA® 4301. By reducing the amount of cost-intensive nickel, the new material – which is used e.g. in white goods, household appliances, kitchen equipment and in the capital goods industry – offers a low-cost alternative which is already enjoying a high level of market acceptance. Third prize went to a team from ThyssenKrupp Steel and the DOC Dortmund Surface Engineering Center for the development of a process which for the first time allows the high-quality hot-dip coating of multiphase steels. Consecutive oxidation and reduction processes avoid the undesirable formation of oxides on the surface caused by the increased alloy content of these steels. Multiphase steels coated by this new process have great potential for automotive lightweighting, not least because they help reduce CO2 emissions from motor vehicles. The other articles in this issue also underline the high level of entries to our Innovation Contest and thus the innovative capacities of our Group.

Yours,

Dr.-Ing. Ekkehard D. Schulz, Chairman of the Executive Board of ThyssenKrupp AG

ThyssenKrupp techforum

1 | 2008

Dortmund DR. Dortmund DIPL. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . Dortmund DR. RER. The new coating thus makes an exceptional contribution to the conservation of resources. Eichen MANFRED MEURER Team Leader Hot-dip Coating | DOC Dortmunder Oberflächencentrum GmbH. MARTIN NORDEN Project Engineer Metallic and Inorganic Coatings | DOC Dortmunder Oberflächencentrum GmbH. NAT.-ING. The so-called oxidation/reduction technology creates the preconditions for high-quality hot-dip coating of high-strength multiphase steels in a continuous strip coating process. Competence Center C/C. garage door. domestic appliance. Auto Division | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG.4 | Contents 10 | 16 | 22 | 28 | 32 | 10 | Innovative process for innovative steel concepts – hot-dip galvanized multiphase steels DIPL. GERNOT NOTHACKER Specialist Coordinator Production FBA 8 | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. Trials as part of development partnerships have commenced with selected customers from the construction./Strategic Marketing. Industry Division | Thyssen Krupp Steel AG. Industry Division | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. NORBERT SCHAFFRATH Specialist Coordinator Electrical Maintenance FBA 8 | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. WILHELM WARNECKE Team Coordinator Metallic and Inorganic Coatings | DOC Dortmunder Oberflächencentrum GmbH. Dortmund DIPL. Using this new process enables the coating to be produced in existing hot-dip galvanizing lines.-ING. Dortmund DIPL. Dortmund A new process has been developed for the manufacture of magnesium-bearing zinc coatings containing approximately 1% magnesium.-ING. vehicle and automotive industries. MICHAEL KELLER Team Leader Hot-dip Galvanizing Line 5. This enables ThyssenKrupp to develop the existing market potential of the multiphase steels.-ING.-ING. This technology is suitable for adaptation for further hot-dip galvanizing lines and can expand the Group’s existing production capacity for multiphase steels. The new flat steel product ZMg EcoProtect® possesses improved resistance to cut-edge and cut-face corrosion.-ING. Eichen DIPL. It is also a very good substrate for organic coil-coated products. OLIVER BENDICK Project Engineer Interface Chemistry and Electrochemistry | DOC Dortmunder Oberflächencentrum GmbH.-ING. ERICH NABBEFELD-ARNOLD Head of Techn. The high corrosion resistance of this coating makes it possible to halve the coating thickness while retaining the same protective effect. Dortmund A new and innovative process for the hot-dip galvanizing of multiphase steels has been developed by the DOC surface engineering center (Dortmunder OberflächenCentrum) in collaboration with ThyssenKrupp Steel for indirectly heated radiant tube furnaces and implemented for the first time in the state-of-the-art hot-dip galvanizing line FBA 8 at ThyssenKrupp Steel in Dortmund. SABINE ZEIZINGER Team Leader Hot-dip Galvanizing Line 8. 16 | ZMg EcoProtect® – new coating for high-end corrosion protection DIPL.

Duisburg WERNER STAUDINGER Engineering | ThyssenKrupp Tailored Blanks GmbH. Sales/Engineering | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG.-ING. ThyssenKrupp Metal Forming and Webasto worked together closely to develop the multi-purpose tailgate. The new technology represents the world’s first application of the product tailored blanks in hot stamping along with plant engineering that is currently unique. RALF SÜNKEL Teamleader Product Innovation/Projects. Duisburg In collaboration with Audi. the highest degree of functionality and flexibility and optimal use of the materials involved.-ING.-ING. Different steel grades and sheet thicknesses can be welded together. JÖRG MAAS Head of Sales/Senior Manager Sales | ThyssenKrupp Tailored Blanks GmbH. 28 | Tailored blanks in hot stamping DIPL. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .Contents I 5 22 | EcoSpace cockpit – optimum interaction between plastic and steel in the vehicle interior DIPL. These tailored blanks offer users all the advantages of the previous areas of application and maximum process reliability. Dortmund In cooperation with Johnson Controls. ThyssenKrupp Tailored Blanks has successfully developed and integrated into production processes a new manufacturing technology for tailored blanks for use in hot stamping. At the same time. The work was carried out within one year. Following customer surveys. ThyssenKrupp has developed a cockpit support structure known as ‘EcoSpace’ that is an economical lightweight hybrid composite structure of steel and plastic.-ING. In this way. Duisburg The needs of customers play a decisive role in creating innovative product solutions for future generations of automobiles. MARTIN HINZ Manger Process Innovation. the automaker’s production costs can be significantly reduced. The design of the flexible tailgate module implemented in the physical prototype features maximum ease-of-use. Dortmund DIPL. The new construction has a crash performance comparable to that of conventional cockpit support structures while featuring 18% greater stiffness and a weight reduction of more than 20%. 32 | Multi-purpose tailgate MPT – a flexible tailgate module with integrated rack system DIPL. ThyssenKrupp Steel. Sales/Engineering | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. Sales/Engineering | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. with a steel frame located only on the driver’s side. the new product supports the customer in achieving lightweight construction and thus also in attaining environmental objectives. PETER SEYFRIED Manager Technology Management.

ARAZ ARDEHALI BARANI Materials Engineer | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH. PLADUR® M has been successful with customers from an extremely wide range of sectors and has established itself alongside prepainted products for use in many different applications. dishwashers. Düsseldorf DR. Krefeld DIPL. ALFRED WELTER Technical Customer Consulting | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH.-ING.-ING. Color Profit Center | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. The team then developed a suitable response in the form of PLADUR® M. WIRT. Krefeld DIPL.-ING. GABRIELE BRÜCKNER Head of Materials Technology | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH. NIROSTA® 4640 is especially suitable for the area of white goods. which demonstrates the same good properties as the widely used material NIROSTA® 4301.-ING. AXEL POHL Head of Sales-Market and Innovation Team. its good technological characteristics and its attractive price. GERT WEIß Head of Product Service | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH.6 | Contents 38 | 42 46 | 50 | 56 | 38 | PLADUR ® M (Metal-Look) – an elegant product made of coil-coated steel BEATE FUGMANN Market and Innovation Team.-ING. nitrogen and manganese to lower the nickel content. Krefeld Austenitic chromium-nickel steels find a wide range of applications thanks to their universal properties. Thanks to its elegant and appealing appearance. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . Color Profit Center | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. Industry Division. Kreuztal DIPL. Düsseldorf DIPL. The alloy concept utilizes a new combination of the elements copper. 42 | NIROSTA® 4640 as a low-cost alternative to NIROSTA® 4301 offering equivalent properties DIPL. e. ThyssenKrupp Nirosta has developed the new steel grade NIROSTA® 4640. Kreuztal The Market and Innovation Team at ThyssenKrupp Steel’s Color Profit Center correctly identified customers’ wishes for organic coil-coated products with a metal look at an early stage.-ING.g. MANFRED BUCKEL Head of Materials Technology | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH. and for sinks and similar products. Industry Division. In response to the development of prices of alloy components.

American manufacturers in particular like to employ heating element wires made of the alloy Cronifer II. ANGELIKA KOLB-TELIEPS Head of Knowledge and Innovation Management | ThyssenKrupp VDM GmbH. NAT. the developers have created an alloy that contains just 37. the usual deoxidation elements have negative effects on the nanoscale texture and surface roughness needed for the substrate strip. 56 | Alloy for heating elements with reduced nickel content DR.-ING. Duisburg Mixed construction using galvanized flat-rolled carbon steels and hardened. the wire coil may not sag or burn through at high temperatures. Starting from the results of a research project. As a result of its high nickel content (approx. The deoxidation of the melt presented a particular challenge. Embrittlement in the weld seam can lead to failure during subsequent forming. Altena DR. 60%). Krefeld WERNER STAUDINGER Engineering | ThyssenKrupp Tailored Blanks GmbH.-ING. ThyssenKrupp VDM has successfully developed an industrial-scale production process for nickel W14. Altena DIPL. RER. For example. STEFAN SCHUBERTH Head of Applications Technology | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH. Possible applications include crashrelevant components in vehicle manufacture. stainless austenitic steel and carbon steel yields weight savings without disadvantages in terms of properties. The combination of work-hardened. On the one hand. austenitic stainless steels is particularly difficult due to the differing physical properties and levels of strength. this is required in order to avoid fractures during the hot forming. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .-ING. BODO GEHRMANN Project Manager Super Alloys and Physical Materials | ThyssenKrupp VDM GmbH. HEIKE HATTENDORF Project Manager Research & Development | ThyssenKrupp VDM GmbH.Contents | 7 46 | Mixed construction using work-hardened NIROSTA® steel and flat-rolled carbon steel with tailored blanks and tailored strips DIPL. RER. NAT. JÜRGEN WEBELSIEP Manager Quality Assurance Wire Division | ThyssenKrupp VDM GmbH. the material known as Cronifer II that was previously used is expensive and therefore no longer competitive for this application. which is used as substrate strip in superconductors destined for applications such as generators for wind turbines. By increasing the chromium content and precisely matching the various elements to one another. 50 | Nickel W14 substrates for high-temperature superconductors DR.5% nickel while still meeting the demanding technical requirements. Exact process control of the laser welding in the manufacture of the tailored blanks has now made it possible to produce blanks with ductile seams and large changes in thickness that measure up to the demands of the subsequent forming process. Werdohl For the open heating elements of appliances such as clothes driers and in-room heaters. Heating element wires have to meet tough requirements in such applications. on the other. Altena High-temperature superconductivity is on the threshold of market launch.

Vice President Sales | Krupp Canada Inc. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . FRANK SEEHÖFER Senior Manager Projects | ThyssenKrupp Fördertechnik GmbH. The crushing plant feeds a dedicated belt conveyor system and the need for large haul trucks is eliminated. Vice President Engineering & Project Management | Krupp Canada Inc. 66 | Fully mobile crushing plant for large open-pit mines DIPL. Calgary/Canada DR.. it is also more environmentally friendly because it reduces CO2 emissions. BERGBAU ULRICH MENTGES Senior Manager Mine Planning & Sales | ThyssenKrupp Fördertechnik GmbH. Heavy Plate Profit Center | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. B.SC. the developers investigated the use of high strength steel and utilized liners with special wear properties to provide adequate protection from the abrasive nature of the ore.. P. The use of continuous mining technology not only brings economic benefits in the form of higher production performance with reduced capital cost (particularly when compared to a discontinuous system using trucks).-ING.-ING. engineers at ThyssenKrupp Fördertechnik developed the concept for a fully mobile crushing plant to enhance mining operations in large open pit mines. The attractive investment costs are a welcome complement to the low operating costs. The key innovations lie with the unique functionality and mobility of the machine which allow it to work along side the mining shovel at the mine face. NAT. FRANZ-JOSEF ZURHOVE Specialist Department Research & Development.-ING. Calgary/Canada STEPHEN HARRINGTON. Neubeckum The POLYCOM® high-pressure grinding roll and the newly developed SEPOL® HR separator have established new benchmarks for energy efficiency in the grinding of raw materials for cement manufacturing.ENG. Previous use of the highpressure grinding roll for this process was limited to niche applications featuring. Duisburg As part of a priority research and development project launched in 2006. With the successful commissioning of two grinding plants with POLYCOM® and SEPOL® HR. RER. In a cross-segment cooperation with ThyssenKrupp Steel. P. Essen DIPL. Polysius is setting a new benchmark for efficiency. quiet running and reliability.8 | Contents 60 | 66 | 74 | 80 | 86 | 60 | Increasing energy efficiency and reducing investment costs in cement production DIPL.ENG.ENG. Essen DIPL. MARTINA SHEHATA M. low levels of moisture and abrasion and lower throughput rates. for example. HANS-JÜRGEN KAISER Head of Technical Marketing. Head of Grinding & Crushing Technology | Polysius AG.-ING.

Duisburg DIPL. FALK STEGER Sales Magnet System| ThyssenKrupp Schulte GmbH. making balancing the drive train and noise testing of many components essential.-ING. Langenhagen Today’s vehicles have to meet high standards with regard to ride comfort. It has done so by developing. These include the fact that they do not require either environmentally damaging backup batteries or the use of dunnage in an integrated logistic chain. WILHELM CASSING Sales Manager. Oberhausen DIPL.-ING. such as being able to unload 36-ton slabs.Contents | 9 74 | Combined end-of-line test stand for NVH analysis and determining the balancing quality of rear axles DIPL. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . In Würzburg. Key arguments in favor of the new system. THOMAS POHL Technical Manager. Duisburg DIPL.-PHYS. this technology offers many municipal utilities an economically viable means of modernizing their old cogeneration power plants. 86 | Sustainable energy generation with combined-cycle power plants (GuD) JÜRGEN STIRN Head of Technology | ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy GmbH. an innovative concept has been devised to build a second combinedcycle generating unit on the same site. electropermanent magnets offer a number of advantages over conventional electromagnets and chains.-ING. Duisburg DIPL. Authorized Officer | ThyssenKrupp Schulte GmbH.-ING. a new technological concept had to be developed for lifting loads. Langenhagen DIPL. 80 | Using electro-permanent magnets to lift loads in modern logistics networks DIPL. And thanks to savings in weight. simple in design and suitable for a broad range of applications.-ING. WILFRIED RUTHMANN Project Manager Technology | ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy GmbH. non-monetary benefits affect occupational safety and environmental protection. for which a patent has been applied. an internationally leading supplier of comprehensive solutions for transmission test stands. has eliminated the traditional distinction between balancing machines and NVH test stands. for example. Duisburg PETER DIEKMANN Public Relations | ThyssenKrupp Services AG. successful cooperation between ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy and Heizkraftwerk Würzburg GmbH has recently seen the completion of the first phase in a project to upgrade a coal-fired power plant to a combined-cycle facility. testing and realizing as a product a new test stand concept that unites both technologies in a single machine. ThyssenKrupp EGM. the magnets can significantly reduce crane costs. On this basis. GERHARD SCHIWIETZ Sales | ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy GmbH. Given the same requirements. JOAKIM KÜHL Development Test Technology | ThyssenKrupp EGM GmbH. Following deregulation of the electricity market.-ING.-ING. JÖRG TIETJEN Vice President Test/Measurement Technology | ThyssenKrupp EGM GmbH. MARTIN HÖBLER Construction Planning | ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy GmbH. This modernization project combines the benefits of low-emission fuel utilization with efficient combined-cycle technology for the cogeneration of heat and power. are its huge cost advantages and the reduced amount of space it requires. Authorized Officer | ThyssenKrupp Anlagenservice GmbH. Düsseldorf Combined-cycle power plants have a number of virtues. Gelsenkirchen DIPL. They are not only profitable but also very environmentally friendly. Gelsenkirchen Because of the need to quickly load and unload steel slabs. Other.

10 | | Hot-dip galvanized rolled sheet in the hot-dip galvanizing line FBA 8 in Dortmund ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .

Dortmund A new and innovative process for the hot-dip galvanizing of multiphase steels has been developed by the DOC surface engineering center (Dortmunder OberflächenCentrum) in collaboration with ThyssenKrupp Steel for indirectly heated radiant tube furnaces and implemented for the first time in the state-of-the-art hot-dip galvanizing line FBA 8 at ThyssenKrupp Steel in Dortmund.-ING. This enables ThyssenKrupp to develop the existing market potential of the multiphase steels. The so-called oxidation/reduction technology creates the preconditions for high-quality hot-dip coating of high-strength multiphase steels in a continuous strip coating process. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .| 11 Innovative process for innovative steel concepts – hot-dip galvanized multiphase steels DIPL. GERNOT NOTHACKER Specialist Coordinator Production FBA 8 | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. WILHELM WARNECKE Team Coordinator Metallic and Inorganic Coatings | DOC Dortmunder Oberflächencentrum GmbH. Dortmund DR.-ING. NORBERT SCHAFFRATH Specialist Coordinator Electrical Maintenance FBA 8 | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. Dortmund DIPL.-ING. MARTIN NORDEN Project Engineer Metallic and Inorganic Coatings | DOC Dortmunder Oberflächencentrum GmbH. Dortmund DIPL.-ING. This technology is suitable for adaptation for further hot-dip galvanizing lines and can expand the Group’s existing production capacity for multiphase steels.

In the classical recrystallizing annealing process. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . Challenges for hot dip galvanizing Recrystallizing annealing represents a decisive process step in the hot-dip galvanizing process with respect to the technological properties of the multiphase steel. innovative steel concepts for structural elements in automotive manufacture. Due to the increasing demand.12 | Innovative process for innovative steel concepts – hot-dip galvanized multiphase steels Lightweight construction using multiphase steels The increasing demands on occupant protection in modern motor vehicles and their CO2 emissions require both the automotive and the materials industries to apply innovative methods of reducing weight while simultaneously increasing the rigidity of the vehicle bodywork. Due to its ecological and economic efficiency. the oxidation and the reduction of the steel strip surface. the hydrogen content and the water vapor content. an old meteorological unit commonly used for measuring humidity. The spontaneously occurring reactions of metals with oxygen can. Reactions which run in the direction of the reaction products have a free energy of ∆ RG < 0. This diagram can be used to estimate whether an alloy component of a steel will be present as an oxide or as the element taking into account the temperature. chromium. manganese. continuous hot-dip galvanizing Fe + H20 The objective is to prepare a purely iron-bearing surface for the hotdip coating process. Considering the free energy of reaction is extremely useful when discussing the possible reactions in the annealing gas atmosphere and is addressed in detail in the so-called Richardson-Ellingham diagram. manganese. Multiphase steels are normally galvanized by hot-dip or electrolytic galvanizing in a continuous strip coating process. Due to the high temperatures of the annealing gas atmosphere. The reduction results in the addition of water vapor (H2O) to the annealing gas atmosphere. The Gibbs free energy of reaction (∆ RG) provides information as to whether a chemical reaction will occur spontaneously or not. the dew point is taken to be a measure of the oxygen content of an annealing gas atmosphere. niobium. Both processes. these alloying elements form stabile oxides that cannot be reduced despite a hydrogen-bearing shield gas atmosphere. In contrast to iron oxide. A surface coating that effectively protects the component against corrosion over its entire life cycle is essential for the application of new. i. The shield gas atmosphere in the annealing furnace of a hot-dip galvanizing line is intended to prevent oxidation of the surface of the steel strip during annealing and to reduce any surface oxides that may be present by reacting them with hydrogen according to the following mechanism: Fe0 + H2 and are available in various surface qualities. the oxides of alloying elements with very negative free energies such as silicon. phosphorus. Should these oxides of the alloying components be present in higher concentrations on the strip surface. boron. They can be used to derive an understanding of the mechanisms and to predict the progress of the reactions. some dissociation of the vapor-phase water resulting in the presence of traces of oxygen is unavoidable: 2H20 plays an important role here. for example. Alloying elements such as aluminum. which means that the reaction runs of its own accord. The water vapor content of the annealing gas atmosphere is given as a dew point. chromium and aluminum cannot be reduced under the conditions of the annealing gas atmosphere in hot-dip galvanizing lines. not run spontaneously have a free energy of ∆ RG > 0. silicon. At high temperatures. New lightweight designs can only be achieved by the use of correspondingly innovative materials that measure up to the customer’s high requirements. 1 I. The laws of thermodynamics describe chemical reactions in general. be described by the following chemical equation: 2Fe + 02 The replacement of conventional steels by multiphase steels provides an important element in the basis of the weight reduction and the improved crash strength of the bodywork and so makes a significant contribution to achieving these objectives.e. the reaction does not take place or must be forced to occur by the input of energy. ThyssenKrupp Steel is continually expanding its range of multiphase steels by the continuous further development of new steel concepts through to production maturity I Fig. achieve an equilibrium in the annealing gas atmosphere. titanium and vanadium are added in controlled amounts to produce the mechanical/technological properties. the free oxygen formed as a result of this reaction can oxidize the alloying components of the steel. Multiphase steels from ThyssenKrupp Steel offer a wide range of capabilities with respect to formability and strength 2Fe0 The result of the reaction of iron and oxygen is to convert the pure iron into iron oxide. Reactions that do 02 + 2H20 For this reason. they could hinder the reaction of the molten zinc with the iron and lead to inadequate wetting and adhesion. This makes the development of a new process technology essential and requires a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of the reactions that are taking place.

