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IRON AGE RITES AND RITUALS IN THE CARPATHIAN BASIN

PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COLLOQUIUM FROM TRGU MURE

79 October 2011

Edited by Sndor BERECKI

Editura MEGA Trgu Mure 2012

Content
Preface....................................................................................................................................................................... 7 Hrvoje POTREBICA Religious Phenomena of the Hallstatt Communities of Southern Pannonia............................................. 9 Marcella NAGYPl SMEGIGerg PERSAITSSndor GULYSTnde TRCSIK Iron Age Hoard Found at Ikervr (Vas County, Hungary) in the Western Region of the Carpathian Basin. A Study in the Reconstruction of the Cultic Life of the Hallstatt Period in the Light of Archaeological and Scientific Analyses................................................................................ 31 Zoltn CZAJLIKGza KIRLYAttila CZVEKSndor PUSZTABalzs HOLLGbor BROLLY The Application of Remote Sensing Technology and Geophysical Methods in the Topographic Survey of Early Iron Age Burial Tumuli in Transdanubia.................................................... 65 Robert SCHOLTZ Scythian Age Burials at Tiszalk..................................................................................................................... 77 Lszl SZATHMRY Scythian Age Human Skeletal Remains from Tiszalk............................................................................. 101 Florin GOGLTANJzsef-Gbor NAGY Profane or Ritual? A Discovery from the End of the Early Iron Age from VlahaPad, Transylvania.................................................................................................................................................... 105 Imola KELEMEN The Archaeozoological Analysis of the Animal Bones Discovered in the Early Iron Age Pit at VlahaPad................................................................................................................................................... 133 Mircea BABENicolae MIRIOIU Verlngerte, mehrstufige birituelle Bestattungen im DonauKarpaten-Raum (5. bis 3. Jh. v. Chr.)......................................................................................................................................... 139 Aurel RUSTOIUSndor BERECKI Thracian Warriors in Transylvania at the Beginning of the Late Iron Age. The Grave with Chalcidian Helmet from Ocna Sibiului........................................................................... 161 Peter C. RAMSL Late Iron Age Burial Rites in Eastern Austria............................................................................................. 183 Maciej KARWOWSKI An Ithyphallic Celtic Figurine from Oberleiserberg.................................................................................. 189 Jan BOUZEK The North-Western Part of the Carpathian Basin in the Period of Early Celtic Princes...................... 213 Zoltn PILLINGFerenc UJVRI Iron Age Settlement and Cemetery from SzegedKiskundorozsma. Some New Data on Iron Age Burial Rite at the Southern Part of the Great Hungarian Plain.......................................... 217 va TANKKroly TANK Cremation and Deposition in the Late Iron Age Cemetery at Ludas...................................................... 249

Gertrda BEZINOV The Biritual Cemetery at uranyNitriansky Hrdok, District of Nov Zmky, Slovakia.................... 259 Martin FURMAN The Interpretative Value of Annular Ornaments for the Study of Early Celtic Populations in the Middle Danube Area........................................................................................................................... 273 Gabriela BREZANOV Reflections of the Contacts between Celtic Communities in North-West Romania and South-West Slovakia in the Grave Inventories.................................................................................... 289 Jnos NMETI Funerary Rites and Rituals of the Celtic Cemeteries in North-Western Romania and a Comparison with the Funerary Discoveries in the Tisza Plain and Transylvania...................... 295 Tiberius BADER Meine Begegnungen mit den Keltenfrsten: am Beispiel der Frstengrber von Ciumeti und Hochdorf.................................................................................................................................................. 303 Paul PUPEZ The Local Tradition Pottery from the Eastern Carpathian Basin Celtic Graves.................................... 317 Drago MNDESCU Killing the Weapons. An Insight on Graves with Destroyed Weapons in Late Iron Age Transylvania....................................................................................................................... 343 Aurel RUSTOIU The Celts and Indigenous Populations from the Southern Carpathian Basin. Intercommunity Communication Strategies.............................................................................................. 357 Marija LJUTINAMilo SPASI Celtic Newcomers between Traditional and Fashionable: Graves 63 and 67 from Karaburma........... 391 Ctlin Nicolae POPA Till Death Do Us Part. A Statistical Approach to Identifying Burial Similarity and Grouping. The Case of the Late La Tne Graves from the Eastern Carpathian Basin.............................................. 401 Beatrice S. KELEMENIosif Vasile FERENCZCristian C. ROMANDelia M. ROMANOana PONTASimon SIMION Cremated Human Remains from HunedoaraGrdina Castelului / Platou. Additional Information Inferred by XRD, FT-IR and SEM/EDX Analyses........................................... 413 Andreea DRGAN Late Iron Age Burials in the Iron Gates Area. A Functional Approach to Funerary Expression in the Late La Tne......................................................................................................................................... 425 Milica TAPAVIKI-ILIVojislav FILIPOVI A Late Iron Age Grave Find from Syrmia................................................................................................... 453 Marcin RUDNICKI Finds and Context of imleul Silvaniei Type Bracelets North of the Carpathians and the Sudety...... 461 Horea POPZsolt CSK The Tumuli Necropolis from imleu Silvaniei............................................................................................ 493 Mariana EGRI A Warrior Never Dies. The Manipulation of Tradition in Early Funerary Contexts from Pannonia.... 503 Abbreviations....................................................................................................................................................... 531

Thracian Warriors in Transylvania at the Beginning of the Late Iron Age. The Grave with Chalcidian Helmet from Ocna Sibiului
Aurel RUSTOIUSndor BERECKI
Institute of Archaeology and History of Art Cluj-Napoca, Romania aurelrustoiu@yahoo.com Mure County Museum Trgu Mure, Romania sberecki@yahoo.com

Keywords: Chalcidian helmet, grave inventory, Late Iron Age, aristocracy, warlike elite, 4th century BC

Ocna Sibiului (Sibiu County, Hungarian Vzakna, German Salzburg) is a locality in southern Transylvania, situated in an area having rich salt resources. The grave discussed in this paper was accidentally discovered in 1884. The context and details of the discovery are unknown, so the information regarding the funerary rite and ritual are missing, but some of the inventory was brought to the Brukenthal Museum in Sibiu, and the artefacts are still in its collections (inv. no. A5731/13044; A5732/13045; A5738; A5739; A5753/13066). The recovered inventory includes several pieces of sheet bronze, namely the cheekpiece of a helmet, four simple loops, two loops having three groups of knobs each, four discs and an object of unknown use. These artefacts remained unknown to the scientific community for a considerable period. Nearly a century after their discovery they were published for the first time by Mircea Rusu (1969, 293294, pl.147; RusuBandula 1970, 3739, 59, pl.18ab). When the famous grave with a helmet from Ciumeti was published, Rusu also mentioned the group of artefacts recovered from Ocna Sibiului. He considered that the finds come from a Celtic grave, the cheek-piece belonged to an Etruscan helmet and the bronze discs and the loops were harness mounts, while not excluding the use of the loops with knobs as bracelets. Chronologically the entire assemblage was dated to the LT B. The ascribing of the grave from Ocna Sibiului to the Celtic period in Transylvania, the identification of the helmet as an Italic or Italo-Celtic type, as well as the dating of the burial to the LT B or towards the end of the 4th century BC were accepted afterwards by other specialists, sometimes with certain variations, for example by Crian (1971, 152153, fig.1; Crian 1973, 59, no.41), Zirra (1971, 176, n. 34, 182183, fig.3/11; Zirra 1975, 52, pl.2A/12, who considered that the bracelets with knobs from Ocna Sibiului, having analogies in the Lower Danube area, attest the connections between the Celts and the indigenous populations), Gum (1991, 102), Ferencz (2007, 129), etc. Recently, Teleag (2008, 39, nr.143, 240, 441, nr.949, pl.176/57) reopened the discussion regarding the funerary inventory from Ocna Sibiului and especially about the cheek-piece. He considered, similarly to Rusu, that the cheek-piece and the pointed bronze object belong to an Italo-Celtic helmet which should be dated to around 300 BC or slightly later. The artefact would have arrived in Transylvania in
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the same way as other iron or bronze helmets (from Ciumeti, Siliva and Apahida), during the eastward expansion of the La Tne culture. Then some years ago, while writing the Ocna Sibiului entry for Lexikon zur keltischen Archologie, Aurel Rustoiu noted the following: The cheek-piece belongs to a Greek helmet of Chalcidian type, having mobile cheek-pieces (type V of Pflug). The remaining pieces are harnessing elements. Taking into consideration the chronology of the helmet piece, the grave of Ocna Sibiului can be dated to the first half of the 4th century BC, preceding the Celtic horizon from Transylvania. The discovery illustrates the connections established between the Carpathian Basin and the northern Balkans before the arrival of the Celts in Transylvania (Rustoiu 2012a). Recently Stoyanov (2005, 649) also noted that the cheek-piece from Ocna Sibiului belonged to a Chalcidian helmet. The recent accumulation of valuable information regarding the Chalcidian helmets from the northern Balkans, as well as the observations of Sndor Berecki concerning the inventory from Brukenthal Museum in Sibiu, allow a re-evaluation of the discovery from Ocna Sibiului and a wider discussion regarding the importance of this burial site. Starting from these primary data, the first aim of this article is to re-analyse the entire assemblage to determine the precise chronology of the grave. The second aim is to identify the cultural milieu to which this funerary assemblage is belonging, in the wider contexts of southern Transylvania and northern Balkans. The funerary inventory All artefacts from the grave of Ocna Sibiului were made of a bronze alloy and after discovery were mechanically cleaned. Due to this fact their surface is heavily scratched, the actual colour being light brown, whereas the un-cleaned areas are brownish-grey to greenish. Aside from that the artefacts are remarkably preserved, the alloy being of excellent quality.