The alloying elements are thus externally oxidized.300 1. 1 | Strength classes and properties of conventional and multiphase steels Dew point -15 °C* Oxide Fe Dew point -30 °C* Oxide Dew point -45 °C* Oxide Fe Fe 3 µm 3 µm 3 µm * FE-SEM (Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscope) analysis laboratory annealing: 800 °C. Varying the partial pressure of oxygen in the annealing gas atmosphere offers an alternative approach by means of which the location of the oxidation of the alloying components can be changed. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .700 Tensile strength Rm [MPa] Fig.000 1. left: iron-rich surface due to internal oxidation. This leads to the proportion of interfering oxides on the surface being minimized. right: strongly oxide-coated surface due to external oxidation This observation makes it clear that the temperature and the partial pressure of oxygen in the annealing gas atmosphere are two factors in a complex reaction chain subject to influence by a large number of factors. Increasing the partial pressure of oxygen. DX 60 HX 50 Elongation A80 [%] BHZ 40 30 20 MHZ 10 0 200 *MBW-K® HSZ X-IP® DC/DX HX BHZ HSZ WHZ MHZ DP-K® RA-K® CP-K® MBW-K® **MBW-K® WHZ RA-K RA-K development DP-K development X-IP® Deep-drawing steels High-strength IF steels Bake-hardening steels High-strength stretchforming steels Work-hardening steels Microalloyed steels Dual-phase steels Residual-austenite steels Complex-phase steels Manganese-boron steels for hot stamping eXtreme strength and formability through nduced Plasticity as-delivered hot-stamped DP-K® 300 400 500 600 700 CP-K 800 900 CP-K development * ** 1.100 1. 2 I.500 1. So-called internal oxidation occurs. 2 | Dependence of the surface composition on the dew point of the annealing gas atmosphere taking as an example TRIP 700. this results in an oxide skin which covers the surface and can inhibit the formation of the Fe2Al5 inhibition layer in the subsequent galvanization step. along with a simultaneous reduction in the oxide proportion of the alloying elements. This approach is clearly illustrated by the example shown in I Fig. The iron-rich surface achieved in this way is well-suited to the optimal formation of a Fe2Al5 inhibition layer in the hot-dip galvanizing process.400 1. The experience gained must be used to develop a process that enables and ensures the wetting of highly alloyed multiphase steels by the molten zinc.600 1. Increased oxygen diffusion along the grain boundaries into the structure of the surface leads to the oxidation of the alloying elements with a high affinity for oxygen located below the surface. The high proportion of non-reducible alloy components in multiphase steels makes a systematic investigation of the reaction processes on the strip surface essential. in contrast. 60 s. 95% N2. 5% H2 Fig. leads to an increase in the iron content at the surface. If a multiphase steel is annealed in an oxygen-poor atmosphere as in the example. Reduction of the alloying elements with very high affinities for oxygen is not possible under the existing conditions.| 13 70 DC.200 1.

left I: 1 Fe + H2O This iron-rich surface is advantageous for the reactions in the molten zinc bath I Fig. The enrichment of the surface with iron by means of the oxidation/reduction step and the support for internal oxidation by the water vapor formed combine to create the conditions for a significant improvement of the Fe2Al5 inhibition layer in multiphase steels. Furthermore. 3 | The process of oxidation and reduction Due to the physical dimensions of the annealing furnace of a hotdip galvanizing line. A thin oxide film is formed... a sponge structure of pure iron is formed on the surface. As iron oxide ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .. Step 1: Oxidation I Fig. As the oxidation of the high oxygen affinity elements withdraws more water vapor from the annealing gas atmosphere than is formed by the reduction of iron oxide. Al2O3. This layer inhibits further. Oxidation/reduction technology presents a more effective approach for the hot-dip galvanizing of multiphase steels as shown in I Fig. 2 µm MnO. 3. The shift of the reaction equilibrium to low dew points has the consequence that the oxides of the alloying elements form externally. Step 2: Reduction I Fig. 3 I... 2 µm Fig. On the other hand. If DFF (Direct Fired Furnace) technology is utilized in the preheating zone of a hot-dip galvanizing line.2% – at temperatures above 700 °C.. Al2O3.. 3. thus ensuring the adhesion of and wetting by the zinc. the dew point of the furnace atmosphere during the production of multiphase steels tends to be very can. unwanted external oxidation of the alloying elements with a high affinity for oxygen. Oxidation/reduction technology It has been demonstrated that the humidification of the furnace gas to force the desired internal oxidation is less effective and cost intensive. it is not possible to influence the thermodynamics of the atmosphere. be reduced in the subsequent annealing process. right I.14 | Innovative process for innovative steel concepts – hot-dip galvanized multiphase steels Oxidation Iron oxide Reduction Iron Galvanized Iron Fe2Al5 Steel Steel Steel 2 µm MnO. The oxidation Fe + 2 O2 FeO of the steel strip surface prior to its entering the reducing furnace can be specifically controlled in this way. 0. The atmospheric conditions can be changed from oxidizing to reducing by adjusting the air-fuel ratio of the burner gas. a targeted oxidation of the steel strip surface can be caused by adjusting the preheater burner gas. MnO. the water vapor produced by the reduction of iron oxide supports the internal oxidation of the alloying elements and stabilizes the dew point of the furnace atmosphere. This task was accomplished in a collab- A defined external iron oxide layer of 150-200 nm thickness be created using minimal quantities of oxygen – approx. Targeted oxidation of the entire steel strip surface in an oxygen-bearing atmosphere causes the formation of iron oxide on the surface. in contrast to the other oxides of the alloying elements of multiphase steels. middle I: FeO + H2 low.. This inhibits the classic Fe2Al5 inhibition layer reaction during hot-dip galvanizing and results in macroscopic quality problems with respect to zinc wetting and adhesion. 3. This effectively prevents a decrease in the dew point of the annealing gas atmosphere. Al2O3. installing oxidation/reduction technology in hot-dip galvanizing lines with vertical RTFs (Radiant Tube Furnaces) poses a special challenge..

4 I. it is reduced in the remaining section of the annealing line. 4 | Schematic structure of FBA 8. This technology is used in the continuous RTF to create a steel strip surface of multiphase steels that has a positive effect on the hot-dip galvanizing and guarantees the wetting and adhesion of the zinc coating. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . innovative process technology. Dortmund oration between the DOC surface engineering center (Dortmunder OberflächenCentrum) and ThyssenKrupp Steel with the help of a new. Oxidation/reduction technology is an innovative process for guaranteeing the suitability of the new multiphase steels for hot-dip galvanizing and sustainably improves surface quality. in Dortmund. weight-reducing steel concepts offer great potential in lightweight automotive construction and lead to a sustainable reduction in CO2 emissions. This innovative technology represents a fundamental component in the planning of new hot-dip galvanizing lines and expands the production capacity of existing facilities. The implementation of the technology in additional existing lines is possible and is currently in progress. Conclusion and outlook Innovative. The industrial scale technical implementation of a closed oxidation chamber for targeted oxidation of the steel strip surface was first installed in the annealing furnace of the hot-dip galvanizing line FBA 8 I Fig. The construction of a closed chamber permits targeted oxidation in the closed reducing atmosphere of the furnace and prevents unwanted mixing of the reactive gases oxygen and hydrogen. By ensuring zinc wetting and adhesion.Innovative process for innovative steel concepts – hot-dip galvanized multiphase steels | 15 Surface inspection Chemcoater with exit store Skin pass mill Intermediate store Galvanizing tower Annealing furnace Cleaning Entry store Online surface inspection Online roughness inspection Zinc pot and air knives Zinc thickness measurement Entry Laser welding machine Fig. After the steel strip surface has been oxidized. This process makes it possible to carry out a corresponding conditioning of the surface of the steel strip during the annealing process in existing hot-dip galvanizing lines independent of the remaining furnace atmosphere. oxidation/reduction technology is making a decisive contribution to developing the market potential of multiphase steels in automotive manufacturing.

16 | | Coating a hot-rolled sheet in a zinc bath ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .

They are mainly used in the construction sector. In principle.| 17 ZMg EcoProtect ® – new coating for high-end corrosion protection DIPL. arise in a zinc melt with approximately 1% magnesium. the new material has application properties at least comparable with those of conventional zinc coatings. The eutectic composition of 92. RER. Dortmund DR. NAT. Its implementation in numerous manufacturing operations at two ThyssenKrupp Steel hot-dip galvanizing lines (FBA) was started as early as 2006 I Fig. Industry Division | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. The switch from laboratory scale to commercial production began with a first trial run in March 2006. these products are limited in application. A magnesium content ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . currently known products also include relatively high aluminum contents in addition to the magnesium. ERICH NABBEFELD-ARNOLD Head of Techn.2 atom-% zinc solidifies under equilibrium conditions at 364 °C. The new coating thus makes an exceptional contribution to the conservation of resources. the coating ZMg EcoProtect® is also an outstanding substrate for coil coating applications. The material produced was characterized in detail using a wide range of test procedures and tested in application-specific experiments. Trials as part of development partnerships have commenced with selected customers from the construction. It is also a very good substrate for organic coilcoated products. in particular in environments with a maritime climate. magnesium alloy additives in zinc improve the corrosion properties of the coating. 1 I. However. which forms peritectically. As a result. domestic appliance. Competence Center C/C. it has possible applications in the construction.-ING. Dortmund DIPL. garage door.-ING. The new flat steel product ZMg EcoProtect® possesses improved resistance to cut-edge and cut-face corrosion. domestic appliance. Industry Division | Thyssen Krupp Steel AG. Alongside significantly increased corrosion resistance compared to zinc coatings. SABINE ZEIZINGER Team Leader Hot-dip Galvanizing Line 8. joining and painting properties. Auto Division | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. Dortmund A new process has been developed for the manufacture of magnesium-bearing zinc coatings containing approximately 1% magnesium. garage door. As a result. Introduction ThyssenKrupp Steel and the DOC surface engineering center (Dortmunder OberflächenCentrum) have succeeded with a new development in hot-dip coating – the innovative coating ZMg EcoProtect®. ThyssenKrupp Steel has therefore developed a zinc-magnesium coating which possesses a balanced application spectrum. Using this new process enables the coating to be produced in existing hot-dip galvanizing lines. Eichen MANFRED MEURER Team Leader Hot-dip Coating | DOC Dortmunder Oberflächencentrum GmbH. MICHAEL KELLER Team Leader Hot-dip Galvanizing Line 5. which leads to limited forming. Eichen DIPL. OLIVER BENDICK Project Engineer Interface Chemistry and Electrochemistry | DOC Dortmunder Oberflächencentrum GmbH. ZMg coating A hypoeutectic composition with primary precipitated zinc-rich solid solutions (Zn-Mk) and a eutectic of Zn-Mk with the intermetallic phase Mg2Zn11. vehicle and automotive industries. vehicle and automotive industries.-ING. The high corrosion resistance of this coating makes it possible to halve the coating thickness while retaining the same protective effect./Strategic Marketing. Among other uses.

ZMg is also seen to provide significantly better protection at unprotected cut edges. Corrosion mechanism of ZMg coatings The protective effect of the ZMg EcoProtect® coating is characterized iron surface. also due to the formation of a top layer on the free ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .650 mm. 3 | Corrosion protection of ZMg EcoProtect® in comparison with other metallic-coated sheet steels in salt spray testing of 1% results in a liquidus temperature of approximately 405 °C. Extremely dense. 2 | Coating formation of ZMg EcoProtect® Testing time to first red rust [h] 1. 5 I. The new product can be supplied in strip thicknesses from 0. The higher degree of order and the morpho logy of the resulting top layers lead to slower dissolution of the zinc and thus to an extension of the protective effect. 4 I.18 | 10 µm Fig. These layers have a significantly better barrier effect and thus a greater degree of protection against corrosive attack than conventional zinc and zinc alloy layers I Fig. by the interaction of several mechanisms: ZMg is at least as effective as conventional zinc coatings in providing cathodic protection of steel. according to the current state of knowledge. though not all combinations of thickness and width are available.4 to 3. and a metastable eutectic structure of Zn-Mk and MgZn2 is formed.0 mm and widths from 600 to 1. This improved corrosion behavior is. Product ZMg EcoProtect® Numerous production campaigns have shown that ZMg EcoProtect® can be reproducibly manufactured with high quality. This structure has also been determined in the applied coatings I Fig.000 800 ZMg EcoProtect® 600 ZA AZ 400 200 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Z Coating thickness [µm] Fig. The new flat steel product is also available in an oiled version. The available coating weights are between 60 and 350 g/m² in the case of surface finishes A (standard surface) and B (improved surface) and between 60 and 255 g/m² in the case of the finish C (best surface) as well as structural steel and deepdrawing grades. exposed iron surfaces or damage sites. a protective effect that is at least the equivalent of that of today’s established products is achieved. 3 I. ordered structure and causes a delay in cathodic oxygen reduction on the iron. As a result. even with significantly lower zinc coating weights I Fig. The top layer deposited in this way displays a dense. 1 | Galvanizing a hot-rolled sheet in FBA 8 in Dortmund Fig. compact and ordered top layers are formed during the blank corrosion of ZMg EcoProtect®. as demonstrated by various studies. Hydroxyl ions react with zinc and magnesium ions in a chemical precipitation reaction to form a top layer which is precipitated on the open cut edge I Fig. which in turn results in a minimization of the anodic reaction step – the dissolution of the zinc. 2 I. The formation of the intermetallic phase Mg2Zn11 is suppressed by rapid cooling.

threatened areas of the vehicle bodywork. In the meantime. Mg2+ OH- O2 Red rust Fig. nominal coating thickness 25 µm ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . At higher coating Paint Zinc Steel Fe eZn Zn2+ OHFe2+ O2 Paint ZMg Steel eZn. in addition to general abrasion and friction tests. especially for chassis components without weld seams. which in turn produces substantial cost savings for the customer.ZMg EcoProtect® – new coating for high-end corrosion protection | 19 ZMg EcoProtect® can also be provided with chemical passivation or sealing to further improve the corrosion characteristics. hot-dip galvanized and hot-dip alloy galvanized sheet steel Stable surface layer Creep after 720 h salt spray testing ZA 185 g/m2 ZMg EcoProtect® 60 g/m2 Fig. it is even possible to substitute today’s conventional batch galvanizing. The electrode life determined for ZMg in resistance spot welding corresponds to that of conventional zinc materials. the forming operations have been successful. The coating weight can be reduced or maintained in order to improve corrosion protection. The very good forming behavior of ZMg EcoProtect® can clearly be seen. Automotive applications ZMg EcoProtect® is suitable for internal components in corrosion- for various coating variants typical of the automotive industry. To date. universal primer and polyester painting. The suitability for welding of ZMg EcoProtect® is also comparable with that of con- weights. I Fig. Further development is taking place with the objective of making ZMg EcoProtect® suitable for outer skin applications. 5 | Corrosion characteristics in salt spray testing according to DIN EN ISO 9227 of ZMg EcoProtect® and Galfan® ZA each with Cr(VI)-free pretreatment. numerous real components have been manufactured to test the forming characteristics. 6 I shows a comparison of the abrasion values ventional zinc materials. it can be processed without problems and can be regarded as equivalent to hot-dip galvanized coatings (Z). ZMg EcoProtect® has been tested in a range of forming experiments. Mg Zn2+. such as the floor structure or doors and hatches. These surface treatments are also a good foundation for subsequent painting. 4 | Schematic corrosion reactions of painted.

9 I. Coil-coating application ZMg EcoProtect® is an excellent substrate for organic coil-coated flat coated PLADUR® flat steel grades.5 0 KB ZE ZEP ZMg Z ZF KB: ungalvanized sheet steel. The good properties of this product on the basis of ZMg EcoProtect® with a reduced coating weight of 130 g/m² in comparison with e. The application example of a trailer fender I Fig. 8 I. Paint creep at cut edges and at points where the coating is damaged is significantly reduced. hot-dip galvanized sheet. particularly in the case of long-term corrosive stresses.5 1 0.g. hot-dip galvanized sheet steel steel grades. the coil-coating material also possesses good forming properties. Even in the case of reduced coating thicknesses as compared to conventional substrates. profiles for windows and interiors. This made it possible to sustainably extend the spectrum of organic coil- for profiles. In addition to the special corrosion characteristics. it results in a significantly improved corrosion behavior in comparison to hot-dip galvanized sheet steel. such as garage door accessories. 7 | Trailer fender in salt spray testing according to DIN EN ISO 9227 (test duration: 264 h): ZMg EcoProtect®. The effects of a corrosive stress on cut surfaces is also less I Fig. It is notable that especially good results were achieved using Cr(VI)-free materials.5 Abrasion rate in [g/m] 2 1. 6 | Forming characteristics of ZMg EcoProtect® and other typical coatings. The positive properties with respect to corrosion resist- Fig. in sealed surface finish. Cr(VI)-free (left). The new product can also be used for the manufacture of housings for small motors. Cr(VI)-bearing (right). in sealed surface finish. The known coating materials such as polyester and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) can be used almost without reservation. cable ducts. ZE: electrolytically galvanized sheet steel ZEP: electrolytically galvanized and prephosphatized sheet steel ZMg: hot-dip coated zinc-magnesium sheet steel ZMg EcoProtect® Z: hot-dip galvanized sheet steel ZF: galvannealed sheet steel Fig. 7 I shows the special protective effect of the ZMg EcoProtect® coating and a Cr(VI)-free seal. the corrosion resistance is better I Fig. sheet thicknesses 1 mm ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . 280 g/m².20 | ZMg EcoProtect® – new coating for high-end corrosion protection Abrasion 2. plant supports and doorframes. scaffolding planks. Despite the significantly lower coating thickness of ZMg EcoProtect®. 130 g/m². abrasion in strip drawing tests Industrial applications ZMg EcoProtect® can also have interesting application possibilities ance are substantially reinforced by the additional organic coating.

8 | Relative corrosion characteristics of ZMg EcoProtect® (ZMg) in comparison with conventional.ZMg EcoProtect® – new coating for high-end corrosion protection | 21 Relative corrosion resistance (cut edges and scoring) Z 275 + PVDF 25 ZA 255 + PVDF 25 ZMg 130 + PVDF 25 Test duration Fig. The material was rated in the highest corrosion protection class according to DIN 55928-8. Typical automotive painting is also possible. The reduction in paint creep and the improved resistance in the flange areas of automobile bodywork offer exemplary evidence of the good corrosion characteristics. Z: hot-dip galvanized Fig. 9 | Cut-face corrosion after a salt spray testing (DIN EN ISO 9227) of sheet steel (thickness approx. ZMg EcoProtect® is a high-quality. Summary and outlook ZMg EcoProtect® creates substantial customer benefit thanks to addition to being tested in development partnerships with customers. ZMg EcoProtect® offers at least comparable processing properties when forming and joining and is well suited for subsequent coil-coating applications. also in the area of cut edges. The advantages are clearly apparent in the case of long-term.000 h Coatings ZMg 130 AZ 185 ZA 255 Z 275 Without polyester painting SP Test duration: 384 h Coatings ZMg 130 + SP 25 AZ 185 + SP 25 ZA 255 + SP 25 Z 275 + SP 25 ZMg: Zn-Mg hot-dip galvanized. The product has now been manufactured in large volumes on a number of production lines and is being used in production in weight of 130 g/m² in the manufacture of thin-walled components. AZ: Galvalume®. ZA: Galfan®. The Deutsche Institut für Bautechnik in Berlin (DIBt) has granted general building code approval for use of the organic coil-coated flat steel grade on the basis of the substrate ZMg EcoProtect® with a coating with previous zinc coatings.6 mm) ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . after 360 h in salt spray testing according to DIN EN ISO 9227 with a coating weight of 275 g/m² have been confirmed in an expert opinion from the University of Karlsruhe. repetitive corrosive stresses. economically attractive product and an alternative for highly effective corrosion protection in various applications. improved corrosion protection. In comparison Without polyester painting SP Test duration: 1. 0. nominal coating thickness 25 µm. metallic-coated sheet steel (Z and ZA) respectively with a polyester coating.

22 | | EcoSpace cockpit support structure ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .

the EcoSpace cockpit’s crash behavior is the same on both the driver and the front passenger sides. The new construction has a crash performance comparable to that of conventional cockpit support structures while featuring 18% greater stiffness and a weight reduction of more than 20%. prime costs can be reduced by up to 15%. with a steel frame located only on the driver’s side. The companies have developed an open. Dortmund DIPL. The manufacturers are therefore increasingly concentrating their efforts on creating noticeable comfort features which have a big impact on customers’ purchasing decisions.-ING. Multiple interface development By considering the system as a whole. While ThyssenKrupp Steel has expertise in steel materials and their use in automobiles. after which it was also presented to the various automakers on site. The aim of these efforts was to jointly develop an integrated concept for the cockpit structure that would set new standards by combining the benefits of the various conventional solutions. A prototype of the jointly developed structure was first unveiled at the 2007 IAA International Motor Show in Frankfurt.| 23 EcoSpace cockpit – optimum interaction between plastic and steel in the vehicle interior DIPL. Low-cost lightweight construction using steel The EcoSpace cockpit weighs 20% less than conventional structures. all of the project partners benefited from the balance of the material mix and value added. It has been clearly demonstrated that the cockpit is suited for production use. MARTIN HINZ Manager Process Innovation. and the first bilateral development projects for production implementation are ramping up. trusting and productive partnership that can serve as a best practice example for future cooperative ventures among multiple companies. Besides design ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . and Johnson Controls has extensive experience in plastics and vehicle interiors as a system partner for instrument panels and cockpits. Dortmund In cooperation with Johnson Controls. the cockpit’s stiffness comfort is considerably higher than that of conventional systems with a frequency of 39 Hz. PETER SEYFRIED Manager Technology Management. automakers focused increasingly on meeting the rising demand for more comfort. State of development Initially. The project’s success is the result of the partners’ joint recognition of the fundamental principle that the right material be used for each functional requirement without losing sight of the system’s total cost and weight. As the development of automobiles progressed further. the automotive industry began using so-called cross car beams. body structure and steering systems experts were better able to meet the single cockpit components’ requirements as well as the overall performance. Regardless of whether a collision occurs on the side containing more steel or plastic. In addition. it may have sounded unusual that a specialist plastic processor and a steel company would join forces to develop a cockpit support structure which would differ fundamentally from all existing designs. Sales/Engineering | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. ThyssenKrupp has developed a cockpit support structure known as ‘EcoSpace’ that is an economical lightweight hybrid composite structure of steel and plastic. In addition. as the resulting cockpit is a top performer that is also lighter. Thanks to the structure’s natural frequency of 46 Hz. which were meant to enable the companies to completely preassemble all cockpit assemblies and thereby reduce manufacturing costs. the interior. Successful multi-company cooperation The cooperation partners complement one another optimally. ThyssenKrupp Presta is a system supplier for steering columns. In the 1970s. this ambitious plan paid off for everyone involved. less expensive and more flexible than conventional production solutions. Sophisticated simulations of the complete cockpit structure show that the optimized composite of plastic and metal is so homogenous in its structure that the new cockpit passes all international safety and crash tests with flying colors. Sales/Engineering | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG.-ING. However.

Today’s cockpits are filled with numerous assemblies that are designed to enhance comfort. rigid hybrid connection of the plastic structure and the steel frame.24 | EcoSpace cockpit – optimum interaction between plastic and steel in the vehicle interior aspects such as the easy reachability of the controls. These include the high mechanical strength of the joints as well as the use of proven technologies for industrial manufacturing processes. 2 I. After expanding into a cone. the cockpit support structure’s first natural frequency should be substantially higher than that of the engine-transmission unit. as it accounts for about 25% of the cockpit’s total weight. the EcoSpace cockpit’s patented concept makes assembly much easier. To meet the demand for high comfort. And since Germans spend an average of one-and-half hours in their vehicles every day. 3 I. for which the patented T³ profiling technology (cf. A study has shown that the cockpit support structure plays a significant role in this regard. The analysis showed that the cockpit needs a high level of dynamic stiffness primarily in the area of the steering column. Issue 1/2007) is also used. The steel support structure consists primarily of the T³ crossbeam already described. ThyssenKrupp techforum. making it possible to achieve a tightening torque of approximately 18 Nm. 1 I have been registered for this development. Not only does this save costs. automakers are now checking the potential for reducing weight within the cockpit. An essential requirement for high-quality hybrid designs is that they meet all of the demands that a plastic-metal composite can face. Air conditioning and navigation systems are now considered standard equipment for many vehicles. shape. depending on the vehicle segment and the equipment the cockpit contains. Patented expansion element optimizes crash properties Side impacts give rise to very high peak loads that are passed into the cockpit structure through the bolt points on the vehicle body. As a result. these features include comfortable steering. Patented hybrid of plastic and steel While the innovative steel structure on the driver’s side is primarily responsible for mounting the steering column. the connection plate between the steel frame and the plastic structure was designed in such a way that peak loads could be cushioned by an elastic expansion element. as well as the connection to the front passenger airbag and the back of the glove compartment. They created a stress-optimized T³ crossbeam that has a cylindrical shape where it connects to the A-pillar. production technologies and sheet thickness into account while designing the crossbeam in line with the needs of the overall package. this component can be reduced by more than half. the metal layer is subsequently joined to the steel structure using a method that is free of thermal distortion such as laser welding. Stiffness is significantly increased by using a linear weld between the crossbeam and the outside edges of the vertical strut. the plastic structure that extends across the entire cockpit integrates the air ducts for the defroster and the air conditioning. plastic is injection moulded around steel inserts. infotainment systems are becoming increasingly important in automobiles as well. since it only needs two bolts and a single assembly direction. Because of the nature of the material used. which serves as the interface to the steering column and the vertical strut. On the driver’s side. a cockpit can weigh between 60 and 120 kg. such as the steering column connections. But if structural considerations do not require the cross car beam to extend across the entire width of the cockpit. A two-stage process is used to create the high-strength. such as air inlet ducts. To achieve a high level of steering comfort. Prompted by the current debate concerning CO2 emissions. Because many components. Tripod concept with patented vertical strut The EcoSpace’s design is brilliantly simple and therefore much more flexible than all existing concepts. The crossbeam’s cross-section is stabilized by two sleeves. yet would nevertheless ensure a sufficiently high buckling load level in the event of a crash. have been optimized over a period of many years and therefore no longer offer any significant potential for further weight savings. Technical highlights The EcoSpace cockpit’s structure is extremely innovative. Steel T³ crossbeam optimized in terms of stiffness and package A key feature of the EcoSpace cockpit is the T³ crossbeam I Fig. In the first step. the crossbeam has a rectangular crosssection at the point where the steering column is mounted in order to make assembly easier. the question arises as to how much of the cockpit should consist of structural components. This refers to low-vibration or vibrationfree steering that can be achieved through the high dynamic stiffness (first natural frequency of an oscillating system) of the steering column and the cockpit support structure. Whereas the benchmark design requires a total of seven parts to mount the steering column. A total of four new patents I Fig. Patented optimized steering column connection The EcoSpace cockpit’s steering column is bolted directly to the T³ crossbeam I Fig. high dynamic stiffness is required at points where masses are focused. the crossbeam is connected to the A-pillar. In the vehicle’s center it ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . it considerably reduces the possible fault rate. The engineers took all stiffness-related factors such the material. As a result.

1 | Degree of innovation in the EcoSpace cockpit ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .EcoSpace cockpit – optimum interaction between plastic and steel in the vehicle interior | 25 Arrangement for connecting the steering column of a motor vehicle (steering column connection) Vehicle components with hybrid structure (steel-plastic composite structure) Hybrid crossbeam (expansion element with position in the cockpit) Support element for a cockpit crossbeam (single-piece vertical strut) Fig.

a shaped blank is formed into a hollow section and the profile edges are then laser welded without the need for filler materials. which in turn is bolted onto the cowl and the center tunnel. The revolutionary EcoSpace cockpit is as safe as any conventional system. will increase design freedom in the future. the increasing integration of functions. only two process steps are required to complete the crossbeam. 2 | Crossbeam with perforated plates structure opens up completely new design opportunities in this area. the cockpit crossbeam can be manufactured at a much lower cost than it would be the case with hydroforming. Starting from a conical tube. as is the case with other alternative cockpits currently on the market. Economical solution with high customer value One of the main goals of the cockpit’s developers was to create a pioneering lightweight solution that would be economical and customer friendly. As an alternative. Moreover. despite the fact that its crossbeam does not link the A-pillars across the full width of the vehicle. Practically the only limits placed on the imaginations of vehicle interior designers are technical considerations such as the fact that large parts of the front passenger area are today used for functional elements like asymmetrical air-conditioning units. i. and secondly by developing a one-piece vertical strut. After pre- Fig. the structure forms a so-called tripod. Two approaches were used to integrate functions: firstly by incorporating several connections into the plastic support structure. as the absence of the cockpit support Fig. the tube must therefore undergo intermediate annealing before it can be formed to its final shape. In addition. Via these three connection points. this would involve strains of up to 38%. the innovative cockpit structure opens up completely new possibilities on the passenger side for automakers I Fig. Design flexibility The elimination of the usually complex conventional steering column connection creates additional packaging space for occupant protection systems on the driver’s side. 4 I.26 | EcoSpace cockpit – optimum interaction between plastic and steel in the vehicle interior is connected to a vertical strut. Hydroforming requires a total of seven process steps. Savings can be made in all areas except safety. which is why they put great store on integrating functions and processes. the newly developed cockpit crossbeam can also be manufactured by means of hydroforming. for which the EcoSpace cockpit is predestined. However. 3 | Steering column connection concept for optimized assembly and flow of forces forming. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . the vertical strut that extends from the cowl to the center tunnel ensures a harmonious flow of forces that enables the system’s lightweight construction potential to be fully exploited.e. Due to the extensive process integration achieved by this technology. In T³ profiling technology.

the developers compared it with a stamped and welded cockpit crossbeam. All of the key functions needed to operate an automobile will be integrated into the driver’s side of the cockpit. 4 | Greater design flexibility on the front passenger side ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . will be concentrated in the central module. In addition to incorporating special functional elements for athletic or handicapped users.8 mm for the stamped and welded crossbeam. while the total weld length was reduced by as much as 60%. their weight is generally determined at identical performance values. the number of parts was halved compared to the benchmark design. the evaluation of customer value is also greatly impacted by the system’s “lightweight construction performance” (weight reduction multiplied by performance value). a higher performance as well as lower production costs than the benchmark concept. However. designers just have to come up with the ideas. while any deterioration reduces the value to <1. It therefore delivers the following advantages: a substantial reduction in weight. It will be possible to set up comfortable workstations in front of the front passenger seat or install large-format infotainment screens to provide passengers with relaxing entertainment. To assess the lightweight construction potential of different alternative concepts. Besides the aforementioned factors relating to manufacturing costs. designing a concept in such a way that performance values are identical is not always possible or requires a time-consuming iteration process. or a built-in refrigerator to feed an entire family while on the road – the EcoSpace cockpit has the space.EcoSpace cockpit – optimum interaction between plastic and steel in the vehicle interior | 27 In addition. designers will also be able to include features for various professions or different age groups. They will be differentiated even more strongly into separate modules for the driver. such as air-conditioning and entertainment systems. Since the EcoSpace cockpit’s first natural frequency is 18% higher. easily accessible stowage areas of previously inconceivable dimensions. its performance value in this case is 1. front passenger and center areas. Lightweight construction performance is a key figure that takes various factors into account in the assessment of lightweight construction and simplifies the evaluation of various alternative concepts. In the future.4 mm to 1. the new design freedom that the EcoSpace cockpit creates particularly in the front passenger area will allow automakers to produce completely new offerings. A cost comparison revealed that a T³ cockpit crossbeam can be manufactured more economically than a comparable stamped and welded crossbeam if annual sales exceed a certain level.18. Any improvements in this regard lead to performance values >1. safe transport areas for one or even two child seats. The analyses showed that sheet thickness has to be increased from 1. while all of the comfort-enhancing elements. Whether used for new. To assess the market potential of T³ technology for cockpit applications. Outlook Future cockpits will look different to those of today. Fig. The EcoSpace cockpit has a lightweight construction performance of 33%.

28 | | Robot handling at the world’s first laser decoating plant for metallic coatings at ThyssenKrupp Tailored Blanks ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .

ThyssenKrupp Tailored Blanks has successfully developed and integrated into production processes a new manufacturing technology for tailored blanks for use in hot stamping. The combination of different steel grades is a classic application for tailored blanks. European automobile manufacturers alone accepted delivery of approximately one million tons of tailored blanks in 2007. The back- ground to the initial experiments were suggestions for optimization of material utilization at the customers. Tailored products Tailored products have been successfully used in the area of bodywork technology by all automakers worldwide for years. In this way. the automaker’s production costs can be significantly reduced. The process of hot stamping and the temperature changes are shown in I Figs 1 and 2 I. These tailored blanks offer users all the advantages of the previous areas of application and maximum process reliability. to jointly investigate and implement the use of tailored blanks in hot stamping as part of the project Audi B8. The development department’s requirements for the two steel grades were: elongation A80 > 15% and tensile strength > 500 MPa. The objective of the initial experiments was to demonstrate that the weld achieved at least the same strength after hot stamping as the base material used. This technology can be used to increase the strength of manganese-boron steels from the starting level of approximately 500 MPa to around 1. To date. along with the customer Audi in Ingolstadt. Comprehensive experiments were carried out in collaboration with the Applications Technology department at ThyssenKrupp Steel.| 29 Tailored blanks in hot stamping DIPL. exclusively manganese-boron steel has been used for hot stamping. the new product supports the customer in achieving lightweight construction and thus also in attaining environmental objectives. The combination of MBW 1500 with another steel grade is unprecedented. Tailored blanks are steel sheets of different steel grades and sheet thicknesses that have been laser-welded together before forming. As ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . This demonstration reinforced the development team in their intention to continue promoting the product for application in hot stamping.-ING. The first internal studies for tailored blanks in this area initially looked at un-coated manganese-boron steel (MBW 1500). sample components were welded together before being subjected to the heat treatment normally used in hot stamping. Audi in Ingolstadt expressed the desire to use tailored blanks for hot stamping. in this case the steel grade MBW 1500. In the further course of the studies. At the same time. This requirement describes a steel that behaves in a more ductile fashion in the event of a side or rear-end impact. The sheets are than formed in a cooled forming die and cooled at a rate of 27 °C/s. To this end. The work was carried out within one year. It can clearly be seen that there is no reduction in hardness in the region of the weld. Application in hot stamping Hot stamping bodywork components involves heating steel sheets to a temperature of 880 °C to 950 °C. JÖRG MAAS Head of Sales/Senior Manager Sales | ThyssenKrupp Tailored Blanks GmbH. The increasing requirements in terms of crash behavior and the associated application of ultrahigh-strength steel grades and new manufacturing techniques have led ThyssenKrupp Tailored Blanks. These extremely high strengths cannot be attained with the steel grades used to date in conventional deep drawing. I Fig. Duisburg In collaboration with Audi. The new technology represents the world’s first application of the product tailored blanks in hot stamping along with plant engineering that is currently unique. 3 I shows the hardness profile in the cross-section of the sample component before and after hot stamping. An extremely strong martensite structure develops in the steel.500 MPa. Different steel grades and sheet thicknesses can be welded together. Duisburg WERNER STAUDINGER Engineering | ThyssenKrupp Tailored Blanks GmbH. The main reason for this was the requirement to make use of two different steel grades for crash-relevant components such as the B-pillar or the rear side member.

No anomalies resulting from melted coating could be determined. Fig. further experiments were carried out with respect to forming characteristics. it proved possible to model the customer’s process using the hot stamping test facility in Dortmund. aluminum and silicon had solidified in the weld after laser welding. 5 I. At the conclusion of the studies. the steel grade H 340 LAD showed the desired properties. In particular. The weld samples were then hot stamped in the Dortmund test facility and analyzed in the Metallography department of ThyssenKrupp Steel.30 | Tailored blanks in hot stamping Indirect hot stamping/MBW ® (two-stage) Cold forming Heating to 850 . it was determined that the coating in the area of the weld seam is to be removed in the future. 1 | Schematic representation of hot stamping part of this work.950 °C innert gas atmosphere Die quenching in the cooled tool Cutting component using cutting tool and/or laser Fig. This process requires the steel to have a hot-dip aluminized coating which protects against scale formation and corrosion. the inclusions in the weld seam represent weakenings. weldability and strength after hot stamping. A maximum removal width of 1. Working together with the customer. No coating fragments (white inclusions) are to be seen in the weld seam. A characteristic cross-section is shown in I Fig. 4 I. These experiments showed that the hot-dip aluminized coating layer had melted during the laser welding process. The first approach to a solution involved carrying out welding experiments in which the coating of the tailored blanks was mechanically removed along the weld edges. A mixture of iron.0 mm was specified. There is also no coating in a small area < 0. The customer decided on the single-step hot stamping process I Fig. 2 | Temperature changes during hot stamping Austenitizing 950 °C 830 °C 730 °C Removal from furnace / Furnace temperature Die closed 1 2 3 4 Heating to target temperature Aloying of the surface Transfer + die closing Hardening in the die (cooling rate > 27 °C/s) 5 Cooling to room temperature outside the die Removal from die / die temperature 150 °C Room temperature 240 s 1 240 s 2 10 s 3 20 s 4 330 s 5 .950 °C under an inert gas atmosphere Die quenching in the cold die Cutting component using cutting tool and/or laser Sandblasting Direct hot stamping/MBW® + AS150 (single-stage) Heating to 850 .2 mm on the upper and lower sides adjacent to the weld. Solid solutions were forming in the weld and an intermetallic phase on the cover and root passes. Once the steel grades to be used had been jointly determined. The cross-sections showed the expected result I Fig. 1 I.

0 4.000 t with strongly increasing demand on the customer side.0 3. The Q switched solid-state laser is a diode-pumped Nd-YAG laser. All processes were tested in the test facility and Metallography department and finally approved by the customer. the process using Q switched lasers proved to be the economic and technical optimum.0 7. This includes a conveying concept which enables the power of the laser to be fully used. I Fig. they can now be used independently of the diverse coating types. a new sensor has also been developed for online quality control of the process. 5 | Cross-section with removed coating Fig. To guarantee quality.0 8. 3 | Hardness profile before and after hot stamping Area with removeed coating No inclusions in the weld Area with removed coating Fig. The time available from the first idea to the start of volume production was one year. a total of three processes using mechanical methods – two using lasers.0 1. A rapid increase is already apparent. The Q-switching is carried out with a frequency of up to 15 kHz. and one using inductive heating – were reviewed. The coating is removed from the weld edges of the tailored blanks by the laser at speeds of approximately 8 m/min.0 Root pass with intermetallic phase Distance [mm] before hot stamping after hot stamping Fig. 4 | Cross-section with coating Solid solutions Fig. To accomplish this.1 300 200 Hardness profile through laser welding 100 0 0. Outlook Automakers will make increasing use of tailored blanks for hot stamping in the area of crash-relevant structural components in the coming years. In the last two years. a manufacturing process was to be developed for mass production and its suitability demonstrated.0 6.Tailored blanks in hot stamping | 31 Weld seam Cover pass with intermetallic phase 600 500 Hardness 400 HV 0. 6 I illustrates the line con- cept. 6 | Layout of the world’s first laser decoating plant: passage of the starting blanks Following from this work. With regard to reproducability and suitability for volume production. A new line concept appropriate to the power of the laser was developed. Thanks to the newly developed technology from ThyssenKrupp Tailored Blanks. The laser has a power of 500 W. the volume has risen to a total of 20.0 2.0 5. Further applications will follow in the area of side panel and door inner assemblies. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .0 9. The blanks are guided through the line in a continuous process.