1. The cheek-piece (Pl.1/11; 2/11) The right cheek-piece of a helmet, made of bronze sheet, is partially damaged on the upper side. It has a semicircular curved edge towards the back and serrated edge towards the front. A small perforation (of about 0.2cm) on the lower side allowed the helmet to be tied under the chin. Other two perforations having nearly similar dimensions (of the initial three, one being on the damaged area) are on the upper side. Their role was to hold the hinges which allowed the fitting of the cheek-piece on the helmet. The edges were slightly curved inward, and on the inside is an incision surrounding the edge, at 0.5cm from the rim. The height of the piece is of 13.5cm while the width is of 8.5cm. 2. The simple loops (Pl.1/710; 2/710) The inventory also contains four simple loops having morphologically different shapes, but similar dimensions and functionality: a. Bronze loop, mould-made, having a semicircular cross-section. Diameter: 6.5cm (Pl.1/7, 2/7). b. Bronze loop similar to the first one, but having a diameter of 7.5cm (Pl.1/6, 2/8). c. Bronze loop having a U-shaped cross-section. Diameter: 7cm (Pl.1/9, 2/9). d. Bronze loop similar to the previous one, but having the diameter of 7.5cm (Pl.1/10, 2/10). 3. The loops with knobs (Pl.1/12; 2/12) The two bronze loops with knobs were also differently made, as the simple ones: a. Bronze loop, mould-made, having a semicircular cross-section. Three groups of three knobs each are symmetrically placed on the external side. Diameter: 6.5cm (Pl.1/1; 2/1). b. Bronze loop having a U-shaped cross-section and three groups of four knobs each are symmetrically placed on the external side. Diameter: 7.5cm (Pl.1/2; 2/2). 4. The bronze discs (Pl.1/36; 2/36) Four bronze discs forming two pairs were also found: a. Disc made of a cast bronze plaque, having a convex shape and the edge decorated with oblique, parallel incisions, in relief. This decorated edge is separated from the convex body of the disc by a circular groove. The fitting system consists of a semicircular loop. Diameter of the disc: 5.2cm (Pl.1/3; 2/3). b. Disc nearly similar to the first one but having the diameter of 5.1cm (Pl.1/4; 2/4). c. Disc nearly similar to the first one but having the diameter of 6.5cm (Pl.1/5; 2/5). d. Disc nearly similar to the first one but having the diameter of 6.5cm (Pl.1/6; 2/6). 5. Piece having uncertain functionality (Pl.1/12; 2/12) Bronze piece consisting of three morphologically distinct parts: an upper elongated, pointed part, having a hexagonal cross-section; a central part having a globular shape with a central perforation, perpendicular to the axis of the piece (diameter of 0.8cm); a tubular lower part having a groove towards the lower end. Dimensions: length: 8.5cm; width of the base: 2.3cm; length of the fitting perforation: 3.1cm; diameter of the fitting perforation: 0.6cm. The functionality of this piece is difficult to identify so far, but a series of analogies may suggest some interpretations which will be detailed below.

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The most important item for determining the chronology of the entire funerary inventory is the cheek-piece. The object has no analogies amongst the types of north Italic helmets, nor in temperate Europe, but it is similar to some cheek-pieces belonging to Chalcidian helmets. The name of this type was established at the beginning of the 19th century by Furtwngler, who studied a series of finds from Olympia and noted that they are different from the Corinthian and Attic helmets, being represented on Chalcidian black-figure pottery dated to the 6th century BC. This is the origin of the name chose by the German scholar for this type of helmets. He cited as an example an amphora from the Pergamon Museum in Berlin on which one such helmet is depicted (Furtwngler 1890, 170; Dintsis 1986, pl.63/6; Pflug 1988, 137, fig.1). The Chalcidian helmets were widely distributed from the 6th to the 3rd century BC. They are present in Greece, southern Italy and the north-eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula, and in regions around the Black Sea. However, despite this wide area of distribution, they have never been comprehensively analysed. Emil Kunze created a general typology based on the finds from Olympia, dividing them into seven typological groups (Gr. IVII), from which two (Gr. VVI) comprise forms which could not be ascribed to the first four groups or were hybrids (Kunze 1967, 137). Later, this typology was refined by Pflug (1988, 138, fig.2), who retained the first four groups and the seventh one defined by Kunze, the result being a series of five types, from which the last one consists of helmets having hinged cheek-pieces. Contemporaneously, Dintsis (1986, 136141) proposed a typology based mainly on the shape of the cheek-pieces. However, as previously noted, in comparison with the typology proposed by Dintsis, the one created by Pflug also allows the identification and further addition of other new variants of the basic series (Ognenova-MarinovaStoyanov 2005, 521). During the last two decades a series of studies have been published concerning the typology, chronology and distribution of Chalcidian helmets in the eastern and northern parts of the Balkan Peninsula and in the Black Sea region, offering a clearer perspective on the role and frequency of use of these artefacts in the afore-mentioned areas (Gum 1991, 93100; Teran 1995, 8589, fig.10; Ognenova-Marinova Stoyanov 2005; Stoyanov 2005; ernenko 2006, 86; Teleag 2008, 235239; Lazr 2009). Returning to the cheek-piece from Ocna Sibiului, the artefact belongs to a helmet which can be ascribed to the Pflug type V. This type includes the helmets having hinged cheek-pieces. In general the shape of the cheek-pieces differs from one item to another, but a tendency to adapt some forms already used for other types of Chalcidian helmets can be observed. The piece from Ocna Sibiului (Pl.3/1) has close analogies amongst the cheek-pieces discovered in the sanctuaries from Olympia (Pl.3/2) and Dodona (Pl.3/3) (Kunze 1994, 7374, fig.71; pl.26/2a), as well as the relief-decorated piece from Tithorea (Pl. 3/4), in central Greece (Andriomenou 1976). At the same time the shape of this cheek-piece is similar to some helmets belonging to the Pflug type II, for example the finds from ShipkaGolyama Kosmatka tumulus (Pl.3/5) or from Dolna Koznitsa, both in Bulgaria (Ognenova-MarinovaStoyanov 2005, 527, no. 1213, pl. 3/24; Teleag 2008, 237238, no.29, 46/b) or the miniature golden helmet represented on the handle of a sword from the so-called Grave of Philip II from Vergina (Andronicos 1984, 142145, fig.99101). The Chalcidian helmets were very popular in the northern and north-eastern Balkans. The examples belonging to type V are mostly concentrated in the region between the Balkan and Rodopi Mountains, as well as in north-eastern Bulgaria, a series of finds being documented northward of the Danube (Fig.1). The Chalcidian helmets of type II are also numerous. As Pflug, amongst others mentioned, aside from the standard type (Pl.4/1) another local variant of the basic type was created in the eastern Balkans dated later than the Greek finds (Pflug 1988, 141142). The inner edge of the cheek-pieces belonging to this variant is straight and serrated (Pl.4/2). These pieces are the predecessors of the richly decorated silver and golden helmets from the Lower Danube basin (Pl.4/45), for example those from Agighiol, Cucuteni-Biceni, Peretu, Coofeneti and the Iron Gates region (Gum 1991, 99; Ognenova-Marinova Stoyanov 2005, 519521). The helmets of type II are concentrated between the Balkans and the Rodopi Mountains, but are to be found mostly in north-eastern Bulgaria (Fig.2). As concerns the provenance of the helmets from the Balkans, probably some of them were made by workshops from Greece or from the colonies on the Black Sea coast. Others were produced in the local milieu by craftsmen trained in Greek workshops. The ethnic origin of these craftsmen is irrelevant. They possessed outstanding knowledge regarding the technology of precious metals and bronze alloys, and had close connections or were subordinated to the lites and leaders of the northern Balkans communities. The latter were the main consumers of luxury products, and thus they imposed various trends, symbolic

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Fig.1. Distribution map of Chalcidian helmets Pflug type V in the northern Balkans (see the list of discoveries in Stoyanov 2005 and Teleag 2008).