32 | | MPT – Multi-purpose tailgate ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .

the implementations are now being carried out on their respective vehicles with the aim of supplying customers with the tailgate module in the future. ThyssenKrupp Steel. the highest degree of functionality and flexibility and optimal use of the materials involved. the bicycle is often grimy and has to be stowed in the vehicle again in that condition. Duisburg The needs of customers play a decisive role in creating innovative product solutions for future generations of automobiles.-ING. The bicycle rack system swings out of the innovative tailgate. The new multi-purpose tailgate (MPT) provides a remedy. Over 20 ideas were discussed. The design of the flexible tailgate module implemented in the physical prototype features maximum ease-of-use. Sales/Engineering | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. These considerations formed the basis for an intensive exchange of ideas with partner Webasto. A prototype of the jointly developed tailgate solution was integrated into a VW Passat and exhibited for the first time at the International Motor Show IAA 2007.g. Production scenarios were then calculated. Nevertheless.. Background The desire to go for a relaxing ride on the bike after a tough day at the office is often dampened by the fact that stowing the bike in the vehicle can be extremely arduous and is sometimes not even possible. in some cases on dirt trails. The result is impressive: a tailgate module with an integrated rack system accommodating a variety of cargo.and roof-opening systems. and the bicycles are loaded onto it with very little effort. e. Following initial customer presentations at the manufacturers. snowboards. RALF SÜNKEL Teamleader Product Innovation/Projects. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . skis or a luggage box. if the difficulties are overcome and the bike ride is accomplished. ThyssenKrupp Metal Forming and Webasto worked together closely to develop the multi-purpose tailgate. bicycles.| 33 Multi-purpose tailgate MPT – a flexible tailgate module with integrated rack system DIPL. and potential prices were determined. Simple opening and loading options on vehicles are essential these days because of the wide variety of ways they are used in professional and leisure activities. optionally available with a rear window opened separately or with a “keyless open” feature. and the idea that appeared most reasonable was initially simulated on a computer and later implemented in a real vehicle. Following customer surveys. This can quickly diminish any interest in more cycling. The feedback from the auto manufacturers was extremely positive. which brought to the topic its experience with door. it gets the enthusiastic cyclist ready to go in only two minutes.

rear window that is opened separately as well as ability to open the tailgate when cargo is loaded. the obligatory extra lights and the bicycle racks. The survey asked owners of station wagons. on the other hand. this was used to repeatedly adjust the costs and integrate better solutions. 4. The basic version of the MPT is no more expensive than a standard tailgate and is designed in such a way that the extra parts and reinforcing elements needed can be included in the body-in-white phase with only minor added costs. easier opening and closing (e. Open the tailgate. for whom convenience plays a major role when a vehicle is purchased. pull out the bicycle rack. in addition to a theft-protection mechanism. The first outcome of the collaboration between ThyssenKrupp Steel and Webasto is the multi-purpose tailgate. load and secure the bicycles. With a single movement. compact-class vehicles and vans to vote on 20 different ideas for innovations regarding the topic ‘tailgate’. also available in an optional “keyless” version. fold down the license plate and lights. An extensive reservoir of knowhow ranging from material development. lightweight construction and metal forming and the comprehensive systems know-how of the roof and body specialists Webasto from Stockdorf near Munich complement each other perfectly. Webasto. Because the development team of Webasto and ThyssenKrupp Steel created a modular design. the tailgate is still closed tight. the MPT appears to be a completely normal tailgate. however. an integrated rack system for bicycles. the automakers can integrate a tailgate suitable for upgrade to the MPT into their normal production line without changes to the body-in-white and modify this tailgate according to customer preferences with little effort. no tools are needed. In addition to the evaluation of the technical contents. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . electric). an automatic opening mechanism for the tailgate. The rapid procedure for loading bicycles onto the rear rack is as follows I Fig. 2 I. 1 I: 1. which incorporates a very high degree of convenience and functionality. A second license plate is also integrated into the multipurpose tailgate. which can be combined in almost any way desired. Over the course of the project. and an integrated anti-trap function I Fig. includes a rear window that folds out separately. ThyssenKrupp Steel’s expertise in materials. ideally when approaching the vehicle. The diverse selection of attractive special accessories. The fact that all the parts of the bicycle rack are always present in the vehicle means that no more time-consuming searching will be needed. especially for bicycles. snowboards or a luggage box. 2.34 | Multi-purpose tailgate MPT – a flexible tailgate module with integrated rack system MPT as joint product The objective of the development process was to offer the automotive industry a product design with more convenience – for their own production processes as well as for their end users. a revolutionary rack system is revealed. The carrier bar disappears in the space between the outer shell and the adapted inner shell of the tailgate. This is evident from the results of a largescale survey of end customers which was carried out at the start of the development project. The following results were tied as the innovations most desired by customers: Integrated cargo rack. Little effort is required for loading. and there are no turbulent air currents in the vehicle interior. 3. When driving with a loaded rack. Loading with little effort At first glance. has all the fields of system integration covered optimally – including the development of high-performance drives and highly sensitive sensors for anti-trap function. 5. to which the carrier bar is attached with all accessories. The lower steel shell of the tailgate.g. ThyssenKrupp has not only decades of experience in the production of demanding stamped steel components optimized for weight and material usage but also considerable skills in the development and production of doors and closures. is folded outward through a second opening mechanism. Other uses of the MPT The new multi-purpose tailgate is more than just a new type of tailgate with an integrated bicycle rack. an accepted target price level for the individual variants was also determined in the framework of the customer survey. the design and programming of electronic controls for sophisticated movement sequence and the assembly of complete modules for the automakers. application technology and simultaneous engineering to virtual testing as well as rapid prototyping is available for the swift implementation of new designs. insert the support column. End customer as a driver of innovation Manufacturers who want to offer their customers the new functional extensions as special accessories will profit from a two-year head start in know-how and the certainty that there is a real demand for all these optimal features.

g. The engineers of Webasto and ThyssenKrupp Steel therefore opted for a highly pragmatic development strategy for the design of a new. They deliberately chose not to optimize the design of the selected production tailgate of a mass-produced model. e. Given this. they first reviewed the decisive standard load cases that are already satisfied by the production tailgate. the joint development team quickly demonstrated the viability in principle of the multi-purpose tailgate. they identified and analyzed the new load cases that result.Multi-purpose tailgate MPT – a flexible tailgate module with integrated rack system | 35 Open the tailgate Fold down the license plate and lights. To this end. appear reasonable ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . including a structural optimization of the tailgate. Instead. 1 | Loading sequence Pragmatic development through prototyping Having a great idea is one thing – realizing it is another. further steps. it became clear that the design of a modular tailgate must take into account a variety of parameters. on the basis of this tailgate. modular tailgate. and while retaining as many parts as possible. Finally. they used hand-made parts to create prototypes that now serve as demonstration models for interested automakers. Next. and that these parameters are different and could be diverse for each individual model of vehicle. pull out the bicycle rack Load and secure the bicycles Fig. in order to determine the necessary reinforcements. for a loaded tailgate on a rough road. During the development processes of the MPT.

with respect to trapping. as well as the need for more protection. it can halt in any (freely programmable) position. pioneering tailgate design from Webasto and ThyssenKrupp Steel. This becomes possible because of the outstanding material properties of steel. it was possible to integrate this unilateral direct drive supported by conventional gas springs into the MPT in the spoiler. acting together with the drive. This includes easier and more convenient opening and closing of the tailgate. For parts subject to extreme loads. which was developed in-house. The automakers profit directly from the synergies of two experienced partners. The new tailgate system represents a maximization of convenience with a simultaneous minimization of expense in transport in the passenger car segment. The objective of every development is a system that is both robust and highly sensitive. However. preferably “keyless” operation. ranging from a twoyear head start in know-how with an extensive package of patents to a considerable reduction in the complexity of their manufacturing. DP-K 45/78). seal and locking systems as well as anti-trap functions for roof and rear modules. the tailgate concept developed by Webasto and ThyssenKrupp Steel offers not only considerable potential for enhanced convenience and functional expansion but also completely new prospects for lightweight construction and for safety. the use of modern high-strength steels could make tailgates much lighter and also allow them to be integrated into the passive safety strategy of a vehicle. differential. The objective of this evaluation was to optimize the materials used in such a way as to meet all the requirements and achieve the maximum strength with the minimum weight. for example. weight with load etc. The multi-purpose tailgate is perfected by a variety of sensors and sophisticated electronics with specially developed software algorithms which. This drive allows automatic opening and closing of the tailgate.g. Summary Webasto and ThyssenKrupp Steel are offering automakers the multipurpose tailgate as a joint system supplier. Through the use of modern bake-hardening steels for the external shell area. An attractive offer with numerous advantages for automakers. which stipulates the concrete parameters for its target vehicle. As proven roof and body experts. which requires exceptionally powerful hydraulic drives needing substantial installation space and can therefore only be realized in close collaboration with the automakers. the material specialists of ThyssenKrupp Steel carried out a careful analysis of all the components using the expert system ‘WeKoKa’. Webasto takes care of the whole assembly and the system integration. electronic. enable the tailgate to move uniformly and harmoniously and to detect obstacles with great sensitivity for protection against trapping. In the future. Thanks to its compact design. In the framework of the development process. tail lights. Enhanced convenience as motivator The numerous functional extensions of the new multi-purpose tailgate correspond exactly to the preferences of the end customers. the ability to open the tailgate automatically in the loaded state. Lightweight construction with steel There are many good reasons to opt for the new. engineers also use ultra-highstrength steels – such as MHZ-W 380 +Z (hot-rolled microalloyed steel with cold performance) for a special reinforcement – and advanced high-strength steels (e. Webasto’s developers have considerable expertise in the system integration of drive. which offers unique value for cost when maximum strength is required. and it can recognize obstacles. 3 I. Engineers are currently still working intensely on the most challenging request of all the drivers surveyed. Only proven components are therefore used for the new modular tailgate from ThyssenKrupp Steel and Webasto. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . namely. such as a standard drive for heavy loads with a stalling torque of up to 150 Nm. such as the package. license plate. as in the case of heavily loaded parts. This makes it possible to keep the weight increase of the optional variants relative to the basic tailgate version extremely low. who want more convenience.36 | Multi-purpose tailgate MPT – a flexible tailgate module with integrated rack system only in the context of an actual implementation – as a joint project of the developers with the automaker. ThyssenKrupp supplies the steel materials and manufactures all the stamped parts and welded assemblies of the new modular tailgate. for instance. it was possible to considerably reduce the sheet thickness and thus the weight. This is possible because these steels have the pronounced characteristic of being highly formable in the initial state while exhibiting a high buckling stiffness following the paint baking I Fig. One aspect that deserves special mention is the fact that the developers of the MPT have succeeded in considerably reducing the weight of the first design very quickly using well-established material substitution processes.

3 | Materials’ placement ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .Multi-purpose tailgate MPT – a flexible tailgate module with integrated rack system | 37 Anti-trap function Fig. 2 | Optional modules expand the number of combinations possible Deep-drawing steels Conventional high-strength steels Advanced high-strength steels Fig.

38 | | Thermally sublimated PLADUR® M (Metal Look) in an aesthetic application as decorative cladding for a column at the ‘Lilien-Carré’ shopping mall in Wiesbaden ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .

its good technological characteristics and its attractive price. In addition. but also met the customers’ processing requirements in areas such as rollforming. Industry Division. Color Profit Center | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. which include deep drawing. product quality. the development of this high-end product quickly focused on environmental protection. rollforming and bending. That’s why innovative customers from an extremely wide variety of sectors such as manufacturers of home appliances. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . During the initial brain-storming phase. The brand name of these products. The challenge was to create a brushed metal look that not only fulfilled aesthetic needs. Thanks to its elegant and appealing appearance. Because of the synergy effects that resulted from is used for both painted and laminate-coated products as well as for combinations of paint and laminate. aesthetics and. AXEL POHL Head of Sales-Market and Innovation Team. Industry Division.| 39 PLADUR® M (Metal Look) – an elegant product made of coil-coated steel BEATE FUGMANN Market and Innovation Team. In addition to color. cost efficiency. the substrate used for PLADUR® is either a hot-dip galvanized or hot-dip coated flat product (such as GALFAN® or ZMg EcoProtect) that meets the needs of the customers’ wide range of processes. which are offered in many varieties. WIRT. the focus of development is now increasingly on aesthetics. shine. Most commonly. The PLADUR® brand-name product The Color Profit Center is ThyssenKrupp Steel’s competence center for organic coil-coated products. since paints cannot achieve a convincing metal look and a possible printed brushed look would not meet either internal or market requirements. Kreuztal DIPL. automobiles. This designation nology-focused customers can also be met with regard to a metal look. is PLADUR®. PLADUR® M Consumer demand for metal and metal-looking products has recently increased. and resistance to wear and weathering. the product should be unique to make it appealing to highly innovative customers and applications. To ensure that the desires of these tech- the combination of the plastic partner’s many years of experience in metallization and the Color Profit Center’s extensive process and development expertise. including easy-to-clean and anti-graffiti surfaces. the Color Profit Center’s Market and Innovation Team therefore decided to cooperate with a partner from the plastics industry in its search for alternatives. At an early stage of the evaluation and selection process. topography. the developers quickly realized that conventional painted or paint-and-laminate-coated products would not do. The aim was not to give PLADUR® M (Metal Look) the functionality of a “pure metal” but only to create a product that would be similar to metal in some ways such as its appearance. of course. Color Profit Center | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. the Color Profit Center began at an early stage to consider what concepts for coating materials could be used to mass produce such goods on a coil coating line. PLADUR® M has been successful with customers from an extremely wide range of sectors and has established itself alongside prepainted products for use in many different applications. the Color Profit Center has been supplying its customers with metallic look products in various colors and with a wide range of different properties.-ING. garage doors and the construction industry have been using finish-painted semi-finished goods from ThyssenKrupp Steel for many years. PLADUR® therefore provides customers with a functional and decorative semi-finished product that is used as a finish-coated material in many areas of application. The team then developed a suitable response in the form of PLADUR® M. Kreuztal The Market and Innovation Team at ThyssenKrupp Steel’s Color Profit Center correctly identified customers’ wishes for organic coil-coated products with a metal look at an early stage. For many years now.

as can fingerprint residues. such as aluminum. it offers excellent “easy to clean” properties. environmental.g. which is not only available in a variety of shine levels. An example of this is provided by the ‘Lilien-Carré’ shopping mall in Wiesbaden. where the inherent functionality considerations of pure metal are secondary and the focus is on the material’s appearance. which are supplied to this sector. 2 I. 1 I. where a lily motif was applied by thermal sublimation to PLADUR® M bright Steel Finish WR. for example. As a result. The PLADUR® M (Metal Look) product line is used in areas such as building interiors. When the project was launched. Besides different metal-look variants. In addition.40 | PLADUR® M (Metal Look) – an elegant product made of coil-coated steel Fig. 4 I. good processability and excellent cleaning properties. with the Restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment. Although the original product already offered customers and endusers considerable added value. 1 | Taber Abraser test of PLADUR® M (Metal Look) (left). bending. This product innovation’s outstanding properties were already demonstrated in the first version of this product. there are almost no limits to what designers and product managers can do to create a characteristic. for the side walls of freestanding stoves. even in comparison with other PLADUR® products I Fig.g. which changes as well the optical appearance of pure metal surfaces I Fig. which is currently used e. with a wide variety of different variants. 3 I. such as PLADUR® Silver Metallic and PLADUR® White Structure. such as the freedom to create individualized designs. red wine. the innovative product fulfills explicit customer wishes with regard to wear-resistance and cleanability. The product looks as elegant as pure brushed metal. improved and expanded into a separate product line. from refrigerator and freezer doors I Fig. PLADUR® M (Metal Look) provides diverse benefits for processors and end-users at an appropriate price. or RoHS) have strengthened us in our view that developments using decorative films contaminated with PVC and halogens is neither environmentally sustainable nor does it lead to the desired goal. PLADUR® White Structure (center). by mustard. the abrasion-resistant surface meets the demanding requirements of the home appliance industry. In a very short period of time. which was used as wall and ceiling panels an adhesive and metallized PET (polyethylene terephthalate) laminate. strated by the fact that it can be processed with all of the usual methods. there is also the product known as PLADUR® M WR (Wear Resistant). copper and stainless steel I Fig. including deep drawing. and PLADUR® Silver Metallic (right) The home appliance industry’s demand for chromate-free products (in line. rollforming and stamping. For example. And because the surface is deliberately hydrophobic. has shown that the surface of PLADUR® M even holds up to the extreme grinding stresses of a Taber Abraser test. oil. the Market and Innovation Team therefore decided to take a completely new approach. In addition to economic. The outstanding flexibility of PLADUR® M (Metal Look) is demon- alongside other printed materials such as stainless steel and glass I see title picture of the report I. but also in translucent colors I Fig. qualitative and aesthetic aspects. The range of design possibilities is rounded off by the products’ suitability for thermal sublimation printing. even though it is a classic coil-coating product which can be flexibly formed and is easy to process. high-quality semi-finished products. Emotive colors with a metal look enable customers to better identify themselves with the end product and allows them to differentiate themselves from their competitors. titanium. PLADUR® M has been continuously ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . Soiling caused e. 5 I to wall panels. A comparison between PLADUR® M (Metal Look) and other high-quality PLADUR® products. Conclusion It has become apparent that customer and market requirements were correctly interpreted during the development of PLADUR® M (Metal Look). PLADUR® M brightSteel Finish. easily recognizable look with these appealing. in which it developed an innovative coil-coating product using a hot-dip coated steel sheet (GALFAN®). this allowed the team to develop a product that is already being mass produced for a wide variety of different uses. and shoe polish can easily be removed from the surface.

2 | Hydrophobic surface tension on a standard PLADUR® product (left) and a PLADUR® M product (right) Fig. 4 | Emotional and trendy colors available with PLADUR® M (Metal Look) Fig.PLADUR® M (Metal Look) – an elegant product made of coil-coated steel | 41 Fig. 5 | Exterior skin of a refrigerator ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . 3 | Various Metal Look variants Fig.

42 | | Typical application of NIROSTA® 4640 ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .

Features of the new material NIROSTA® 4640 The high alloying costs of the widely used nickel-bearing austenitic stainless steel NIROSTA® 4301 have created growing demand for economical alternative materials. The equally important requirement for corrosion resistance comparable to that of NIROSTA® 4301 means that the new alloy composition must have a minimum chromium content of ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . As a result.-ING. Krefeld DIPL. dishwashers. GABRIELE BRÜCKNER Head of Materials Technology | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH. e. ThyssenKrupp Nirosta has developed the new steel grade NIROSTA® 4640.g.-ING. Alloy design The material NIROSTA® 4301 had established itself over decades as the optimum in terms of price and processing and corrosion properties. The manufacture of low-nickel materials with marketable properties is thus a focus of innovation at ThyssenKrupp Nirosta. The explosion in the nickel price led to an enormous rise in the price of this stainless steel in 2007. Every alteration to the material’s analytical composition led to either an increase in the material price or to a completely different set of material properties I Fig. which demonstrates the same good properties as the widely used material NIROSTA® 4301.-ING.g. The stainless steel NIROSTA® 4640 was developed for those customers who did not wish to make any compromises with respect to material quality.-ING. Krefeld Austenitic chromium-nickel steels find a wide range of applications thanks to their universal properties. for sink manufacture.| 43 NIROSTA® 4640 as a low-cost alternative to NIROSTA® 4301 offering equivalent properties DIPL. The alloy concept utilizes a new combination of the elements copper. Düsseldorf DIPL. ALFRED WELTER Technical Customer Consulting | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH. 1 I. e. ARAZ ARDEHALI BARANI Materials Engineer | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH. This material is cheaper than NIROSTA® 4301. and for sinks and similar products. aesthetics. Krefeld DIPL. the materials developers were faced with the difficult task of finding an alternative for NIROSTA® 4301. weldability. formability. The requirements of a new stainless steel soon became clear. Düsseldorf DR.-ING. it was necessary to achieve the same good processing characteristics as NIROSTA® 4301. various concepts for alloy composition and manufacture were developed. MANFRED BUCKEL Head of Technical Customer Consulting | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH. nitrogen and manganese to lower the nickel content. In response to the development of prices of alloy components. At the same time. yet exhibits the same properties with respect to: corrosion resistance. GERT WEIß Head of Product Service | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH. To this end. NIROSTA® 4640 is especially suitable for the area of white goods. The nickel content had to be reduced due to the high price of nickel on the world market. in order to meet the highest demands in terms of formability.

9% to 6. 2 I.8 18 6. 5 I. Other corrosion tests such as salt spray and cyclic climate tests confirm the equivalence of the materials with respect to corrosion resistance. The cost saving is achieved by reducing the nickel content from 8 . 4 I. its formability could never reach that of an austenitic material I Fig. Thanks to the equivalence of the two materials.450 mVH for the NIROSTA® 4640 in potentiostatic tests in 0. The formability of NIROSTA® 4640 is practically identical to that of NIROSTA® 4301 I Fig.4 8-9 Ni Fig. which customers have long treasured.5% NaCl solution at 50 °C and so achieve the same resistance as NIROSTA® 4301 I Fig. thus ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . 3 | Chemical compositions 18%. Market potential The new NIROSTA® 4640 provides customers with the same good fulfilling all aesthetic requirements for surfaces. NIROSTA® 4640 is extremely suitable for grinding and brushing and is also suitable for polishing. 2 | Corrosion resistance and formability of different stainless steels groups NIROSTA® 4301 > > 4301 8 poor properties Duplex special properties 4520 4016 Ferrite poor formability 0 0 18 26 low low Formability high NIROSTA® 4640 Material Mn Mn Cr Ni N Cu 18 Cr Cu N Mn 18 Cr Cu N NIROSTA® 4640 1. 1 | Phase diagram of Cr-Ni steels Fig.5%. however. The high chromium content of NIROSTA® 4640 guarantees equally good corrosion resistance to that of NIROSTA® 4301.5 Ni 1. 3 I. The new properties as they are accustomed to with NIROSTA® 4301. A nickel-free ferritic stainless steel with a chromium content of at least 18% would fulfill the corrosion resistance requirements.44 | NIROSTA® 4640 as a low-cost alternative to NIROSTA® 4301 offering equivalent properties 28 Limit of properties high Nickel content [%] = price Cr/Ni austenite Austenite allround properties Corrosion resistance Ferrite 4509 4310 4301 4640 Chromium content [%] = corrosion resistance Fig.5 0. Like all austenitic stainless steels. NIROSTA® 4640 is readily weldable using all of the known welding processes.09 1.8 NIROSTA® 4301 6.3 18 8-9 0. The corrosion tests for chloride-induced pitting corrosion result in a critical potential at 400 . The solution lies in a significant lowering of the nickel content relative to that of NIROSTA® 4301 and the use of the appropriate combination of the elements copper. nitrogen and manganese to produce a new alloy while maintaining the tried and tested properties I Fig. customers can retain their optimized processes while simultaneously benefiting from the lower material costs when switching to the new material. due to fundamental metallurgical principles.05 0.

6 I.200 1. at constant potential with 50 mV steps) Fig. sinks and similar products and also for all applications for which NIROSTA® 4301 is currently used.40 NIROSTA® 4301 NIROSTA® 4640 Fig. Potential applications for NIROSTA® 4640 are primarily in the area of white goods.30 0. The new material is particularly suitable for the areas of white goods. 5 | Formability material exactly matches customer requirements and is exclusively available from ThyssenKrupp Nirosta.5% NaCl at 50 °C. Application trials with sector leaders have already been successfully carried out. The long-term tests of corrosion resistance in household appliances were also concluded with good results. nitrogen and manganese have made it possible to lower the nickel content. 4 | Corrosion resistance in chloride environment (Experiments in 0. The new alloy also achieves the same good properties with respect to corrosion resistance and formability as NIROSTA® 4301. kitchen equipment and commercial kitchen outfitting I see title picture of the report and Fig. 6 | Typical products on the basis of the new material NIROSTA® 4640 ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .3 x % Mo [%] 1.10 Degree of deformation ϕ 0. The application tests carried out with sector leaders in the dishwasher and sink manufacturing industry were successful. In the area of sink manufacturing.100 Flow stress k f [MPa] 600 20 15 400 10 200 5 0 NIROSTA® 4401 NIROSTA® 4301 NIROSTA® 4640 NIROSTA® 4509 NIROSTA® 4016 0 1.20 0. sinks.000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 0 0. it was possible to produce difficult geometries without problems using NIROSTA® 4310. Fig.NIROSTA® 4640 as a low-cost alternative to NIROSTA® 4301 offering equivalent properties | 45 Scattering range 800 Critical pitting corrosion potential [mVH] 25 Pitting resistance equivalent PRE = % Cr + 3. Summary The newly developed NIROSTA® 4640 is an austenitic chromiumnickel steel in which a new combination of the elements copper. NIROSTA® 4640 is about to be launched on the market.

46 | | Body of the Volvo S40 before (above) and after (below) a side-impact crash ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .

are not necessary for the entire component. The component itself requires the material used to have excellent formability without being too soft. In order to utilize the advantages of the work-hardened stainless steels and simultaneously keep component costs as low as possible. The optimal combination of these products opens up new possibilities for optimizing properties and costs. Duisburg Mixed construction using galvanized flat-rolled carbon steels and hardened. stainless austenitic steel and carbon steel yields weight savings without disadvantages in terms of properties.-ING. This makes it possible to reduce wall thicknesses. austenitic stainless steels is particularly difficult due to the differing physical properties.| 47 Mixed construction using work-hardened NIROSTA® steel and flat-rolled carbon steel with tailored blanks and tailored strips DIPL. If this requirement is not met. The crash box is located in the vehicle behind the bumper and protects the vehicle structure from deformation in the event of an impact at comparatively low speed. These increased strengths are. Embrittlement in the weld seam can lead to failure during subsequent forming. These special characteristics. however. There are many areas that require these properties. low-alloyed steels. austenitic stainless steels is particularly difficult due to the differing physical properties and levels of strength. as this leads to optimal energy absorption capability. This can be accomplished by means of the tailored blank processes. STEFAN SCHUBERTH Head of Applications Technology | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH. Krefeld WERNER STAUDINGER Engineering | ThyssenKrupp Tailored Blanks GmbH. flat-rolled carbon steels and hardened. however. one solution is a combination of these steels with lower-cost. they are only required for a locally limited part. however. Stainless austenitic steels offer great potential for lightweight construction because they can be work-hardened to strengths of more than 1. Welding galvanized. Possible applications include crash-relevant components in vehicle manufacture. in which laser welded blanks or coils in different combinations of materials and thicknesses are joined to form a pre-product ready for further processing by the customer.400 MPa by rolling and still retain useable residual ductility. The combination of work-hardened. Mixed construction using laser-welded tailored blanks or tailored strips presents new possibilities for this. Exact process control of the laser welding in the manufacture of the tailored blanks has now made it possible to produce blanks with ductile seams and large changes in thickness that measure up to the demands of the subsequent forming process. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . the adjacent vehicle structure could be damaged in the event of a crash I Fig. usually only required locally. Tailored process ThyssenKrupp Steel and ThyssenKrupp Nirosta manufacture a large number of high-grade steel products for demanding applications in automobile manufacture. 1 I. Embrittlement in the weld seam caused by grain size enlargement in the heat-affected zone after the welding process can lead to failure in subsequent forming. The state of the art The demands placed on the material for safety-relevant components such as the crash box call for the highest possible strength in connection with a significant residual elongation.

Laser welding without additives and with minimal heat input results in a narrow weld seam with less weakening and no embrittlement.6 mm. A multisensor concept continuously monitors the processes and so guarantees the quality. focus diameter. welding speed. The formats to be welded were aligned edge-to-edge in the welding line and welded with high preci- sion on a continuous welding system developed for ThyssenKrupp Tailored Blanks I Fig. Fig. intensity distribution. and gas flow control are decisive for achieving optimal weld seams. Laser performance. 1 | Stainless steel crash box of the Porsche Carrera GT Fig. 2 I. positioning of the sheet edges. The diameter of the laser beam at the focus is just 0. 2 | Continuous welding system at ThyssenKrupp Tailored Blanks in Hüttenheim ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .48 | Mixed construction using work-hardened NIROSTA® steel and flat-rolled carbon steel with tailored blanks and tailored strips Manufacturing process for tailored blanks Exact process control during laser welding in the manufacture of tailored blanks has now made it possible to produce blanks with ductile seams and large changes in thickness that stand up to the demands of subsequent forming. cut edge quality.

This process took account of all the manufacturing-relevant expenses and material. Nonetheless. The seam does not fail abruptly with a brittle fracture when subject to excessive stress. crash box). a value of €4. The cost/weight ratio is of the same order of magnitude as the hot-stamped components commonly used today. ThyssenKrupp has realized cross-segment materials expertise combined with made-to-measure joining processes in a single component to the benefit of the customer. Fig. According to conservative estimates. the component can be processed on a transfer press as usual.g. A B-pillar manufactured in this way is recognizable similar to the shown vehicle body in the I title picture of the report I before and after a crash test. which is currently being implemented. however at a reduced weight. capital. without disadvantages in terms of properties. 3 I shows a B-pillar after forming. The component was made from a tailored blank of NIROSTA® in combination with a carbon steel.4376). The fact that the total manufacturing costs increase due to the use of mixed construction and the tailored blanks. A further cost advantage arises from the use of the tailored strips process. its targeted use in areas particularly subject to stress permits a substantial lightweighting effect. stainless austenitic steel and carbon steel produces weight savings thanks to thickness reductions. The colored marking shows this is an approved part that is free of cracks and dimensionally correct. The material has applications in e. The cost savings on the component has been realized by using NIROSTA® 4318. and so contributes to absorbing the energy of impact. such as NIROSTA® H400 (1. This test demonstrated that the component’s behavior is equivalent to that of the production component manufactured from DP600.50–5. The low cost per kilogram saved should be viewed extremely positively. Conclusion and outlook Mixed construction using work-hardened NIROSTA® and carbon steels with weld seams suitable for further processing and load bearing was not previously available.000 MPa) was used for the upper part of the B-pillar (right of photograph). After laser welding.Mixed construction using work-hardened NIROSTA® steel and flat-rolled carbon steel with tailored blanks and tailored strips | 49 Application The combination of work-hardened. The cost of a component manufactured in mixed construction using tailored blanks was calculated with the help of a cost model developed in cooperation with MIT in Boston. The component can be manufactured as previously from coil on continuous press lines with comparable cycle times. The hardened stainless steel NIROSTA® 4318 C1000 (hardened to a yield strength > 1. crash-relevant components in vehicle manufacture (B-pillar. Forming can be specifically improved at critical points by varying the material thicknesses and the use of different materials. but in a ductile way. Example B-pillar I Fig. The special properties of the two different materials can now be utilized by the customer in a single component in the usual production process steps. The lower part of the B-pillar is made of a higher-strength dual-phase steel (DP 600) (left of photograph). The great potential of hardened stainless steels for lightweight construction was previously unavailable for use because of the weakening and partial embrittlement in the weld seam. 3 | B-pillar made from a tailored blank of stainless steel NIROSTA® 4318 C1000 and high-grade steel DP600 after forming ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . however. The innovation was tested in close collaboration with major European steel and automobile companies as part of the ‘Next Generation Vehicle’ project. can be seen as a disadvantage. The additional costs determined and calculated for the stainless steel solution using tailored blanks are approximately half of this. is the fact that the crash properties of the volume-produced component are maintained at a lower total weight. counterbalancing this. The process thus offers substantial savings potential thanks to the combination of stainless steels with carbon steels. with the additional advantage of residual formability in the event of a crash. variable and fixed costs etc. of the various concepts. Additional possibilities for cost savings result from use of materials with reduced nickel content. The low additional costs per kilogram saved are promising.50 per kilogram saved could be implemented immediately for sports cars. The amount of stainless steel by weight in the complete B-pillar is relatively low at around 14%.

ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .50 | | Wind turbines are one area of application for high-temperature superconductors.

this is required in order to avoid fractures during the hot forming. On the one hand. Starting from the results of a research project.-ING. on the other. Altena DR. The deoxidation of the melt presented a particular challenge. RER. NAT. Altena High-temperature superconductivity is on the threshold of market launch. the usual deoxidation elements have negative effects on the nanoscale texture and surface roughness needed for the substrate strip. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . BODO GEHRMANN Project Manager Super Alloys and Physical Materials | ThyssenKrupp VDM GmbH.| 51 Nickel W14 substrates for hightemperature superconductors DR. ANGELIKA KOLB-TELIEPS Head of Knowledge and Innovation Management | ThyssenKrupp VDM GmbH. ThyssenKrupp VDM has successfully developed an industrial-scale production process for nickel W14. which is used as substrate strip in superconductors destined for applications such as generators for wind turbines.

In addition to its conductivity. Dresden. both in the grain and across the grain boundaries. This texture will be discussed below. The entire composite is less than 0.5-t ingots. The stacking defect density must exceed a threshold value which enables a desired texture to be set. Requirements of the nickel W14 substrate HTS conductors are currently used in liquid nitrogen in most applications. the ingots were rolled out into slabs which in turn were then rolled out to approximately 5 mm thick and 630 mm wide strips. The sharp cubic texture required after the final annealing I Fig. which make possible systems with capacities of 10 to 12 MW and should simultaneously reduce costs I Fig. should be less than 20 nm. as measured using a scanning force microscope. The texture can be optimized by subsequent annealing if necessary. 1 I. Once Gleeble tests had been carried out to determine the hot rolling conditions. The metallurgical purity satisfied the requirements. such a strip must also offer mechanical stability and a long life expectancy. This condition can be met at tungsten contents of less than 20 wt-%. Know-how in the field of soft-magnetic ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . Industrial manufacture In order to meet the high purity requirements. Temperature and holding time were optimized in a series of experiments so that an even structure with grain sizes of less than 20 µm could be set. previously known as Trithor. of which more than 22 MW was in Germany. An expansion to 160 MW is forecast for 2010. These were tested in a dedicated series of laboratory melts and then transferred to the industrial-scale conditions. deoxidation elements such as magnesium and silicon had to be added in order to guarantee an acceptable yield and a reliable process. The chemical composition of nickel W14 was optimized on a laboratory scale. This report describes the development of the industrial-scale production of substrate foils by ThyssenKrupp VDM. The top layer is the actual superconductor. the substrate must be non-magnetic at these temperatures. the strip must also guarantee both the mechanical stability and sufficient flexibility of the HTS conductor during manufacture and in operation. YBa2Cu3OX (YBCO) and the bottom one is the substrate strip of Ni-W. The technological leap to the directly driven HTS generator is made possible by the use of a multilayer conductor I Fig. Conventional technologies reach their limits at unit capacities above 5 MW. After pickling. The strip is continuously coated with the buffer out of a liquid phase after an annealing step which defines the cubic texture. This requirement is better fulfilled at higher tungsten contents and competes with the unwanted magnetization. nickel W14 was melted in the vacuum furnace I Fig. an 8-MW HTS system is expected to cost just €3 million. followed by 18 MW in the USA. in Rheinbach and the Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW). The roughness. The best results here were obtained using strip with an extremely smooth surface. The Ni-W foil has a thickness of between 50 and 100 µm. grinding and rolling to approximately 3 mm. These objectives are best achieved by using a three layer structure. The fundamentals were worked out in the LOLY (Long Length YBCO Conductor) projects I and II in collaboration with the partners Zenergy Power. On the other hand.5 mm thick and 10 to 100 mm wide. Impurities must be kept to the minimum possible as they affect the texture development and the surface properties. In contrast to the approximately €4 million cost of a conventional 6-MW facility. The inspection is carried out by means of EBSD (Electron Back Scatter Diffraction) measurements. the strip was pre-annealed. 4 I and cast into four 4.52 | Nickel W14 substrates for high-temperature superconductors High-temperature superconductors in wind turbines The worldwide total installed wind energy capacity in 2007 amounted to 94 MW. 2 I. Between them is a buffer which acts as a diffusion barrier and affects the texture of the YBCO layer. This is due to damage to the transmission as a result of material fatigue and the fact that the higher weight of such units – which can exceed 400 t – means that they can no longer be economically mounted offshore. A relatively low upper limit was specified for these elements in consideration of the cubic texture. In order to avoid AC losses. although they are also sometimes used at lower temperatures. The most interesting alternatives are offered by HTS (high-temperature superconductor) systems. with many of these wind turbines being planned as offshore installations (source: EWEA European Wind Energy Association). 3 I is set during the cold working by means of a specific degree of reduction tailored to the composition and by the use of suitable annealing temperatures and holding times. Unlike the samples previously melted at the IFW Dresden.

1 | High-temperature superconductor in the generator of a wind turbine EBSD measurement Schematic of an ideal cubic structure Strip plane YBCO superconductor layer Buffer layer LZO + CeO Illustration of an ideal cubic distribution (ideal situation blue. 2 | HTS conductor consisting of nickel W14 substrate. flow direction Metal substrate nickel W14 Fig.Nickel W14 substrates for high-temperature superconductors | 53 Fig. with angular displacement represented in green and/or as dark lines) Rolling direction. 3 | Cubic texture ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . buffer and YBCO superconductor Fig.

5 | Roll stand with 20 rolls in Werdohl ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .54 | Fig. 4 | VIM (Vacuum Induction Melting) furnace at ThyssenKrupp VDM in Unna Fig.

A series of tests for setting the parameters and for the surface treatment was carried out on the cold rolled foil during the recrystallization annealing at between 800 °C and 1. y z x x: 10.0 µm y: 10. A reproducible melting standard and production method were developed. the development partner and customer Zenergy Power also carried out studies of the surface using an AFM (Atomic Force Microscope).5 µm z: 7. It is also planned to include rolls made of different materials in the tests.00 nm y z x x: 2. 0. current limiters and cables.00 nm 7. In addition to texture measurements.Nickel W14 substrates for high-temperature superconductors | 55 nickel-iron materials that had been built up by ThyssenKrupp VDM provided a useful foundation for this. In addition. 6 I. which determines the physical properties.71 nm The joint development with the customer Zenergy Power has opened the door for ThyssenKrupp VDM to participate in the forecast growth in the wind energy market. Outlook The experience gained in the laboratory was successfully transferred to industrial-scale practice.7 nm Fig.4 nm 0. the decisive issue is the texture.0 µm z: 19. An example is shown in I Fig. The results of the first experiments were extremely promising.44 nm 19. and work is now being carried out on fine tuning the degree of rolling with matched parameters for the recrystallization annealing in order to further reduce the number of twins.5 µm y: 2. industrial heaters. Here too. The development partner Zenergy Power was provided with samples of both cold-rolled and annealed foils in order to be able to carry out their own experiments in the production of the end product – a high-temperature superconductor. A patent has been applied for. The strip was subsequently rolled to a final thickness with a surface roughness of less than 30 nm on a roll stand mill with 20 polished rolls I Fig. 6 | AFM photo of electropolished nickel W14 (Source: FH Bonn-Rhein-Sieg) ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . the HTS conductors can also be used in other applications such as generators for hydroelectric power. 5 I and cut to the desired widths of between 10 and 100 mm.150 °C.

56 | | Heating element wire for appliances ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .

but also by the content of other elements. Altena DIPL. I Fig. Heating element wires have to meet tough requirements in such applications. By increasing the chromium content and precisely matching the various elements to one another. the heating element wire has to meet tough requirements. Werdohl For the open heating elements of appliances such as clothes driers and in-room heaters. This means the wires have to keep their shape as good as possible. the developers were able to create an alloy containing just 37. During operation at high temperatures.-ING. American manufacturers in particular like to employ heating element wires made of the alloy Cronifer II. A new oxide film has to form at the areas where it has flaked off. Cronifer III.5 37. RER. carbon. As a result of its high nickel content (approx. the developers have created an alloy that contains just 37. the material known as Cronifer II that was previously used is expensive and therefore no longer competitive for this application.4 2.| 57 Alloy for heating elements with reduced nickel content DR. A protective oxide film forms on the surface of the wire when the heating elements are in operation. nitrogen. contains only 30% nickel.6 Fe 12 47 38 Metal costs [%] erally have longer life times as well. However. the wire coil may not sag or burn through at high temperatures. thus protecting the wire from any further strong oxidation.5% nickel while still meeting the previously mentioned requirements. silicon. 60%). Heating element alloys containing a higher percentage of nickel gen- Development of the alloy The developers were faced with the task of creating a heating element material with: metal costs of about two-thirds those of the comparable alloy Cronifer II. 1 I shows the composition Material Composition [mass-%] Cr Ni 60 30. However. higher nickel prices are directly affecting the material’s overall costs. When used in such heating elements. The alloy used to date (Cronifer II) Cronifer II 16 20 21 100 57 70 contains approximately 60% nickel. Heating elements in the appliance industry The US appliance industry uses open heating elements for devices such as clothes driers and in-room heaters. Fig. the wire coils may not sag so far down that they could touch the unit’s housing and produce a short circuit. This oxide film has to adhere well and must not flake off when the wire is heated or cooled. For example.5 Si 1. at least twice of the life time of Cronifer III and the heating coils having about the same shape stability of those made of Cronifer II. it could not be used since its life time is too short and its shape stability is inadequate. This sagging becomes more and more pronounced the less nickel the heating element alloy contains. life time and shape stability are not only influenced by the alloy’s nickel content. making it no longer competitive. Open heating elements consist of freely suspended wire coils that are supported at only a few points. such as chromium. cerium. By increasing the chromium content and precisely matching the various elements to one another. Because the standard alloy. lanthanum and zirconium. NAT. HEIKE HATTENDORF Project Manager Research & Development | ThyssenKrupp VDM GmbH. 1 | Typical chemical composition of the heating element alloy and metal costs Cronifer III Cronifer 40B ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . which can quickly cause severe damage to the heating element by making it burn through and shorten the device’s life time. JÜRGEN WEBELSIEP Manager Quality Assurance Wire Division | ThyssenKrupp VDM GmbH.5% nickel while still meeting the demanding technical requirements.1 1.

000 °C. This is an accelerated life time test. Every 30 seconds.150 °C I Fig. 2 I. However. After four hours of Fig. 4 | Setup for measuring the sagging of the heating coils to test shape stability ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . I Fig. The coils are then inserted into brackets I Fig. as a function of nickel content. Cronifer 40B.58 | Alloy for heating elements with reduced nickel content of the Cronifer II alloy used to date. When postulating nickel costs of €20/kg. To do so. The shape stability of the heating coils is determined by measuring the extent to which they sag. 3 | Relative life time of various heating element alloys as a function of nickel content 140 120 Relative life time [%] 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 30 40 50 Cronifer III Standard alloys 60 70 80 New alloy Cronifer 40B Cronifer II Nickel content [%] Fig. The wire is heated electrically. The life time is 80% that of Cronifer II and more than three times that of Cronifer III. the metal costs of Cronifer 40B are about 30% lower than those of Cronifer II. as it is conducted on a thin wire at increased temperatures in order to achieve a result in less time. 3 I shows the relative life time of various heating element alloys. Cronifer 40B has a life time that is significantly above that of the standard alloys. the current is interrupted for another 30 seconds. after which they are electrically heated to a starting temperature of 1. 4 I. which contains only 30% nickel. as well as that of the standard Cronifer III alloy.40 mm thick round wire at a temperature of 1. The temperature is measured with a non-contact pyrometer. The life time is tested using 0. 2 | Life time test on wire specimens Fig.29 mm thick is wound into heating coils with an inside diameter of 14 mm. and of the new alloy. As is clearly apparent. compared to a reference specimen of Cronifer II. life time rises with increasing nickel content. wire 1. with the current being interrupted for 15 seconds every two minutes.