significances or functional characteristics of various adornments or utilitarian objects, or of the structure of the military equipment and panoply of weapons and so forth. On the other hand the craftsmen were characterised by a high degree of mobility in time and space. They transmitted specific knowledge and technologies from one generation to another within the same families or groups of craftsmen, which explains the perpetuation of some types of artefacts or of techniques of producing them. At the same time the spatial mobility of the craftsmen was determined by the necessity to find clients able to provide raw materials and to place orders, and, in some cases, also to provide protection (concerning the status and mobility of the craftsmen see Rustoiu 1996a; 2002, 6370). As a consequence it might be possible that a series of helmets were made, alongside other metalwork and jewellery, by Greek craftsmen or by others trained in the Greek milieu working for local rulers. This not uncommon connection is illustrated, for example, by an inscription on a silver vessel from the Rogozen hoard. This inscription names the craftsman Disloias who made the vessel for a local ruler named Kotios of Beos Kotios eg Beo(s)/Disloias epoiese (Rogozen 1989, 80, cat. no.29; Alexandrescu 1987, 242). At least one such workshop making helmets probably functioned in north-eastern Bulgaria, as is suggested by the large number of finds concentrated in the region.. Some of the pieces from this region,

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Fig.2. Distribution map of Chalcidian helmets Pflug type II, the Thracian variant (black squares) and the silver and gold parade helmets (white squares) (see the list of discoveries in Teran 1995; Ognenova-MarinovaStoyanov 2005; Teleag 2008).

and also from other areas, as well as the silver and gold helmets derived from the bronze Chalcidian ones, illustrate the existence of excellent technological knowledge regarding metal processing in the region. A helmet recently discovered in the Golyamata Mogila tumulus, near Malomirovo and Zlatinitsa villages in Jambol region, eastern Bulgaria, was decorated on the top with a snake having three heads (Agre 2011, 8490, fig. III/2124), a symbolic motif which is also present, for example, on a decorated plaque from the Letnica hoard (Kull 1997, fig.4/10), which is probably showing mythological scenes. This example again demonstrates the practice of adapting certain Greek material representations to the practical and ideological needs of the local elites. On the other hand, a series of helmets from the northern Balkans bears signs of ancient repairs. This is the case of some helmets from Judelnik or Budeti (Pl.4/3), in which the hinged cheek-pieces were replaced by fixed ones (see Teleag 2008, 235236, 436438, with detailed illustrations of the repairs). These repairs are of lower quality in comparison with the higher technology involved in the manufacturing of the helmets, which suggest that some of the local leaders lacked access to the services of top class artisans, like those who made similar products for the prestigious aristocratic courts from Thrace.

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Chronologically the earliest examples from the north-eastern Balkans, belonging to the standard type II, come from Bulgaria (Ruec, Obretenik, Sadovec, Branievo, Razgrad), being dated to the 5th century BC (Teleag 2008, 235, 435436). The majority of these pieces, and mostly the Thracian variant of the Chalcidian helmets, were used during the 4th century BC, whereas from the middle of this century the so-called parade helmets, made of silver or gold, also appeared (Teleag 2008, 235237, 436438). As for the chronology of the helmets with mobile cheek-pieces, they appeared in Greece as early as the beginning of the 5th century BC, to judge from their presence on contemporary painted pottery (Pflug 1988, 143, fig. 10). The helmet from Tithorea, with cheek-pieces having a similar shape to that of the example from Ocna Sibiului, was dated to the beginning of the 4th century BC (Andriomenou 1976, 199), whereas the finds of the same type from Olympia belong to the first half of this century (Kunze 1994, 7374). E. Teleag has given the same dating to other helmets of type V discovered in funerary contexts from Bulgaria and Romania, for example those from Zavet, Mortogonovo, Klnovo, Fcu and Zimnicea. (Teleag 2008, 236, 438440), but some might have also been used slightly later according to the chronology recently proposed by Mndescu (2010, 158159). Therefore the dating of the helmet from the grave at Ocna Sibiului can be narrowed down to the first half of the 4th century BC and as late as the beginning of the second half of this century. This chronological delimitation corresponds to the ethnic and historical evolution from Transylvania and northern Balkans, an aspect which will be discussed below. The remaining pieces of the Ocna Sibiului funerary inventory are harness mounts. According to their dimensions, the simple loops and the discs can be paired, while the loops with knobs have different sizes. The mentioned discs have analogies made of silver or bronze in a series of funerary inventories or hoards, being associated with other elements of harness fittings. For example similar objects are present in the hoard containing harness mounts discovered at Craiova (Pl.5/2) (Berciu 1969, 133, fig.102; Berciu 1974, 150151, fig.69; Kull 1997, 214, fig.7/18), or in the graves from Peretu (Pl.5/1) (Kull 1997, 215, fig. 8/1113) and Agighiol (Pl. 5/3) (Berciu 1969, 6768, fig. 41/16; 47/13, 5; Berciu 1974, 7678, fig.32/7, 911; Kull 1997, 246, fig.24/4043). Three silver discs are associated with a simple loop and with other decorative harness elements in the recently discovered tumulus from Malomirovo-Zlatinitsa (Agre 2011, 116118, fig. III.IV-15/ab 16). Loops with knobs are frequently associated with other harness mounts, for example in the grave from Gvani (Pl.6/1) (Kull 1997, 283, fig.39/18; SrbuHaruche 2000, 140, fig.37) or in the one from Panagjurite (Pl.6/2), dated to the 4th century BC (Kull 1997, 296297, fig.49/20). The presence of such loops in the inventories of some graves lacking weaponry or harness equipment (for example in the grave from EnisalaMovila 6-B, m. 5, Simion 1971, 118, fig.31/g; Simion 2003, 279, 314, fig.14/5), sometimes linked in groups of two or three as in the case of a grave from Ciucurova (Pl.6/3), or another from Zimnicea (Simion 1976, 159163, fig.10/3; Simion 2003, 155, fig.1/4; Alexandrescu 1980, 22, fig.50/8) indicates that the functionality of these objects was diverse. They could have also been used as garment accessories. The manner in which they were used as connecting elements for belts and straps is also indicated by a series of loops discovered at Magdalenska gora (Pl.6/4) (Hvala Et Al. 2004, pl.35/3 6; 45/812; 71/25; 159/113; etc.). Loops with knobs were in use during an extended period in the area north of the Danube, up to the late La Tne and even later, and having various functionalities (see Rustoiu 1996b, 106107). The bronze piece having a tubular lower half and a pointed upper half, previously discussed by the present authors (RustoiuBerecki 2011), was considered the fitting element of a crest or plume of a helmet (Rusu 1969, 293; RusuBandula 1970, 3738; Teleag 2008, 441, no.949). The images on Greek painted pottery indicate that these Chalcidian helmets had ornamental crests on their top (Dintsis 1986, pl.63/2, 4, 6; 64/1, 5; Pflug 1988, 143144, fig.10). In certain cases traces of soldering have been observed at the point which these decorative elements, probably made of organic materials, were fitted (Stoyanov 2005, 648). In other situations the helmets were decorated on the top with other types of ornaments, also soldered (probably with tin). This is the case of the snake with three heads fitted on the helmet from the Golyamata Mogila tumulus at Malomirovo-Zlatinitsa, previously mentioned, or of the spiral ornaments on other helmets (Dintsis 1986, pl.67/12). Still, the object from the grave at Ocna Sibiului is not an ornament of this kind. The piece is lacking any trace of soldering, whereas the tubular base does not permit its fitting on the top of the helmet. A series of artefacts having a close similarity are later documented in the early Roman imperial period. They consist of bronze fittings belonging to the type of musical instruments used in military contexts,

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called cornu (Feugre 2002, 5759, fig. 5763). A fragment of this kind discovered at Murrhardt, in Baden-Wrttenberg (Nuber 1988, 110, fig.80), is a good example.1 These musical instruments appeared in the Etruscan world and, much earlier, in Greece. Still, the dimensions of the piece from Ocna Sibiului are much smaller than those of these potential analogies, so this functional identification is less convincing. In conclusion the bronze object is not a fitting element of a crest, as previously suggested. Today its functionality is difficult to establish, but the present hypotheses are pointing more likely to military equipment or harnessing. Summarising all these observations, in the light of the chronology of the cheek-piece and of the remaining pieces of the funerary inventory, the grave from Ocna Sibiului can be dated to the first half of the 4th century BC and the beginning of the second half of the century. Other arguments for this dating can be offered by the general interpretation of the ethno-historical evolution of the Transylvanian region in this period as will be presented below. The grave from Ocna Sibiului in the ethno-historical context of the inner Carpathian and northern Balkan region at the beginning of the Late Iron Age A number of details regarding the chronological identification of the grave from Ocna Sibiului are provided by the analysis of the ethno-historical context in the study area. This period corresponds to the horizon preceding the Celtic colonization in Transylvania. The first Celtic groups arrived in the eastern part of the Carpathian Basin and in Transylvania at the end of the LT B1 and the beginning of the LT B2, according to a series of funerary discoveries. Afterwards, in LT B2, new groups occupied territories in the region (Fig.3). The amalgamation of colonists and indigenous communities determined the appearance of some new communal identities expressed by a mixed or hybrid material culture, different from that identified in other Central European areas. Chronologically this period corresponds to the last three or four decades of the 4th century BC (see further on this subject in Rustoiu 2008, 6590; Rustoiu 2012b).