I Fig.5 mm. The aim here is to achieve a specific electric resistance that is as much above 1 Ωmm²/m as possible while at the same time ensuring as little dependence on temperature as possible. after which a patent was filed for the material.5% Ni 0.0 2. Fig. making it possible to achieve a nickel content of 37.0 9.12 1. The producers will have to adapt the design of the heating elements to the slightly different electrical properties of the new materials and have their customers test them.11 1.5%. By increasing the percentage of chromium and silicon. making the alloy suited for use in open heating elements in clothes driers and in-room heaters in the USA. The development of Cronifer 40B in the laboratory was completed in 2006.0 1.000 °C on wires with a diameter of 1.0 7. because grain size also influences shape stability of the heating coil.0 6. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .0 8.21 Resistance ratio Cronifer II Cronifer III Grain size 22 µm for all samples Repeated tests. 6 I shows the electrical properties of the new Cronifer 40B alloy in comparison to the material used previously. The heating element manufacturers have been supplied with samples of wire made of Cronifer 40B.29 mm. the amount to which the coils have sagged in the middle is measured.Alloy for heating elements with reduced nickel content | 59 Cronifer 40B 37. Real-life values at 1. The material’s life time and shape stability properties are comparable to those of Cronifer II. The material has since then been melted on a large scale.000 °C)/ρ(20 °C) 1. Summary The material developers at ThyssenKrupp VDM have managed to create a significantly less expensive material with a nickel content of only 37.5%. An alloy with 40% nickel content that was melted according to the same principle as the Cronifer II specimen showed a more pronounced sag of approximately 7 mm. different batches Cronifer 40B * ASTM B344 Fig.0 5.0 3. While Cronifer II sagged by about 5. I Fig.26 1. Another aspect that has to be taken into account when developing a new heating element alloy are the alloy’s electrical properties.0 4. 5 I shows the measurement results of coils made of Cronifer II and Cronifer 40B. 5 | Shape stability (“sagging”) of heating element wires with respect to nickel content. The measurement results shown in I Figs 3 and 5 I were made using specimens from large-scale batches. As a result. Cronifer 40B sagged by only 4 mm. This result was reproduced multiple times and has already been confirmed by an American customer. The results demonstrate the success of the alloying measures.000 °C deviate by +10% to +25% from those at room temperature. Lowering the nickel content reduces the specific electric resistance at room temperature and increases the electric resistance’s dependence on temperature. the developers were partially able to offset the deterioration of the electric properties. Measured at a starting temperature of 1.0 Sagging [mm] after 4 h (TStart = 1. All specimens had the same grain size of 22 µm.000 °C) 40% Ni Cronifer II 60% Ni Material resistance ρ* [Ωmm2/m] 1.06 Specific electric ρ(1.04 1. there is now a competitive material available again for this application. 6 | Electrical properties of the heating element alloys operation.

60 | | Polysius cement grinding plant ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .

quiet running and reliability. several factors have been responsible for the limited use of POLYCOM® for milling raw materials. To date. Competition in the field of vertical mills is characterized by cost reductions on the one hand and the development of larger machines on the other. and also requires much less power for the auxiliary machinery thanks to its use of mechanical rather than pneumatic material transport within the vertical mill. the high-pressure grinding roll has now established itself in a greatly expanded range of applications in the field of grinding and crushing raw materials. The main such factors were the low drying capacity of the existing air separators. the structural design of these separators. With the successful commissioning of two grinding plants with POLYCOM® and SEPOL® HR. POLYCOM® high-pressure grinding roll Grinding and crushing of raw materials before sintering in a rotary kiln accounts for about 25% of the entire electrical energy consumption in cement production.-ING. FRANZ-JOSEF ZURHOVE Specialist Department Research & Development. for example. Previous use of the high-pressure grinding roll for this process was limited to niche applications featuring. The successfully concluded development and commissioning of an air separator which has been specially designed for the requirements of the POLYCOM® high-pressure grinding roll has enabled the POLYCOM® to break out of its niche. The POLYCOM® highpressure grinding roll I Fig. Previously limited to special applications. By contrast there have hardly been any improvements in energy efficiency. low levels of moisture and abrasion and lower throughput rates. Neubeckum The POLYCOM® high-pressure grinding roll and the newly developed SEPOL® HR separator have established new benchmarks for energy efficiency in the grinding of raw materials for cement manufacturing. Raw materials grinding technology has been dominated for more than 30 years by the roller mill. which were not specifically conceived for the requirements of the POLYCOM® high-pressure grinding roll and the inadequate service life of the roller materials. Head of Grinding & Crushing Technology | Polysius AG. which is also referred to as the vertical mill. where it has set a new benchmark for energy efficiency. Polysius is setting a new benchmark for efficiency. 1 I exhibits higher energy efficiency in comparison to vertical mills.| 61 Increasing energy efficiency and reducing investment costs in cement production DIPL. The attractive investment costs are a welcome complement to the low operating costs. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .

the medium and fine fractions of the feed material are carried upward and the coarse fraction is discharged by gravity. axially running bars rotates against the flow of gas in the housing spiral and so ensures excellent separation and drying of the feed material. as a 23-fold “scale-up” relative to the technical test center plant was viewed as too great a risk. Originally conceived for cement grinding with a broad range of product fineness (3. with the objective of reducing the CO2 emissions that are unavoidable in clinker production. limestone and pozzolana in cement grinding has greatly increased. Alongside the best-possible separation of the fine feed material fraction. The decision to acquire an industrial prototype was taken in fall 2004. 2 I is distinguished by its low space requirement and the resulting positive effect on costs for material transport and civil engineering. The horizontally arranged rotor enables the compact plant design. and ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . Commissioning and operating results The raw meal plant commenced operation in December 2006 I Fig. vibrations. and drive powers. The cement grinding plant was commissioned in February 2007. the combination of air separator and POLYCOM® also offers a significant energy saving for raw material. On-site measurements were also taken to check the mechanical design of the air separator with respect to mechanical stresses. is conveyed by gravity to the coarse material discharge where it is once again homogeneously mixed with the coarse fraction. One of the POLYCOM® rollers can be seen through the open machine door in the photograph below. vertical arrangements. This homogenization is extremely important for low dynamic loads in the POLYCOM®. The comparison of the electrical energy requirement is shown in I Fig.62 | Increasing energy efficiency and reducing investment costs in cement production SEPOL® HR air separator The newly developed SEPOL® HR air separator I Fig. A long-term Indian customer. A direct system comparison was possible as the customer utilized a vertical mill in an older production line in the same plant. who was offered the new development. and ensures an even distribution of material across the feed system width. The horizontal rotor. the drying of these additives in the grinding plant is very important. As a result. During this process. it was possible to achieve an energy saving of 36% for the raw material in the grinding and crushing stage by the application of a POLYCOM® high-pressure grinding roll and the SEPOL® HR. The medium grain size fraction. the investment costs of the grinding plant are reduced by approximately 15% relative to those of a comparable plant with a vertical mill. The bulk material is dried within a cross flow of hot gas. it should also be possible to use the air separator for expanding the capacity of existing grinding plants in such a way that it can be installed during continuing operation of the existing plant and rapidly integrated in the grinding system without the need for long downtimes. Furthermore. Due to the existing conditions. The throughput rose from its initial 260 t/h (guarantee 275 t/h) to a notable 360 t/h and the electrical energy requirement fell significantly from 14. In contrast to the follow-up orders – which have already been placed – the prototype system was equipped with two air separators in parallel. 3 I shows the schematic flow diagram and layout of a grinding plant. The use of wet additives such as granulated blast furnace slag. 5 I.500 cm²/g) and types of feed material (granulated blast furnace slag. The order handling included a complete new construction and was realized – including shipment and installation – in less than 24 months. The material feed system disagglomerates the feed material. The air separator separates the material that has already reached the final particle size.000 to 5. fly-ash. The SEPOL® HR air separator with downstream cyclone separator is visible at the top left of the photograph.). The separator is operated using hot furnace gas to dry the fresh feed material. It proved possible to significantly improve the operating results during the optimization phase. pozzolana etc.5 kWh/t to 11 kWh/t. All expectations were fulfilled. the homogeneity of the mixing is an essential precondition for the efficiency of the grinding and crushing. Various processing functions are integrated in the machine. in contrast to conventional. Material that is still too coarse is returned to the POLYCOM®. expressed the wish to equip both the cement and the raw meal plant for a new production line with the SEPOL® HR. which is still partially compacted. which is too coarse and is rejected by the rotor. 4 I. which is fitted with tangentially set. Grinding plant I Fig. cement clinker. The fresh feed material is transported to the air separator together with the recycled material coming from the POLYCOM® by a bucket elevator and trough belt conveyor. Thanks to this compact design.

| 63

Fig. 1 | POLYCOM® high-pressure grinding roll with planetary gear units

Fig. 2 | SEPOL® HR air separator

Finished product 1,200-2,300 t/h

Bucket elevator

Limestone Bauxite Iron ore

Hot gas Finished product 300 -500 t/h

31,600 15,700

8,000

POLYCOM®

5,300

New material feed 300 -500 t/h

Recirculated material 900 -1,800 t/h Data in mm

Fig. 3 | Schematic flow diagram and layout of a raw material grinding plant

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3,500

64 |

this also immediately exceeded the guarantees. After measuring and optimizing the plant, the expectations were exceeded by 15%. The customer was so pleased with the performance of the prototypes that he has already placed a follow-up order for another new production line. The experience gained from the operation of the prototype will be implemented in this new order. The building volume of the raw meal plant has been cut by almost half and the number of auxiliary machines has been greatly reduced by the replacement of the two parallel air separators by one unit. Effects on future plants The increased throughput has the effect of reducing the investment costs per production unit. The available POLYCOM® range thus covers larger plant capacities too. The result is a significant improvement in cost effectiveness for the customer, from the point of view of both investment and operating costs. The air separator has the effect of opening doors for grinding plants with the POLYCOM® high-pressure grinding roll. As the POLYCOM® poses high requirements with respect to materials and manufacturing quality, the roller units are only manufactured in the
Fig. 4 | Cement grinding plant, (blue marking) SEPOL® HR (green marking), POLYCOM® HR

in-house work-shop I Fig. 6 I. The SEPOL® HR thus boosts competitiveness while simultaneously increasing value-added. It opens up a greatly expanded range of possible applications for the POLYCOM® high-pressure grinding roll, one of Polysius’ core products, and is

%

also suitable for application in selected projects within the minerals
150

industry. It will thus enable Polysius’ entry into this market segment as a systems supplier.
Electrical ernergy requirement 125

At the beginning of 2008, a further grinding plant for raw mate100 75 50 25

rials with POLYCOM® and static parts of the SEPOL® HR as drier went into operation in the USA. In contrast to the Indian plant, the raw material in the USA has a high proportion of quartz, which causes a high degree of wear. In addition to the mineralogy of the raw material, its moisture content also has a strong effect on the wear rates of the POLYCOM® rollers, with the consequence that the drying of the feed material before it is fed into the gap between the rolls is very important. The first operating results show that

0 Ball mill Vertical mill POLYCOM® with SEPOL® HR

the air separator with its excellent drying capability makes an important contribution to ensuring low wear rates on the rollers of the POLYCOM®. The guaranteed performance values for throughput and energy requirements per unit mass were also immediately

Fig. 5 | Comparison of the electrical energy requirement

exceeded here.

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Increasing energy efficiency and reducing investment costs in cement production | 65

Fig. 6 | POLYCOM® manufacturing at Polysius

Summary Both grinding plants have demonstrated that the POLYCOM® high-

be efficiently dried and subsequently ground. Practical evidence of this is, however, not yet available. Market reaction to the innovation has taken the form of sales of another seven plants equipped with POLYCOM® and SEPOL® HR. The situation regarding further projects is promising and increasing numbers of orders are expected. The SEPOL® HR air separator is a simple unit that has been successfully developed and commissioned to meet the requirements of the POLYCOM® high-pressure grinding roll and fills an essential gap in the application of energy-efficient and competitive technology.

pressure grinding roll in combination with the SEPOL® HR can make a significant contribution to reducing the electrical energy requirement, improving the creation of value-added, reducing investment costs and increasing market share for raw materials that are easy or difficult to mill, have low or high wear rates and have limited moisture content. It is expected that raw materials with higher moisture contents can

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66 | | Fully mobile crushing plant for large open-pit mines – a cross-segment development ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .

-ING. Vice President Sales | Krupp Canada Inc. Calgary/Canada STEPHEN HARRINGTON.ENG. Essen DIPL. P. RER.-ING.. HANS-JÜRGEN KAISER Head of Technical Marketing.| 67 Fully mobile crushing plant for large open-pit mines DIPL. Heavy Plate Profit Center | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG. Essen DIPL.SC. B.ENG. engineers at ThyssenKrupp Fördertechnik developed the concept for a fully mobile crushing plant to enhance mining operations in large open pit mines. In a crosssegment cooperation with ThyssenKrupp Steel. the developers investigated the use of high strength steel and utilized liners with special wear properties to provide adequate protection from the abrasive nature of the ore.ENG. Vice President Engineering & Project Management | Krupp Canada Inc. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . NAT. MARTINA SHEHATA M. The key innovations lie with the unique functionality and mobility of the machine which allow it to work along side the mining shovel at the mine face..-ING. FRANK SEEHÖFER Senior Manager Projects | ThyssenKrupp Fördertechnik GmbH. Calgary/Canada DR. P. Duisburg As part of a priority research and development project launched in 2006. The use of continuous mining technology not only brings economic benefits in the form of higher production performance with reduced capital cost (particularly when compared to a discontinuous system using trucks). The crushing plant feeds a dedicated belt conveyor system and the need for large haul trucks is eliminated. it is also more environmentally friendly because it reduces CO2 emissions. BERGBAU ULRICH MENTGES Senior Manager Mine Planning & Sales | ThyssenKrupp Fördertechnik GmbH.

As the mining operation progresses. The crushing plants can be stationary (mounted on concrete foundations) or semi-mobile style. along with valuable feedback from the employees at ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems. Lower operating costs A mine based on truck haulage requires a large number of drivers and support staff while a continuous style operation allows customers to reduce personnel without affecting production output as only 3 to 4 workers are required per shift to operate and control a crusher/ conveyor system. offers the advantages of a continuous mining system. There is a definite benefit to employ wear resistant steel where load bearing members must be protected against abrasion caused by continuous direct contact with the conveyed materials. supported on steel pontoon feet. The demand for abrasion resistant wear materials increases with highly abrasive ore. When working with hard rock. In the case of light and loose earth. it was found that further benefits could be realized by utilizing special alloy fine grain structural steels. the fully mobile crusher is always positioned next to the shovel meaning that shovel operation is not interrupted. In addition to saving wages and wage related costs. The objective of the new development was to totally eliminate the need for trucks by having the shovel feed the ROM ore directly to a continuous material handling system. The crushing plant would need to be fully mobile such that it could follow the movements of the shovel. The know-how possessed by ThyssenKrupp Steel. XAR® 400 offers two to three times the expected life compared to conventional steel. combined with a system of conveyors. resulted in employing structural steel in ways that could improve those components not governed by fatigue. A common approach to reducing the construction weight of the supporting structural steel work is to use higher strength steel. such as minerals and hard coal. In contrast. 1 I. the semimobile crushing plants can be relocated within the mine using multiwheeled trailers or transport crawlers. Depending on the number of trucks available. bucket wheel excavator technology. To increases the flexibility of the system a short mobile transfer conveyor can be added to the system I Fig. the customer was convinced by the advantages offered by wear-resistant XAR® 400. customers can reduce their safety related costs as well. In order to take advantage of continuous mining in harder ore. In a fully mobile crushing system. Cross-segment improvements in material use Possible changes and improvements to the fully mobile open-pit mining system were investigated at an early stage in the priority project and various products produced by ThyssenKrupp Steel were reviewed and analyzed. such as the large crawler assemblies. a special purpose structural steel manufactured by ThyssenKrupp Steel I Fig. the crushing plant is as mobile as the shovel such that neither has to wait for each other as they advance along the working face. To optimize the heavy components.68 | Fully mobile crushing plant for large open-pit mines Background The use of continuous mining systems is primarily dependent on the type and properties of the ore being mined. Customer benefits High level of system availability Conventional shovel / truck operations in open-pit mines leads to loss of efficiency due to the discontinuous transportation of the ore because the shovel needs to wait for the loaded truck to leave and for the empty truck to spot itself beside the shovel. The crusher comminutes the ore to a conveyable size and discharge to a system of shiftable and fixed mine conveyors. would have to be designed to suit the movement of the shovel boom and bucket and would have to match the operating capacity of the shovel. In most cases. crushers are required to reduce the ROM ore to a conveyable size. Typically. For the referenced facility in China. The hopper height and geometry is similar to the truck box so the shovel operation is similar if loading trucks or the mobile crushing plant. ThyssenKrupp developed a fully mobile crawler-mounted crushing plant which allows for continuous material handling while providing an economical solution not yet realized in a high capacity mine. existing cable shovels or hydraulic excavators can be used if a mobile crushing plant replaces the truck fleet. 2 I. shovels load the ROM ore on to heavy-duty haul trucks that transport the ore to the crushing plant and relocating the crushing plant as the mine expands reduces the distance that the large trucks need to haul the ore from the working face. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . To achieve this result. typical high wear areas are the hopper. the shovel waiting time can be a few minutes or more per truck. chutes and feeder skirtboard. Ideally.

a product of ThyssenKrupp Steel ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . 1 | Feed hopper and skirtboard lined with XAR® 400 wear resistant plant.| 69 Fig.

Considering that annual production remains constant and factoring in the higher availability of the continuous system. hopper car and belt conveyor. Another environmental consideration is the savings in rubber that can be achieved. Long life expectancy extending in some cases to several decades A characteristic feature of continuous open-pit mining technology is the long life expectancy which can exceed 20 years. extending from long overland conveyor systems. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .000t per year for each truck system that was replaced. the diesel fuel savings amounted to 22 million liters per year leading to a favorable carbon footprint for the continuous system. comparing this to the tire needs of the 26 trucks over the same time period. a savings of 400 t of tire rubber could be realized. mobile transfer conveyor. the replacement of a truck transport system with an innovative fully mobile crushing system forces customers to think of other technology that they can use to make their systems more efficient. Further.70 | Fully mobile crushing plant for large open-pit mines One of the hidden benefits of the continuous system is the fact that the scarcity of tires for the large haul trucks becomes a no issue. The results showed a CO2 reduction of up to 100. the shovel. 2 | The fully mobile system showing. Another example is offered by the open-pit mining facilities and equipment employed by RWE in the Rheinish Fig. The mining trucks consumed about 190 liters of diesel for every hour of operation. As an example. from right to left. the expected life of the conveyor belt is 8 years and. In the scenario just described. Customer loyalty Environmental considerations Fully mobile crushing plants with conveyors operate exclusively with electrical power which leads to the overall CO2 balance favoring a continuous mining system over the diesel-powered haul trucks and through a related R&D project the extent to which a fully mobile crushing system would reduce CO2 emissions compared to conventional shovel-truck operations was investigated (see ThyssenKrupp techforum. train loading and unloading systems as well as port facilities. in China a fully mobile crushing system with associated conveyors replaced about 26 large haul trucks. ThyssenKrupp Fördertechnik has a broad range of products for such needs. Issue2/2007). a reduction of about 95%. The large number of such examples includes the in-pit crushing system at the Morenci open-pit copper mine in the USA which commenced operations in the late 1980’s. ore process plants. it is common for large mines to utilize trucks from several manufacturers and the expense involved in stocking duplicate spare parts can be considerable while the spare parts inventory for a crusher/ conveyor system can be tailored to meet the clients exact needs. stockyard equipment. mobile crushing plant. Use of a continuous system In many cases.

above all. The ratio of each ton of extracted mineral to applied cost is optimized through the decreased cost of wear parts. 3 I shows the crushing plant while being relocated from the assembly area to the mine face while the continuous conveyor system is visible in the background. ongoing operating costs are reduced not only as a result of lower personnel costs. the first fully mobile crushing system com- Reduction of operating costs Because fewer employees are needed. on average. a subsidiary of ThyssenKrupp Fördertechnik.500t/h. signed a contract for the delivery of the first fully mobile ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . In October 2007. and.000 and delivery can take up to two years. once per year. thus providing for a “true” fully mobile crushing plant. some of which have been in use since the 1950’s. One can expect that the new generation of fully mobile high capacity crushing systems will also experience such life expectancy. These trucks have useful payloads of between 140t and 350t and the tires need to be replaced. the elimination of truck transport and the associated significant reduction in diesel and tire costs. The primary features described in the document are the plant’s degrees of freedom in combination with a single slewing discharge conveyor as well as the arrangement of the supporting structure. a set of six tires currently costs between €90. but also with regard to safety. The large machine is supported on the two crawlers without the need for additional supports. Depending After sales service The expected long life noted above yields a positive image and provides the potential to create long-term customer loyalty with regards to repeat business and after sales service. Innovation and degree of implementation of fully mobile crushers In early 2007. I Fig. Krupp Canada. the standardization of spare parts. menced operation at the YiminHe open-pit mine in China. Associated with this is an increase in the capacity utilization of the shovel or hydraulic excavator and the downstream process equipment. on the size of the truck. the patent for the newly developed crushing plant was published. Fully mobile crushers can attain hourly output rates that could otherwise only be achieved with a large number of large mining trucks.Fully mobile crushing plant for large open-pit mines | 71 lignite fields. a continuous system directly contributes to the efficient use of invested capital. The crushing plant processes ROM coal at a rate of 3.000 and €300. In the fall of 2007. Cost savings for customers Efficient use of capital Due to the high system availability previously mentioned.