Ocna Sibiului

25

100 km

Fig.3. Celtic cemeteries dating to LT B1/B2 (circles) and LT B2 (black dots); fortified settlements in Maramure (triangles); indigenous cremation graves from Olteni and Ocna Sibiului (black squares).
1 We are grateful to our colleague Silvia Musta (Cluj-Napoca) for suggesting these analogies and interpretative possibility.

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The Celts did not occupy the entire territory of Transylvania. The fortified settlements from Maramure, as well as the burials and the settlements from eastern Transylvania (amongst which those from Olteni are significant), illustrate the existence of some local communities which continued to evolve without being significantly influenced by elements of La Tne culture (Fig.3). At the same time the nature of the settlements, the funerary rites and rituals and their assemblages seem to suggest that these communities were more likely oriented toward the cultural environment outside the Carpathians (Rustoiu 2008, 6590; Rustoiu 2012b, both with further bibliography). In contrast, in southern Transylvania a series of early funerary discoveries have been documented for example the sites of Vurpr and Toarcla (Horedt 1944) illustrating the Celtic colonization of the region (Fig.3). Similar to other colonized areas, an amalgamation of elements of La Tne and indigenous cultures has been documented. However, despite this ethnic and cultural mixture the Celtic warlike lites maintained and expressed a particular identity through the use of certain specific symbolic elements. From this point of view the panoply of weapons, consisting of a long sword, a spear and a shield, played an important role. These weapons were sometimes accompanied by helmets, for example the Italic bronze helmet discovered in the surroundings of Haeg (for the type and distribution see Schaaff 1974, 188189, n. 20, fig.31/2 and fig.32), or chariots for example that from Toarcla. Although some of the Celtic warriors managed to reach Greece and the northern Balkans, more likely as mercenaries, the La Tne suite of arms remained the main symbolic element of personal and group identity. A cremation grave with the remains placed in a cist, discovered in a tumulus at Plovdiv, is relevant from this point of view. The funerary inventory contains the usual range of arms, including a ritually bent La Tne sword and several spears, together with a La Tne brooch. The funerary offerings consists of numerous Greek and local vessels, including lamps. The burial probably belonged to a Celtic warrior who died around the middle of the 3rd century BC in Thrace and who can be recognized due to the presence of the range of arms and of some garment accessories. Details of the funerary rite and ritual point more likely to the practices and beliefs of the local community in which the warrior met his end (for the funerary inventory and its interpretation from various perspectives see further in Bouzek 2005, 9799, fig.79; Emilov 2010, 8082, fig.47). Anastassov (2011, 235) also considers that this grave can be related to the mercenary activity of some Celtic groups hired by various rulers of the Hellenistic period. A similar situation can be also noted in the case of some graves recently discovered at Ohrid (Gutin Et Al. 2011), in which the funerary ritual and the suite of arms are of La Tne type, whereas other elements of the inventory point to a certain cultural hybridity. Taking into consideration the previously mentioned arguments, the grave from Ocna Sibiului has to be dated before the Celtic colonization in Transylvania (especially in southern Transylvania), more precisely before the last quarter of the 4th century BC. This dating is also supported by the general chronology of the artefacts from the funerary inventory, in particular with regard to the helmet. The funerary inventory demonstrates a different manner of expressing the warrior identity, different from that characterising the Celtic milieu, but related to the environment of the military and aristocratic lites of the northern Balkans. Thus in order to discuss the cultural significance of this grave, the analysis has to be oriented towards the situation from the study area and to the events which characterised the period preceding the Celtic colonization. The grave from Ocna Sibiului is not an isolated example (Fig.4). The cremation grave (probably from a tumulus, see MedeleBugilan 1987, 102, 125126; Gum 1991, 95) from CuptoareSfogea (Pl.7/12), in the region of Banat, containing a Chalcidian helmet (Oprinescu 1987; for important corrections regarding its context, chronology and cultural identification see Gum 1991, 93102), as well as the similar helmet (Pl. 7/3) from Mercina (Vrdia commune, Cara-Severin County),2 discovered sometimes between 1910 and 1915 in the area of the village at the find-spot named Vraki Breg, and today preserved in the Museum of Vrac (Brukner Et Al. 1974, 547548, fig.255256; Medele mss,
2 A series of confusions still persists in archaeological literature regarding the actual location of this discovery. For example, the place of discovery is recorded as Nerina (Mercina), near Vrac, Vojvodina (Lazr 2009, 16, no.13), a confusion introduced by Brukner Et Al. 1974, 547, the caption to fig.256 also indicates the Vrac Hills (Vraki Breg). The same place of discovery was located at Vrac (Urac?) by Pflug 1988, 142, n. 30) or even at Zsidovina, an evident confusion with Jidovin (now Berzovia, Cara-Severin County), from which a Greek-Illyrian helmet has been found (for this confusion of location see Lazr 2009, 16). Florin Medeles research led him to identify of the place of discovery on the area of the southern or western slopes of the Vrac Hills, which at the beginning of the 20th century were within the territory of the village of Mercina, now part of Romania, in Vrdia commune, Cara-Severin County (Medele mss.)

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s.v. Mercina). This helmet, probably also from a funerary context, suggests the same connections with the southern CarpathianBalkan area evidenced by the funerary rite and ritual of the grave from Cuptoare and to be dated around the middle or in the second half of the 4th century BC (see Gum 1991, 101).

Tisa

rive

MA

Danube

RAM

UR

THE GREAT HUNGARIAN PLAIN TRANSYLVANIA


Mure river

Ocna Sibiului Gvani Agighiol

BANAT

Mercina

Cuptoare Peretu Vraca Zimnicea Svetari

25

100 km

Fig.4. Distribution map of the graves from the northern Balkans, Transylvania and Banat (black dots) and the Greek colonies on the Black Sea coast (black squares).

Mircea Babe has remarked that the inventories of some graves from the southern Carpathian Balkan area indicate the existence of a hierarchy among the aristocracy from the Lower Danube region and a local interpretation of the southern means of expressing status. For example, the burials of the princes from Agighiol, Sveshtari or Vraca are constructed on the basis of a Macedonian model while the funerary contexts from the north of the Danube, like those from Peretu or Gvani, have a simpler architecture but a lavish inventory, whereas other burials, for example those from Zimnicea, Fcu and Fntnele can be attributed to some lower rank members of the local aristocracy (Babe 1997, 232233). The graves of the same type from Ocna Sibiului and Banat can be also ascribed to this social level which characterized the periphery of the northern Balkans cultural environment. This social and also functional hierarchization meaning a distribution of the social and perhaps religious functions within this structure is also suggested by the aspect of the helmets and of the parade military equipment, made of precious metals and richly decorated with symbolic and mythological scenes, in contrast with the simpler military equipment recovered from the graves belonging to lower rank warriors (Pl.8). In this context is has to be also mentioned that these helmets played an important role in the affirmation of the social and symbolic status of the owners. In general the headgear as a symbol of authority, laic or religious, is frequently used, from prehistory to the modern times, in various societies. Amongst them can be mentioned the caps worn by the military and religious Dacian aristocracy, or the crowns worn by different medieval and modern monarchs of Europe. The shape and nature of such items differs from one culture to another according to particular aesthetic and symbolic criteria specific to the society that has created them, albeit the idea of symbolically marking the leaders head is similar (see for example Babi 2001). Within a study regarding the Greek-Illyrian helmets of the end of the Early Iron Age in western Balkans, Blei (2007) pointed to the multiple significances of such objects: emblems of rank, symbols of a warlike hierarchy, subjects of votive offerings or sacrifices etc. Taking into consideration these

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observations, it might be significant that the cremated remains of the deceased from CuptoareSfogea were placed in the helmet before being laid in grave. A similar practice has been encountered in other situations belonging to different historical and cultural environments. For example in a grave from Svrin (probably dated to the 4th3rd centuries BC) the cremated human remains were placed in an iron helmet covered with a bowl, the reuse of the headgear as urn being very clear in this case (BarbuHgel 1999, 109; Ferencz 2007, 44, no.19). In a tumulus burial from Popeti (tumulus no.4; 2nd1st century BC) it was noted that some of the cremated human remains had been placed in a bronze helmet (Vulpe 1976, 203). These practices illustrate the symbolic role played by helmets, which was maintained in funerary contexts. F. Medele already suggested that a connection might have existed between these ritual practices and a cult of the head that was attested among populations from the Balkans (Medele mss., s.v. Cuptoare). Returning to northern Balkans society in the 5th3rd centuries BC, it has to be also noted that other material expressions, visible in the archaeological record were also used to display a particular status. Amongst such evidence can be mentioned the large fortified settlements sometimes having defensive works inspired by Greek models, for example the brick walls from Coofenii din Dos and Bzdna (Babe 1997) the rich hoards containing numerous gold and silver objects, the burials with funerary chamber and lavish inventories, but also the smaller fortified settlements and funerary structures, all of which are pointing to a hierarchy of the communities and of their elites.