In addition to the cost savings to the customer. a semi-mobile surge facility. 3 | The Fully Mobile Crushing Plant for China being relocated for the erection area to the mine face ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . The fully mobile crushing plant introduced in this article won first prize in ThyssenKrupp’s Innovation Contest 2008. the work to date has already resulted in a number of marketing successes. All of the oilsand operators are currently developing plans to transform the semi-mobile process into a fully mobile one. with our without blasting. Canada’s huge deposits of oilsand have been a veritable home market for Krupp Canada. 5 I. will be an element in this mobile process and will. A typical ore train consists of a semi-mobile crushing plant. The fully mobile concept can conceivably be utilized in all mining operations where a shovel can excavate the ore directly at the face. The first fully mobile crushing plant. promises considerable savings in capital and operating costs and it is very likely that a solution can be realized. Summary Even though the research and development project for a fully mobile crawler-mounted crushing plant is still ongoing. which typically have relatively wide benches. typically. 4 I. Some of them have been supplied in combination with the entire process train up to. Numerous semi-mobile crushers with capacities of up to 14. Compared to coal and oilsand mines. For several years now.72 | Fully mobile crushing plant for large open-pit mines crushing plant use in the oilsand mines of Northern Canada.000 and 7. For example. Fig. which will operate at a capacity between 6. The plant. ThyssenKrupp Fördertechnik is currently cooperating with Brazil’s largest iron ore producer to determine if mobile crushing systems can be adapted for use in their large mines which.000t/h have been installed over the past few years. undoubtedly. Worldwide market potential The continuous crushing system has worldwide market potential particularly in the area of mining for coal and oilsand. the first reference facility has been in operation in China for the past six months while a larger machine will commence operation at a Canadian oilsand mine late in 2009. Due especially to the economic boom in China and India. the fully mobile crushing system has huge potential for reducing operations related CO2 emissions providing a greener footprint. be followed by further mobile systems as the mines expand. The fully mobile system.000 t/h. the demand for coal in Asia is steadily increasing. the hydro transport system. the planning and realization of a fully mobile concept in an iron ore mine is complicated by the chiefly vertical alignment of the deposits. is scheduled to commence operation at the end of 2009 I Fig. extend downward with fairly steep fit walls. currently at the design stage. however. and including. the connecting belt conveyors and the slurry preparation plant I Fig.

Fully mobile crushing plant for large open-pit mines | 73 Fig. the slurry preparation plant. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . 5 | A typical ore train for oilsand mining showing. the face conveyor. in the background. 4 | Computer rendering of a fully mobile crushing plant for an oilsand mine Fig. the semi-mobile surge facility and. the semi-mobile crushing plant. from right to left.

74 | | End-of-line test stand at ThyssenKrupp EGM ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .

Langenhagen DIPL. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . Key arguments in favor of the new system. ThyssenKrupp EGM. testing and realizing as a product a new test stand concept that unites both technologies in a single machine. It has done so by developing. Langenhagen Today’s vehicles have to meet high standards with regard to ride comfort. has eliminated the traditional distinction between balancing machines and NVH test stands.-ING. JOAKIM KÜHL Development Test Technology | ThyssenKrupp EGM GmbH. for which a patent has been applied. are its huge cost advantages and the reduced amount of space it requires. JÖRG TIETJEN Vice President Test/Measurement Technology | ThyssenKrupp EGM GmbH.-ING.| 75 Combined end-of-line test stand for NVH analysis and determining the balancing quality of rear axles DIPL. making balancing the drive train and noise testing of many components essential. an internationally leading supplier of comprehensive solutions for transmission test stands.

1 I. Depending on the systems’ cycle times. these requirements are also found in specifications for suppliers. This residual imbalance consists of imbalances of the axle and of the output shaft. In order to balance the wheels. In addition. A goal aim during the development of the measuring table was to determine the most favorable rotational speed for measuring imbalance. A cardan shaft is coupled to the axle.100 rpm. For the test stand this means that first order forces with respect to the drive shaft’s rotational speed have to be determined. such as those for detecting faults. 2 I. The second possibility involves connecting a spare shaft (master prop shaft) without any clearance and subsequently measuring the imbalance caused in this manner. Order analyses of the first order (imbalance order) were then conducted across the rotational speed. The less the system responds to the imbalance excitation. During the early phase of development.700 rpm) than at 2.100 rpm). the acceleration have to remain below a limit curve at a control point. At the heart of the combined test stand is a measuring table test that is flexible enough to detect imbalance excitations of < 1 gmm while at the same time being so rigid that parts can be tested for NVH (Noise Vibration Harshness) at up to 6. The quality of manufactured rear axle differentials is usually checked by running them in the load and rotational speed ranges relevant to the vehicle on the test stand. To determine the imbalance of rear axle differentials. the test part remains in a single clamp during the entire process. To determine this speed.000 rpm without having to pass through any significant resonance points I Fig. the focus is primarily on fast moving components. the system also takes into account the coupled masses in the vehicle. When evaluated according to the reproducibility value Cg. the reproducibility of the imbalance was best at the point of the rotational speed range with the lowest excitability (2. In the case of an interface with a permitted concentricity of 0. this eccentricity can be taken into account in two different ways: One possibility is to measure the eccentricity and calculate the amount and direction of the imbalance so that it can be corrected. such as the gear tooth system and the bearing components. The decisive factors here are the orders (orders are multiples of the rotational speed – 1st order = 1 x rotational speed = imbalance). During the balancing procedure. The fully developed prototype achieved an outstanding balancing quality of G1 without reducing the quality of the NVH tests. two employees might be required as well. Development of the combined test stand The biggest challenge in the development of the combined test stand was to create a system for clamping the component into the test stand that would meet the requirements for both the NVH test and the balancing. Reproducibility was the worst at the first resonance point (1. the imbalance can amount to up to 200 gmm. which represent various components. the limit for the permissible residual imbalance is only defined by the values contained in the specifications. ThyssenKrupp EGM has now developed a test stand concept for the volume production of rear axle differentials that enables a single machine to conduct a balancing procedure and a residual imbalance inspection as well as the usual acoustic test. the more reproducible are the imbalance measurements.05 mm per side and an attached effective mass of 2 kg. As a result. Characteristics of the new test stand The main technical data: DME16i data acquisition unit from ThyssenKrupp EGM using an industrial PC UPS32 measurement and evaluation software from ThyssenKrupp EGM Siemens S7 test stand control system ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . The results of these order analyses were used to define rotational speed points at which the developers conducted reproducibility observations of the imbalance measurement I Fig. This connection has a designrelated eccentricity so that the shaft’s mass causes an imbalance. Basics of NVH analysis and rear axle differential balancing The main factors affecting transmission noise are geometry. During this test. automakers’ specifications have almost always included requirements regarding residual imbalance and the noise analysis of rear axle differentials. because the square of the rotational speed is a factor in the dynamic force caused by the imbalanced mass. This was the variant chosen for the new test stand concept. several measuring tables were set up with different spring stiffness. rotational speed and load.76 | Combined end-of-line test stand for NVH analysis and determining the balancing quality of rear axles New test stand concept for the volume production of rear axles For several years now. Until now two separate machines were required to check balance and analyze noise and vibration.350 rpm) and was still much worse at the second resonance point (2. Our customers’ experiences have shown that a good limiting value for residual imbalance on the drive shaft level is 230 gmm (gram-millimeters) at speeds of up to 250 km/h and a final drive ratio of 3.

5 Balancing quality of the master prop shaft: G6.350 2.000 2.0 0.100 -0. 2 | Order analysis of imbalance order.800 Rotational speed [rpm] Fig.5 2.794 1.400 1.000 1.| 77 Rear axle differential Input flange Output shaft Vibration table Leaf springs Leaf springs Sensor Leaf springs Fig. 1 | Schematic design of the measuring table 3.3 Reproducibility of the NVH measurements: 1dB The test run is divided into seven main steps: Measurement of the breakaway torque Determination of the imbalance of the cardan flange (a master prop shaft is used to take into account the geometric eccentricity that can appear during later cardan shaft fitting) Balancing is achieved by removing material (drilling) Control measurements are made to check the balancing process Measurement of the drag torque and determination of the transmission ratio NVH test (acceleration sensor for structure-borne vibration) under load on a drive and coast ramp Test of the differential function A master prop shaft is used to simulate the subsequent fitting of a cardan shaft to the rear differential. each with 250 Nm at 1.0 Value of reproducibilty Cg 2.600 2.0 1.200 2.200 1.400 2.0 1.5 1.5 Cg value = f (rotational speed) 3. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .5 1.700 2.800 2.500 rpm Output drive (rear units). including balancing and NVH test Output drive quality of the simple wheel balancer (without the master prop shaft): G2. Cg value as a function of rotational speed Input drive (front unit) with 120 Nm at 4. By adapting the master prop shaft.600 1.200 rpm 75 s cycle time.

Five measurements were made within each adaptation without opening the gripper. 2 = NVH sensor. it was a major challenge to ensure that reproducible measurements could be conducted with the master prop shaft. Due to the possible repeatability of the master prop shaft gripper of 4 µm. 3 | Test stand details. tests were conducted with an optimally balanced system. while the third has 50 measurements. Each of the individual distinct areas has a variance that is clearly within the gripper’s theoretical repeatability range. 4 I displays the result of such a series of tests in the form of a diagram. the test mass was offset by 120° three times and the same process was applied again. The system was subsequently readapted. 10 gmm. The test weights applied during the series of tests was 29 gmm. To do this. 1 = master prop shaft. The reproducibility of the gripping position on the input flange journal is < 4 µm. 3 = drilling machine with suction . After five such cycles. Three distinct areas can be seen at intervals of 120°. 3 I. Two of these distinct areas contain 25 measurements.78 | Combined end-of-line test stand for NVH analysis and determining the balancing quality of rear axles the geometric inacuracies of the rear differential flange are combined with the portion of the cardan shaft mass fitted there to create a measurable imbalance that is corrected fully automatically on the test stand by removing material from the input flange. I Fig. Upon completion of the balancing process. the location of any remaining residual imbalance is marked I Fig. in accordance with an imbalance value of approx. 4 = marking unit 2 3 4 1 ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . using test weights at three different points on the test specimen (120° offset) and continuously repeated adaptations. Fig.

00 100.00 -20. 5 I. which can then be incorporated into the results. all of the tasks performed by an automation system are united in tested and proven manner I Fig.00 -80. As a result. archiving. 120° 50 measurements with 10 adaptions pos.00 -100.00 60. parts tracking and other purposes. Thanks to the integration of balancing analysis capabilities into UPS32. The program is a PCbased automation system that can run on Windows NT4. the interrelationship between imbalance and wheel set noises can be inspected as well. The system particularly makes it possible to determine the influences of the input flange's concentricity and axial run-out.00 80.00 -60.00 80.00 40. the new machine concept described also has the potential for further development. For ThyssenKrupp EGM. Windows 2000 and Windows XP.00 20. UPS32 is used in many of the transmission test stands at ThyssenKrupp EGM as a complete vibration analysis tool for recording measurement values as well as for calculating and evaluating NVH tests. The letters UPS stand for the German words for universal test stand software (“Universelle-Prüfstands-Software”).00 -20. 240° Fig.00 -40. Considerable savings can be achieved during system operation in the areas of training.00 0. Moreover.00 -80. analyzed and evaluated in user-programmable sequences.Combined end-of-line test stand for NVH analysis and determining the balancing quality of rear axles | 79 100. A freely configurable visualization/ GUI is available for the user.00 -40. Summary The combination of two formerly separate processes into a single unit results in considerable customer utility and therefore also improves the market and revenue potential of ThyssenKrupp EGM.00 60. automation and control technology as well as those involving industrial data archiving and statistics.00 -100.00 20. The single machine concept simplifies the logistics concept and optimizes processes by reducing the amount of time needed to insert and take out the test part. The measurement data can be recorded. maintenance and spare parts stockkeeping. UPS32 can be used to solve diverse tasks such as of measurement.0.00 gmm gmm 25 measurements with 5 adaptions pos.00 40. the new system takes up less space. 0° 25 measurements with 5 adaptions pos. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . 5 | Main screen of the UPS32 test stand application The results are stored in a database and are available for statistical evaluations. Customers have to invest much less in the new system than in the typical twomachine solution. servicing.00 0. 4 | Repeated measurements with the master prop shaft Fig. The measurement and evaluation system consists of the DME16i hardware from ThyssenKrupp EGM and the UPS32 software.00 -60.

ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .80 | | An electro-permanent magnet loads a steel slab.

Authorized Officer | ThyssenKrupp Anlagenservice GmbH.| 81 Using electro-permanent magnets to lift loads in modern logistics networks DIPL. And thanks to savings in weight. non-monetary benefits affect occupational safety and environmental protection. WILHELM CASSING Sales Manager.-ING. FALK STEGER Sales Magnet System | ThyssenKrupp Schulte GmbH. This entire logistics chain can only be optimized if all of the port facilities work according to similar principles. the magnets can significantly reduce crane costs. Authorized Officer | ThyssenKrupp Schulte GmbH. or Mobile. Although an electromagnetic solution with a mechanical underpinning already existed. As a result. such as being able to unload 36-ton slabs. the slabs are again unloaded so that they can be transported to other locations for further processing. However. Once these inland waterway vessels have reached their destination harbors. chains and cables can no longer be used for unloading. At the end of 2007 a subsidiary of ThyssenKrupp Steel. THOMAS POHL Technical Manager. the slabs have to be loaded onto ships before they can be transported further. since this does not leave any space between the slabs. asked the ThyssenKrupp Magnettechnik business unit of ThyssenKrupp Schulte to develop a system for the rapid unloading of slabs. Eisenbahn und Häfen GmbH. these benefits can only be achieved if dunnage and chains are no longer used at any points along the entire logistics chain. Because dunnage no longer has to be inserted or removed and disposed of. ThyssenKrupp Magnettechnik was asked to enhance this concept and develop an effective solution that would meet several different criteria. Slabs weighing up to 36 tons each have to be loaded onto ships in Brazil and reloaded onto inland waterway vessels after reaching the ports of Rotterdam. Gelsenkirchen DIPL. Other. particularly as a result of the ‘Herkules’ project and the new steel plants in Brazil and the United States. a new technological concept had to be developed for lifting loads. The only ways of enabling the elimination of dunnage that come into consideration are either electromagnetic solutions with mechanical underpinning or permanent magnetic systems. Gelsenkirchen Because of the need to quickly load and unload steel slabs.-PHYS. These include the fact that they do not require either environmentally damaging backup batteries or the use of dunnage in an integrated logistic chain. This lack of dunnage also enables an increase in the packing density. Should such work be required at any point. electropermanent magnets offer a number of advantages over conventional electromagnets and chains. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . Oberhausen DIPL. the client wanted a simpler yet safer solution using permanent magnets. Given the same requirements. work times and resource needs can be significantly reduced. The requirements the system had to meet are described in more detail below. Magnet technology offers a quick and convenient solution for achieving this goal.-ING. Alabama. Naturally. Elimination of dunnage Eliminating dunnage means that the slabs must now be placed directly on top of one another. At these locations. Netherlands. This was done in the context of a complete assessment of the logistics chain as an element in the so-called ‘Herkules Project’. force can only be brought to bear on the slabs from above. The loading and unloading of slabs in ports The importance of slab transport at ThyssenKrupp will increase in the future. then these advantages are lost. All of the wood-handling work is no longer required.

Whereas electromagnets require electrical energy during the entire transport time (it is typically assumed to be 60 to 70% of the duty cycle). The safety factor therefore shows where things might become critical in the overall process. the current is always the same throughout the entire electrical circuit. The required level of safety is achieved through the control system and the associated processes which were approved by the employer’s liability insurance association. according to the employer’s liability insurance association (Berufsgenossenschaft) for lifting equipment. As a consequence.e. the times cannot be reduced by means of overvoltage. the total cost of energy will be about €3.82 | Using electro-permanent magnets to lift loads in modern logistics networks Reduction of unloading times Because cycle times should not exceed three minutes. If two shifts work for 200 days in the year. there is a safety factor of three (EN 13155). systems using mechanical underpinnings were assessed negatively. It should be noted in this regard that electromagnets are only required to achieve a safety factor of two. Moreover. To verify the holding force. Environmental compatibility The system’s environmental compatibility is ensured because it does not need backup batteries that would require additional maintenance and eventually would have to be disposed of and replaced. By contrast. which would also create costs. backup batteries cannot be dispensed with. Such underpinning is not required for bistable magnet systems if the magnetic holding force is more than three times greater than the force exerted by the weight. because the batteries’ functional performance would otherwise have ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . Safety requirements The employer’s liability insurance association’s safety requirements in accordance with SIL 3 (EN ISO 62061) would have required electromagnets to be equipped with mechanical underpinning.10/kWh. The electrical power of a yoke with two electromagnets can be assumed to be 15 kW. creating a blocking element which can damage the slab or the side of the ship. whose value can be continuously compared with the slab’s actual weight by using a load cell. Another factor that leads to considerable energy savings is the use of smaller drives. During a single shift. These parameters can only be accurately recorded by means of a magnetic flux measurement. such a solution does not require backup batteries. The factor’s value can be continuously recorded and archived. 32 MWh of energy is consumed by each yoke. This made it possible to dispense with the mechanical underpinning. Another disadvantage of mechanical under-pinning is that the lateral extension of the yoke becomes significantly longer.200 per year. These bistable magnet systems can remain in a magnetic state or a magnetically neutral state for any length of time without current flow. However. i. Another factor that would lead to a loss of time was the use of electromagnets as initially planned. which can be compared to the measurement of an electric current. A substantial increase in voltage could have reduced the time constant. since the lifting is carried out solely by permanent magnets. a magnetic flux measurement has to be made each time a load is picked up. this corresponds to a total of approx. which take much less time to magnetize and demagnetize (5-10 seconds). Electric power is only required to switch over the magnets within the magnet system. the electro-permanent magnet system only needs electricity for a short amount of time. 80 kWh. since the voltage of the backup battery cannot be significantly exceeded because it has to serve as a safeguard in case of a power outage. no matter where the measurement is taken. Another important factor that contributes to environmental protection is the elimination of dunnage. The slab may only be lifted if the holding force is more than three times the slab’s weight. Assuming a price of €0. The flux measurement takes into account any air gaps caused by bending and scale. Energy savings The amount of energy saved by the new system can also be quantified. as well as any changes in the slab’s magnetic properties. A solution to this problem is offered by electro-permanent magnet systems (EPMS). Ease of maintenance The elimination of the backup batteries also makes maintenance easier. since the opening and closing of their hydraulic lifting grabs alone consumed onethird of this time. This is achieved in a magnetic circuit by measuring the magnetic flux. This is because the processes of magnetizing and demagnetizing these systems would each take about 25 to 30 seconds since backup batteries would have to be used for safety reasons. Additional safety throughout the entire dynamic transport process is provided by a safety factor. which help to conserve energy and other resources over the long-term. which led to a substantial reduction in the weight of the yoke. the EPMS consumes only about onetenth this amount of energy. When measuring an electric current.

it is possible to accurately check the functional performance of the yoke and therefore of the magnet systems. Use at Walsum-Süd harbor Primarily as a result of the yoke’s reduced weight. Even when using cable breakage and short circuit tests. thereby substantially increasing the life of the coils. By measuring the flux on a “reference slab”. since the short switching times barely increase the magnet system’s temperature. In addition. 1 | Loading a slab onto a ship ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . This prevents the generation of mechanical strain through differences in temperature. the annual inspection of the lifting system as stipulated by the employer’s liability insurance association is no longer required.Using electro-permanent magnets to lift loads in modern logistics networks | 83 to be continuously checked. The system’s longevity is also improved. Fig. since this can now be performed by the operators themselves. the new technology was successfully introduced on the Rhine Cranes 1 and 2 in the Walsum-Süd harbor. it was possible to show that the system remained safe even when faced with such events.

distance between the poles: max. 2 | Schematic representation of a bistable electro-permanent magnet: The shaded areas represent soft iron.350 x 940 mm. 3 | The graph shows the holding force of the EPMS plotted against the size of the air gap. 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Holding force [t] Air gap [mm] Fig.84 | Using electro-permanent magnets to lift loads in modern logistics networks 940 mm Reduced weight AlnNiCo AINiCo AlnNiCo AINiCo S N Fig. The curve shows the values of real-life measurements conducted on the system at Walsum-Süd harbor. while the areas with arrows are the magnets and the crossed boxes represent the coils for the change in magnetization. System dimensions: 1. 710 mm ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .

Using electro-permanent magnets to lift loads in modern logistics networks | 85 Structure of an electro-permanent magnet Electro-permanent magnets as such are not a new form of technology. Key considerations in this regard are the thickness of the material and the type of surface encountered. for example. The work of picking up. The specific use of the system determines how it should be optimally structured. By involving the employer’s liability insurance association early on. Summary Description of operation In general. for example. environmental impact is reduced and energy and. The lighter design also allows the drives to be made smaller while retaining the previous cycle time. 2 I. 3 I is a graph of the associated holding force. above all. An example of how a system can be designed for transporting slabs is shown in I Fig. Personnel costs are reduced because no dunnage needs to be handled. There are various methods for constructing bistable magnet systems. disposing and recycling dunnage is eliminated. Energy is saved not only by using smaller drives. The system does not require room for lateral maneuvers. speed and convenience benefits needed for the quick transshipment of slabs. as the frequency of switching is comparatively low in such situations and the system’s technology can fully exploit its advantages. In addition. the operator can only trigger a current pulse when forces are active within the system. thus offering all the safety. Since this makes it possible to completely dispense with dunnage. Demagnetization is only possible if both the load cell and the mechanical switch show that the chains are no longer carrying a load. The control prevents the load from being lifted if the prescribed safety factor value is not reached. time are saved. transporting and depositing the materials requires the services of only a single person (the crane operator). all of which have advantages as well as disadvantages. The operator can immediately read the value of the safety factor during magnetization. but also by the magnet systems themselves. while I Fig. EPMS are activated and deactivated while at rest. Because no dunnage is needed. who can observe and control everything from a safe distance. the systems for slabs must be completely different from those for coils. The EPMS combines the strength of electromagnets with the independence of permanent magnets from power supplies. the developers created a sound. However. This innovative approach can be fully exploited by using the same technology along the entire logistics chain. All of these factors must be taken into account when designing the specific system. those for coils also require a much greater holding force. Whereas the holding force of electromagnets decreases as temperatures rise. This double check of information from separate signal lines ensures that the high safety requirements are met. 1 I. Summary of the savings potential The yoke’s low weight as a result of the elimination of the mechanical underpinning makes it possible to save costs in the design of the crane’s structural steelwork and to substantially simplify the statics of the foundations. the switchable permanent magnet systems used there employ a different principle. EPMS do not experience any increase in temperature and therefore do not suffer from any loss in holding force. As a result. However. The system’s greater efficiency saves time. and Thyssen Magnettechnik began using the magnets in automotive industry stacking facilities more than 30 years ago. The mechanical locking mechanism and the controls ensure that no current flow is possible while material is being transported. While the systems for slabs only need a low penetration effect but great holding force and small air gaps. This advanced technology can be designed to meet safety requirements. but also simply and safely. Additionally. Electro-permanent magnets have a long history. the new system is the first in Germany to be used for loading and unloading slabs onto and from ships I see title picture of the report and Fig. the entire logistics concerned with procuring. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . The use of electro-permanent magnet systems enables the efficient design of the slab transport logistics chain to guarantee the shortest possible loading times. due to the steadily increasing stacking speeds. nor is there need for any separation between the various loads. As a result. This might be the case. if the air gap has become too large. safety-oriented overall concept that received the association’s approval from the very start. The application was still retained for load lifting purposes. but also a great penetration effect and a substantially larger air gap. materials can be handled with magnets not only quickly and well. the system can result in notable cost savings. the loads are not deformed or squeezed during transport.

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| Cogeneration Power Plant Würzburg

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| 87

Sustainable energy generation with combined-cycle power plants (GuD)
JÜRGEN STIRN Head of Technology | ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy GmbH, Duisburg DIPL.-ING. WILFRIED RUTHMANN Project Manager Technology | ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy GmbH, Duisburg DIPL.-ING. MARTIN HÖBLER Construction Planning | ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy GmbH, Duisburg DIPL.-ING. GERHARD SCHIWIETZ Sales | ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy GmbH, Duisburg PETER DIEKMANN Public Relations | ThyssenKrupp Services AG, Düsseldorf

Combined-cycle power plants have a number of virtues. They are not only profitable but also very environmentally friendly, simple in design and suitable for a broad range of applications. Following deregulation of the electricity market, this technology offers many municipal utilities an economically viable means of modernizing their old cogeneration power plants. In Würzburg, for example, successful cooperation between ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy and Heizkraftwerk Würzburg GmbH has recently seen the completion of the first phase in a project to upgrade a coal-fired power plant to a combined-cycle facility. On this basis, an innovative concept has been devised to build a second combinedcycle generating unit on the same site. This modernization project combines the benefits of low-emission fuel utilization with efficient combined-cycle technology for the cogeneration of heat and power.

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88 | Sustainable energy generation with combined-cycle power plants (GuD)

Exhaust gas

Heat recovery boiler

Condensate

F
Hot steam Fuel Exhaust gas District heating Exhaust steam

Generator

Generator

G

G

~
Gas turbine Air
Fig. 1 | Combined-cycle gas turbine process

~
Steam turbine

Background ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy GmbH is one of the world's leading service providers in the energy and power plant sectors. With roots in boiler engineering stretching back to 1927, ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy today provides services for boiler systems with steam outputs of anywhere between 20 and 2,200 t/h. Diverging widely in both shape and design, these boiler systems feature a wide variety of fuels, firing systems, steam outputs and steam pressures. An increasingly important area of activity in Europe's deregulated energy market is the modernization of power plants and their conversion from coal to natural gas. Drawing on many years of experience in this field and innovative engineering expertise, an upgrade concept for operators of cogeneration power plants could be devised that puts together different plant components to form a highly efficient unit. From 2003 to 2005, in successful partnership with Heizkraftwerk Würzburg GmbH, ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy completed the first phase in the project to upgrade the Würzburg cogeneration plant – a coal-fired cogeneration power plant – to a combined-cycle facility (GuD I = Gas- und Dampfturbine/gas and steam turbine). On this basis, the company was also able to develop a highly innovative concept to build a second combined-cycle generating unit on the same site (GuD II). This essentially involves converting the existing coal-fired boiler II to a heat-recovery boiler, which is combined with an ultramodern gas turbine – in use for the first time worldwide at the cogeneration power plant in Würzburg – in order to create a combined-cycle plant (GuD II). Combined-cycle process In the first stage of the combined-cycle process employed in Würzburg I Fig. 1 I, natural gas is burned in a gas turbine. The hot gases thus generated power the gas turbine, which in turn drives a generator

to produce electricity. These gases are still hot when discharged from the gas turbine. They are therefore led through a heat-recovery boiler, where they generate superheated steam. By means of auxiliary firing equipment, it is also possible to increase the steam parameters (mass flow rate, temperature and pressure) according to requirements. This superheated steam is used to drive a steam turbine connected to another generator, which produces additional power. The exhaust steam discharged from the steam turbine is fed into the district heating network. In effect, this means that significantly less fuel is required to generate steam. By using the primary fuel to simultaneously generate power and heat, the combined-cycle process yields an enormous improvement in efficiency. GuD II project In order to modernize Block II I Fig. 2 I, ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy is to convert the existing coal-fired boiler II to a heat-recovery boiler. The heat-recovery boiler will be fired by the new gas turbine system GuD II. Auxiliary firing equipment is required to achieve the highpressure steam temperatures needed to operate the new steam turbine set II. The firing power of this auxiliary firing equipment can be increased in order to generate the quantities of steam required to cover peak loads. The steam thus produced will be used to drive the new steam turbine set II and thus produce electricity. In addition, steam will be taken to feed into the district heating network. Natural gas from the public gas supply network will be exclusively used to fuel both the new gas turbine II and the auxiliary firing equipment. Boiler modernization Conversion of the boiler I Fig. 3 I concerns essentially the boiler lower parts (1) and the second boiler pass (2). The furnace bottom is to be modified so as to enable installation of two new high-specification

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3 | Heat recovery boiler ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .Sustainable energy generation with combined-cycle power plants (GuD) | 89 Coal Natural gas Process steam Heat recovery boiler = AHK Siemens gas turbine = SGT District heating Cooling water Combustion air Exhaust gas GuD II SGT 700 G GuD I SGT 800 G ~ AHK Modernization phase 2 Boiler III ~ AHK Modernization phase 1 Steam turbine set TS II G G Steam turbine set TS III ~ ~ Consumer Fig. 2 | Modernization Phase II (GuD II) 1 Boiler lower parts 6 2 13 7 7 7 9 15 1 3 9 12 4 11 5 10 2 Second boiler pass 3 Bottom burner 4 Finned tube evaporator 5 Finned tube preheater 6 Drum 7 Superheater surfaces 8 Bottom air fan 9 Gas turbine exhaust gas ducts 10 Flue gas ducts 11 Boiler rear wall 12 Supporting frames 13 Connecting pipework 8 14 14 Suction side 15 Boiler front wall Fig.

which provided the air supply for the coal-fired boiler. There are no ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . their course and geometry are to be modified according to the new requirements. It will therefore be possible to separately discharge exhaust gases from both the new combinedcycle generating unit and the coal-fired boiler III. supplementary openings (tube screen). since the modifications will not place any substantial additional loads on the existing foundations. traveling grate. The low-NOx firing system is aspirated exclusively with oxygen contained in the turbine exhaust gases. This has been fully met. These ducts lead to the existing chimney system. The new gas turbine II (SGT 700) with its auxiliary systems is to be installed in its place. This requires modification of the lower part of the boiler rear wall (11). ash removal system and sootblowers including pipework. 4 I. One of the requirements of the invitation to tender was that the cogeneration power plant should continue to harmonize with the architecture of the Kulturspeicher museum and the nearby city center. between the feed water tank and the finned tube preheater. are to be completely removed. The upper part of the boiler with drum (6). 5 I provides a comparison of the bottom burners (3). This requires modifications to the existing pipework. the exhaust gases from the gas turbine are used in the partial flow to increase the boiler's production of steam in order to cover peak loads. with a condensate preheater and technical data and emission values of the old and the new plant. which run. with a concentric second inner pipe.90 | Sustainable energy generation with combined-cycle power plants (GuD) plain-tube economizer I. Indeed. The flue gases from the boiler are discharged via separate flue gas ducts (10). is to be completely replaced by a new finned tube economizer (5) I Fig. Auxiliary firing equipment By means of natural gas auxiliary firing equipment with two bottom burners.e. This necessitates raising the existing supporting frames (12) by approximately four meters. In the second boiler pass. 4 | Finned tubes by boiler II and boiler III is to be converted to a tube-in-tube system. In addition. along the roof of the boiler house. The suction side (14) complete with silencer and the intake ducts is to remain in place. it is perfectly possible to combine active environmental protection with innovative design. Installation of the gas turbine exhaust gas ducts (9) for the new gas turbine necessitates modifications to the existing boiler supporting structure along with the platforms and stairways. through which approximately 70% of the exhaust gases from the turbine will be fed to the heat-recovery boiler are to be installed in the boiler front panel (15). The existing housing. Components of the existing coal boiler (constructed in 1980). The remaining exhaust gases from the turbine (approx. i. The current single-flue chimney jointly used Fig. This will also be dismantled. The existing bottom air fan (8). is to be adapted for the purpose of pre-purging the boiler and the exhaust gas ducts. However. coal-handling system. as the award of the "Best Architects 2008 in Gold" prize for industrial architecture in the German-speaking countries of Europe testifies. such as the pilot burner. which will remain in operation to cover peak loads. I Fig. as before. Since the converted heat-recovery boiler is fired by natural gas. 30%) enter the boiler via the bottom burners. This will merely necessitate renewal of the flues on the discharge side. Reinforcements to the foundations on account of the new heat-recovery boiler are not necessary. the connecting pipework (13) and the three superheater surfaces (7) will remain largely unchanged. it can dispense with the existing fabric filter. a new finned tube evaporator is to be installed in place of the coil preheater and integrated in the boiler's natural circulation system. A new condensate preheater is to be installed in the existing pipework.

The gas turbine gas burners consist essentially of the following components: gas turbine air box (1) with burner front plate (2). central lance (7). the gas turbine gas burner is also fitted with a flame detector. This is because the cogeneration power plant has enough guaranteed capacity to obviate the need for installation of a fresh air supply and flue gas bypass. In the gas turbine air box. The auxiliary firing equipment for the new combined-cycle plant will incorporate two gas turbine gas burners from ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy I Fig. The flame monitoring for the main gas burner is carried out by a UV cell on the gas turbine gas burner. core air pipe (3).Sustainable energy generation with combined-cycle power plants (GuD) | 91 Coal boiler II Year of construction Construction type Fuel Rated thermal output Firing Steam generation HP temperature HP pressure 1980 Natural circulation system Hard coal 89. rounded edges and corresponding flanges for the burner plate and duct connections. The pipes and sheets of the gas turbine air box are fabricated of austenitic stainless steel to ensure that they are able to withstand the high temperatures of the turbine exhaust gases. the exhaust gases from the gas turbine (12). The burner plate (2) in the gas turbine air box is fitted with an insulating chamber 137 millimeters in thickness plus an additional cooling-air insulation chamber. ignition burner (10) and flame detector (11). This central lance is fitted inside the core air pipe (3) and functions as a mount for the gas and electric ignition burner (10). This is welded out of sheet metal with reinforcements. sliding sleeve damper (5). Each gas turbine gas burner is fitted with its own gas turbine air box. These can all be externally adjusted both radially and axially. secondary air pipe (4). The maximum rated thermal output will be 55 MW at a boiler output of 95 t steam/h.5 MW Travelling grate 95 t/h 525 °C 75 bar (g) Heat recovery boiler (GuD II) 1980/2008 Heat recovery boiler with auxiliary firing equipment Natural gas 55 MW Gas burners 95 t/h 515 °C 72 bar (g) Emission values SO2 NOX CO Dust All with respect to an O2 content of 3% in dry exhaust gas Operation mg/m3N 500 350 25 5 Licensing mg/m3N 540 490 250 50 Operation mg/m3N 0 < 150 < 50 0 Licensing mg/m3N 35 150 50 5 Fig. 5 | Comparison technical figures and emission values existing/new plant provisions to install an independent fresh air supply for the auxiliary firing equipment. gas lances (8). swirler/impeller (9). The fuel supply to the gas lances is from a natural gas box installed outside and behind an insulating and ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . are separated into primary or core air (13) and secondary air (14). 6 I. The primary air. according to requirements. The gas lances are supplied with gas via a shared gas box. The swirler has fixed blades and is mounted on the central lance (7). For this reason. The secondary air is introduced unswirled into the combustion process. the heat-recovery boiler will not be available in the event of downtime or stoppage of the gas turbine. Gas Turbine II will also be fired exclusively with natural gas from the public gas supply network. burner mouth (6). In addition to a gas and electric ignition burner (10). is swirled by means of a swirler (9) and can be regulated by an externally operated sliding sleeve damper (5). however. which provide the combustion air. This arrangement ensures correct ignition and combustion of the natural gas (15). A total of eight gas lances (8) are positioned around the central lance.

6 | Gas turbine gas burner by ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 .92 | Sustainable energy generation with combined-cycle power plants (GuD) 6 9 3 4 1 14 13 5 2 12 7 15 8 11 10 1 Gas turbine air box 2 Burner front plate 3 Core air pipe 4 Secondary air pipe 5 Sliding sleeve damper 6 Burner mouth 7 Central lance 8 Gas lances 9 Swirler/impeller 10 Ignition burner 11 Flame detector 12 Gas turbine exhaust gas 13 Core air 14 Secondary air 15 Natural gas Fig.

Assuming the decoupling of a comparable amount of heat for the district heating network of Stadtwerke Würzburg AG. this enhanced efficiency will lead to a threefold increase in the amount of electricity generated.000 metric tons and around 1. and removal of cooling water from the Main will also continue to conform to the current stipulations. the operating company. Given the current political directives on the reduction of CO2 emissions. the plant could achieve annual reductions in CO2 and NOX of over 900. Heizkraftwerk Würzburg GmbH. the efficiency of the upgraded plant in pure condensation operation is set to increase from 25 to up to 47%. These so-called primary measures are based upon the following: advanced burner geometry and design (stepped combustion) developed by ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy. Moreover. All the connections to the outside and into the burner are welded gas-tight to this gas box.350 metric tons. Following a construction phase of around 18 months. Despite increased power production. despite the fact that power generation will be increased by a factor of four (GuD I + GuD II) com- pared to the former coal-fired operation. Conclusion and outlook Modernization of the CHP plant in Würzburg by means of environmentally friendly cogeneration technology was necessary in order to be able to supply the future demand for electricity and heat in a profitable way. It will significantly increase the efficiency of power generation and thus not only boost the power plant's profitability but also reduce CO2 emissions in comparison to the former coal-fired operation by around 120. Construction of GuD II is not projected to have any negative impact on the environment. ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy is ideally positioned to respond to EU-wide invitations to tender with an unrivalled range of integrated services offering substantial customer benefits that combine enhanced efficiency with a significant reduction in emissions and an innovative construction concept. the project will also result in an almost complete elimination of particulate and sulfur dioxide emissions. while noise emissions will remain at their current low level as a result of additional soundproofing measures. intends to generate as much as up to 80% of the electricity required in Würzburg from its two cogeneration facilities on the site (GuD I and GuD II). The upgrade in Würzburg is just one of a broad spectrum of environmentally friendly modernization concepts used by ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy to bring aging plants up to date. Active climate protection The project to upgrade Block II to GuD II is a prime example of what can be done toward active climate protection in Europe's deregulated energy market.000 t/a for phase two (GuD II). respectively. Use of the heat produced by the generation of electricity results in primary energy savings of at least 10% compared to modern stand-alone power and heat plants. ThyssenKrupp techforum 1 | 2008 . the amount of heat introduced into the River Main will remain at the present low levels. Similarly. All in all. it is possible to maintain nitrogen oxide (NOX) levels constantly low despite increases in the amount of energy generated. The two bottom burners are additionally fixed to the floor straps of the boiler by means of a cleat clamp design so as to distribute the load evenly across the surface of the boiler floor. with expert surveys having confirmed that it poses no danger to the air. Moreover. The supply of air/ exhaust gases can be shut by means of a butterfly valve fitted directly upstream of the gas turbine gas burner. The cogeneration of heat and power ensures an even more efficient use of fuel. On this basis. near stoichiometric combustion (fuel-air ratio) and fine-tuning of the firing process (enhanced control systems). the second combined-cycle power plant (GuD II) with an electrical rating of 50 MW is scheduled to come on stream in January 2009. This is where natural gas (15) is fed in and distributed to the individual gas lances. reductions in the use of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide for the purposes of water treatment have also been achieved as a result of operating improvements. Thanks to the use of modern combustion technology. emissions of air pollutants will be significantly reduced. Other benefits for the plant operator include the reduction in capital costs as a result of converting the existing coal boiler to a heat-recover boiler rather than build-ing a completely new and conventional combined-cycle facility. As a result. water or ground. As of 2009. Similarly.000 t/a for phase one (GuD I) and a further 52. Applying the national targets of the Kyoto Protocol to the Würzburg cogeneration power plant. As such. there is now significant market potential worldwide for the modernization of existing power plants. it can be seen that the targeted reduction in emissions of the greenhouse gas CO2 of 21% by 2020 have already been achieved since 2005 as a result of the replacement of the coal boiler by GuD I. the facility will continue to contribute actively toward the fish ecology of the Main. the changeover in fuel for the power plant will mean a complete reduction in the production of slag and filter dusts from the combustion of coal as well as the elimination of the use of hydrated lime for flue gas desulfurization. Following the full installation of combined-cycle technology. This reduction of NOX emissions is achieved by the application of combustion-engineering measures.Sustainable energy generation with combined-cycle power plants (GuD) | 93 cooling box. the amount of cooling water required per unit of electricity generated will fall as a result of the project.