Although it was discovered over a century ago, the funerary inventory from Ocna Sibiului provides a series of important details concerning its composition and chronology, but mostly about the general ethno-historical contexts in northern Balkans at the beginning of the Late Iron Age. The grave is dated to a period covering the first half and the beginning of the second half of the 4th century BC. This dating is supported by the chronology of the fragment of Chalcidian helmet and its association with harness mounts specific to the same period. As a result, the grave from Ocna Sibiului is not Celtic, while the cheek-piece does not belong to an Etruscan or Italic-Celtic helmet as it was previously suggested. The burial precedes the Celtic horizon in Transylvania. Its composition illustrates the cultural connections between southern Transylvania (and Banat) and northern Balkans in the period which both antedates and continues during the reigns of Philip II and Alexander the Great. Northern Balkans society was characterized by influence from both the Greek and Macedonian models, by an interpretation of these models in a particular manner and also by a pronounced symbolic and functional hierarchy. The Thracian aristocracy the upper social layers of the Odrysians, Getae or Triballi expressed their social position and privileged status through the use of well-defined material symbols. Amongst them the tumulus burials with funerary chamber and lavish inventories eloquently support this idea. The internal social hierarchy of these lites can be observed in the differentiation of the inventories and personal military equipment within the funerary ceremonies (Pl.8). From this perspective the grave from Ocna Sibiului, as well as the discoveries from the Banat, at CuptoareSfogea and Mercina, illustrate the practice of simplified copying of the northern and north-eastern Balkan model, defining the periphery of this phenomenon. The funerary inventory of the grave from Ocna Sibiului, especially the helmet and the harness equipment, functionally imitates the equipment of the warlike lites from the south of the Carpathians, even if the latter is far from the ostentatiousness displayed in the northern Balkans region. The Celtic lites had imposed, many years after the interment of the deceased from Ocna Sibiului, another cultural model and new ways of expressing identities, defined by other functional and typological structures of military equipment. As mentioned above, the helmets had multiple functional and symbolic meanings. This fact may also explain the well-delimited distribution areas of certain helmets which otherwise had different typological and manufacturing origins. Teran (1995, 8586, fig.5) noted nearly two decades ago that the so-called Greek-Illyrian helmets are mainly encountered in the Illyrian communities from the western and north-western Balkans, whereas the Chalcidian ones were mainly used in the north-eastern Balkans. Gum (1991, 100102) also identified a chronological and typological succession of the helmets from the north of the Danube, relevant for the study of inter-cultural connections. For the end of the Early Iron Age, Gum noted the presence of some Greco-Illyrian helmets in the western part of nowadays Romania. The group includes the helmets from Gostav in Oltenia, Ocna Mure in Transylvania, Berzovia (former Jidovin) in Banat, and the beautifully decorated helmet recently recovered from the Timi River, at Gvojdia (MedeleCedic 2003). These pieces illustrate the relations established by local or immigrant

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military lites with regions from the western and north-western Balkans in the 5th century BC, and define the limit of the distribution area of such artefacts. The Chalcidian helmets from Transylvania and Banat (Fig.4) underline a similar mechanism, albeit that they draw attention to the social models which characterize the Thracian environment in the 4th century BC. Finally, it has to be also mentioned that for the chronological interval between the end of the Scythian horizon in Transylvania (around 450 BC) and the beginning of the Celtic horizon (350330/320 BC), of roughly a century, archaeological evidence is limited. The funerary contexts or their contemporaneous settlements are missing. Still, the main cause is more likely the actual state of research. The grave from Ocna Sibiului may suggest a possible direction for future investigations, at least for the areas covering the limits of the Transylvanian plateau.3
References Agre 2011 Alexandrescu 1980 Alexandrescu 1987 Anastassov 2011 Andriomenou 1976 Andronicos 1984 Babe 1997 Babi 2001 BarbuHgel 1999 Berciu 1969 Berciu 1974 Blei 2007 Bouzek 2005 Agre, D., The tumulus of Golyamata Mogila near the villages of Malomirovo and Zlatinitsa, Sofia. Alexandrescu, A. D., La ncropole Gte de Zimnicea, Dacia N. S., 24, 19126. Alexandrescu, P., nsemnri arheologice. Asupra tezaurului de la Rogozen, SCIVA, 38, 3, 233244. Anastassov, J., The Celtic presence in Thrace during the 3rd century BC in light of new archaeological data, IN: Gutin, M.Jevti, M. (eds.), The Eastern Celts. The communities between the Alps and the Black Sea, KoperBeograd, 227239. Andriomenou, A., Ein chalkidischer Helm aus Tithorea, Mitteilungen des DAI Athenische Abteilung, 91, 189202. Andronicos, M., Vergina. The royal tombs and the ancient city, Athens. Babe, M., Despre fortificaiile Cetii Jidovilor de la Coofenii din Dos, SCIVA, 48, 3, 199236. Babi, S., Headgear of the Early Iron Age tribal chieftains. Social and symbolic aspects, SNMB, XVII-1, 8393. Barbu, M.Hgel, P., Svrin, IN: Repertoriul arheologic al Mureului inferior. Judeul Arad, Timioara, 106109. Berciu, D., Arta traco-getic, Bucureti. Berciu, D., Contribution ltude de lart Thraco-Gte, Bucureti. Blei, M., Status, symbols, sacrifices, offerings. The diverse meanings of Illyrian helmets, VAMZ, 40, 73116. Bouzek, J., Celtic campaigns in southern Thrace and the Tylis kingdom: The Duchov fibula in Bulgaria and the destruction of Pistiros in 279/8 BC, IN: Dobrzaska, H.Megaw, V. Poleska, P. (eds.), Celts on the margin. Studies in European Cultural Interaction (7th Century BC1st Century AD) Dedicated to Zenon Woniak, Krakow, 93101. Brukner, B.Jovanovi, B.Tasi, N., Praistorija Vojvodine, Novi Sad. ernenko, E. V., Die Schutzwaffen der Skythen, PBF, III.2, Stuttgart. Crian, I. H., Contribuii la problema celilor din Transilvania, SCIV, 22, 2, 149164. Crian, I. H., Aa-numitul mormnt celtic de la Siliva i problema celui mai vechi grup celtic din Transilvania, Sargetia, 10, 4578. Dintsis, P., Hellenistische Helme, Roma. Emilov, J., Ancient texts on the Galatian royal residence of Tylis and the context of La Tne finds in Southern Thrace. A reappraisal, IN: Vagalinski, L. F. (ed.), In Search of Celtic Tylis in Thrace (III C BC). Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Colloquium Arranged by the National Archaeological Institute and Museum at Sofia and the Welsh Department, Aberystwyth University held at the National Archaeological Institute and Museum, Sofia, 8 May 2010, Sofia, 6787. Ferencz, I. V., Celii pe Mureul mijlociu. La Tne-ul timpuriu i mijlociu n bazinul mijlociu al Mureului (sec. IVII .Chr.), Sibiu.

Brukner Et Al. 1974 ernenko 2006 Crian 1971 Crian 1973 Dintsis 1986 Emilov 2010

Ferencz 2007

3 The authors are grateful to S. Musta (Cluj-Napoca) and J. Emilov (Sofia) for drawing attention to some relevant bibliography, as well as to M. Gutin for the permission to read in advance the study regarding the graves from Ohrid, which is in press.

172 | A. RustoiuS. Berecki Feugre 2002 Furtwngler 1890 Gold der Thraker 2007 Gum 1991 Feugre, M., Weapons of the Romans, Stroud-Charleston. Furtwngler, A., Olympia IV: Die Bronzen und die brigen kleineren Funde von Olympia, Berlin. (http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/furtwaengler1890bd1). Die alten Zivilisationen Bulgariens. Das Gold der Thraker, Basel.

Gum, M., Cteva precizri asupra unor tipuri de coifuri de la sfritul primei epoci a fierului i nceputul celei de a doua descoperite n sud-vestul Romniei, Thraco-Dacica, 12, 85103. Gutin Et Al. 2011 Gutin, M.Kuzman, P.Malenko, V., Ein keltischer Krieger in Lichnidos/Ohrid, Mazedonien (forthcoming). Horedt 1944 Horedt, K., Zwei keltische Grabfunde aus Siebenbrgen, Dacia, 910, 19411944, 189200. Hvala Et Al. 2004 Hvala, S. T.Dular, J.Kocuvan, E., Eisenzeitliche Grabhgel auf der Magdalenska gora, Ljubljana. Kull 1997 Kull, B., Tod und Apotheose. Zur Ikonographie in Grab und Kunst der jngeren Eisenzeit an der unteren Donau und ihrer Bedeutung fr die Interpretation von Prunkgrbern, BerRGK, 78, 197466. Kunze 1967 Kunze, E., Helme, Bericht ber die Ausgrabungen in Olympia, 8, 111183. Kunze 1994 Kunze, E., Chalkidische Helme IVVII mit Nachtrgen zu I und II, Bericht ber die Ausgrabungen in Olympia, 9, 27100. Lazr 2009 Lazr, S., Helmets of the Chalcidian shape found in the Lower Danube area, Dacia N. S., 53, 1326. Mndescu 2010 Mndescu, D., Cronologia perioadei timpurii a celei de-a doua epoci a fierului (sec. VIII a. Chr.) ntre Carpai, Nistru i Balcani, Brila. Medle mss Medele, F., Epoca Latne n Banat, manuscript. MedeleBugilan 1987 Medele, F.Bugilan, I., Contribuii la problema i la repertoriul movilelor de pmnt din Banat, Banatica, 9, 87198. MedeleCedic 2003 Medele, F.Cedic, V., Coiful greco-ilir de la Gvojdia (jud. Timi), Analele Banatului, 1011, 1, 20022003, 97100. Nuber 1988 Nuber, H. U., Antike Bronzen aus Baden-Wrttenberg, SuttgartAalen. Ognenova-Marinova Ognenova-Marinova, L.Stoyanov, T., The chalkidian helmets and the origin of the North Stoyanov 2005 Thracian ceremonial armour, IN: Stephanos Archaeologicos in honorem Professoris Liudmili Getov, Sofia, 693700. Oprinescu 1987 Oprinescu, A., Mormntul unui lupttor get de la CuptoareSfogea (com Cornea, jud. Cara-Severin), Thraco-Dacica, 8, 127129. Pflug 1988 Pflug, H., Chalkidische Helme, IN: Antike Helme. Sammlung Lipperheide und andere Bestnde des Antikenmuseums Berlin, Mainz, 137150. Rogozen 1989 Der thrakische Silberschatz aus Rogozen Bulgarien, BonnMainzFreiburgMnchen Hamburg, 19881989. Rustoiu 1996a Rustoiu, A., Ateliere de orfevrrie i artizani de prestigiu n Dacia preroman, IN: Mitu, S.Gogltan, Fl. (eds.), Via privat, mentaliti colective i imaginar social n Transilvania, OradeaCluj, 7682. Rustoiu 1996b Rustoiu, A., Metalurgia bronzului la daci (sec. II . Chr.sec. I d. Chr.). Tehnici, ateliere i produse de bronz, BT, 15, Bucureti. Rustoiu 2002 Rustoiu, A., Rzboinici i artizani de prestigiu n Dacia preroman, Cluj-Napoca. Rustoiu 2008 Rustoiu, A., Rzboinici i societate n aria celtic transilvnean. Studii pe marginea mormntului cu coif de la Ciumeti, Cluj-Napoca. Rustoiu 2012a Rustoiu, A., Ocna Sibiului, IN: Sievers, S.Urban, O. H.Ramsl, P. C. (eds.), Lexikon zur keltischen Archologie, Wien, forthcoming. Rustoiu 2012b Rustoiu, A., Indigenous and colonist communities in the Eastern Carpathian Basin at the beginning of the Late Iron Age. The genesis of an Eastern Celtic World, IN: Popa, C. N.Stoddart, S. (eds.), Fingerprinting the Iron Age. Approaches to identity in the European Iron Age. Integrating South-Eastern Europe into the debate, Oxford, forthcoming. RustoiuBerecki 2011 Rustoiu, A.Berecki, S., An unidentified bronze object from Ocna Sibiului, Romania (first half of the 4th century BC), Instrumentum, 34, 10. Rusu 1969 Rusu, M., Das keltische Frstengrab von Ciumeti in Rumnien, BerRGK, 50, 267300. RusuBandula 1970 Rusu, M.Bandula, O., Mormntul unei cpetenii celtice de la Ciumeti, Baia Mare.

Thracian Warriors in Transylvania at the Beginning of the Late Iron Age | 173 Schaaff, U., Keltische Eisenhelme aus vorrmischer Zeit, Jahrbuch RGZM, 21, 1, 149204. Simion, G., Despre cultura geto-dacic din nordul Dobrogei n lumina descoperirilor de la Enisala, Peuce, 2, 63129. Simion 1976 Simion, G., Les Gtes de la Dobroudja septentrionale du VIe au Ier sicle av.n.., ThracoDacica, 1, 143163. Simion 2003 Simion, G., Culturi antice n zona gurilor Dunrii, Cluj-Napoca. Srbu 2006 Srbu, V., Man and gods in the Geto-Dacian world, Braov. SrbuHaruche 2000 Srbu, V.Haruche, N., Remarques sur le tumulus aristocratique de Gvani, IN: Lungu, V. (ed.), Pratiques funeraires dans lEurope des XIIIe-IVe s. av. J.-C. Actes du IIIe Colloque International dArchologie Funraire, Tulcea 1997, Tulcea, 139153. Stoyanov 2005 Stoyanov, T., A bronze helmet of chalkidian type from Golyamo Shivachevo, Sliven District. Notes on the chalkidian helmet in Thrace, IN: Stephanos Archaeologicos in honorem Professoris Liudmili Getov, Sofia, 646653. Teleag 2008 Teleag, E., Griechische Importe in den Nekropolen an der unteren Donau. 6. Jh. Anfang des 3. Jh. v. Chr., MSVF, Bd. 23, Rahden/Westf. Teran 1995 Teran, B., Handel und soziale Oberschichten im frheisenzeitlichen Sdosteuropa, IN: Hnsel, B. (Hrsg.), Handel, Tausch und Verkehr im bronze- und frheisenzeitlichen Sdosteuropa, MnchenBerlin, 81159. Vulpe 1976 Vulpe, A., La ncropole tumulaire gte de Popeti, Thraco-Dacica, 1, 193215. Zirra 1971 Zirra, V., Beitrge zur Kenntnis des keltischen Latne in Rumnien, Dacia N. S. 15, 171238. Zirra 1975 Zirra, V., Influences des Gto-Daces et de leurs voisins sur lhabitat celtique de Transylvanie, IN: Fitz, J. (ed.), The Celts in Central Europe, Szkesfehrvr, 4764. Schaaff 1974 Simion 1971

List of figures Fig.1. Distribution map of Chalcidian helmets Pflug type V in the northern Balkans (see the list of discoveries in Stoyanov 2005 and Teleag 2008). Fig.2. Distribution map of Chalcidian helmets Pflug type II, the Thracian variant (black squares) and the silver and gold parade helmets (white squares) (see the list of discoveries in Teran 1995; Ognenova-Marinova Stoyanov 2005; Teleag 2008). Fig.3. Celtic cemeteries dating to LT B1/B2 (circles) and LT B2 (black dots); fortified settlements in Maramure (triangles); indigenous cremation graves from Olteni and Ocna Sibiului (black squares). Fig.4. Distribution map of the graves from the northern Balkans, Transylvania and Banat (black dots) and the Greek colonies on the Black Sea coast (black squares).

List of plates Pl.12. Funerary inventory from Ocna Sibiului. Pl. 3. Chalcidian cheek-pieces. 1. Ocna Sibiului; 2. Olympia; 3. Dodona (after Kunze 1994); 4. Tithorea (after Andriomenou 1976); 5. ShipkaGolyama Kosmatka (after Gold der Thraker 2007). 13, 5. without scale. Pl.4. Chalcidian helmets. 1. Standard type II from Ruec; 2. Thracian type from Bal; 3. Repaired helmet from Budeti; 4. Silver helmet from Agighiol; 5. Silver helmet from Peretu (13. after Lazr 2009; 4. after Kull 1997; 5. after Srbu 2006; 13, 5. without scale). Pl.5. Assemblages of harness elements containing silver discs. 1. Peretu; 2. Craiova; 3. Agighiol (after Kull 1997, without scale). Pl.6. Assemblages of harness elements discovered in graves and containing loops with knobs (12) and different forms using loops with knobs. 1. Gvani; 2. Panagjurite (after Kull 1997); 3. Ciucurova (after Simion 1976); 4. Magdalenska gora (after Hvala Et Al. 2004). Pl.7. 1. Inventory of the grave from CuptoareSfogea (after Gum 1991); 2. Helmet from MercinaVracki breg (after Brukner Et Al. 1974, without scale). Pl.8. Different levels of hierarchization (according to the structure of the funerary inventories) of the aristocracy and the warlike lites in the northern Balkans and on its periphery (see also Fig.4). Legend: A. Agighiol; B. Peretu; C. Gvani (after Kull 1997); D. Zimnicea, grave C1D (after Alexandrescu 1980; Srbu 2006); E. Ocna Sibiului; F. CuptoareSfogea (after Gum 1991).

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3 1

4 8

2 5 9

6 10

12 11

Plate1. Funerary inventory from Ocna Sibiului.

Plate 1. Funerary inventory from Ocna Sibiului (photos S. Berecki).

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3 7 1

8 5 2

10

11 12

Plate2. Funerary inventory from Ocna Sibiului.

Plate 2. Funerary inventory from Ocna Sibiului (drawings S. Berecki).

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3 2

Plate3. Chalcidian cheek-pieces. 1. Ocna Sibiului; 2. Olympia; 3. Dodona (after Kunze 1994); 4. Tithorea (after Andriomenou 1976); 5. ShipkaGolyama Kosmatka (after Gold der Thraker 2007). 13, 5. without scale.

Plate 3. Chalcidian cheek-pieces: 1. Ocna Sibiului; 2. Olympia; 3. Dodona (after KUNZE 1994); 4. Tithorea (after ANDRIOMENOU 1976); 5. ShipkaGolyama Kosmatka (after GOLD DER THRAKER 2007). 23, 5. without scale.

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4 5

Plate 4. Chalcidian helmets. 1. 'standard' type II from Ruec; 2. 'Thracian' type from Bal; 3. repaired helmet from Budeti; 4. silver helmet from Agighiol; 5. silver helmet from Peretu (13. after LAZR 2009; 4. after KULL 1997; 5. after SRBU 2006; 13, 5. without scale).

Plate4. Chalcidian helmets. 1. Standard type II from Ruec; 2. Thracian type from Bal; 3. Repaired helmet from Budeti; 4. Silver helmet from Agighiol; 5. Silver helmet from Peretu (13. after Lazr 2009; 4. after Kull 1997; 5. after Srbu 2006; 13, 5. without scale).

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Plate5. Assemblages of harness elements containing silver discs. 1. Peretu; 2. Craiova; 3. Agighiol (after Kull 1997, without scale).

Plate 5. Assemblages of harness elements containing silver discs. 1. Peretu; 2. Craiova; 3. Agighiol (after KULL 1997, without scale).

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3 4
Plate6. Assemblages of harness elements discovered in graves and containing loops with knobs (12) and different forms using loops with knobs. 1. Gvani; 2. Panagjurite (after Kull 1997); 3. Ciucurova (after Simion 1976); 4.Magdalenska gora (after Hvala Et Al. 2004).

Plate 6. Assemblages of harness elements discovered in graves and containing loops with knobs (12) and different forms using loops with knobs. 1. Gvani; 2. Panagjurite (after KULL 1997); 3. Ciucurova (after SIMION 1976); 4. Magdalenska gora (after HVALA ET AL. 2004).

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2
Plate7. 1. Inventory of the grave from CuptoareSfogea (after Gum 1991); 2. Helmet from MercinaVracki breg (after Brukner Et Al. 1974, without scale).

Plate 7. 1. Inventory of the grave from CuptoareSfogea (after GUM 1991); 2. Helmet from MercinaVracki breg (after BRUKNER ET AL. 1974, without scale).

Thracian Warriors in Transylvania at the Beginning of the Late Iron Age | 181

E F

of the aristocracy and the warlike lites in the northern Balkans and on its periphery (see also Fig. 4). Legend: A. Agighiol; B. Peretu; C. Gvani (after KULL 1997); D. Zimnicea, grave C1D (after ALEXANDRESCU 1980; SRBU 2006); E. Ocna Sibiului; F. CuptoareSfogea (after GUM 1991).

Plate8. Different levels of hierarchization (according to the structure of the funerary inventories) of the aristocracy and the warlike lites in the northern Balkans and on its periphery (see also Fig.4). Legend: A. Agighiol; B. Peretu; C. Gvani (after Kull 1997); D. to Zimnicea, grave C1D Alexandrescu 1980; Plate 8. Different levels of hierarchization (according the structure of (after the funerary inventories) Srbu 2006); E. Ocna Sibiului; F. CuptoareSfogea (after Gum 1991).

ABBREVIATIONS

ActaAA ActaArchHung ActaArch Carpatica ActaArch Kbenhavn ActaB ActaMN ActaMP ActaTS ActaUL AFN Agria AIH AJB Alba Regia Analele Banatului AnnalenWien Angustia AnthrKzl Apulum ArchAustr ArchBaltica ArchBulg Archechch ArchE Archrt ArchHung ArchIug ArchKorr ArchKzl ArchPol ArchRoz ArchS ArhMold ArhPregl ArhRR ArhVest Arrabona ASF ASM AuF Balcanica Banatica BAR BAW BCS

Acta Antiqua et Achaeologica, Szeged Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, Budapest Acta Archaeologica Carpathica, Academia Scientiarum Polona Collegium Cracoviense, Krakw Acta Archeologica, Kbenhavn Acta Bernensia, Bern Acta Musei Napocensis, Cluj-Napoca Acta Musei Porolissensis, Zalu Acta Terrae Septemcastrensis, Sibiu Acta Universitatis Lodziensis, Folia Archaeologica Archologische Forschungen in Niedersterreich Agria, Annales Musei Agriensis / Az Egri Mzeum vknyve (1982), Eger Rgszeti Kutatsok Magyarorszgon / Archaeological Investigation in Hungary, Budapest Das archologische Jahr in Bayern Alba Regia, Annales Musei Stephani Regis, Szkesfehrvr Analele Banatului, Muzeul Banatului, Timioara Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien Angustia, Muzeul Carpailor Rsriteni, Sfntu Gheorghe Anthropolgiai Kzlemnyek, A Magyar Biolgiai Trsasg Embertani Szakosztlynak folyirata, Budapest Apulum, Acta Musei Apulensis, Alba Iulia Archaeologia Austriaca, Wien Archaeologia Baltica, Vilnius Archaeologia Bulgarica, Sofia Archeologie ve stednch echch Archologie in Eurasien, Mainz am Rhein Archaeologiai rtest, Budapest Archaeologia Hungarica, Budapest Archaeologia Iugoslavica Archologisches Korrespondenzblatt, Rmisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseum in Mainz Archeologiai Kzlemnyek Archeologia Polona Archeologick Rozhledy, Prague Archologie in Salzburg Arheologia Moldovei, Iai Arheoloki Pregled, Arheoloko drutovo Jugoslavije Arheoloki radovi i rasprave, Zagreb Arheoloki vestnik (Acta Archaeologica), Intitut za arheologijo, Lubljana Arrabona, a Gyri Mzeum vknyve Archaeologia Slovaca Fontes, Bratislava Archaeologica Slovaca Monographiae Ausgrabungen und Funde, Nachrichtenblatt der Landesarchologie Balcanica, Beograd Banatica, Muzeul de istorie al judeului Cara-Severin, Reia British Archaeological Reports, International Series, Oxford Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mnchen Buletinul Cercurilor tiinifice Studeneti, Alba Iulia

532 | Abbreviations Beitrge UFM BerRGK BHAUT BMA BMAK BMBistria BMM BMMK BMP BT CA CAJ Carpica CCA ComArchHung Corviniana Crisia CurrA Us Dacia (N. S.) Beitrge zur Ur- und Frhgeschichte Mitteleuropas, Weissbach Bericht der Rmisch-Germanischen Kommission Bibliotheca Historica et Archaeologica Universitatis Timisiensis Biblioteca Mvsei Apvlensis, Alba Iulia Biblioteka Muzeum Archeologicznego w Krakwie Biblioteca Muzeului Bistria Bibliotheca Mvsei Marisiensis, Seria Archaeologica, Trgu Mure / Cluj Napoca Bks Megyei Mzeumok Kzlemnye, Bkscsaba Bibliotheca Mvsei Porolissensis, Zalu Bibliotheca Thracologica, Bucureti Cercetri Arheologice Cambridge Archaeological Journal Carpica, Muzeul Judeean de Istorie i Art Iulian Antonescu, Bacu Cronica Cercetrilor Arheologice din Romnia Communicationes Archaeologicae Hungariae, Budapest Corviniana, Acta Musei Corviniensis, Hunedoara Crisia, Muzeul rii Criurilor, Oradea Current Anthropology asopis Uen Spolenosti afkovy, Bratislava Dacia, Recherches et dcuvertes archologiques en Roumanie, IXII (19241948), Bucureti; Nouvelle srie (N. S.), Dacia. Revue darchologie et dhistoire anciene, Bucureti DissPann Dissertationes Pannonicae, ex Instituto Numismatico et Archaeologico Universitatis de Petro Pzmny nominatae Budapestinensis provenientes, Budapest DMB Dissertationes et Monographiae Beograd DolgKolozsvr (. S.) Dolgozatok az Erdlyi Nemzeti Mzeum rem- s Rgisgtrbl, (j sorozat, 2006), Kolozsvr DolgSzeged Dolgozatok, Szeged EA Eurasia Antiqua, Deutsches Archologisches Institut Ea-online European archaeology online (www.archaeology.ro) C tudes Celtiques, Paris EM Az Egri Mzeum vknyve EphemNap Ephemeris Napocensis, ClujNapoca ET Etudes Touloises, Toul FAP Fontes Archaeologici Pragenses FAPos Fontes Archaelogici Posnanienses FHA Fontes Historiae Antiquae, , Pozna FolArch Folia Archeologica, a Magyar Nemzeti Mzeum vknyve, Budapest F Fundberichte aus sterreich, Wien FS Fundberichte aus Schwaben, Stuttgart Germania Germania, Frankfurt am Main Glasnik SAD Glasnik Srpskog Arheolokog Drutva, Beograd Glasnik ZM Glasnik Zemaljskog Muzeja Bosne i Hercegovine u Sarajevu Hierasus Hierasus, Muzeul Judeean Botoani HOM A Herman Ott Mzeum vknyve, Miskolc HOMO HOMO, Journal of Comparative Human Biology IA Internationale Archologie, Buch am Erlbach, Espelkamp, Rahden/Westf. IPH Inventaria Praehistorica Hungariae, Budapest ISPRS International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences Istros Istros, Buletinul Muzeului Brilei, Brila JAA Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, Amsterdam Jahrbuch Liechtenstein Jahrbuch des Historischen Vereins fr das Frstentum Liechtenstein, Vaduz Jahrbuch Mecklenburg Jahrbuch fr Bodendenkmalpflege in Mecklenburg Jahrbuch RGZM Jahrbuch des Rmisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz

Abbreviations | 533 JahrOM JAM JAS JBAA JEA JPM JRA JSP KK Kzlemnyek Kolozsvr Litua MAB Marisia Marmatia MatArch MatStar MAZ MBVF MCA MFM MittAGW MittAIUAW MKCSM MMO MPK MSVF NMM OIAS OJA OpArch AW srgszeti levelek PA PamArch PAS PB PBF Peuce Prace odz NK Prace odz Arch Pontica PPP PPS Prilozi IAZ PrzArch PZ PUD RadMV RAO RAP RBPA Jahrbuch des Obersterreichischen Musealvereines, Linz A Nyregyhzi Jsa Andrs Mzeum vknyve, Nyregyhza Journal of Archaeological Science, London Journal of the British Archaeological Association Journal of European Archaeology, Durham, UK A Janus Pannonius Mzeum vknyve, Pcs Journal of Roman Archaeology Journal of Sedimentary Petrology Kulturlis rksgvdelmi Kismonogrfik, Budapest Kzlemnyek az Erdlyi Nemzeti Mzeum rem- s Rgisgtrbl, Cluj Litua, Muzeul Gorjului Monumenta Archaeologica Barbarica, Krakw Marisia (V), Studii i Materiale, Trgu Mure Marmatia, Anuarul Muzeului Judeean Maramure Materiay Archeologiczne, Krakw Materiay Staroytne (i Wczesnoredniowieczne) Mainzer Archologische Zeitschrift Mnchner Beitrge zur Vor- und Frhgeschichte, Mnchen Materiale i Cercetri Arheologice, Bucureti A Mra Ferenc Mzeum vknyve, Szeged Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft Wien Mitteilungen des Archologischen Instituts der Ungarisches Akademie der Wissenschaften, Budapest Mzeumi kutatsok Csongrd megyben MMO, skoros Kutatk sszejvetelnek konferenciaktete Mitteilungen der Prhistorischen Kommision, Viena Marbuger Studien zur Vor- und Frhgeschichte, Marburg Ngrd Megyei Mzeum vknyve Opera Instituti Archaeologici Sloveniae Oxford Journal of Archaeology Opuscula Archaeologica, Arheoloki zavod, Filozofski fakultet u Zagrebu sterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien srgszeti levelek / Prehistoric newsletter, Budapest Patrimonium Apulense, Alba Iulia Pamtky Archeologick, Praha Prhistorische Archologie in Sdosteuropa, Berlin, Kiel, Mnchen Patrimonium Banaticum, Timioara Prhistorische Bronzefunde, Mnchen / Stuttgart Peuce, Studii i cercetri de istorie i arheologie, Institutul de Cercetari Eco-Muzeale Tulcea, Institutul de Istorie si Arheologie, Tulcea Prace i Materiay Muzeum Archeologicznego i Etnograficznego w odzi. Seria Numizmatyczna i Konserwatorska Prace i Materiay Muzeum Archeologicznego i Etnograficznego w odzi. Seria Numizmatyczna i Konserwatorska Pontica, Anuarul Muzeului de Istorie Naional i Arheologie Constana Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, London Prilozi Instituta za arheologiju iz Zagreba Przegld Archeologiczny, Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii Polskiej Akademii Nauk Praehistorische Zeitschrift, Berlin Publications de lUniversit de Dijon, Paris Rad Muzeja Vojvodine Revue archologique de louest, Rennes Revue archologique de Picardie, Amiens Regensburger Beitrge zur Prhistorischen Archologie

534 | Abbreviations RgFz RevBis RevMuz RGF RGZM RoczK Sargetia Savaria SBA SBHM SCIV(A) SHN SMA SlovArch SMMK SNMB SNMP SpecNova SprArch SSUUB Starinar StCom Satu Mare StCom Sibiu StudiaUBB Studii tudijn zvesti Swiatowit SymThrac TAT Thraco-Dacica UPA VAMZ VDBMB VMMK VKGLBW VMUFP VNMW VSADS VsP VTLF VVSM WA WArch WFA WissSchrN WMBH WPZ WZGK Zalai Mzeum Zbornk SNM Ziridava Rgszeti Fzetek, Budapest Revista Bistriei, Complexul Judeean Muzeal Bistria-Nsud Revista Muzeelor, Bucureti Rmisch-Germanische Forschungen, Mainz / Berlin Rmisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Monographien, Bonn / Mainz Rocznik Kaliski Sargeia, Buletinul Muzeului judeului Hunedoara, Acta Musei Devensis, Deva Savaria, a Vas Megyei Mzeumok rtestje, Szombathely Saarbrcker Beitrge zur Altertumskunde, Bonn Schriften des Bernischen Historischen Museums, Bern Studii i Cercetri de Istorie Veche (i Arheologie 1974), Bucureti Studia Historica Nitriensia Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology Slovensk Archeolgia, Nitra Somogy Megyei Mzeumok Kzlemnyei, Kaposvr Sbornik Narodnog Muzeija Beograd Sbornk Nrodnho muzea v Praze, ada A Historie / Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae, Series A Historia, Praha Specimina Nova Dissertationum ex Institutom Historico Universitatis Quinqueecclesiensis de Jano Pannonio nominatae, Pcs Sprawozdania Archeologiczne, Krakw Schriften des Seminars fr Urgeschichte der Universitt Bern Starinar, Arheoloki institute, Beograd Studii i Comunicri Satu Mare Studii i Comunicri, Muzeul Brukenthal, Sibiu Studia Universitatis BabeBolyai, series Historia, Cluj-Napoca Studii. Revist de tiin i filosofie tudijn zvesti, Archeologickho stavu Slovenskej Akadmie Vied, Nitra Swiatowit, Rocznik katedry archeologii pierwotnej i wczesnosredniowiecznej Universytetu Warszawskiego Symposia Thracologica, Institutul Romn de Tracologie, Bucureti Tbinger Archologische Taschenbcher Thraco-Dacica, Institutul de Tracologie, Bucureti Universittsforschungen zur prhistorischen Archologie, Bonn Vjesnik Arheolokog muzeja u Zagrebu Verffentlichungen aus dem Deutschen Bergbau-Museum Bochum A Veszprm Megyei Mzeumok Kzlemnyei Verffentlichungen der Kommission fr geschichtliche Landeskunde in Baden-Wrttemberg Verffentlichungen des Museums fr Ur- und Frhgeschichte Potsdam Verffentlichungen aus dem Naturhistorischen Museum, Wien Verffentlichungen des Staatlichen Amtes fr Denkmalpflege Stuttgart Vchodoslovensk pravek, Archeologick stav Slovenskej Akadmie Vied, Nitra Verffentlichungen des Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck Verffentlichungen des Vorgeschichtlichen Seminars Marburg, MarburgEspelkamp Wiadomoci Archeologiczne, Pastwowe Muzeum Archeologiczne, Warsaw World Archaeology, Oxford, Oxbow Wiener Forschungen zur Archologie, Wien Wissenschaftliche Schriftenreihe Niedersterreich Wissenschaftliche Mitteilungen aus Bosnien und der Herzegowina, Wien Wiener prhistorische Zeitschrift, Wien Westdeutsche Zeitschrift fr Geschichte und Kunst Zalai Mzeum, Kzlemnyek Zala megye mzeumaibl, Zalaegerszeg Zbornk Slovenskho Nrodnho Mzea, Bratislava Ziridava, Muzeul Arad